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B.E. ( Mech.)
Class I Engineer

Marine Diesel Engines

M a rin e D iesel E n g in es Table O f Contents

B y Deven Aranha
Shroff Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd.

A ll rig h ts re se rv e d . N o p a rt o f th e m aterial, p ro tected by Concept of Internal Combustion Engines......................... 01

th is copyright n otice, m ay be rep ro d u ced o r u tiliz e d in any
Mean Piston Speed ............................................................02
form o r b y any m eans, electronic o r m echanical, including Advantages / Disadvantages of Diesel Engines 03
p h o to c o p y in g , r e c o rd in g , o r b y an y in fo rm a tio n sto ra g e Classification of 1C. Engines............................................ 04

and retriev al system , w ith o u t th e w ritte n perm issio n o f the Otto, Diesel. Dual and Actual Cycles................................06
copyright ow ners, n o r exported, w ithout the w ritten perm ission 2 -Stroke C y c le .....................................................................09
o f th e p ublishers. 4 -Stroke C y c le ................................................................... 12
2-Stroke vs. 4-Stroke Engines .................................... 16

First Edition : July 2004 EN GINE COMPONENTS
Seventh Reprint: January 2013 Engine Structure............................... ................L . 19
Top B racing..... ................................................ 20
Fatigue Failure.....................................................................21
ISBN 13: 978-81-7366-927-9 Bedplate............................................................................... 22
Entabulature. A-Frame. Tie-Bolts and Pinching Screws 24
Holding Down Bolts and Chocks ...................................... 25
Resin, Resilient C hocks.... ......... 27
Piston : Water cooled. Oil cooled, Oros, Com posite.....29
2-Stroke versus 4-Stroke Pistons, Defects,
Rotating Pistons.
P u b l i s h e d b y S h r o f f P u b l is h e r s a n d D is tr ib u to r s P v t. L td . Piston Rings : Compression Rings. Oil Scraper Rings 36
C -1 0 3 , M ID C, T T C I n d u s tr ia l A re a , P a w a n e , N a v i M u m b a i Failures. Running-in. Shapes. Coatings.
400 7 0 5 , T el: (91 2 2 ) 4 1 5 8 4 1 5 8 , F a x : (9 1 2 2 ) 4 1 5 8 4 1 4 1 , CPR Rings. Antipolishing Ring, SIPWA.
e-m ail: sp dorders@ shroffp u b lish m , P rin ted a t D eco ra B o o k Stuffing Box G lan d ............................................................. 44
Prints Pvt. Ltd., M umbai. Lmer. Liner W ear.................................................................45
Lubricating Quills and Accumulator 48

Marine Diesel Engines Marine Diesel Engines

Cylinder Head C over.......................................................... 50 CH A PTER 4 :

Exhaust V alve..................................... .............................. 51 A IR COMPRESSORS
Valve Springs....................................................................... 53 Isothermal Com pression................................... 103
Valve Rotators......................................................................55 Adiabatic Compression and the Compression C ycle.... 103
Variable Exhaust Closing (VEC) 56 Multistage Compression .................................... 104
Crankshaft .......................................................................... 58 Reciprocating,and Rotary Compressors....... *................ 104
Crankshaft Stresses 62 Volumetric Efficiency and Bumping Clearance ............... 105
Crankshaft Deflections....................................................... 63 Compressor V alves................. .............. fan..................... 105
Chain Drive, Tightening and Inspection 64 Compressor F au lts.................. laSLari............................ 106
Chain Elongation.................................................................67
Camshaft Readjustment after Chain Tightening 68 C H A PTER 5 :
Bearings Plain Bush Journal, Pivot Pad Journal 69 FU EL SYSTEM


Mam Bearings................................................................. 71 F u e liy p e s.............................................................................109

Connecting Rod and its Bearings 72 Fuel Properties................................................................... 110
Fuel Specifications...................................... U6
Bottom End Failures and Bolt Design 74
Combustion Phases............................................................ 117
Crosshcad Bearings............................................................ 75
K nock........................................................................... ns
Puncture Valve.....................................................................77 Factors Affecting Com busuon.......................................... 119
Engine Materials 78
Combustion Chamber and Piston Crown Designs ........ 121
Compression R a tio ............................................................ 121
CH A PTER 3 : Residual Heavy Fuel O ils................................................. 122
A IR SYSTEM Bunkering ........................................................................... 123
Scavenging,..:..;;;......................;............;....u..i..:;.............. 81 Fuel Injectors................. 125
Uniflow, Reverse, Loop and Cross Scavenging............. 81 Injector ty p e s........................................................ 126
Injection Methods ...................... 130
Gas Exchange Process.....S................................ 84
Fuel Pu m p s............................ 131
Suction Valve Controlled P u m p ..................................... 131
Constant Pressure and Pulse Turbocharging 86
Suction and Spill Controlled P um p.............................. 133
Series. Parallel Supercharging 89 Port Controlled Jerk P u m p ............................................... 134
TVo-Stage Supercharging 91 Injection System s................................................................ 135
Single and Multiple TVbochargcr Systems 91 Variable Injection Timings (V1T)..................................... 136
Power Take-In and Power Take-Off 92 Fuel Quality Setting (FQ S)............................................... 140
Axial Flow Turbocharger 94 Super-V IT and Conventional V1T.................................... 140
Uncooled Turbochargers 97 Fuel C a m .......................................................................... 146
Surging................................................................................. 99 High Pressure pipe sa fe ty............................. 147
Compressor M a p .................................................................99

[ii] [iii]
Marine Diesel Engines Marine Diesel Engines

CH A PTER 6 : Start Air Interlocks.............................................................187

LUBRICATION SYSTEM Slow Turning...................................................................... 188
Friction and Friction Types...............................................149 Scavenge Air Limiter ................................................. 188
Lubrication Types.............................................................. 151 Firing Order of Cylinder................................................... 188
Lube Oil Properties..................................... ...................... 152 Reversing M ethods.......................................... 190
Lube Oil Testing................................ ............................... 156 Loss Motion and Gain M otion........................................ 194
Microbial D egradation..................................................... 161 Running Direction Interlock ............................................ 195
Cylinder Lubrication Types and System s........................162 Crash Manoeuvring ....................................................... 195
Lubrication Pump U n it................................................... 166 Manoeuvring Flow C h a n ................................................. 197
Load Dependent Cylinder Lubrication..................... 167 Manoeuvring Diagram.......... 198
Specific Cylinder Lube Oil Consum puon..................... 169 Bridge Control S y stem .......................................................202

Frequency Controlled Electric Motor Lubricator.......... 169
Multilevel Cylinder Lubrication ............ 170 CH A PTER 9 :
Crosshead Lubrication.................................. ....................171 EN GINE STRESSES,V IBRATION AND DYNAMICS
Forces Acting in a Single Cylinder E n g in e ......................205
C H A PT E R 7 :
Irregularity Factor............................................................. 207
Static and Dynamic Balancing........................................... 208
Function.............................................................................. 173 Primary and Secondary Imbalance .................................209
Bore Cooled Liners............................................................ 174 Vibration D efinitions...................... ................................ 209
Load Dependent Liner Cooling....................................... 174 Torsional Crankshaft V ibration......................................... 211
Piston Oil Cooling System.................................. 175 Critical Speed ...................................... v.......................... 211
Cooling Water TYeatment................................................... 175 Barred Zone R ange............................................................. 212
Detuners and Dampers........................................................213
Start System ....... ........................................ ...................... 177 EN GINE OVERHAULS AND MAINTENANCE
Start Air Perio d.................................................. ............... 179 Unit Decarbomsation................................ 215
O verlap................................... ......... ............. ....................179 Cylinder Head R em oval................................................. 216
Start Air Receiver ...........................:............;................ 180 Hydraulic Nut Removal ..................................................... 217
Start Air Pilot V alve.............. 182 Exhaust Valve Rem oval...................................................... 218
Automatic Master Air Start Valve............................... .. 183 Piston Removal. Inspection and Clearances 220
Start Air Cylinder Valve..................................................... 185 Piston Mounting................................-............................... 223
Start Air Distributor.... .................................. 186 Liner Removal. Inspection and Calibration..................... 224
Start Air C a m ....................................................................... 187 Main Bearing Removal .. ................... 225

[iv] M
Marine Diesel Engines Marine Diesel Engines

Crosshead Bearing R em oval..............................................227 L iner...................... ............ d lia u .J ...... ........ .................. 296
Connecting Rod Bearing Rem oval.................................... 228 Cylinder Lubrication............. 297
Crosshead Pin Removal...................................................... 229 P isto n ................................................................................... 297
Connecting Rod Removal................................................... 230 Crosshead............................... _...~.^...._J.i..L.................298
Thrust Bearing Pad Removal............................. 231 Engine Components......................................................... 298
Bearing Clearances ...... 232
Fuel Pump Setting and A djustm ent...................................236 CH A PTER 13 :
Fuel Pump Cut-out C hecks................................................. 238 EN GINE EMISSIONS
Fuel Pump Cut-out............................................ 239 Engine Emissions.............. ................ ................................301
Fuel Pump L ead......... .....................------------------------- 239 SOx Effects and Remedy................... ..............................302
4-Stroke Medium Speed Engine Fuel Pump Timings 241 NOx Effects and Rem edy................................'.................302

Turbocharger Overhaul....................................................... 242 Carbon Monoxide, Hydrocarbons, Particle Emission.... 304

Turbocharger Out of Operation--------...-------- ------- ..... 243 S o o t..........................................................KiihillsU............305
Fuel Injector Overhaul............................. ....................... 244 Smoke and Opacity.................................:j.".......A............ 305
Tie-Rod Tensioning.............................................................246
Air Compressor Overhaul .................................................. 249 CH A PTER 1 4 :
Testing of Materials ........ 250 ENGINE PERFORM ANCE AND INDICATOR CARDS
Heat T reatm ent............................ 250 Engine Performance Definitions and Parameters...........307
Heat Balance Diagram 310
CH A PTER 1 1 : Power Ratings...................................................................... 310
EN GINE DESCRIPTIO N S AND SPECIFICATIONS Testing of Marine Engines ........................ ................. 311
Comparison of RD. RND and RTA Engines . . ...............253 Test Bed and Sea T rials......................................................312
RTA Engin es........................................................................ 254 Load Diagram and Propeller C u rv e ..................................314
RT-Flex Engines................................................................... 258 Safety Margins .................................................................... 316
SM C E ngines....................................................................... 271 Indicator Diagrams and Analysis.................................... 318
ME Engines........................ .........- ..... ............. ............... 278 Faults with Indicator Instruments...................................... 327

CH A PTER 12 : C H A PTER 15 :
Fuel Injection System ............................... - ......................291 Governor D efinitions................................ 329
Turbocharger System ........... - ........................... ................292 Mechanical G overnor............................... 331
Scavenge System ............................................. - .............. , 296 Hydraulic Governor with Compensation. 331
Exhaust System .................................... - ............................296 Electric G overnor..................................... 333
Combustion Cham ber.......................................................... 296 Governor Adjustments ............. - ............. 334

[vi] [vii]
Marine Diesel Engines Marine Diesel Engines

Load Sharing and The Necessity o f D ro o p .....................335 Engine Turns on Air, Not on Fuel.......... ............................ 362
Electronic Governor for Bridge C ontrol........................ 337 Engine Does Not Fue .......................................................... 362
Violent S tarting.....................................................................363
C H A PT E R 16 : Engine Not Reversing....................................................... 364
W ATCHKEEPING AND SAFETY Cracked Piston......................................................................364
Broken Piston Ring.............................................................. 365
Thlcing Over An Engine Room W atch............................345
Cracked L in e r.......................................................................365
Walk Through Checks of The Engine R oom ................. 345
Piston Running H ot......................................- ................... 365
Checks During The Engine Room Watch 350
Cracked Cylinder H e a d ...................................................... 366
Problems During The Engine Room W atch................... 351
Crankcase Inspection...........................................................366
Crankcase Explosion and Relief Valve............................ 351
Individual Piston Knocking at T D C .................................. 367
Scavenge F ires.................................................................... 353
Bearing Temperature Increase............................................ 367


Oil Spill................................................................................354
Lube Oil Sump Level R ising.............................................. 368
Collision............................................................ ..................354
Automatic Stopping o f E n g in e ......................................... 368
Flooding.............................................................. ,............. 355
Knocking in an Engine C y linder...................................... 368
G rounding....................... .v............................................... 355
Safeties in the Main Engine................................................ 369
Sudden O verspeeding........................................................ 355
Safeties in the Start Air S y stem ..........................................371
Loss of Engine Pow er.............. ......................................... 356
Leaky Start Air Valves.....----- ........---------- ....... ......372
Slack Tie-Rods................................................................... 356
Start Air Line E xplosion......................................................373
Incorrect Fuel T imings........................................,............. 356
Safeguard Against O vet speeding.................... 373
Engine Speed Fluctuation.................................................. 356
Funnel S p a rk s..................................................................... 357
Cylinder Relief Valve L iftin g ........ ..................................357
Reduced Compression Pressure .................................... 357
Smoky E x h au st.................................................................. 358
All Cylinders Exhaust Temperature Increase .............. 358
One Unit Exhaust Temperature R ise ................................359
Engine Speed D ro p s...........................................................359
One Unit Exhaust Temperature Drops.,...;)./...*...............359
Charge Air Pressure D ro p s................................................360
Engine Running Irregularly.............................. ............. 360
Jacket Water Pressure Fluctuation.................................... 360
Jacket Water Temperature Increase ................................ 360
Running Gear H o t.............................................................. 361
Engine Fails to Start on A ir ............................................. 361

[viii] [ix]

O v e r th e p a st d e c a d e , th e re h a v e b e e n s ig n ific a n t
advances in the field o f m arine diesel engines.T he new
m illen n iu m saw th e ad v en t o f a revolution in m arine
engineering technology, w ith the introduction o f the latest
C a m sh a ft-le ss E le c tro n ic a lly C o n tro lle d In te llig e n t
E ngine series.

This b o o k h as been w ritten w ith a v iew to fulfilling the

need o f m arine e ngineers to be in touch w ith up-to-date
inform ation on present day engines, w hich h av e re p la c e d .
the older series. In this age o f technological advancem ent,
it is o f vital im portance that todays m arine engineers
keep abreast o f these developm ents and equip them selves
w ith thorough know ledge o f the engines that they w ork
on a reg u lar basis.

A d istinctive feature o f this book is that th e text m atter

is presented in easy-to-understand point form , fo r the
benefit o f m arine engineering students. B esides providing
an in -d e p th u n d erstan d in g o f th e b a sic p rin cip les o f
m arine diesel engines, th is book also g ives an insight
into th e w orking o f m odern engines.

T his b o o k w ill b e u seful to candidates appearing fo r the

C ertificate o f C om petency exam inations.

Deven A ranha


Concept of Internal Combustion Engines

Marine diesel engines are basically reciprocating engines using heavy
fuel oil o r diesel oil in a Compression Ignition (C.I.) system. Unlike a
Spark Ignition system w here a spark is used to ignite the fuel, a
Compression Ignition system uses heat from compression to ignite
the fuel in the combustion chamber.

Fuel upon ignition in the combustion chamber gives a combustion force

which pushes down the piston, i.e. work is done in the cylinder by
combustive gases. This reciprocating motion o f the piston due to the
combustive gas forces, is transformed into rotary motion o f the
crankshaft. This is done by means o f the connecting rod and crank

Stroke (S)
Stroke is the distance covered by the piston between the top dead
centre (TDC) and the bottom dead centre (BDC).

Stroke = 2 ( Crank Radius)

Marine Diesel Engir
Internal Combustion Diesel Engines
M ean Piston Speed
Significance o f M ean Piston Speed
The significance can be seen if we study the power equation.

Pow er = Pm x (2 Sn) x A x n x constant.

where, m ean piston speed = 2Sn

Therefore, Pow er depends on M ean Piston Speed.

