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NCM 107 Directing, Controlling

July 18, 2017

DIRECTING - Individuals desire and responses to events

which prompts extraordinary effort to attain
- Issuance of assignments, orders and
goal and enthusiasm
instructions that permits the worker what is
expected of the to achieve organizational Levels of Motivation
goals and objectives
- Extrinsic Motivation- anticipated rewards or
Responsibilities in Directing avoidance of negative consequences in the
performance of action
- Promotive improve systems
- Intrinsic- satisfaction derived from the action
- Preventive anticipate problems & difficulties
- Corrective institute measures to correct
- Transcendental- recognition of the usefulness
of action to some other person
- Regulatory preserve existing assignments
Theories of Motivation
Change Process
Content Theory- motivation factors or needs within a
- Change- purposeful, designed effort to bring
about improvements in a system, with the
assistance of change agent - Maslows Needs Theory
- Alderfers Theor- (Existence, Relatedness,
Theories of change
Growth) ERG
- Reddins theory- suggested seven techniques - Herzbergs Theory- two factor theory
by which change can be accomplished o Dissatisfiers or hygienic- (extrinsic)
o Diagnosis salary, job security, working
o Mutual setting of objectives condition, relationships
o Group emphasis o Satisfiers or non-hygienic- (intrinsic)
o Maximum Information achievement, recognition, reward,
o Discussion of Implementation advancement, work itself
o Use of Economy and Ritual - McClelland Theory- affiliation, achievement
o Resistance Interpretation and power
- Monistic/Scientific Theory- salary as the best
Lewins Theory motivating factor
- Unfreezing Stage- the nurse is motivated by Process Theory
the need to create change
- Moving Stage- the nurse will gather - Arousal Theory- focuses on internal process
information that mediate the effect of work performance
- Refreezing Stage- changes are integrated and - Expectancy Theory- focuses on peoples
stabilized as part of the value system expectation that their efforts will result in
good performance and valued results
Rogers Theory - Equity Theory- focuses on fair treatment
- Awareness Decision Making
- Interest
- Evaluation - A systematic, sequential process of choosing
- Trial among alternatives & putting those choices
- Adoption into action

Motivation Steps in Decision Making

- Forces that make or propels one to act in a - Identify problem

certain way - Prioritize problem
- Gather and analyze situation related to
- Evaluating all alternatives - Team evaluation- multiple raters
- Select an alternative for implementation - Behavior- anchored list specific description
of good, average and good performance
- Essay evaluation- describe strength and
weaknesses of employee. It evaluates
- The process by which managers attempt to achievement
measure if actual activities conform to - Critical incident- describe effective and
planned activities effective behavior of employee
- A process wherein the performance is
Objective exams
measured and corrective action is taken to
ensure the accomplishment of organization - Questions in objective form
goal - True and false
- Multiple choice
Steps in Control Process
- Completion sentences
1. Establish standards and criteria - Single answer
2. Measure performance - Simple recall
3. Compare results with standards - Matching
4. Match with standards
Objective-Problem Situation Test
a. Yes- Do nothing or improve
b. No- Take corrective action - Draw inference
- Interpret data
Performance Appraisal/Evaluation System
- Analysis
- Process of evaluating employees - Select best
performance against standards - Give reasons
- To determine job competence
Standard test
- Enhance staff development and motivate
employee - Intermittent test- 5 or 10 seconds break in
- Discover employees aspirations and fitness endurance
recognize accomplishments - Prognostic-used to predict patients, student
- Improve communication development
- Aid managers in counseling and coaching - Achievement- a test of develop
- Determine training and developmental needs skills/knowledge learned in a grade or level
of staff usually through planned instructions
- Inventories of talent
Problem areas of evaluation
- Legal purposes
- Subordinates have not been motivated to
Methods of Evaluation
want to change
- Anecdotal records- objective description of - People are unable to make change
behavior - Subordinates become resentful and anxious
- Rating scale- includes a series of items when merit system is applied
representing the different tasks or activities in
Sequential steps in evaluation
the nurses job description or the absence or
presence of desired behaviors and the extent - Stating objectives
to which these are possessed - Defining changes in behavior expected as
- Ranking- the evaluator ranks the employees educational outcome
according to how he/she fared with co- - Listing briefly and describing situation that
workers with respect to certain aspect of give opportunity for the expression of
performance or qualification behavior desired
- Self-appraisal/self-rating
- Peer review Common errors of evaluation
- Paired comparison
- Forced-choice
- Halo error- allowing one trait to influence the - Serves as a means of improving nursing care
evaluation of others or rating of all traits on by revealing existing deficiencies
the basis of first impression
Standard of care
- Horn error- the evaluator is hypercritical
- Contrast error- managers rate the nurse - Yardstick for gauging the quality and quantity
opposite the way they perceive themselves of service
- Leniency of error - Describes the quality of service
- Central tendency error- rating of all
employees average (Performance appraisal, Criteria
interview) - Measures the quality of care or standards
- Racial bias - Standard: nurses are professional in dealing
- System design and operating problems- with clients
focuses on the method (system) and process - Criteria: greets them with corresponding
(operating) of evaluation smiles
- Overgeneralization
- Recency of events error

Total quality

- Systematic process to improve outcomes

based on customers needs
- Dong the right thing- meeting the needs of
the customer. Building quality performance
into the work process. Employ scientific
approach to assessment and problem solving.

Quality assurance program

- Process of establishing a standard of

excellence of intervention and taking steps to
ensure that each patient receives the
expected level of care
- Fulfillment of social contract between society
and professions

Quality nursing care

- Presence of all elements/characteristics

specified in the standards
- Framework of Quality assurance
o Structure- instrumentalities in the
delivery of care (personnel, supplies
o Process- how the service was
o Outcome- results expected of the

Nursing Audit

- Official examination of: nursing records,

physical facilities, personnel involved in
patient care
- Too to analyze and evaluate nurses bedside
records and physical facilities