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Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000


REVISION NO.: 1

EXAMPLE 6-004
LINK HOOK ELEMENT

PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
In this single degree of freedom example, a frame element is fixed at one end and
connected to a grounded hook element at the other end. The initial opening in the
hook is 0.04 inch. A temperature drop of 100 F is applied to the frame element.
The displacement at joint 1 and the axial force induced in the link and frame
elements by the temperature drop are compared with hand calculated results.

The model is created in the XZ plane. Only the Uz degree of freedom is active for
the analysis. The hook element is modeled as a single-joint link element at joint
1. This means that one end of the hook element is connected to the ground and
the other end is connected to joint 1. The hook element is oriented such that its
positive local 1 axis is parallel to the positive global Z axis. This is the default
orientation of single joint link elements. Only U1 degree of freedom properties
are defined for the hook element. When closed, the stiffness of the hook element
is 5,000 k/in.

The analysis is performed using static nonlinear load cases.

GEOMETRY, PROPERTIES AND LOADING


Link Properties (Gap U1 DOF)
Frame element fixed at its Linear Ke = 0 k/in
top end and connected to Linear Ce = 0 k-sec/in
hook element at its bottom Nonlinear K = 5,000 k/in
2 end. Total length of frame Nonlinear Open = 0.04 in
element is 100"
1 Frame Material Properties
E = 29,000 k/in2
100"

Initial opening of hook = 0.0000065 /F


Z element is 0.04"
Frame Section Properties
1 A = 10 in2
X Single-joint (zero-length) link Loading
element (hook) with tension Temperature Drop = 100 F
stiffness defined for the U1
degree of freedom Active Degrees of Freedom
Uz

EXAMPLE 6-004 - 1
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 1

TECHNICAL FEATURES OF SAP2000 TESTED


Hook element links
Force-controlled nonlinear static analysis
Frame temperature loads

RESULTS COMPARISON
Independent results are hand calculated using standard thermal expansion
formulas.

Percent
Output Parameter SAP2000 Independent Difference

Uz displacement at joint 1
0.04918 0.04918 0%
in

Link axial force


45.886 45.886 0%
kips

Frame axial force


45.886 45.886 0%
kips

COMPUTER FILE: Example 6-004

CONCLUSION
The SAP2000 results show an exact comparison with the independent results.

EXAMPLE 6-004 - 2
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 1

HAND CALCULATION

EXAMPLE 6-004 - 3
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 1

EXAMPLE 6-004 - 4
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 1

EXAMPLE 6-004 - 5