Lim itations o f M ean Piston Speed

The limitations of m ean piston speed are:
The wear and life span o f the rotating and reciprocating parts due
Vc = Volumeofcompressionchamber Va = Volume o f the cylinder to friction; high temperatures and pressures; and lubrication
Swept volume = Volume swept by the piston from TDC to BDC Large forces due to rotating and reciprocating masses, w hich in
= Vs = (Area) x length = (fi.D 2 ) S turn give rise to stresses especially fluctuating stress; and moving
4 parts due to inertia forces and dynamic forces.
Since, Va= Vc + Vs . Gas exchange-scavenge period and efficiency: Higher the mean
piston speed, greater will be the resistance to gas flow and
Hence, C om pression R atio = = Vc + Vs 1+Vis' exchange, when h ot exhaust gases have to be expelled and fresh
Vc Vc Vc air has to b e taken in.
M ean Piston Speed
= (Piston distance in one revolution)
Advantages o f D iesel E ngines over S team E ngines
x (R ate o f crankshaft rotation)
High actual efficiency = Heat equivalent o f actual work done
= 2_n
Total Heat generated in the engine
= Sr Actual Efficiency,
30 for steam engines = 12 to 18%
where, 2S = Distance covered by the piston during for steam turbines = 2 2 to 32%
one revolution. for gas turbines = 2 5 to 36%
N = N um ber o f revolutions per second. for diesel Engines = 36 to 42%
High efficiency and recovery o f waste heat.

Marine Diesel Engines_____________________________________________ Internal Combustion Diesel Engines

H ighest use o f heat generated during combustion. 4) Naturally A spirated o r Supercharged: In naturally aspirated
Increased tim e period before refueling i.e. bunkering. engines, the piston itself sucks in air (e.g. 4-stroke engines) or is
Increased maneuvering abilities. fed by a scavenge pum p (2-stroke engines). In supercharged
engines, air under pressure is supplied to the cylinder which is
Increased cargo carrying capacity since less space is required for
pressurized externally by mechanical means o r an exhaustblower.
the boiler, water storage, water consumption; and a smaller size o f
engine in comparison to a steam plant and auxiliaries. 5) Compression Ignition (marine diesel engines) or Spark Ignition
Increased standby reliability. (carburetor a nd gas engines): In compression ignition, the fuel
ignites with the air due to high temperature caused by compression
Disadvantages o f D iesel E ngines of air. In spark ignition, an external electric spark is used for ignition.
High inertia loads due to reciprocating and rotating masses. 6) Trunk type engines (4-stroke engines) o r Crosshead engines
High capital cost, complicated design and construction. (2-stroke engines): In trunk type engines, the piston h as an
extended skirt which acts as a guide. In crosshead engines, there
Pressures and temperatures are alw ays varying in the system.
is a crosshead which has shoes sliding over the crosshead guides.
High lube oil costs in medium and high speed engines.
High idling speed o f crankshaft and irregular rotation. 7) Single o r M ulti cylinder: M odem m arine engines use 4 to 12
Classification of I. C. Engines 8) V ,W or X pattern o f arrangem ent o f the cylinders.

Classification can be done under various categories: 9) M ain Propulsion use (S hips propeller drive) o r A uxiliary
1) 2-stroke o r 4-stroke: Usually, 2-stroke is preferred for marine engine use (power generation & auxiliaries).
engine propulsion while 4-stroke is preferred for auxiliary diesel 10) Low, M edium, a n d H igh Speed
generation. Low speed (100 to 350 rpm)
2) Fuel used: Petroleum fuel ( gasoline, naphtha, kerosene, gas oil, M edium speed (350 to 750 rpm)
diesel oil), heavy fuel ( m otor oil, b urner fuel), residual fuels, High speed (750 to 2500 rpm).
gaseous fuels (natural or producer gas) and mixed fuel (liquid fuel 11) M ean Piston Speed
fo r starting combustion and gaseous fuel for running). Low speed (4.5 m /s to 7 m/s)
Medium speed (7 m /s to 10 m/s)
3) Single o r D ouble Acting: A single acting engine is one where the
High speed (10 m /s to 15 m/s).
upper part o f the cylinder is used for combustion. A double acting
12) Uni d irectional (sam e direction) or R eversible Engines
engine is o ne w hich uses b o th the upper and low er part o f the
using a reversing mechanism.
cylinder alternatively, e.g. Opposed piston engines.
13) A head direction in clockwise or anti-clockwise direction.
Marine Diesel Engines Internal Combustion Diesel Engines

Cycles D ual Cycle

The important cycles are discussed below.

Otto Cycle ( C onstant Volum e )

v 1-2 Air Compressed Isentropically

3-4 Remaining Heat added at
Constant Pressure
0-1 Charging of Fresh Air (o Point 1 1-2 Air Compressed Isentropically 4-5 Air Expanded Isentropically 5-1 Heat Rejected at Constant Volume
2-3 Heat Added at Constant Volume 3-4 Air Expanded Isentropically
4-1 Heat Rejected at Constant Volume.____________
A ctu a l Cycle
T he A ctual C ycle is slightly different from the theoretical cycle
D iesel Cycle (C onstant P ressure) in the following:
From 1 to 2, th e curve is
i sim ilar in the com pression
| stroke.
From 2 to 3, com pression is
n o t d o n e u n d e r c o n sta n t
1 volume because the piston is
already m oving during the
stroke. It is n ot com pletely
ad iab atic becau se o f heat
transfer through the cylinder
liner. F ig - 5
0-1 Charging of Fresh Air to Point 1 1-2 Air Compressed Isentropically
2-3 Heat Added at Constant Pressure 3-4 Air Expanded Isentropically From 3 to 4, during expansion stroke, there is heat transfer.
4-1 Heat Rejected at Constant Volume._____
Marine Diesel Engines ________________________ j Internal Combustion Diesel Engines

From 4 to 1, heat is rejected w ith changes in m ass flow, specific The heat transfer at this stage is varying, since some o f the fuel still
heat, low er pressures and temperatures. bums in the expansion stroke. Even greater heat losses are involved
owing to the unused energy lost by the compressed h ot gases,
In the actual cycle, there are unavoidable thermal, hydraulic and
mechanical losses. when the exhaust ports are uncovered o r exhaust valve opens before
the piston arrives.
The air admitted into the cylinder thermally interacts with the hot
cylinder liner and gases, and there is heat transfer. Action arising out o f reciprocating, rotating and robbing components
also contribute to losses.
A certain am ount o f work is required to be done to overcome the
Some energy is used to drive auxiliaries (lube oil pumps, jacket
resistance o f the inlet system through which the air is admitted.
water, scavenge pumps, etc).
T he amount o f filling o f air into the cylinder depends on its
Cooling o f the liner is imperative to the cylinder, but this is also a
temperature, speed and load o f the engine, engine construction
and service conditions. source o f thermal loss.

Adiabatic compression is compression when there is no heat transfer

with the surroundings. Thisisnotpossibleintheactualcycle. Here, 2 -S troke Cycle
there is heat transfer with the gases and the cylinder walls, which 2 S trokes = 2 strokes o f the piston
results in a change in pressure and temperature o f the compressed = Piston going u p + Piston going down
air.The area o f heat transfer is decreased as the piston moves = O nce compression and once expansion
upwards to TDC. = 1 complete revolution gives 1 power stroke.

The actual compression is a polytropic curve with a continuously

As the nam e im plies, the cycle is completed in two strokes o f the
varying exponent.
engine piston:
It is more sim ilar to isothermal and adiabatic processes due to the
high rate o f compression o f the air charge. (1) The Compression (Scavenging and Suction) stroke
The heatinput process is not ideal, since combustion o f fuel involves ' (2) The Power (Expansion and Exhaust) stroke.
complicated physical and chemical changes with thermal losses in
the final stage.
These actual timings differ from engine to engine with respect to design
Actual combustion overlaps the expansion stroke to some extent,
and construction features such as stroke/bore ratio, engine rpm, engine
due to the volume o f the cylinder space increasing. This leads to
rating, ratio o f connecting rod length to crank length, etc.
heat losses to the surroundings, impairing the effectiveness o f heat
utilization in the cycle.
Actual expansion is a poly tropic curve with a variable exponent.

Internal Combustion Diesel Engines
Marine Diesel Engir,

An example o f 2-stroke valve timings are:

Inlet (scavenge) opens 42 deg . before BDC

Inlet closes 42 deg . after BDC
Exhaust opens 75 deg before BDC
Exhaust closes 60 deg after BDC
Injection starts 16 deg before TDC
Injection ends 20 deg after TDC.

Upstroke o f the Piston (Compression Stroke)

F ig -6

0 Scavenge ports are open

0-1 A ir is sucked in, which pushes o ut the residual exhaust gases
1 Piston is at BDC
1-2 Completion o f scavenge process and filling with fresh air for
2 Scavenge ports are closed
2-3 Post scavenging takes place
3 Exhaust valve closes
3- 4 Compression o f air
4 Fuel injection commences
5 Fuel ignition commences, near TDC . The scavenge and exhaust ports are uncovered and pressurized air is
6 Fuel injection and combustion completion fed into the cylinder. This fresh air does the scavenge process i.e. it
6- 7 Expansion o f the heat energy from combustion, cleans the cylinder o f the exhaust gases from the previous cycle. The
being converted into work energy to push the piston downwards piston then travels upwards closing the exhaust and scavenge ports
7 Exhaust valve opens and starts compressing the air. A t the end o f the upward stroke, the
7-0 Blowdown o f exhaust gases seen as a sudden rapid pressure drop a ir p ressu re in th e cy lin d er builds up to 32 to 4 5 b ar and
correspondingly, its tem perature rises to 650 to 800 deg. C.

Internal Combustion Diesel Engines
Marine Diesel Engir,

Downstroke o f the Piston (Pow er Stroke)

I Inlet valve opens 1-2 Suction stroke 2 Inlet valve closes

2-3 Compression stroke 3 Injection begins 4 Injection ends
4-1 Expansion stroke 5 Exhaust valve opens 5-6 Exhaust stroke

An example o f 4-stroke valve timing i s :

W hen fuel is supplied by the injector to the hot com pressed air, it Inlet valve opens 20 deg. before TDC
reaches its self ignition temperature and ignites. The combustion causes Inlet valve closes 60 deg. after BDC
the expansion o f gases, which push the piston downwards towards Injection begins 10 deg. before TDC
BDC. The piston being pushed downwards by the combustion gases Injection ends 12 deg. after TDC
is doing work and hence, the stroke is called the Power or Expansion Exhaust opens 42 deg. before BDC
stroke. The exhaust ports are uncovered at approximately 4 0 to 75 Exhaust closes 60 deg. after TDC.
degrees o f crank shaft rotation, ju s t before BDC. T his allows the
A 4-Stroke engine operating cycle is completed in 4-strokes o f the
exhaust gases to escape to the atm osphere and the pressure in the
cylinder now falls to around 2 to 4 bar. The temperature is high due to piston. These a re :
the exhaust gases i.e. 250 to 500 deg. C. The exhaust ports are kept
uncovered for approxim ately 118 to 130 deg. o f crank rotation. The (1) Suction (induction) stroke
scavenge ports are kept open for 100 to 140 deg. o f crank rotation.
(2) Compression stroke

4-Stroke Cycle (3) Power (expansion) stroke

4 Strokes = 4 strokes o f the Piston (4) Exhaust stroke.

= 2 (Piston going up + Piston going down)
= 2 complete revolutions give 1 pow er stroke.

Marine Diesel Engines Internal Combustion Diesel Engines

(1) Suction Stroke compressed since inlet and exhaust valves

are closed, and piston is m oving upwards
from BDC to TDC.

The air is pressurized to 32 to 4 5 bar and

correspondingly, its temperature rises to 600
to 700 deg. C. The fuel is injected at the end
o f the compression stroke at a fuel pressure
o f 200 to 1500 bar, depending on the type
of fuel. This fuel is injected in the form of an
atomized fine spray, which m ixes with the
high temperature air and self ignites. The fuel
Fig-10 injection timing is around 10 to 35 degrees
o f crank shaft rotation. F ig -ll
1 Exhaust value 9 Connecting Rod
2 Rocker Arm 10 Piston Optimum condition for fuel injection is when the fuel injection coincides
3 Camshaft timing gear 11 Cylinder Liner with the peak air temperature in the cylinder for best combustion. At
4 Camshaft 12 Cylinder Head the end o f combustion, the pressure in the cylinder is 60 to 80 bar,
5 Oil 13 Rocker Arm and 1600 to 2000 deg. C.
6 Crankcase 14 Inlet valve
7 Crankshaft 15 Fuel Injector (3) Expansion Stroke (Pow er Stroke)
8 Path o f crankpin In this stroke, work is done by the expansion
of gases, to push die piston down to the crank
The piston is m oving downwards and a pressure difference between pin through th e connecting rod, converting
the cylinder pressure and the atm ospheric pressure is created above reciprocating linear motion o f the piston into
it. Atm ospheric air is sucked inside through the open inlet valve. The a rotary motion o f the crank shaft, thereby i
air adm ission is stopped w hen the inlet valve closes. The cylinder turning the engine shaft. After expansion, the !
pressure is now approximately 0 .85 to 0.95 bar and the temperature pressure and temperature decrease to 3.5 to
37 to 48 deg. C. 5 bar, at 750 to 900 deg. C.

(2) Com pression Stroke

This stroke includes the compression o f air, mixing o f the fuel and air
F i g - 12
charge, and the start o f combustion. T h e air in the cylinder is now

Marine Diesel Engines Internal Combustion Diesel Engines

(4) E xhaust Stroke There is m ore turning o f the crankshaft, since two idle strokes of
W hen the piston nears BDC, the exhaust valve the 4-stroke engine are n o t present in the 2-stroke engine.
opens and the exhaust gases escape, since their High speed 2-stroke engines are less efficient due to less volumetric
pressure is more than the atmospheric pressure efficiency.
in the exhaust manifold. The exhaust gases are Fuel consumption is m ore in 2-stroke engines, since the engine
expelled and the piston now starts moving works on the Otto Cycle principle.
upw ards. T h e pressure o f the g ases now Unlike 4-stroke engines where there are two separate piston strokes
decreases fu rth e r to 1.1 to 1.2 bar, at a for each o f these purposes, 2-stroke engines have much less time
corresponding tem perature o f 430 to 530 available for exhausting and scavenging. Hence in 2-stroke engines,
deg. C. some o f the combustion gases are left behind in the cylinder, which
interfere with the normal cycle operations. Thus, 2-stroke engines
appear to be less economical than 4-stroke.
In the 2-stroke engine, tw o pow er strokes take place every two
2-Stroke versus 4-Stroke Engines revolutions, while in the 4-stroke engine, only one power stroke
takes place every two revolutions.
The whole cycle ( suction, compression, expansion, and exhaust) 4-stroke trunk-piston engines have the advantage o f requiring less
is completed in tw o strokes o f the piston in a 2-stroke engine, as
headroom than 2-stroke crosshead engines.
com pared to four strokes o f the piston in a 4-stroke engine.
Torque produced by a 2-stroke engine is less irregular than a 4-
A comparison should only be m ade between operating cycles o f a stroke engine, due to the number o f operating cycles in a 2-stroke
2-stroke engine and 4-stroke engine, having cylinders o f same engine being twice that in a 4-stroke engine.
geometrical dimensions and crankshaft speeds. Theoretically, the
The force applied to a piston o f a 2-stroke engine coincides with
horsepower output o f a 2-stroke engine is twice that o f a 4-stroke the axis o f the connecting rod at all times and never changes its
engine. In actual practice, the output o f a 2-stroke engine is 1.5 to I direction during the cycle.Therefore, dynamic loads coming on the
1.8 tim es o f a 4-stroke engine. This is due to the actual operating | piston crowns in a 2-stroke engine are avoided unlike in a 4-stroke
cycle being only a fraction o f the total piston stroke, lasting between
TDC and the instant o f uncovering the exhaust ports.
In m arine applications, 2-stroke engines are used in low speed
At the start o f the compression stroke, there are higher pressures high-powered diesel main propulsion, while 4-stroke engines are
and tem peratures in a 2-stroke engine than in a 4-stroke engine used in medium speed power generation.
(higher by 25 to 30%). This increase results in a 30 to 40%
In m odem engines for main propulsion, fuel costs require cheaper
increase in the thermal load. Therefore, there are higher thermal | quality fuel to be used. This is possible in 2-stroke low-speed large
stresses on the combustion chamber walls.

16 17
Marine Diesel Engines

crosshead diesel engines which have a very long stroke, aiding in

m ore tim e for the scavenging- and exhaust process. Also, in
2-stroke crosshead engines, the cylinder space can be isolated
from the crank case. This avoids the contamination o f the crank
case oil due to the acidic residues entering the crank case, as in
4-stroke trunk-type engines.
The total cost o f the expensive lube oil for slow 2-stroke engines is
less than 4-stroke engines o f equivalent power.

