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Aircraft Icing

Aircraft Icing

Items in This Discussion

Affects of icing

Causes

Ice formation

Types of icing

Icing and cloud types

Freezing precipitation

Sources of Information

• Ice formation • Types of icing • Icing and cloud types • Freezing precipitation •
• Ice formation • Types of icing • Icing and cloud types • Freezing precipitation •

Icing Factors

Liquid water content (LWC)

Temperature

Droplet size

Cloud type

Airfoil geometry

Airspeed

Duration of exposure

(LWC) • Temperature • Droplet size • Cloud type • Airfoil geometry • Airspeed • Duration

Ice Formation

Ice forms first on the shortest radius of curvature

Shortest Radius
Shortest Radius
Ice Formation • Ice forms first on the shortest radius of curvature Shortest Radius

Cumulative Affects of Icing

Decreases

Thrust

Cumulative A ffects of Icing Decreases Thrust Decreases Lift Increases Drag Increases Weight

Decreases Lift

Increases Drag Increases Weight
Increases
Drag
Increases Weight
Cumulative A ffects of Icing Decreases Thrust Decreases Lift Increases Drag Increases Weight

Types of Icing

Clear

Mixed

Induction (Carburetor)

Rime

Types of Icing • Clear • Mixed • Induction (Carburetor) • Rime
Types of Icing • Clear • Mixed • Induction (Carburetor) • Rime

Occurrence of Icing

Occurrence of Icing
Occurrence of Icing

The Cause of Icing

NOT caused by ICE in clouds.

• Is caused by “Super-cooledliquid water droplets

Strike the leading edge of an airfoil

Freeze on impact

Is caused by “ Super-cooled ” liquid water droplets – Strike the leading edge of an
Is caused by “ Super-cooled ” liquid water droplets – Strike the leading edge of an

“Super-Cooled Water” Formation

Begin with water in liquid form (>32 F)

• Water is cooled rapidly, usually by “lifting”

Super cooled water drops may also form via

condensation

lack of activated ice nuclei

There does NOT have to be a warm layer

for super cooled water to form.

Climb to warm layer may not be possible

• There does NOT have to be a warm layer for super cooled water to form.

Liquid Water Content (LWC)

Useful only in Stratiform Clouds

Amount of available water

Varies from

cloud to cloud

Varies within

same cloud

only in Stratiform Clouds • Amount of available water • Varies from cloud to cloud •
only in Stratiform Clouds • Amount of available water • Varies from cloud to cloud •

Temperature

Most icing tends to occur at temperatures

between 0° and -20°C

More than 50% of those occur between -8 and -12° C

Most icing tends to occur at temperatures between 0° and -20°C – More than 50% of

Temperature

• „Cold Soaked‟ Aircraft can be a cause

Sustained flight in below freezing air

– Descends to warm air, but…

in below freezing air – Descends to warm air, but… • The aircraft must be in
in below freezing air – Descends to warm air, but… • The aircraft must be in
in below freezing air – Descends to warm air, but… • The aircraft must be in

The aircraft must be in cloud

The aircraft‟s skin

(visible water droplets) for icing

remains cold for a time.

to occur

aircraft must be in cloud – The aircraft‟s skin (visible water droplets) for icing remains cold

Water Droplet Size

Icing patterns change with droplet size. But

In relation to icing hazards

Droplet size not as important as

LWC and

Temperature

droplet size. But • In relation to icing hazards – Droplet size not as important as
droplet size. But • In relation to icing hazards – Droplet size not as important as

Is opaque

Easily seen

Rime Icing

• Is opaque • Easily seen Rime Icing
• Is opaque • Easily seen Rime Icing

Rime Icing

Small drops Trapped air Leading edge of Wing
Small drops
Trapped air
Leading
edge of
Wing
Rime Icing Small drops Trapped air Leading edge of Wing

Rime Icing

Gray is region where air is stagnant

Rime Icing Gray is region where air is stagnant Rime Clear • Tends to form at
Rime Clear
Rime
Clear

Tends to form at leading edge of airfoil

More easily for de-icing equipment to remove

at leading edge of airfoil • More easily for de-icing equipment to remove •Compare with “horns”

•Compare with “horns” of

Clear icing

at leading edge of airfoil • More easily for de-icing equipment to remove •Compare with “horns”

Clouds and Droplet Size

Cumulus - Large drops

Stratus - Small drops

High clouds - Ice crystals

Clouds and Droplet Size • Cumulus - Large drops • Stratus - Small drops • High
Clouds and Droplet Size • Cumulus - Large drops • Stratus - Small drops • High

Icing Vs. Cloud Type: Stratiform

Small Cloud Droplets

Rime/Mixed most common

Usually confined to layer 3,000-4,000‟ thick

Max values occur in upper part of cloud

Large horizontal extent

Usually confined to layer 3,000- 4,000‟ thick • Max values occur in upper part of cloud

Icing Vs. Cloud Type: Cumuliform

Large Cloud Droplets

• Icing found in “updraft” portion of cloud

Heavy rime most frequently in cloud tops

Clear icing most likely in building Cu

Rime often found in fully developed TS

Relatively small horizontal extent

Clear icing most likely in building Cu • Rime often found in fully developed TS •

Icing Vs. Cloud Type

• Previous statements „generally‟ true…

• BUT research has found…

Mixed-phase clouds of all types may harbor

sufficient amounts of Super- Cooled water.

• BUT research has found… – Mixed-phase clouds of all types may harbor sufficient amounts of
• BUT research has found… – Mixed-phase clouds of all types may harbor sufficient amounts of

Occurrence of Icing

Aircraft type and speed affect icing occurrence

Wheee !
Wheee !
• Aircraft type and speed affect icing occurrence Wheee ! No Ice Same route & altitude

No Ice

Same route & altitude

Brrrrrrr !
Brrrrrrr !
• Aircraft type and speed affect icing occurrence Wheee ! No Ice Same route & altitude
• Aircraft type and speed affect icing occurrence Wheee ! No Ice Same route & altitude
• Aircraft type and speed affect icing occurrence Wheee ! No Ice Same route & altitude

Loads of ice

• Aircraft type and speed affect icing occurrence Wheee ! No Ice Same route & altitude

Freezing Rain

Heavy icing in short time

Warm air/moisture over-running Cold air

Begins as rain,

Then falls through Cold air

– Becomes „Super Cooled Water‟

Freezes on impact

Best maneuver may be to gain altitude

Check with a weather briefer first!

Water‟ – Freezes on impact • Best maneuver may be to gain altitude – Check with
Freezing Rain

Freezing Rain

Freezing Rain

Information Sources

Pilot Weather Briefings

Internet

aviationweather.gov

AOPA

DUATS

Information Sources • Pilot Weather Briefings • Internet – aviationweather.gov – AOPA – DUATS
Information Sources • Pilot Weather Briefings • Internet – aviationweather.gov – AOPA – DUATS

Expanded version of this presentation

Narrated, web based slide show

Will be posted on the Indianapolis web site

• Email me to be notified when it‟s posted.

http://weather.gov/ind

sally.pavlow@noaa.gov

web site • Email me to be notified when it‟s posted. • http://weather.gov/ind • sally.pavlow@noaa.gov
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