ICngine Structure
l( is the foundation o f the main engine.
R equirem ents
1. Strength to resist fatigue failure.
2. Rigidity
a) to allow for crankshaft stresses which can cause excess bending
loads on the main bearings. It allows uniform loading on the main
b) to control the structures natural frequency and keep it away
from the engines natural frequency. The engine will therefore be
designed to run above o r below the critical rpm.
c) to allow for true alignment o f the piston and the running gear, so
that no uneven loads fall over the crosshead guides, stuffing box
and cylinder blocks.

Engine S tructures Transverse Strength

'I'lieengines structural transverse strength is provided b y :
The transverse girder being rigidly fixed to the longitudinal girders.
It gives resistance to twisting.

Marine Diesel Engines Engine Components

T he transverse girders strength w hich allows for inertia and A m echanical top bracing consists o f shims 1 between two plates
combustion forces through the main bearing. hydraulically fastened by a bolt 4. The bracing stiffening plates 2 are
T he A fram e which transmits the guide forces to the bed plate. thereby attached to a strong support 3.
The top bracing units which dampen the lateral structural vibrations. E ngine Structure D efect Areas
The cylinder block units which provide strength against transverse Below the main bearing due to bending stresses.
flexing. A t any change o f sections, w here stress levels are concentrated
The tie bolts which put the structure under compressive stress and e.g. crosshead guides and holding down sites.
reduces the tendency to separate. Bolt holes and welds due to shear stresses.
Anchor points for top bracing units.
E n g in e S tru ctu res L o n g itu d in a l Strength
The longitudinal strength is provided by:
E ngine Structural Cracks
Each A fram e u n it: This also reduces the chances o f fretting at Cracks in the engine structure are usually caused by fatigue failure.
bolted joints. Fatigue failures are discussed below.
Rigid attachment to the stiffened tank top. Closely spaced framing
Fatigue Failure
o f 750 m m is the requirement for the double bottom construction.
It is the failure o f the material which has undergone fluctuating stresses.
Ranges attached to the top and bottom o f the longitudinal girder.
Each fluctuation causes minute amounts o f plastic strain. Fatigue cracks
Each cylinder block unit.
start at the point o f maximum concentration o f tensile or shear stress.
The material fails at a point much below its elastic limit and therefore,
Top Bracing there is no distortion o f surrounding material.
This is usually of mechanical or Factors A ffectin g F atigue L ife
hydraulic type, fitted to the top Temperature: Increase in temperature lowers the endurance limit
part o f the engine to provide o f the material (usually, the endurance limit = 108 cycles, i.e. 48%
stiffening and support against o f UTS for steel).
tw is tin g f o r c e s fro m th e
M ean stress levels.
crosshead guide. Normally,
Combined tensile and shear stresses.
these braces are fitted to only
one side o f the engine e.g. the Cyclic stress frequency.
exhaust side. Fig-14

20 21
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Components

Concentrated stress areas depending on the groove geometry and

Sharp notches, surface finish, corrosion, direction o f grain structure
and heat treatment o f the surface.

F atigue F ailu re Causes

Incorrect tension and maintenance o f holding down bolts, tie bolts
and top bracing.
W rong engine operation with respect to overload, imbalance o f
engine firing loads and im balance o f rotating masses (e.g. piston
F ig -15
Manufacturing defects and poor quality materials.
. Ineffective vibration dampening units. 1 Longitudinal girders, two in number, which1form the side walls and a set
of transverse I-beams or box girders strengthened with stiffness.
Cold cracks d ue to the presence o f dissolved hydrogen or high 2 Transverse strength girders housing the main bearings.
residual stress in the joint or a small triggering defect 3 Lower part of the bedplate has flanges for seating onto the hull foundation.

Fatigue C rack D etection M ethods

Visual inspection at the stress concentration points.
D ye penetrant method.
Non destructive testing.
Magnetic particle inspection.
Checking o f the tension o f the surrounding bolts.

It is the base o f the engine which carries the other components o f the Fig -16
engine structure. Strength and stiffness are required for the bedplate M aterial fo r Bedplates
to withstand the inertia loads o f moving parts, dead loads o f supported Cast Iron (C .I.) absorbs and dampens vibration.
elements and forces from the firing cylinder gases. M ild Steel (M .S.) plates or castings welded together are cheaper
and lighter.

22 23
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Components

E n ta b u la tu re , A -F ra m e , T ie B olts a n d P in c h in g Screw s T ie Rods

The position o f the entabulature, A-frame and T-Bolts are shown in Tie rods are bolts which keep the w hole engine structure under
the figure. compression. They provide for fatigue strength. They also provide for
proper running gear alignment which prevents fretting. They help to
reduce the bending stress being transmitted to the transverse girder.
Tie rods transmit the gas forces which act on the cylinder head. The
firing pressure force o f the piston is directly transmitted to the main
bearing and consequently to the engine frame through the tie rod

H olding D ow n Bolts a n d C hocks

Holding down bolts along with chocks have the following functions:
To provide a clamping force through friction between bedplate,
chock and the ships structure in order to resist the propeller thrust.
To provide stiffness to the engine.
To position the engine within the ships structure.
To provide good alignment o f the engine and transmission shafting
A -F ra m e and, hence equal load on all bearings.
As the nam e im plies, these fram es are
A in shape to provide support to the 1 Protecting Cap
cylinder block.
2 Spherical Nut
A- frames are usually produced as a 3 Spherical Washer
single unit, as this helps in stiffening o f 4 Distance Pipe
th e e n g in e . A w e ld e d A -fra m e 5 Round Nut
contributes to 40% o f the en g in es 6 Holding down Bolt
structural stiffness. T he m aterial is Fig-19
fabricated steel plates. Slack H olding D own Bolts
They cause fretting between the bedplate, chock and the tank top.
Fig-18 M isalignment o f the bedplate w ill occur i f these slack bolts are

24 25
Engine Components
Marine Diesel Engines

retightened. Stiffness o f the holding down arrangements is decreased,

Resin Chocks
whilst vibration o f the engine and ships structure increases. Load on
other chocks increase and this may also cause fretting in them. Holding
down bolts may eventually shear in serious cases, although end-chocks Fig-21
are provided to prevent this shear failure. Recurrence o f slackness
may increase, as the tension o f the bolt has now changed with respect
to the whole holding down arrangement Torsional stresses will increase These are commonly used with the advantage o f less manpower skill
as an effect o f fretting and misalignment. There will be an imbalance of and time. They are very useful for re-chocking repairs on fretted and
bearing loads. uneven foundation plates.
Chocks A dvantages
Cheaper installation and less skill for installing.
No dependence on correct hand-fitting.
N on corrosive and chemical resistant.
100% contact on uneven surfaces.

Maximum limit o f temperature is 80 deg. C.
In case o f overstressing o f holding down bolts, the chocks may
shatter and collapse.
If incorrectly fitted, the chock life is decreased drastically.

A pplication Procedure
Calculation is to be m ade for the chock area and the bolt tension.
Engineis to be aligned with shafting.
Allowance for chock compression is 1/1000 o f chock thickness.
M ain chocks are usually fitted beneath the longitudinal frame. Side Class.approval is to b e sanctioned.
chocks are fitted in line w ith the m ain bearings. End chocks two in
Clean the work area o f the engine frame and tank tops o f dirt and oil.
number, are fitted at the aft end o f the main engine. These are provided
with through-bolts so that they limit the forward motion o f the engine. All hull renewals and engine alignments should be complete.

Marine Diesel Engines Engine Components

Dam s are prepared using a m etal sheet and putty sealant to hold engine specifications. The rubber element can take compression
the chocking resin liquid. and also shear loads. They have in-built buffers to stop excessive
N o heavy w ork during the cure period. Cure period is around 18 movements in heavy sea conditions as well as stopping and starting.
to 36 hours, depending on ambient temperature. All m ounts are loaded to the sam e amount. The tolerance o f 2
A m bient temperature should be from 20 to 25 deg. C. mm is given for conical mounts. Using shims, one can further adjust
these heights.
Lim it fo r chock thickness is 25 mm, o r else u se m ore steps.
Tighten the holding down bolts after the cure period is completed. Piston
T he hardness o f the.chock is checked. Requirements

To withstand the mechanical stresses o f combustion gas pressure

Resilient Chocks
and inertia forces.
These are normally used in case o f medium speed engines (e.g. 4- To withstand the thermal stresses during combustion.
stroke engines for power generation). Basically, they help to dampen
the vibrations transmitted from the m edium speed engine to the
Pistons are designed to ta ke into consideration the follow ing:
tank top.
2-stroke main propulsion engines are heavy in weight and, therefore, The crown is directly exposed to heat and gas load and hence, has
have high rotational and static masses causing higher out-of-balance a tendency to deform. Hence, the material should not only be
forces w hich preclude the use o f resilient chocks, whose design thick for mechanical strength, but also thin enough to minimize
would also have to take into consideration the heavy weight o f the thermal stress.
engine. The cyclic loading causes the top and the sides o f the crown to flex
which can lead to fatigue failure.
4-stroke engines for power generation plants are smaller and lighter
The shape o f the combustion space also depends on the shape of
in comparison. Therefore, they have lower out-of-balance forces,
the crow n. Concave or convex pistons are used.
whose natural frequency w ill be from 6 to 25 Hz fo r400 to 1500
Wall thickness can be reduced with strength provided for by internal
rpm speeds. The natural frequency o f the engine can be changed,
ribs o f radial or concentric designs.
but not the natural frequency o f the hull (2 to 5 Hz) or the bulkheads/
decks (10 to 15 Hz) or the stem (4 to 7 Hz). The topmost ring undergoes the brunt o f the direct flame and it is
much higher in position than the others.
Resilient chocks consist o f a num ber o f flexible rubber vertical
The m aterial o f the crow n should take into consideration the
mounts used on under-slung engines. They have main mounts as working temperature, the hardness o f the ring groove landing areas,
well as side and end mounts. Since these are flexible mounts, the
the corrosiveness o f the gas mixtures and the cooling o f the piston.
engine crank shaft center w ill m ove + /-1 m m and the top o f the
A high top land helps in more effective lubrication and moving the
engine approximately +/- 5 m m during start up, depending on the
ring pack to a cooler zone.

28 29
Marine Diesel Engines
Engine Components

Water Cooled Pistons

Water cooled pistons (older designs) have internal support webs cast
in the crown for mechanical strength, but are prone to thermal stress
failures. Cooling is done by the Cocktail Shaker effect.

Oil Cooled Pistons


1 Curve of maximum temperature of piston crow in conventional type

2 Curve of maximum temperature of piston crow in bore water cooled
3 Conventional internal support webs or ribs
4 Conventional piston
GEEl OH F ig - 22 5 Self supporting bores
Oil cooled pistons employ a spray nozzle plate. Cooling oil (common 6 Bore water cooled piston.
to bearing lube oil) is fed through swinging arm links into the crosshead,
which provides a je t shaker-effect as the piston moves up and down.
Increased cooling o f the crow n is provided by a number o f spray Flow o f P iston C ooling Oil
nozzles which direct the cooling oil into the blind bores o f the crown at The flow is from the main bearing lube oil to the crosshead pin, then
all crank angles. W hen the piston is atT D C , the shaker cooling through slots in the piston rod. It then flows through the inlet oil pipe
effect o f the oil takes place. W hen the piston is going towards BDC, in the piston rod which leads to the cooling bores through spray nozzles
je t type cooling takes place. in the spray plate. The oil then returns through the outlet piping in the
piston rod into the crosshead pin, w here it emerges sideways to the
A dvantages o f B ore Cooled Pistons o ver C onventional Pistons engine sump through internal drains; and temperature and flow alarms.
Low er thermal stresses and strain.
Piston M aterials
Problems involved in casting o f internal ribs are eliminated.
Crown - Aluminium or cast steel (4-stroke).
Lower piston maximum temperature at the crown. Crown - C ast chrome nickel molybdenum alloy steel (2-stroke).
Lower gas load stresses and better cooling efficiency. Skirt - Si-Aluminium alloy (4-stroke) or cast iron.
Rod - Forged steel.

Marine Diesel Engines Engine Components

Conventional Type Oros Type

Gas side Mean Temp. 500 deg. C 409 deg. C
Max. Temp. 510 deg. C 420 deg. C

Cooling oil side Mean Temp. 197 deg. C 185 deg. C

Max.Temp. 209 deg. C 216 deg. C.

Com posite Pistons

Composite pistons (fig - 25) are those pistons that are made up o f
composite m aterials i.e. two o r m ore parts (crown, skirt, etc.) o f
different materials. Medium speed engines use these pistons. The crown
withstands the high cylinder pressure gas loads as well as it limits the
inertia forces. Applications for heavy fuel oil use are suitable. They are
o f self supporting type. Concave or convex crowns are used which
have internal support. Gudgeon pins are free floating type at the
operating temperature o f the piston. T he trunk or skirt is separate
from the crown. Hence, the name trunk-type piston is given.

The trunk o r skirt provides the follow ing advantages:

Better thermal conductivity.
Reasonable strength.
Alow relative mass in comparison with the crown to reduce piston
Better radial and vertical contact due to the elliptical barrel shape
reducing the load during horizontal guide thrust.
Better manufacturing reproducibility.
OROS Piston
Better resistance to scuffing.
A new design employed by M AN B&W, which has the advantage of
Better expansion cold clearances.
reduction in temperature and h eat load at the piston crown. The
Better thickness since density is relatively lower.
following is a table o f temperatures o f the piston at 100% load.
Better skirt stiffness.

32 33
Engine Components
Marine Diesel Engines
Piston Defects
Deformation o r burning o f the crow n top surface due to direct
impingement o f firing gas, poor injection or bad fuel.
1 Crown (Cast steel)
2 Skirt or trunk ( Al-Sf-Alloy Cracks on the internal or external surfaces due to built up thermal
or nodular C.I.) o r mechanical stresses. The reasons for these stresses are poor
3 Bearing (Lead bronze) injection, bad fuel quality, poor cooling due to insufficient coolant
4 Gudgeon pin (Carburised steel) or fouled cooling spaces, corroded material, poor lubrication, and
5 Keep plate
bad operations like an overloaded engine.
6 Connecting rod (Forged steel).
Scuffing due to overheating or poor lubrication.
Worn ring grooves due to poor lubrication, overloaded or incorrect
operation, poor combustion, worn liner o r piston rings, etc.

D ifferences B etw een 2-Stroke a n d 4-Stroke Pistons Cooling spaces deterioration due to corrosion; coking o r scale
build up caused by poor cooling water treatment; or low oil coolant
2-Stroke Pistons 4-Stroke Pistons flow o r overheating.

Fretting due to incorrecttensioning and assembly o f studs; damaged

(1) It is of crosshead type i.e. piston It is of trunk type i.e. the skirt
rod connected to the crosshead (no piston rod) is connected to studs; o r overheating.
bearing both reciprocate along the the connecting rod by means of
axis of the piston. a gudgeon pin and bearing.
R otating Pistons
(2) The crosshead slipper transmits the Trunk or extension piece or
These pistons are employed for medium speed 4-stroke engines. An
connecting rod angularity thrust to extended skirt takes the connecting
the crosshead guides. rod angularity thrust and transmits example is the Sulzer Z40 series. Rotation of the piston is accomplished
it to the side of the cylinder liner. by using a spring loaded paw l and ratchet. It has the disadvantage of
(3) More height for same power and Less height for same power and
a high initial cost. It has the advantages o f lower specific bearing loads;
speed. speed. low er risk o f edge loading; low er risk o f piston seizing; smaller
clearances between piston and liner; lower vibration of cylinder wall
(4) Higher engine manufacturing costs. Lower engine manufacturing costs.
due to lower piston slap; lower cavitation erosion; lower heat variation;
(5) It has compression type piston rings. It has compression as well as oil scraper more uniformity and distribution o f heat; improved spreading o f lube
rings. oil on the piston and the liner; and a symmetrical crown and skirt
(6) More head room. Headroom is limited.
which reduces thermal stresses.

(7) Usually, used in low speed engines. Usually, used in medium speed engines.
Marine Diesel Engir, Engine Components

P isto n R ings compression ring is successively decreased in steps with each ring, to
There are usually three to six compression rings and one o r two oil equal the pressure which acts on the underside o f the piston. Hence,
scraper rings. radial pressure changes with the position o f each compression ring. It
is highest at the top.
C om pression R ings
Their purpose is to prevent blow-by. They should provide an effective Oil Scraper Rings
seal o f the combustion cham ber space. The initial compression o f They are rings which elim inate the possible ingress o f oil into the
the ring i.e. ring tension, puts a radial pressure onto the liner wall. combustion chamber. They are fitted lowermost o f the rings on the
Further sealing is provided by the gas pressure itself entering the back skirt in trunk type pistons. The oil is scraped by the rings w hilst the
clearance space between the piston and ring. They transfer a large piston goes downwards, and is returned to the crank case via oil drains
portion o f heat from the piston to the cylinder liner, which in turn, has in the piston on the upstroke. The rings beveled side surfaces slide
jacket cooling. H igh piston speeds require less compression rings, over the oil film without dragging them upwards.
since there is a less possibility o f blow-by.
The figure shows the pumping action o f the compression rings when
the liner bore o f trunk type pistons becomes over lubricated. W hen
the piston is going down, the piston compression rings are pressed
against the upper sides
o f the ring grooves and
oil enters the spaces
below the rings. When
the piston is traveling
u p w a rd s, th e rin g
presses upon the lower
sid e s o f th e rin g
g ro o v e s an d o il is
F ig -26
fo rc e d th ro u g h the
The figure show s the gas pressure p entering the back clearance back and upper side
spaces o f each compression ring and causing the ring sealing pressures clearances towards the
p i , p2, p3, p4, p5 to provide a sealing effect by pushing the rings combustion chamber.
tightly against the liner. It uses the labyrinth principle o f decrease in
pressure. Therefore, the gas pressure that is leaked in behind each

36 37
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Components

Piston Ring Failures In Fig. A, pressure P I decreases at the sam e rate as the cylinder
pressure, while ring pressure P2 falls at a slower rate than the cylinder
(1) Collapse pressure.
It is the collapse i.e. inward push o f the ring against the piston body
due to gas pressure build up against the running face o f the ring. It is In Fig. B, when P 2 suddenly
caused by the pressure build up against ring running face and liner wall b e c o m e s m o re th a n P I ,
due to reduced axial clearance; poor ring and groove sealing; rings m ovem ent occurs sin ce P2
not free to m ove in the groove; or poor lubrication on sealing surfaces. changes and this causes a flutter.
In both figures, observe the first
piston ring fluttering and moving
up and down in its ow n place.
F ig -29
(3) E xcess w ear
T his is due to p oor clearances, corrosion, abrasion, scuffing or
improper lubrication.

(4) Jam m ed or sticking piston rings

This is due, to the build up o f carbon deposits o r poor clearances.

(5) Scuffing
In Fig. A, the reduced axial clearance reduces the gas pressure P I, It is the overall damage on the sliding contact surfaces, caused by the
building up behind the ring to form a reduced P2 ring pressure. formation o f local welds. These welds occur due to high local
In Fig. B , as P2 increases slowly, P I gets betw een the liner and the temperature (800 deg. C+), which hardens the base metal, forming
ring. hardened particles at that point.
In Fig. C, the ring collapses against the piston groove body.
Scuffing depends o n :
Oil film quantity, oil retention and countered rings to promote oil
(2) Flutter
film generation.
Flutter is the oscillation m ovem ent o f the piston ring along its own
Rotating pistons moving around any o f the dry hot spots which are
plane. It is caused by a radially w orn ring leading to a reduction in
prone to welds.
radial areas, or pounding o f piston rings in the grooves when the piston High temperatures due to poor sealing o r poor heat transfer by
changes its direction.
bore cooling.

38 39
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Components

Running-in o f new piston rings or liner. Piston R in g M anufacture

C orrect sc u ff resistan t m aterials used i.e. so ft copper or P ot Casting is done in oval pots o r by drum casting in static sand
molybdenum for running in, and hard chromium or nitriding alloys moulds; or by centrifugal casting. Machining is carried out in a cam-
for normal use. turning lathe and later, a gap is cut out or the ring is split. Tensioning is
done by hammering the inner surface to induce residual stress o r by
Running-In inserting a distance piece in a cut ring and heating in an oven to relieve
I t consists o f :
A purposeful w ear on the piston ring profile to m atch the liner Piston R in g Shapes
surfaces for proper gas sealing and lubrication. W hen the liner is Different types o f piston rings have different cross sections, as shown
rough, the ring is not properly sealed, and a matching profile is in the figure.
A wear running-in coating layer is used which is meant to be worn 1. P la in ty p e is sim p le and
out, thereby creating a correct profile o f the piston ring to match inexpensive.
with the liner wall.
2. Barrel faced chrome-plated
The engine load is increased during the running-in period to promote
c o o lin g ty p e. T he b a rre l
increased wear o f the running-in layer.
en ab les b e tte r an d fa s te r
Lower TBN cylinder lube oil is used to provide corrosive wear of
bedding-in with liner profile.
the rings.
C h rom e-plating is a hard
Fuel o f high sulphur content (m ore than 0.5% sulphur) is used to
coating given for increased
increase acid corrosive wear during the running-in period.
Cylinder lube oil feed rate should be increased. life.
3. M aidtypewheretheinnerlaid
P iston R in g M aterial material (molybdenum o r electroplated chrome) provides scuff
The piston ring is made o f Cast Iron. resistance, while the outer laid provides edge protection and oil
Grey Cast Iron gives better wear and scuffing resistance. control.
4. Taper running face provides faster bedding-in.
Nodular chromium-plated malleable Cast Iron gives better fatigue
resistance. 5. Stepped scraper provides oil scraping and gas sealing.
6. Beveled undercut provides downward oil removal.
Carbidic malleable Cast Iron gives better fatigue and wear resistance.
7. Slotted oil passages for oil scraping.
R.VK with AL-Bronze as a running-in coating. 8. Conformable oil scraper for consistent oil control.

40 41
Marine Diesel Engines
Engine Components

Piston R in g Coatings
Wear resistance coatings Piston R in g L ife
Ring wear rate (around 0.1 m m/1000 hrs) depends on:
Plasm a Coating (using a plasm a spraying m ethod where a gas
Fouling o f the turbocharger.
mixture is directed through an electric arc generated between a
tungsten electrode and a w ater cooled copper tube to create a Reduced scavenge air pressure due to m ore dirt in the ring pack
plasm a state at 10,000 to 15,000 deg. C). T his plasma state area.
m elts and fuses any m etal, w ith gas m olecules and atoms Overloaded engines or excessive pressure rise.
disassociating. Poor clearances.
Chrom e plating: It is a hard outer galvanic chrome layer. Double Poor fuel injection or poor fuel quality.
chrome plating is done on both sides o f the ring. This increases the
Poor lubrication.
w ear and corrosion resistance.
Poor water shedding in scavenge air which produces water drops
Tungsten carbide coating w hich gives a better wear resistance. on the cylinder liner affecting lubrication and causing scuffing.
R unning-in Coatings Poor maintenance o f grooves or incorrect fitting o f rings.
These are soft coatings such as copper, graphite or phosphate which
are meant to wear quickly and give the ring a similar profile as the liner.
Piston Cleaning R in g
It is the ring which is embedded in the top edge o f the liner just below
Controlled Pressure Relief (CPR) Rings the cylinder head level. Its purpose is to rem ove the excessive
In CPR type, the topmost ring has carboneous deposits at the top-land portion of the combustion chamber
one double-lap S seal and six wall which would otherwise contaminate and affect lubrication.
controlled pressure relief grooves
cut across the face. This ensures A n ti-P olishing R in g
It is the ring 1 which reduces the polished effect of
even pressure distribution and
the liner w all, which is form ed due to the hard
decrease o f therm al load to the
deposits from combustion in contact with the liner.
second piston ring as well as the Polishing is unwanted, since it does not allow oil
liner. O ther piston rings have an film retention on the liner wall, and the oil passes
A l-bronze coating and oblique over the ring pack portion to the combustion area
cuts. 3l/.."j when it is burnt and wasted. Polishing depends on
oil feed rate, excessive peak pressures, ring and
Fig-31 liner materials, and an increase in combustion hard Fig - 32
products at liner-ring interface.
Marine Diesel Engir. Engine Components

SIP W A (S u lze rs In tegrated Piston Wear A nalysis) It is a seal between the scavenge spaces and the crankcase in the area
It is a m ethod u sing a continuous online o f the piston rod penetration. It seals the crankcase oil entering into
feedback m easurement o f the piston ring wear the scavenge space, and scavenge deposits or cylinder oil entering the
condition.The piston ring has incorporated a crankcase. It is m ade o f two sections. Each section consists o f
wear-band (shaded section). A s wear down of.
the piston ring takes place, a corresponding wear
s i segmented metal rings held against the piston rod by garter springs.
down o f the copper wear-band takes place. A
Housing - Cast iron or cast steel.
sensor in the cylinder liner senses the wear of
Rings - Cast iron o r brass o r bronze or PTFE
the copper wear-band and transmits this signal
Lamellas - C ast iron or carbon.
to an online electronic unit, which records and
prints any wear down, which can be used as a Stuffing B o x Problems
pre-warning. Poor sealing caused by worn out rings, badly aligned ring joints,
sticky rings, closed b utt joints, w eak springs, excessive axial
Piston Rod Stuffing Gland clearance or scoring/wearing o f the piston rod.
Consequences o f stuffing box not performing properly is a loss of
t Casing in two parts crankcase oil, higher costs, contamination o f crankcase with
2 Spacer ring scavenge deposits and unbumt cylinder oil.
3,5 Oil scraper rings Indications o f poor stuffing box gland sealing:
Crankcase oil contamination test giving poor results.
4 Sealing ring
A case o f no oil replenishment.
6,8 Screws Increasing TBN o r viscosity.
9 Ring in two parts Reduced piston cooling effect.
10 Piston rod
Poor lubrication.

11 O-ring
12 Locating pin
M anufacture
Liners are usually sand cast (above 300 mm diameter size). They may
be o f split type to avoid distortion o f bore shape due to non-uniform
heat deformation. Split type is usually seen in 2-stroke engines, where
there is a difference in liner temperature near the scavenge ports and
exhaust valve region. Liners are press fitted into the respective bore
Fig-34 o f the cylinder block.

44 45
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Components

M aterial Liner Wear

Cast Iron with alloys o f nickel, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, There are three types o f liner wear.
copper and titanium is used.
Cast Iron is chosen because its high strength; refined grain structure Corrosive Wear
with inclusions o f alloys; smooth sliding surface due to graphite content It is the wear on the liner surface due to low temperature corrosion of
for improved lubrication; porous surface which retains oil as well as sulphur. Sulphur oxides in the gaseous state combine with water, which
exposes a fresh surface in case o f has formed due to the condensation or sweating, when the temperature
scuffing o r scoring; and wear and is low. Thus, acids are formed which lead to corrosion.
corrosion resistance. Remedy
Increase liner wall temperature above the dew point o f the water -
1 Water guide jacket acid mixture.
2 Exhaust valve seat Use o f an alkaline cylinder lube oil to neutralize the acid content at
3 Cylinder head the liner wall.
4 Annular space in cylinder head Use o f a low sulphur content fuel with a limit on the sulphur value.
5 Lubricating quill
Abrasive Wear
6 Upper lubrication grooves in liner
It is due to hard particles o f ash deposits and catalytic fines, which
7 Cooling bores
continuously cut, scratch and plough the liner surfaces.
8 Sealing metal ring
9 Lower lubrication grooves in liner
Friction or A dhesive Wear
10 Cooling water space Mechanical friction wear is due to the piston ring friction on the liner
11 Cooling water wall. This wear takes place usually where the oil film has depleted or
12 O-ring
broken down.
13 Outer Jacket
14 Ring space devoid of water Clover L e a f Wear
15 Sealing ring It is the uneven wear in the shape o f a clover leaf on the liner surface in
16 O-ring the radial mode.
17 Cylinder block
18 Cylinder liner
Uneven distribution o f cylinder lube oil causes the depletion o f its TBN,
19 Scavenge ports
before it has completely covered the liner surface. High corrosive
20 Piston underside scavenge space
wear occurs on the liner surface between oil injection points.

46 47
Engine Components
Marine Diesel Engir

Horizontal Section of Cylinder Li
1 Working piston 12 Joint
2 Piston rings 13 Flange
Effects 3 Cylinder liner 14 Flange
15 Lubricating quill
In extreme cases, combustion gas blow-by takes place past the piston 4 Support ring 16 Non-retum valve
5 Spring
rings, or failure o f the liner can occur. 6 Accumulator piston 17 O-ring
7 Diaphragm 18 Set screw
8 Passage for lubricating quill 19 Oil space
Lubricating Quills 9 Bush 20 Lube oil inlet
10 Filling pin 21 Jacket water space
22 Lubricatingoil groovesin the cylinder.
These are non-retum valves passing through the jacket water space, 11 Screw ______
which supply cylinder lube oil under pressure to the liner surface.
L iner F ailure A reas
Lubricating Accumulator
Area1 Excessive, incorrect or uneven
It is fitted at the outer end of the quill. It delivers oil through a non-retum tightening of cylinder head studs causes
ball valve, only when the cylinder pressure falls below the accumulator cracks.
Area2 Poor liner support shows hoop stress
pressure. The accumulator is sealed against the oil space by a flexible cracks.
diaphragm. This diaphragm is pressed downwards by the spring force. Area3 Upper ring area is prone to wear ridge
circumferential cracks.
This builds up an oil pressure, which is somewhat higher than the charge Area4 Flame impingement region in the
air pressure o f the engine in the combustion cylinder. When the charge combustion space leads to star
air pressure o f the engine o r the cylinder pressure falls below the shaped cracks.
Area5 Jacket water leaks at the lube oil quill
accumulator pressure, oil flows into the cylinder. When the accumulator
piping causes star shaped cracks.
pressure is less than the cylinder pressure, the ball valve o f the accumulator Area6 Scavenge port areas due to scavenge
closes. Iftheaccumulatorfails, oil delivery still continues, controlled by fires or overloaded engine operation.
Area7 Clover leafing wear near fuel injection
the cylinder lubrication pumps delivery stroke.

Marine Diesel Engir.
Engine Components

Cylinder Head Cover

Molybdenum Steel for elasticity and strength (0.3 % C, Mo 1.5%).
The cylinder head is a cover for the cylinder liner and block, which Steel casting or forging o f deep section, single piece, bore cooled
also seals the combustion cham ber at the top. It sustains dynamic and machined at sealing faces.
thermal and mechanical loads caused by the combustion pressure and
temperature. It houses the exhaust value, fuel injectors, starting air Cylinder H ead D efects
valve, safety valve, indicator cock and cooling w ater passages. Cracks due to thermal changes in the cooling water temperature;
sudden overloading o r heating o f the engine; o r uneven incorrect
1 Cylinder head tightening o f studs.
2 Nut Distortion due to temperature variations.
2a Cylinder head stud Cooling space fouling due to poor water treatment; and scaleorsludge
3 Cooling water outlet deposits.
4 Leak oil outlet
5 Exhaust valve cage
Corrosion on the low er side being exposed to the combustion
5a Stud of exhaust valve chamber.
6 Connection for the lubrication 6 Gas erosion and acidic corrosion due to leaking exhaust valve cage
7 Fuel injection valve 5 seats.
8 Starting valve
9 Connection for hydraulic oil
E x h au st Valve
10 Indicator valve
11 Relief valve
1 Cam to operate hydraulic pump
12 Air inlet for valve spring 2 Hydraulic pump piston
13 Water guide jacket 3 ' Oil from crosshead system
R Eye screw 4 Cooling water outlet
5 Air spring piston
6 Hydraulic piston
M aterials 7 Hydraulic actuator
8 Non return valve
Requirements 9 Cam shaft L.O. system
Good casting characteristics (Cast Iron is good, while Cast Steel 10 Air spring action area
is prone to defects). 11 Valve guide
12 Exhaust gas deflector
High strength, high thermal resistance and high corrosive resistance. 13 Rotator vanes
Cylinder heads are m ade o f: 14 Replaceable valve seat
15 Exhaust valve
Composite structure i.e. Grey Cast Iron which has a good tensile 16 Hydraulic oil
strength and casting characteristics. 17 Control air at 7 Bar.

Marine Diesel Engines Engine Components

Hydraulic E xhaust Valve Working Austenitic steel (Cr & N i 25 %)

Hydraulic pressure is provided by the cam operated hydraulic pump, Si-Chrom e steel (3 Si, 9 C r).
to the hydraulic piston o f the hydraulic actuator. Lube oil from the
Valve Face
camshaft system is used to actuate the hydraulic actuator to open the
A Stellite layer is welded to provide superior hardness, corrosion
exhaust valve by m oving it downwards. Control air at 7 bar pressure
resistance, good surface finish and high tem perature strength.This
is supplied to the air piston to use it as an air spring, w hich closes the
portion is subjected to very high temperatures and thermal and
exhaust valve when the pneumatic air force is greater than the hydraulic
mechanical stresses.
oil force.
Stellite : 2C, 50 Co, 20 Cr, 18 Mo, 10 Tungsten
E x h a u st Valve Types Valve Seats
They are usually poppet mushroom shaped valves. Opening and closing Stellite coating, since seats are also prone to corrosion and erosion.
are done by m echanisms such as valve springs and push rod-rocker
arm arrangements, o r hydraulic operation using camshaft lube oil Valve Cages
pressure to open and spring air to close the valve. C ast Iron provides easy m anufacture and compatibility w ith guide
Large single valves have simpler valve construction, simpler cylinder material.
head construction and easier valve operation. Small size multiple valves Valve Guide
have lower inertia forces, lighter weight, better volumetric efficiency, Pearlite C ast Iron.
low er tem perature o f valve materials, less distortion o f valve lid at
operating temperature and a smaller valve lift.
Valve Springs
The exhaust valve consists o f the valve, valve stem, valve face,'valve They provide support to the valve in the cylinder head as w ell as
seat, valve cage, valve rotator and valve gas deflector. provide a spring force to close the valve. Single Spring type is simple,
has a low er natural frequency o f vibration and a reduced risk o f valve
Valve M aterials bounce. There is a buckling risk for long single springs, while large
Requirements are creep resistance at high tem peratures; corrosion diameter springs have higher bending movements and stresses.
and oxidation resistance; w ear resistance; erosion resistance;
machinability; high temperature strength; compatibility with valve guide
materials; im pact resistance and surface hardness.
Nickel based alloy (0.1 C, 0.1 Fe, 15 Cr, 1.0 Ti, 5 Al, 20 Co,
4 M o, rem ainder Ni)
Precipitation hardened steel (0.5 C , 25 Cr, 5 N i, 3 M o)

52 53
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Components

Series springs have less buckling and bending stresses, but their designs
are complex. A n example is show n in Fig - 41. Springs are shown in
series numbered 1 and 2.

Parallel springs are employed to alter the natural frequency. There is

no axial vibration, and less breakage due to resonance. The safety
factor is increased in case o f the failure o f o ne spring. A n example is
shown in Fig - 42. Springs are shown in parallel numbered 1 and 2.

E x h a u st S e a t P rofile C hange
D u rin g L o a d

Fig 1 shows the inner contact area

when exhaust valve is not loaded.

In closed position (Fig. A), the Belleville washer disc is pushed against
the body with slight force and disc spring is not deflected. W hen the
valve opens (Fig. B), the Belleville washer disc gets pushed against
Fig 2 show s the effect o f thermal the body w ith a higher force. T his load is transferred to the balls,
load on the exhaust valve seat. which causes the balls to be pushed to the deeper recesses and induce
rotation. Relieving o f pressure when valve closes, causes the balls and
the springs to return to the original position.

Valve R otation B enefits

There are less deposits on seat passages and sealing faces. Corrosion
Fig 3 shows the increased even and erosion is reduced. O verheating o f a single spot is prevented as
loading seating area. the valve is rotating. Temperatures o f the valve seat and sealing faces
are reduced. Rotation is needed when burning heavy fuel oils.
Rotating m ethods a r e :
Rotating vanes e.g. used in hydraulically operated exhaust vfclves.
Rotocaps e.g. mechanical rotators used in mechanical spring
Fig-43 operated exhaust valves as in 4-stroke engines.

54 55
Marine Diesel Engines
Engine Components

Variable Exhaust Closing (VEC)

E xhaust Valve Failures
High temperature corrosion by molten salts (sodium and calcium
VEC = Variable Exhaust Closing
sulphate); and compounds from the fuel due to sulphur, vanadium,
= Exhaust Valve closed earlier to increase the compression,
sodium, and catalyst fines (sulphur oxides, vanadium oxides, sodium
and consequently, Pcom p and Pmax.
oxides, etc.).
W hen the exhaust valve is open, less amount o f compression is done Erosion at the seat area and sealing faces.
by the piston. W hen the exhaust valve is closed earlier, the piston can
Dents and scratches caused by harder particles.
start compression earlier, resulting in a longer period for compression.
VEC is carried out during 70 to 85% M CR load. Solid deposits o f molten salts causing leakage and cracks.
O verheated spots due to after burning, p oor cooling, improper
VEC Operation combustion or overload.
In case o f a hydraulically operated exhaust valve, some o f this hydraulic Reseating failures due to incorrect tappet clearances, incorrect
oil pressure for opening the valve is leaked off, when the valve is still expansion clearance, overheating, jamming in the guide, distortion
in the open position. This results in the valve closing slightly when o f valve or spindle, and creep failures.
open, and the valve fully closing earlier.
Mechanical impact loading due to banging, heavy seating, uneven
surfaces o r hard deposits.
Abrasive action by products fromfuel combustion orcylinderlubeoil.
Fouling o f valve or valve passages which limit the air or exhaust
gas flow rates.
Valve mechanism failures o f springs or rotating mechanisms.
Valve lift reduction.

Leaky E x h a u st Valve
It causes a high exhaust gas temperature and increased smoke. Pcomp
and Pmax reduce. The turbocharger may surge.

F ouled In let Valve

Curve A curve at 100 % load Curve C curve without VEC at part load It causes a restriction in the air flow. Hence, scavengeefficiency reduces
Curve B curve with VEC at pan load Point p shows earlier closing of valve. and thermal stresses increase. The exhaust passages get fouled as a
result and there is more smoke from the exhaust.

56 57
Engine Components
Marine Diesel Engines

P lsa d vantages
F ouled E x h a u st Valve
IThe webs should have considerable strength to allow two shrunk fits.
It causes a reduction in the exhaust gas flow; and fouling o f the exhaust
passages, the turbocharger and the exhaust gas economizer. The
scavenge efficiency decreases, while exhaust temperatures increase.
Exhaust gas may leak back into the cylinder and get recycled.
J I I nee there is a lack o f grain flow, there is no benefit o f the same.

The crankshaft is a very important and heavily stressed com ponent It
is subjected to fluctuating loads due to the inertia forces o f rotating
masses, combustion gas pressure loads and high bending and torsion
loads. The crank angle fo r the angular arrangement o f each crank with
respect to the other depends on the num ber o f strokes and cylinders
o f the engine. Balanced weights are fitted to the webs to balance inertia
forces o f rotating and gyrating masses.
Types: (1) Fully Built (2) Semi-built (3) Solid single piece (4) Fully
welded type.
S em i B u ilt Up Cranshafts
[ They are shrunk fit assemblies o f complete crank throws (one crank
Fully B u ilt Up C rankshafts
[ pin and web together) and separate journal pins. They are widely
They have all parts separately manufactured by steel casting or forging,
I used on slow speed 2-stroke engines and large 4-stroke medium speed
and then fully built up i.e. assembled using a shrink fit (1/600 o f pin
diameter). Shrink fit is the friction between the pin and web sufficient engines.
enough to transmit the torque without stressing the pin and web. It is
done by cooling the pin in liquid nitrogen rather than heating the web.
Very few engines use fully built up crankshafts. It is only used on some
very large slow speed engines.
Their construction and design is simple; easy replacement o f damaged
parts; easy handling and machining o f parts; any part o f the crankshaft
can be repaired in sections i f dam ages take place; and m ost o f the Fig-47
machinery can be completed during the manufacturing stage itselfbefore 1 One crank throw 2 Journal pin

Marine Diesel Engines Engine Components

Each crank throw is forged by continuous grain method which maintains | Half crank throw
a path for the grain flow along the crank throw axis. H ence it can use 2 Full crank throw
the benefit o f grain flow. It has a better fatigue resistance, less shrink ' Two half crank throws welded
leaving a small gap at the mating faces
fits, smaller webs and a lighter shaft weight. Larger pin diameters can
be used. I Dummy piece backing.

F ig-49
Solid Sin g le Piece C rankshafts
M aterials
They are those crankshafts where the whole crank shaft is forged or
High carbon steel (0.35 to 0.45 C ) for slow speeds.
cast as one single piece.
High carbon steel with alloys for medium high speeds.
Chromium, tungsten, nickel and m agnesium alloys are used in
percentage o f 1.5 % each.

C rankshaft Failures
Fatigue and cyclic stress failures are mostly due to high frequency low
loads or low frequency high loads.
The areas o f crankshaft failures are:
Shrink fit stress raisers at dowel pins o r keys.
Advantages Any sharp changes in section where stresses get concentrated.
It has a better fatigue resistance, lesser stresses, a sm aller and lighter Severe operating conditions and overload.
shaft, continuous grain flow throughout shaft and no need for shrink fits.
Lube oil passages, holes and drilling sections. The radii o f the lube
Balanced counter weights can be fitted as shown in the figure.
oil hole should be ample to reduce the stress concentration.
Fully Welded C rankshafts Pin to web fillet section should have ample radii.
They are full, h alf forged, o r cast crank throws joined to the journal Surface defects and sharp edges.
pins by continuous feed narrow gap, submerged arc welding. Incorrect manufacture like slag inclusion and poor heat treatment.
Torsional stresses giving a helical-shaped crack at 45 degrees to
Advantages the axis o f the pin.
Here, there are no shrink fits or restrictions on the pin diameter. Smaller
Misalignment of main bearings.
and lighter shafts can be used.

60 61
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Components

Slippage o f shrink fits are seen when engine timings change over Crankshaft Deflections
some part o f the engine only, with an increase in vibration at that
The crankshaft w ill deflect i.e. webs open and close as the engine
section and a shift in the m arkings em bossed at the pin/web
turns, in the vertical as well as horizontal directions.
interface. This slippage can be due to piston seizure; hydraulic
lock in cylinder during starting; starting the engine with turning gears
engaged (in case o f no interlock on smaller engines); bottom end
bolt failure; etc. If minor slippage occurs, adjust timings and monitor.
If m ajor slippage (greater than 4 degrees) occurs, then return to
original position using hydraulic jacks, strong backs and liquid
nitrogen. N o heating is to be done to avoid stresses.
Corrosion fatigue due to lube oil turning acidic caused by lube oil Fig-5 0 Fig-51
contaminated by combustion products.
Closing o f crank throw is a negative reading as shown in Fig. 50-A.
Lubrication failures.
Poor support from bedplate foundation and tie rods.
D eflection Procedure
Place a dial gauge opposite the crank pin on the port side and set the
C rankshaft Stresses
pointer to zero as shown in Fig. 51 -C. Looking in the forward
1. Variable combustion gas lo a d : The radial component causes the
direction, read the dial gauge readings as shown Fig. 50-B.
pin and webs to bend and twist. The tangential component causes
. bending stress in webs and torsion stress in the journal.
2. Torsional vibration stress in w eb pins is due to the shaft being
wound up under torsional load and unwound due to its own stiffness.
3. Axial vibration stress due to the repeated in-plane flexing o f webs
and the reaction the intermittent propeller thrust.
4. M isalignment o f the main bearings leading to cyclic opening and
closing o f the crank throw causing in-plane bending and tangential
bending stresses. Misalignment can be caused by:
(a) Wear or distortion o f the bedplate o r excessive bending o f the
engine framework. e.g. grounding or incorrect cargo distribution.
(b) Worn main bearings due to incorrect adjustments, overloading,
vibration, or poor lubrication.

62 63
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Components

Factors a ffecting D eflections away from the guide bar. T he lim it o f slackness is h alf to one chain
A flexible shaft and not a stiff one is desirable. A stiff crank shaft is pitchlink. Iftoo slack or too tight, adjust the chain tension. Adjustment
one where the crank shaft is stiff enough to support itself across a is done for slackness o f 1 pitch length.
span including a low bearing i.e. the journal may not be sitting on
the bearing. Check by using a feeler gauge o r jack the shaft onto
the bearing.
Ambient temperature near the engine.
Movements o f the ship as in rough weather.
Incorrect load condition i.e. hogging or sagging.

Chain D rive
Chain drive is used to transm it the Tightening Procedure
power drive from the crankshaft to
the camshaft. A n intermediate wheel
(for fuel pum p and exhaust cam
Lock washers
drives) serves as a guide, while an 8 Thrust
adjuster w heel serves to adjust the 9 Spring
chain. The intermediate wheel may be A, B, C, D Nuts
connected to a separate chain for
driving m otion to the lubricators,
governor, air distributor, etc.

1 Fitting tool 2 Outer link plate 3 Pin Fig-55

4 Bush 5 Roller
The engine is turned so that slackness is on the sam e side as the
tightener unit.
C hain Tightening Loosen nuts A , B, C and D.
Tighten the nut C till the free length is reduced by the dimension as
Checking Tightness
per the manufacturers guide book.
Turn the engine so as to slacken the longest free lengths o f the chain.
Chain tightener bolt is moved and the chain is tightened.
A t the m iddle o f the longest face length o f the chain, pull the chain

64 65
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Components

Lightly tighten nut B against pivot shaft face, while checking that C hain D rive A dvantages
the spring is not further compressed, since compression reduces Easy timing adjustments are possible. Maximum flexibility exists for
chain tension.
positioning the gap between driven equipment. Its cost is economical
Tighten nut A and lock w ith lock nut and tab washer.
and very few spares are required. It has a very high drive efficiency
Tighten nut C until the spring thrust disc bears against the distance
(98 %) andean cope with a certain extent o f misalignment due to axial
pipe o f the bolt.
The spring is further compressed, but this tension is not transmitted movement o f shafts.
to the chain on account o f the already tightened nuts A and B.
W hen the thrust disc presses tightly against the distance pipe, the Chain Elongation
nut C is further tightened to m anufacturers dim ension setting Elongation or stretch o f the chain is due to the wear between pins and
D-2. bushings, roller and sprocket wheel, and between bushing and rollers.
Tighten lock n u t D, locking both nuts with tab washer. Elongation changes the camshaft position with respect to the crankshaft
Fuel and valve timings depend on the camshaft position and are altered
Chain Inspection
due to chain elongation. Maximum elongation allowed is 2%. A t 1.5%
Check chain teeth w ear at point 1, as
elongation renew the chain. Elongation is checked o n a taut chain by
shown in the figure. Place a short straight
edge plate, cover the points A and B, and measuring the length o f a number o f links from pin centre to pin centre.
m easure w ear a t poin t 1. Scratches on It is the difference between measured length and new chain length.
teeth sides due to the side plates are
normal. Check for cracks on the possibly S lack Chain
defective rollers and side plates. Check It results in excess strain during starting and reversing. There is a greater
for seizure. C heck the rollers run freely shock loading during normal running and retarding o f timings in both
and links m ove freely on pin and bush. directions due to backlash, especially during maneuvering and load
Check for one com plete revolution. Check bolt, screw and nut
changes. Vibration iri addition to cyclic stresses may cause possible
connections. C heck lube oil pipe fo r dam age a nd j e t nozzle for
fatigue failure.
deformations. Check rubber track o f guide-ways for cracks.

C hain M aterials T ight C hain

(1) Link plates :C r-M o steel It results in overloading o f the chain wheel bearings. This gives rise to
(2) Pin : Hardened steel (interference fit into outer link plate) wear on rollers, links and bearings; and can cause cracking o f links.
(3) Rollers : Alloy steel

66 67
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Components

Camshaft Readjustment After Chain Tightening

Readjustment o f the camshafts angular position will be required to be A bearing in a marine diesel engine is required to support the journal;
done, in case o f repeated chain tightening, as this causes the camshaft to float the journal so that there is no metal to metal contact; to transmit
position to be altered with respect to the crankshaft. The limit is a 2 the load via the lubricant; and to reduce rotational friction. Material
degrees increase in lead angle over the initial angular position. properties required are anti-friction resistant; running-in and grinding-
in ability; noncorrosive by lubricants; should not scratch o r score the
journal; build up adhesive oil films under boundary lubrication; allow
abrasive particles to b e embedded in it without m ajor functional
disability; tensile and compressive strength; fatigue resistant; thermal
conductivity; high melting point especially when running hot; load
carrying capacity; and ductility.

B earing M aterials

(1) While Metal Bearings :

Anti friction, tin-based, white metal alloys (called Babbitt) consist o f :

Tin (Sn) 88 % Soft matrix to allow for small changes in

alignment between bearing and journal.
Antimony (Sb) 8% H ad wear resistant cubes to absorb and
transmit load.
Copper (Cu) 4% To segregate and hold antimony cubes in a
tin matrix.

Turn crank throw o f No. 1 cylinder to TDC. Check camshaft angular (2) Thin Wall Shell Bearings:
These bearings are usually of tri-metal type, having 3 main layers and a steel
position using the pin gauge and marking. Remove plug screws for backing shell,
hydraulic oil connection in the coupling flange. Mount snap-on hydraulic
1 micron thickness of lead / tin for corrosion
connectors and piping to the hydraulic pump. A pply hydraulic oil 1 layer (Flash)
before installing bearing.
pressure to float the coupling ( coupling floats w hen oil seeps out 2 layer (Overlay) 20 micron thick white metal.
along shaft below coupling flange). 1\im and adjust coupling with a 5 micron thick nickel dam helps to reduce
3"1layer (Interlay)
corrosion of the white metal 2 layer.
special spanner and check position with pin gauge. Release oil pressure 1 mm thick lead / bronze.
4layer (Lining)
after finishing. W ait for 15 minutes before plugging oil holes so as to It is a steel backing shell for shape and support
Shell (Bottom)
allow the coupling flange to set again.

68 69
Engine Components

K s h J o u r n a l B earing
B earing F aults a nd D efects
an 7 rotation o f the shaft,
Abrasive wear due to fine scoring by hard particles and impurities
due to'Vede PreSSUreis f0im ed in the lube oil.
d i v e r t bein^ draW nint the
Corrosive wear due to acidic lube oil. The lube oil becomes acidic
o f th e' 1secticm b y the motion
j0lirnal. T h is oil pressure due to oxidation, contamination from combustion products,'or
separate^ the jo u rn a l and the water ingress.
^ W . p l a i n b ushtype, Fig-58 Erosive wear due to cavitation.
Adhesive wear due to galling, scoring or scuffing. In galling, the
load but s effeCtlTe remaining two-thirds canies negligible softer metal tears due to the adhesive force which is a reaction o f
loss C{iti]i causes the oil film to shear. Ib is results in heat and friction the rubbing metal surfaces.
Fatigue failure cracks at areas o f stress concentration.
Overheating due to poor lubrication supply or contaminated oil,
li'ews S * J m r n a Beari" g misalignment, incorrect clearances, uneven load distribution, poor
journal ofjoP3^ the plain bush is repiaced by a series o f
surface finish and overloading.
0Wn0 ^ 1 t a 8 P,V0 d t a t 0 t' S erato8itS M isalignment o f the bearing due to distorted bedplate, adjacent
bearing failure, or imbalanced cylinder pressures.
Incorrect clearances or incorrect tensioning o f bolts.
It is d e s i ^ ^ to geminate oil whirl.
Poor design, manufacture o r low strength.
. 6 cap^citv and efficiency is
Housing dimensions n ot perfectly suitable fo r bearing shells,
S V,^- Theradial loadia especially during replacement.
and n o tp ^ tbroughthaby oil films
, , JUSt one oil film. It has a
Bearings In the Engine
th S i! ort>'lo ,h t* ad,5' The tof
y ,djusE The following bearings in the engine are discussed below.
1 ? load, the feed and the
0Slty the oil- It allows for M ain Bearing
to t e f a ? * 1' Of inisalignment due Main Bearings are the bearings w hich support the crankshaft o f the
leivolingjumalp ad s, engine. The lower shell part o f the bearings are cut into the transverse
adjusting eoflheshaft
strength members o f the bedplate. The upper shell cap is held in place
by special jack bolts o r secured by wasted studs. Thin shell babbitt

Engine Components
Marine Diesel Engir.

F ig -62
(white metal) with a steel back is used for the main bearing. Babbitt has
a low fatigue strength and hence, pressures and temperatures are limited. 1 Top cover of top end
2,3 Bearing shells of top end
4,5 Hydraulic stud nut
7 Bottom end cover
1 Hydraulic nut
6 ,8 Bearing shells of bottom end
2 Top cover cap 0 Crosshead pin at top end
3 Wasted stud
10 Crank pin at bottom end
4 Upper bearing shell
5 Crank shaft
6 Lower bearing shell
7 Bedplate transverse cylinder
4-Stroke C onnecting Rods
(M edium Speed)
In these engines, only the b ig end
Connecting Rod and Bearings bearings are split, usually in an oblique
direction to reduce the big-end width,
Connecting rod is the rod connecting the top-end bearing (crosshead
lessen lo ad o n bolts and increase
bearing in 2-stroke slow speed engines or the piston gudgeon bearing
crankpin diameter. The top-end may
in 4 stroke m edium speed) and the bottom end bearing (crank pin
be a bush type bearing. Rectangular
bearing). Its purpose is to convert reciprocating motion o f the piston
o r I-sections, although more expensive
into rotary motion o f the crankshaft It is the most
to manufacture, are necessary to resist
highly stressed component o f a diesel engine. It is
th e high transverse in ertia w hip
subjected to ahigh purely compressive force. It links
loading, the gas loads, and to fulfil the
the piston rod and crosshead to the crankpin.
weight to strength requirements. It is
2-Stroke C onnecting R ods ( Slow S p e e d ) subjected to high compressive-low
They are o f split type i.e. tw o halves for each small tensile stresses o f bending as well as
and big end bearings. This helps in easy fitting and axial type. It connects the crank pin
repair. T he round m id section changes to a directly to the piston gudgeon pin.
rectangular palm section at the bearing ends by
means o f the elliptical fillet shape. A round section Bush bearing
1 Top end Lubricating oil passages
is cheaper to manufacture. Examples are shown in 3 Gudgeon pin Serrated edge
5 Obliquely split bottom-end
Fig - 61 and Fig - 62.
F ig -61

Marine Diesel Engines Engine Components

C onnecting R o d Failures Large fillet radii are given, since fillets are stress concentration areas
In slow speed 2-stroke engines, failures occur in veiy few cases, except as there is a change in the cross-section.
due to slight buckling, when starting the engine if oil or water has Resilience o f bolts is increased by designing the housing part as
leaked into the cylinder space. In m edium and high speed 4-stroke long as possible.
engines, fatigue cracks or fractures can occur in high stress
concentration areas. Thin walled steel back shell bearings have more Large E n d B olt D efects
possibilities to fail rather than white metal bearings. Transverse buckling If the large end bolts are defective, then they should be discarded in
is usually caused by crank pin bearing seizures. case o f overspeed failure, piston seizure, exceeded tolerance,
B ottom E n d Failures completed designated life, acidic lube oil corrosion and mechanical
damage like cracks and fractures to the surfaces o f land faces.
In 4-stroke engines, the bottom end o f the connecting rod is more
susceptible to failure. The forces acting on bearings and bolts a re :
1. C onstantly fluctuating inertia loads from reciprocating parts Crosshead Bearing
swinging in a whip motion. Unlike the main bearings,
2 . Tensile load caused b y the centrifugal forces o f th e m ass o f b ig e n d b e a rin g s an d
connecting rod and crankpin. camshaft bearings, where
3. Shear force tending to separate the tw o halves o f the bearing motion is only rotational,
housing. crosshead bearings have to
ta k e in to account
B ottom E n d B olt Design oscillatory motion at high
A pretension is given to the bolt while fitting. Incorrect pretension sliding speeds.
is the m ost im portant cause o f fatigue failure o f the bolt which is
initiated at a mechanical defect.
T he resilient material used fo r the bolt should be less stiff than the I 1 Rail 2 Shoe
bearing housing. | 3 Pin________________________ 4 Plate____________________ ______ |
The diam eter o f the shank sections should b e sm aller than the
threaded root portion so that this ensures greater stresses act at In 2-stroke engines, a cyclic unidirectional combined gas and inertia
the shanks rather than the threaded portion. load acts continuously on the bearing in a downward direction. Hence,
The yield o f threads is prevented by a portion o f the shank having the bottom half o f the crosshead bearings are more prone to wear. In
a tight clearance in the hole bore. Here, the nut is tightened square 4-stroke engines, the bottom half has some load relief during the suction
into the spot faced bearing housing. and exhaust stroke where the inertia force is greater than the gas force.
Lubrication at this time is ideal.

74 75
Marine Diesel Engir Engine Components

Crosshead Failures super-finished bearing surface is twice that of a very fine-ground

Crosshead bearing failures are due to poor lubrication; misalignment bearing surface. Surface finish is very important as not only is the
with running gear (piston and liner); white metal cracking; fatigue failure; crosshead bearing under a very heavy instantaneous firing load, it
squeezing o f w hite m etal causing partial blocking o f oil holes; is also very difficult to supply and maintain the oil film. Surface
overheating; corrosion; white metal quality; and reduced strength due finish and roughness o f in-usepins is the criteria for judging the
to improper thickness or type. Insufficient or contaminated oil results crosshead bearings further use.
in poor lubrication o f the bearing. A nother im portant aspect in A lignment o f crosshead is im proved by changes in design and
crosshead failures is the crosshead pin surface finish. manufacturing techniques. In fully welded design, only longitudinal
adjustment is provided.
Crosshead D evelopm ents Improvedbearing materials are used like white metal, tin-aluminium,
Oil grooves are cut into the bearing surfaces and the guides to act tin-cadmium, etc.
as oil reservoirs. Bearing material thickness is reduced by bonding it to a lining and
For crosshead design, the pin can be considered as a single beam steel backing. This improves overall strength. Example: Thin shell
supported at the ends. Applying load only in the middle o f the pin tri-metal bearing.
creates a bending movement. This condition can be corrected by
increasing the pin stiffness by having a pin o f a larger diameter for Puncture Valve
the same length. There is better distribution o f load since a larger
It is a device to positively stop the engine irrespective o f the rack
surface area is now available. P in stiffness can be increased by
using a hollow pin for better section modulus.
It reduces the high pressure o f the fuel oil by connecting the high
Use o f flexible bearing mounts as in RND engines. Here, the pin
pressure side to the pump body, thereby stopping the injection of
distortion is taken by the mounts and edge loading is reduced.
A rigid support over the w hole pin area is used rather than the
Engine stops and shut downs are carried out using the puncture
fork-end type in earlier engines.
M ounting o f the piston rod on top o f the crosshead pin, so as to
It allows fuel oil recirculation when the engine is stopped since oil
use the full length o f the bottom bearing. The bottom shell is of
pressure is not totally bypassed.
continuous type.
It is operated by pneumatic air pressure.
Superior surface finish o f the bearing and pin.This is done by
accurately grinding and then super-finishing i.e. polishing the pin It is used in M AN B&W engines.
w ithth e a id o fh o n e so n a la th e . T he load carrying-capacity o f a

76 77
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Components

E n g in e M a te ria ls

1 Exhaust Valve CoatingofStellite(iftemperatureis lessthan500deg. Q

or Nimonic (if temperature is greater than 500 deg. C)
Exhaust ValveSeat Mo-Steel with Stellite coating
Exhaust Valve Cage Pearlite Cast Iron
2 Cylinder Head Cover. Lamellar Cast Iron
3 Piston Crown Cast Steel
Skirt Cast Iron
Rod Forged Steel
Ring Vermicular Cast Iron, RVK- C, R-C
Spheroidal Cast Bon, IhrkAlloy, Tarkall-A, Tark-C
5 Tie Rod Mild Steel
6 Entabulature Cast Iron
7 Stuffing Box Rings Bronze
8 Crosshead Bearing Tin-Al-white metal thin shell bearing
9 Crosshead Guides
10 Connecting Rod Mild or Medium Steel (U.T.S. 500MN/sq.m.)
11 Crank Pin Bearing White metal bearing
12 Crankshaft Web 0.2 to 0.4 % Carbon Mild Steel
13 Main Bearing Thin shell white metal bearing
14 Saddle Cast Steel
15 Bed Plate Forged Steel or Cast Iron
16 A-Frame Forged Steel
Propeller Nicalium, Al-Bronze, Mg-Bronze
Hull Mild Steel or High Tensile Steel (20 to 30 mm).


78 79


It is the process in a diesel engine, in which low pressure air is
utilized to blow out the waste gases o f combustion i.e. scavenging,
and refill th e cylinder with fresh pressurized air for the next
compression stroke. The various types o f scavenging are described

Uniflow Scavenging
Uniflow, as the name suggests, is an
air flow in the sam e direction. Low
pressure air is allowed in at the bottom
o f the cylinder w ith slight rotation and
the exhaust gas is pushed out from the
to p o f th e c y lin d e r. U n iflo w
scav en g in g is req u ired in m odern
engines to use the advantages o f slow
speed and a long stroke (which in tu rn ,_
requires better scavenge efficiency to
burn present day cheap heavy fuel Fig-66
Marine Diesel Engines
Air System

Reverse F low Scavenging
T he scavenge efficiency is the highest. There is n o exhaust and
It consists o f L oop o r Cross scavenging systems.
scavenge intermixing. W orking temperatures are reduced. Costly
cylinder lube o il consum ption is reduced (0.3 gm /bhp/hr to 0 .6 Advantages
gm/bhp/hr fo r crosshead type engines). Less residual exhaust The design is simpler. There is no valve gear maintenance nor
gas remains in the cylinder after scavenging. T h e air loss during power consumption required for the same.
exhaust and scavenging is nil. Its liner design is much simpler
D isadvantages
than other types and a shorter piston skirt can b e used. Thermal Consumption o f expensive cylinder lube oil increases. Undesirable
stresses are also m uch less as com pared to oth er scavenging mixing o f scavenge and exhaust gases is increased. Scavenge
efficiency is less. Exhaust back pressure m ay increase due to
narrow ing dow n o f exhaust passages w ith carbon deposits.
M eth o d s:
Chances o f cracks are possible due to therm al stresses a t the
scavenge and exhaust ports area. T he tem perature variation
1. U sing a single poppet type exhaust valve at
between scavenge and exhaust ports is confined to a limited area
top o f the engine cylinder. T he large area at in th e region o f the ports. Uneven w ear o f piston rings can cause
the exhaust valve allows speedy exhaust gas leaks. Liner costs are more as the liner design is more complicated.
escape and improves scavenge efficiency. It cannot use the advantage o f a modem engines increase in stroke
M ost m odem 2-stroke engines em ploy this bore ratio, which is why it is rarely used nowadays.

Loop Scavenging
In loop scavenging, the flow o f air and gas is
2. Opposed piston method. in a loop path. The air inlet and exhaust ports
In opposed piston engines, one piston controls are arranged on the sam e side o f the cylinder.
the air inlet ports (bottom piston), while the Loop scavenging is best for stroke-bore ratios
other controls the exhaust ports (top piston).
o f less than 2:3, or else it is thermodynamically
Only outdated older engines like D oxford disadvantageous. Hence, m odem engines with
engines employed this method.
high stroke-bore ratios do not use the loop
type m ethod.
F ig- 6 9

Marine Diesel Engir. A ir System

Cross Scavenging closing precisely when fresh air has fully filled the cylinder
In cross scavenging, the a ir and gas flow is in and residual gases have been fully pushed out. Inter mixing o f
the across path. i.e. air inlet and exhaust ports fresh air w ith exhaust gases is n ot desirable at this stage, as it
are situated on opposite sides o f the cylinder. would contaminate the fresh air with exhaust and increase the
fresh air temperature. However, the sweeping action o f the
fresh air produces a cooling effect low ering the cylinder

Super Charging or Pressure Charging

Fig - 70
Combustion and pow er depend on the am ount o f fuel and air
supplied, since proper combustion requires a stoichiometric air
Gas Exchange Process fuel ratio o f 14 : 1. The am ount o f fuel to b e b urnt is limited by
In a diesel engine, the gas exchange process consists o f : the ratio o f air that can be supplied. I f we increase the m ass o f air
i.e. its density and pressure, w e can use m ore fuel for burning.
1. Blow D own o f E xhaust Gases
Hence supercharging o r pressure charging o f the combustion air
It starts w hen e x hau st valv es o pen o r e x h au st ports are
su p p lied allo w s m ore p o w er to b e dev elo p ed w ith p roper
uncovered. Exhaust gases are blown down rapidly into the
com bustion. Supercharging o r Turbocharging is the pressure
manifold. They are helped by the sudden opening o f the exhaust
charging o f air supplied to th e cylinder at th e beginning o f
valves o r ports. This advance in tim ing o f the opening o f the
com pression. In 2-stroke m arine engines, in order to achieve
exhaust valve before th e inlet valve is called Exhaust Lead.
correct combustion, good scavenging and effective cooling, thrice
T he end o f this blow dow n period is when the inlet ports are
the am ount o f ideal com bustion air quantity is supplied. This is
uncovered. T he cylinder pressure falls below the scavenge
pressure after blow down. called Excess A ir for proper combustion.
Advantages o f super o r pressure charging
2. Scavenging
Power is increased for the sam e engine dimensions and piston
Since the cylin d er pressure is less than the scavenge box
speed. There is no appreciable increase in cylinder m aximum
pressure, the fresh scavenging air pushes the residual gases
pressure. The initial costs are reduced, since a m ore powerful
out, the m om ent the scavenge ports open.
engine can have sm aller size, space and mass. It gives better
3. Post-Scavenging reliab ility and cy linder operating conditions. T h ere is less
P ost o r A fter S cavenging p eriod is the com pletion o f the m aintenance. F uel co n sum ption red u ces w h ile m echanical
scavenge process and prevention o f any fresh air loss through efficiency increases. Codling is im proved since a greater m ass o f
the exhaust valve or ports. This depends o n the exhaust valve

84 85
Marine Diesel Engines A ir System

fresh cool air is supplied. T h ere is better utilization o f waste turbine. However, the exhaust manifold should not be too big, as
exhaust gas energy w hich can b e used to drive the turbochargers. then there would be a longer tim e required for the desired exhaust
pressure rise in it. T he exhaust gas flow into the manifold creates
S u p e r c h a r g in g M ethods eddies which, in turn, dam p out any pressure waves or pulses.
1) M echanical Supercharging using : Work is n ot done when exhaust gas is throttled through the exhaust
A rotary air blow er driven by the diesel engine crankshaft. v a lv e in to th e la rg e
Here, som e indicated engine power is w asted in the drive. m an ifo ld . W ork is done
H ence there is less m echanical efficiency and m ore fuel when exhaust gases expand
consumption. It is inefficient at higher pressures. through the turbine nozzle
Scavenge Pumps which are o f engine driven reciprocating and blades w hich is seen as
type. a thermodynamic drop i.e.
Under Piston Space Scavenging using under piston spaces an utilizatio n o f exhaust
to pum p the air. gas heat.
A uxiliary B low ers w hich are o f independently driven 1 Exhaust manifold
type. T hese are used m ostly in the first o r second stage 2 Turbine
o f a com bined supercharging system only as scavenge 3 Compressor
assistance. 4 Aircooler
5 Air receiver
2) Turbine Supercharging
6 Engine piston
Turbochargers use w aste heat o f the exhaust gas to drive 7 Engine cylinder
a turbine w hich in turn, drives a com pressor (blower) on
the sam e shaft to supply pressurized air. Advantages o f constant pressure type
It is m ore efficient. T he tu rbine operation is b etter w hen a
Turbocharging Types c o n sta n t p re ssu re is a v a ila b le a t th e tu rb in e in let. B e tte r
D ifferent types o f turbocharging m ethods are discussed below. scavenging is p ossible at h igher loads. Exhaust-grouping is n ot
required. It can use th e advantage o f m o d em long stro k e
C onstant P ressure Turbocharging
en gines, sin ce m ore tim e is av ailab le fo r ex p ansion in the
In this type, exhaust gas from each cylinder is lead to a common
com bustion cylinder itself. Hence, g reater use o f heat energy in
ex h a u st m a n ifo ld w h ich th e n supp lies e x h a u s t g a s to the
the cylinder and low er exhaust tem peratures is possible. Since
turbocharger at a constant pressure. The exhaust m anifold space
exhaust pressure p ulses are not used, m ore energy is available
is large enough for the volum e o f combined exhaust gases without
fo r re c o v e ry a t th e tu rb in e an d co m p re sso r. H e n ce, th e
any pressure rise. Hence, a constant pressure is available to the

86 87
Marine Diesel Engines A ir System

com pressor o u tp u t is increased. T h ere is a greater utilization o f The requirements o f efficient p u lse turbocharging are :
w aste exhaust energy used in m arine engines because the main A rapid opening o f the exhaust valve.
engine runs a t a hig h er lo ad m o st o f th e tim e allow ing a constant Exhaust piping o f a large diameter, but m uch sm aller than the
load w ith less load changes. exhaust valve opening to allow for creation o f pulses.
Disadvantages Exhaust piping to b e as near as possible to the turbine inlet to
It cannot cope up at low or part loads. Here, the auxiliary electric use the pulse effectively as well as prevent any pulse reflection.
blow ers supply air w hen the pressure falls below a preset value.
E xh a u st Grouping
D ue to the large exhaust m anifold, there is a very slow response Exhaust grouping is necessary to prevent blow back o f one cylinder
to load changes.
into another in pulse type turbocharging. Each exhaust pipe has a
separate inlet to the turbine. Example: Three cylinders are coupled
P ulse Turbocharging
to one turbine, with a firing interval o f 120 deg. crank difference.
Pulse Turbocharging uses the pressure pulse w ave to expand the
gas further a t the turbine nozzles and blades. E xhaust gas from Advantages
each cylinder is directly lead to the turbine inlet. Here, pulses i.e. It utilizes the high kinetic energy o f the exhaust gas i.e. unutilized
pressure waves are created, when the exhaust valve suddenly opens energy from the combustion cylinder. It can w ort: effectively even
and exhaust is blown down into the exhaust piping o f smaller at low loads. It has a good response to load changes. It is widely
diameter, thereby pressurizing used in auxiliary pow er generators, w here load changes are
it. For m axim um usage o f the frequent and longer periods o f low load operation is common.
pulse, th e pulse should be as
close to the turbine inlet. Work Series 2-Stage Supercharging
is d o n e b y th e ex h au st gas
e x p a n d in g f u r th e r a t the
turbine nozzle and blades.
- VC 1
'6 3 Air cooler
1 Turbine 4 Air receiver
2 Compressor 5 Scavenge pump
3 Air cooler
' 4 Air receiver
ar 6
Scavenge ports
Exhaust valve
8 Exhaust manifold
5 Rotor
9 Air cooler & receiver.
6 Cylinder A Single air inlet for series
7 Exhaust Piping F ig- 7 3

Marine Diesel Engin Air System

Here, there is only one air inlet. Supercharging is done in two Here, there are two separate air inlets. Supercharging is done in
stages in series. p arallel. S im u ltan eo u s d eliv ery o f a ir tak es p la c e from a
1 staSe : Air is compressed (e.g. by the turbocharger) and then turbocharger and the under piston space pum ping effect.
cooled in an inter cooler and supplied to the inlet of the
2ndstage in series. Two-Stage Supercharging
2nd sta g e : A ir is further compressed (e.g. by a scavenge pum p or Supercharging in two stages gives the advantage o f more efficiency
under piston spaces) and sent to an after cooler and then, and boost air pressure ratio, since w ork done in compressing the
to the scavenge air ports. air is reduced. Inter cooling between stages helps the compression
to approach isothermal conditions which reduce the work to be
Parallel Supercharging done in compressing the air.

A Separate air inlet

Single Turbocharger Systems
to turbocharger
B Separate air inlet This type is usually used for constant pressure type turbo charging
to under piston spaces systems.
1 Cylinder head
2 Tie bolts
It relies only on one turbocharger and there is no standby in case
3 Engine cylinder
4 Piston
o f a failure, A larger capacity o f the turbocharger is required
5 Fuel injection pump causing a slower response to load changes, since it will have a
6 Camshaft h ig h er in ertia force. Spare p arts replacem ent w ill be m ore
7 Engine frame expensive.
8 Control hand wheel
9 Bedplate Two Turbochargers System
10 Connecting rod This type is usually used for pulse type turbo charging systems,
11 Crosshead since the pulse o f one cylinder may interfere w ith another cylinder.
12 Piston rod In case o f failure o f one turbocharger, engine pow er output is still
13 Valve sufficient although it is reduced. A t part loads, exhaust gas to one
14 Air cooler turbocharger can b e bypassed. In this case, although only one
15 Rotary exhaust valve turbocharger is in use, there will b e an increase in air mass flow.
16 Turbine
It provides better flexibility at part load.
17 Blower.

Marine Diesel Engines A ir Sysler.

Pow er Take-In ( P T I ) Here, power is taken o ff from the main engine shaft
It is a system w here pow er is taken-in b y the m ain engine. The and supplied to an electric generator via a special
main engine has excess exhaust gas energy at full load i.e. in excess constant speed step-up g e a r. This gear converts
o f that required fo r scavenging and for the economizer. This excess variable engine speed into a constant speed supply
energy can b e channeled b ack to the engine shaft to take-in and to the generator. PTO pow er can b e tapped from 42%
utilize this w aste exhaust gas energy. P art o f the exhaust gas can pow er to overload. It reduces th e costs o f running,
be led to a turbine w hich can supply energy to the propeller shaft maintaining, spares requirements, and lube oil
th ro u g h g e a rin g . I t c a n b e u s e d o n ly in h ig h ly e ffic ie n t consumption o f additional diesel generators.
turbochargers, w here efficiency is greater than 64%.
M ethod (3): Excess scavenge air from the m ain engine air receiver
Pow er T a k e -O ff (PTO) can b e le d to su p p le m e n t th e a u x ilia ry d iesel
It is a system w here pow er is taken-off from the m ain engine. generators, when the auxiliary diesel generators are
running on heavy fuel oil at low loads. The main
M ethod (1): H ere, exhaust gas is taken-off from the exhaust
en g in e scav en g e air is led eith e r to th e d iesel
m an ifo ld and is le d to driv e a tu rbine electrical
alternators scavenge receiver or to its turbocharger
compressor using nozzles.
M ethod (2):
T u rb o ch arg er Types
Basically, they a re o f two types based o n the flow :
Axial Flow
Here, a single stage im pulse reaction turbine drives a
centrifugal compressor. Exhaust gas flow in and out o f
the turbine blades is along the axis o f the shaft. This type
is the m ost commonly used in m arine applications.
Radial F low
Here, the exhaust flow into the turbine blade is along the
radial direction. The exhaust gas flows off the trailing
edge o f the blade and the outlet is along the axis o f the
rotor. It is used in small high speed engines.

92 93
Air System
Marine Diesel Engines

A x ia l F low Turbocharger
On the sam e shaft is m ounted a single stage im pulse reaction
T he figure shows an axial flow type o f turbocharger w ith details.
turbine and a centrifugal compressor.
The Turbine consists o f a gas inlet casing w ith a nozzle ring; a
gas outlet casing; a turbine w heel forged integral w ith the shaft;
blades that are fitted through side entry slots; and a provision for
water cooling. In earlier designs, the casing was water-cooled,
but m odem engines employ uncooled type turbochargers.

The Compressor consists o f a volute casing w hich houses the

impeller, inducer and diffuser. The inducer guides the air inlet
flow smoothly into the eye o f the impeller. The im peller throws
the air outwardly with a centrifugal force. T he diffuser at the
discharge end converts the kinetic energy i.e. its velocity into
pressure energy, and leads the air to the volute casing. The volute
shaped casing decreases the velocity further and increases its
Bearings are o f b all and roller type combination o r o f journal
sleeve type. Bearings are mounted in resilient type housings. These
housings have lam inar springs w hich provide axial and radial
damping as well as they do not allow the bearing surfaces to chatter
1 Volute casing 11 Lube oil sump o r flutter w hen stopped.
2 Stationary diffuser 12 Nozzle ring
Bearing Lubrication is integral o r separate. It also allows transfer
3 Shaft protection sleeve 13 Exhaust gas inlet o f heat.
4 Bearing (turbine side) 14 Exhaust gas outlet
Roller B earings have the advantages o f less friction losses and
5,6 Bearing lubrication from pump 15 Rotor shaft
m ore accurate alignment. The disadvantages are that they are more
7 Bearing (compressor side) 16 Inducer
expensive; are prone to brinelling effect; and need higher grade
8 Sealing air 17 Impeller
lubrication and frequent changing.
9 Air inlet 18 Labyrinth gland.
Sleeve Bearings : A lthough these bearings can run at higher
10 Lube oil pump
temperatures, running at low loads create high friction.

Marine Diesel Engir, A ir System

Seals : Labyrinth seals are used to prevent exhaust gas leaking Compressor Impeller, Volute Casing, D iffuser & Inducer :
into the air side and into the bearing housing. Sealing air from the A lum inum alloy for light w eight strength and sm ooth surface
air side is leaked o ff to cool and seal th e shaft. finish.
Binding w ir e : A binding w ire in sm all segments is loosely passed
through holes o f four to six blades. In order to fasten this binding Uncooled Dirbochargers
wire, it is w elded to the first blade o f that segment. It w orks on M odern m arine engines use uncooled turbochargers, since the
the principle o f centrifugal action, resulting in the loosely fitted exhaust gas temperatures are relatively low er than earlier types.
wire touching the outside o f the blade holes at high speeds. This Instead o f wasting the heat energy by cooling through water cooled
alters the frequency o f vibration and dam pens it. In auxiliary casings, this heat energy can b e recovered in the exhaust gas
diesel generator engines, binding w ires are not necessary because economizer. Thermal efficiency o f the overall plant increases.
they run at a constant rpm. M ore heat is available at the exhaust gas econom izer inlet.
Fir-Tree Blade R o o t: It provides better and more even distribution Corrosion defects are avoided which w ere due to the sulphur
o f stress at the root portion w hich is prone to failures. There is products at low loads on the gas side o f w ater cooled casings.
less stress concentration at the joint o f the blade and the root. Further details are listed in the chapter on Engine Developments.
Side entry fitting provides improved balance and easy replacement.
Damping wires are required w hich pass through the blades. These
dam pen the low frequency blade vibrations. Locking o f the blade
is needed in the axial direction and a tab washer m ay be used to
secure the blade in place.

M a teria ls

Turbine Wheel, N ozzle Ring, R otor Shaft a n d Blades :

Nim onic 90 (Nickel-Chrom e alloy) (Ni 75% , CO 18%, Ti 3%, A1
2% , C r 2%)
These have im pact resistance, strength, thermal stability and creep
resistance at high temperatures o f continuous operation upto 650 Pt. A is the temperature of exhaust gas leaving the turbocharger in a water cooled
deg. C.
Pi. B is the temperature of the exhaust gas leaving the turbocharger in an uncooled
Turbine Casin g :
Cast Iron w ith corrosion preventive plastic coatings in case of Pt. B is much greater than Pt. A showing more heat available to the exhaust gas
water cooled turbochargers.

96 97
Marine Diesel Engir.
A ir System
Turbocharger Faults/Problems
Fouling : T he intake filter gets fouled due to oil carryover or Surging
po o r com bustion at low loads w hich further leads to fouling It is the phenomenon o f irregular pulsations due to a change in
o f turbine nozzle and blades. Fouled exhaust gas passages the m ass flow rate o f air w ith respect to its pressure ratio. First,
cause a hig h er back pressure. M etal erosion is caused by we have to understand mass flow rate o f air and pressure ratio.
particles in the exhaust gas. D efective blow er bearing oil seals
cause carryover o f oil to air side, thereby dirtying it. T he air The figure shows the mass flow rate o f air and pressure ratio from
cooler sea water and air side also get fouled and require constant a compressor (blower) through a damper.
cleaning. D am ping wires and blade roots get fouled during Incase A , the damper is fully
running. T he sealing air pipe to the com pressor labyrinth may
b e blocked. Hence, oil o r vapour is sucked in through the
o p en , m ass flo w ra te is
maximum, and pressure ratio
CP *
labyrinth. is minimum. The mass o f air
will flow easily w ithout any
O 3 z b
Bearing fa u lts : These are d ue to overheating; vibration; poor
lubrication feed o r quality; m isalignm ent; fouling imbalance;
and poor sealing and erosion o f bearing m aterial, balls, or
resistance from the damper.
In case B , the dam per is cow*
CP .. '...^ c
rollers due to contam inated particles in the lube oil. throttled slightly. Resistance Fig-78
d u e to th e d a m p e r w ill
Resilient mounting failures : These are d ue to poor support or increase. M ass flow rate decreases, pressure ratio increases.
In case 'C', the dam per is throttled significantly and suddenly.
Vibration: It is caused due to loose foundation bolts; excitation Resistance due to the dam per increases, mass flow rate is so low
from external sources; w ater ingress d ue to casing leaks; and and pressure ratio is so high that the m ass flow breaks down. A t
poor com bustion operations. this breakdow n, the pressure pulsation is relieved backwards to
the compressor. This phenomenon is called surging , w here loud
C orrosion : T h e a ir side gets corroded due to corrosive
gulps, howling and banging sounds a re heard.
pollutants in the air intake area. T he gas side gets corroded
due to sodium and vanadium sulphate from the exhaust gas
Compressor M ap Characteristics
turning acidic at low tem peratures and also d u e to poor
T he C o m p resso r M ap show s th e co m p resso r p erform ance
combustion. The cooling w ater side gets corroded due to poor
characteristics. Here, the effect o f changes in speed (i.e. constant
jacket w ater treatm ent Or poor sealing or cracks, w hich lead
speed lines at different percentages o f blow er rpm N) are shown
to exhaust gas leaking into w ater spaces.
w ith respect to the m ass flow rate an d pressure ratio o f air.
Isentropic efficiency curves are shown for 80% , 75% , 70% and

Marine Diesel Engines Air System

In Case A - Normal flow through the impeller and diffuser is shown.

In Case B - The effect o f sudden speed changes cause incidence

losses at the diffuser entry. Eddies are form ed in
the diffuser. T his is the trigger for surging.
In Case C - The eddies produce a turbulent choking effect at the
diffuser w hich throttles the air flow like a damper.

Sudden pressure changes due to this choking o r throttling effect

cause a breakdown o f m ass flow. A back flow o f air now takes
place from the scavenge m anifold at a higher pressure to the
turbocharger compressor side at a low er pressure. The reverse
flow pressure pulsations tend to drive the turbocharger in the
opposite direction, and partly stall it.
Sum m arizing, w e understand that if there is a pressure ratio
decrease in the compressor, air flows in the reverse direction in a
65% efficiency. Engine operation on the left side o f the surge line
will bring about instability and surging. On the right side o f the surge sufge, due to higher pressure at the scavenge m anifold than the
line, although there are changes in operation, the change in the amount compressor. Im m ediately after this surge o r reverse flow, the
o f air flow is m atched o r balanced b y a proportionate change in compressor recovers its pressure ratio and functions normally.
pressure. A safety margin in the difference between the surge line and T his is rep eated until a ir dem and is increased and stable
the main engine operating line is shown. conditions are achieved. However, during surging, air supply to
the engine cylinders continues without any interruption.

Surging Symptoms
These are noises at the turbocharger, gulping air sounds at the
compressor intake, repeated violent pressure fluctuations, sudden
quick surges in scavenge pressure, and howling or banging noises.
Fig - 80
1 Impeller and Inducer of compressor wheel
2 Stationary diffuser.

100 101
Marine Diesel Engines

Surgin g Causes
A ny factor which causes a change in air m ass flow rate.
Excess fouling in the system like intake air filter, compressor
o r turbine w heel, turbine blades, nozzle ring, exhaust gas CHAPTER 4
economizer, or even a blockage o f air filters as in the case o f
a cloth covering it.
Sudden load changes during maneuvering, rough seas, overloading, AIR COMPRESSORS
or crash astern conditions.
The changes in engine rpm which cause vibration in the air flow
rates. Isotherm al Compression
Fuel starvation; dirty fuel filter; and fuel system component defects It is the compression o f a gas under constant temperature conditions.
lik e fa u lty fu e l p u m p , fu e l h ig h p r e s s u re p ip e
dam age, or severely wrong timings. Adiabatic Compression
Surgin g rem edy a n d action It is the compression o f a gas under constant enthalpy conditions.
There is no heat transfer to or from the gas through the cylinder
R educe engine speed w hich, in turn, reduces scavenge air
pressure and there is less tendency o f rev erse flow from walls.
scavenge air m anifold to the turbocharger diffuser. As seen in the figure, it is more advantageous to compress the gas
isothermally (curve A), rather than adiabetically (curve B) as less
D irty o r fouled com ponents to b e checked and cleaned.
work is done (shaded area) in isothermal compression.
Proper m atching o f turbocharger to the engine w ith respect to
the co m pressor m ap characteristics, co m pressor im peller,
1 Suction and discharge valve shut
diffuser and n ozzle area design.
1-2 Compression
Regular gas and air side w ashing o f turbocharger.
2 Discharge valve is open
2- 3 Discharge of pressurized air
3 Discharge valve shut
3- 4 Re-expansion of residual air
4 Suction valve is open
4- 1 Intake of air.

102 103
Marine Diesel Engines A ir Compressors

M u lti S tag e C om pression Volumetric E fficiency

Compression done in stages has It is the ratio o f the volume o f air taken in during each stroke to the
the advantage o f w ork saved by swept volume o f the cylinder.
inter-cooling between stages. A loss in volumetric efficiency o f the compressor can be due to
poor valve condition, dirty intake filter, increased bumping
T he fig u re show s the actual
clearance, discharge line blocked, o r restrictions in the inter cooler.
compression (Curve C ) with inter
c o o lin g A b e tw e e n sta g e s . B um ping Clearance
Isothermal compression (Curve
It is the clearance given to avoid the chance o f mechanical bumping
B ) is show n in dash lines. T he
o f the piston and the cylinder head cover.
w ork saved is show n as the It is the distance between the top o f the piston and the cylinder
shaded area.
cover when the piston isatT D C .
It is approximately between 0.5% to 1% o f the cylinder bore.
C o m p resso r Types
It is checked by placing a lead metal piece on the top o f the piston
Reciprocating Com pressors and then turning the compressor m anually to obtain a lead
In marine use, m osdy single crank, tandem piston reciprocating impression.
type compressors are used. It can be adjusted by placing additional shims between the cylinder
The pressure ratio between the stages o f compression is limited by head cover and cylinder block, or under the connecting rod.
the final temperatures after compression.
Compressor Valves
Reciprocating types can be easily arranged fo r multi-staging. Mostly plate type valves are used.
These types provide better positive sealing. They have a low in ertia o f m oving parts and good flow
Valve maintenance is increased. characteristics.
Rotary Compressors Valve M aterials
These are either vane or screw type. Body - Steel (0.4 % C) with hardened seat area.
They have a higher mass flow capacity. Plates - Steel (Ni or C r or M o -A llo y )
Each stage pressure rise is limited to 7 b ar due to leakages of Springs - Haldened alloy steel.
the rotor.
Valve D efects
Proper lubrication o f the rotor is important for sealing as well as Worn or damaged seats, plates or springs.
to prevent wear.
D irt or lube oil deposits on the valve parts.
It requires a high speed drive. Incorrect assembly.

104 105
A ir Compressors
Marine Diesel Engines

Worn or seized piston rings.

Overheating caused by air leakage back to suction side (recycling) Increased bumping clearance due to w orn bearings.
o r cooler problems.
Blocked suction filters.
2-Stage C o m p re sso r F aults 6. ' Low pressure safety valve blows due to second stage suction or
1. First stage suction valve leakage causes loss o f air back to the delivery valve leaking back to the second stage suction line
suction filter side during compression. Hence, running tim e is between the stages.
increased w ith less air being delivered at every stroke, and the 7. High pressure safety valve blows in case the isolation stop valve
second stage suction pressure is reduced. in the compressor outlet delivery line is shut.
2. First stage delivery valve leakage causes loss o f air back to the 8. Valves require frequent attention due t o :
first stage cylinder, instead o f delivering this air to the second Overheating due to poor quality water circulation or air leaking
stage. Hence, less fresh air can be drawn in during the next suction
into the water side in the cooler tubes.
stroke. This recycling o f a part o f the air m eant to be delivered Impurities being sucked in when the suction filter is damaged.
causes an increase in first stage and second stage temperatures. Too much moisture carried in the air. Check tightness o f gaskets
A ir delivery is thereby reduced.
between cylinder block and cover. Pressure test the cooler to
3. S econd stag e suction v alve leakage causes second stage 1.5 times its working pressure.
compressed air to leak into the second stage suction line between 9. Overheating o r knocks in the crankcase caused b y :
the tw o stages, increasing its pressure and temperature. The first
Defective bearings or blockage o f lubrication oil channels.
stage shows increased delivery pressure since there is additional Longitudinal bearing clearances of the crankshaft is not correct
back pressure from the second stage air leaking back. Air delivery
due to a bent piston rod o r an edge pressure on the bearing.
.capacity is reduced and the com pressor runs for a longer time. 10. Overheated piston caused b y :
4. Second stage delivery valve leakage causes the second stage
Piston o r crosshead bearing being w rongly fitted. Inspect
delivery air to leak back to the cylinder during the second stage piston rings, crosshead bearing, cylinder lubrication, piston
suction process. Hence, the second stage shows an increased bumping clearance and side clearances.
suction pressure. Air suction and delivery o f the second stage is Ineffective cooling due to poor cooling water circulation, cooler
reduced and the compressor runs for a longer time with increased leakage, cavitation, or an air lock in the cooling water.
second stage temperatures.
11. Low lube oil pressure caused by low oil level, dirty oil filter,
5. Compressor capacity reduces o r full pressure not achieved, is blocked oil piping or channels, and a defective oil pump or
due to:
Dirty, dam aged o r worn valves.
O il coking on valves due to defective piston scraper rings.

Marine Diesel Engines

12. Blocked intake filter or suction : It can cause the discharge

temperature to increase to the auto ignition point o f the lube oil.
13. Com pressor running unloaded, caused by a problem in the
unloader: CHAPTER 5
Check timer relay o f electrical activation.
Check all air piping to unloader.
C h e c k u n lo a d e r p isto n o r 0 -rin g asse m b ly fo r dirt FUELSYSTEM
or stickiness.

F uel Types
Crude Oil is the source o f fuel from the earth. It is a viscous oily
liquid, yellowish-green to dark black in appearance. It consists o f a
complex mixture o f liquid hydrocarbons with organic compounds
containing oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. Petroleum products are
obtained after straight-run vacuum distillation in a refinery. Distillation
produces low boiling fractions, free o f unwanted by-products.
Separation during distillation provides the following fuels at different

Petroleum ether ( 4 0 to 95 deg.C)

Aviation gasolene ( 4 0 to 180 deg.C)
M otor gasolene ( 40 to 200 deg.C)
Naphtha (120 to 240 deg.C)
Turbine fuel (150 to 315 deg.C)
Diesel fuel (190 to 350 deg.C)
Gas oil (230 to 360 deg.C)
Burner fuel (300 to 400 deg.C).

Marine Diesel Engines Fuel System

M arine F uels
Kinem atic Viscosity
These are pure distillate fuels o r their blends. They are low viscous It is the ratio o f the dynamic viscosity and the density of the fluid at the
diesel fuels and heavy residual fuels. ISO 8217 is the only standard same temperature.
for fuel specifications. To reduce costs in m odem engines, cheaper
The units are Stokes, Centi Stokes, Saybolt Seconds, o r Redwood
residual fuels are used.

Fuel Properties 1 Stoke = 1 St = 0.0001 sq.m./sec

1 Centi Stoke = 1 cSt = 0.000001 sq.m./sec
D ensity
It is the ratio o f the m ass to the volum e o f the fuel. Units are
kg/cub.m. Viscosity Index
It is the index of an oil which measures the change o f viscosity due to
Viscosity a change in temperature. It has no units.
It is the frictional resistance betw een layers o f the fluid to resist a
change in shape d ue to an applied force. It is the resistance to fluid Carbon R esidue
flow due to shear resistance between adjacent layers in a moving fluid. It is the tendency o f a fuel to form carbon residue deposits. Its unit is
coke value which should not exceed 0.05 to 0.1 %.
Specific Viscosity It affects piston rings, liner wear, plugging o f injectors, fouling o f gas
It is the ratio o f the efflux tim e o f 200 cubic cm s o f fuel at 20 to passages, etc.
50 deg.C, and that o f 200 cubic cm s o f distilled w ater at 20 deg.C as The testing for carbon residue is done by Conradson Test or Micro
measured by a viscometer with a 2.8 m m orifice. T he unit is degree Carbon Residue Test.
o f specific viscosity.
Conradson Carbon R esidue
D ynam ic Viscosity It is the residue quantity o f carbon measured as a percentage o f the
It is the viscosity o f a fluid in a laminar stream lined flow containing original mass o f the fuel, after carrying out the Conradson Test.
layers spaced one centimeter apart, which require a tangential force
o f one dyne per square centimeter to be moved at velocities differing S u lp h u r
by one centim eter per second. It is an undesirable corrosion-inhibiting constituent o f fuel. It forms
The unit o f dynamic viscosity is poise, centi-poise o r poiseulle. sulphur dioxide which combines with water vapour at low temperature,
IP = 1 Poise = 0.1 N-Sec/sq.m . resulting in the formation o f sulphuric acid.
1 cP = 1 Centi-Poise = 0.001 N-Sec/sq.m.

Marine Diesel Engines Fuel System

F la sh P o in t F ire Point
It is the minim um temperature that an oil has to be heated, to produce It is the temperature that an oil has to be heated to produce sufficient
sufficient volatile vapours capable o f ignition when in contact with an volatile vapours, capable o f ignition by a flammable application and
open flame. It is the main fire hazard classification o f oil. A ll diesel continuing to bum thereafter. It is approximately 40 deg.C higher than
fuels on the ship should have a flash point greater than 66 deg.C. The the closed flash point.
two types o f flash points are open flash point and closed flash point.
S elf-Ignition P oint
Closed F lash P oint It is the minimum temperature at which a fuel is capable o f ignition on
It is the minim um temperature for enough flammable mixture to give a its ow n accord, without an external application o f heat or flame. It is
flash w hen a test lam p source o f ignition is introduced in a closed used when the choosing the compression ratio to match the fuel grade.
container. Closed flash point is measured in a Pensky-Martin closed
tester where the outside atmosphere does not influence the oil vapours. Pour Point
It is the lowest temperature at which an oil ceases to flow, o r can be
O pen F la sh P oint poured. It is important when considering storing, heating, pumping,
Here, there is no lid on the container. Therefore no vapour is lost, but wax crystallization, or solidification o f an oil.
the temperature is sufficient to give a flash, when a test lamp source of
ignition is introduced in an open container. O pen flash point is Calorific Value
approxim ately 15 deg.C higher than closed flash point. It is the amount of heat produced by complete combustion o f one unit
mass o f fuel. For one kg burnt, diesel fuels have a high calorific value
F lash P o in t exam ples i.e 10,100 to 10,300 Kcal, while heavy residual fuels produce 9500
For temperatures above 15 d eg .C , the test used is the Pensky-Martin to 10,000 Kcal. It is used while measuring the thermal efficiency o f an
clo se d flash p o in t test, o r else th e A b el te s t is used. F lash engine.
point examples are:
Cetane N um ber
Less than 22 deg.C Gasolene, Benzene (dangerous liquids) It is an index o f the ignition quality (ignition delay characteristics) o f
22 to 66 deg.C Kerosene, Vapourising Oils. the diesel fuel which defines the way combustion proceeds in the engine.
Above 66 deg.C Oils safe for m arine use. It is determined by comparing the ignition quality o f a standard solution
Diesel Oil 95 deg.C (which is a m ixture o f two hydrocarbons called cetane and alpha-
Heavy Fuel Oil 100 deg.C methyl naphthalene) with the ignition quality o f the fuel tested.
Lube oil 230 deg.C It is the percentage of cetane contained in the standard solution which
Petrol 17 deg.C has an ignition delay equaling the ignition delay of the fuel tested. Cetane

112 113
Marine Diesel Engines Fuel Sigg

which has very good ignition quality is assigned the number o f 100. compound eats into the metal surface, leaving the surface e x p o ^ to
Alpha-Methyl Naphthalene is assigned the number o f O, due to its corrosion.
poor ignition quality. The higher the cetane number, better is the fuel,
shorter is the ignition delay, and easier is the starting o f combustion. Catalytic F ines
The cetane num ber o f diesel fuels vary from 35 to 55. If the density A fter vacuum distillation, catalytic cracking is often carried ou .
increases, the cetane number also increases. Catalytic cracking is done to crack the oil vapours by reheating W1
silica and alumina as catalysts. These catalysts are used in poW r
Octane N u m b er form in an oil vapour. Some o f these catalysts break up to form a us
It is a measure o f the knock rating o f the fuel combustion in the engine. known as catalytic fines. They cause abrasion wear in the engibes-
Iso-Octane is assigned a num ber o f 100, because o f its excellent
anti-knock characteristics. H eptane is assigned a num ber o f O, A ir/F u el Ratio
because o f its poor antiknock characteristics. B etter the fuel, higher The stoichiometric ratio for proper combustion is 14.5 kg air t 8
is the octane number. fuel.The actual air ratio is 30 to 44 kg per 1 kg fuel. Excess air I3*101S
36.5 kg p er l k g fuel.
Specific Gravity
It is used for denoting the weight o f the oil while handling o r storage. O ther F u e l Im purities .
Other impurities in the fuel include water, iron, phosphorus, e
A sh lead, calcium, etc.
It is the quantity o f inorganic incombustible impurities in the fuel. It
mainly consists o f sand and metal oxides like vanadium or sodium. It Total S edim ent Test
causes abrasive wear. It m easures the stability o f the asphaltene phase o f the fuel- e
sedim ent accumulates at the bottom o f the storage tank and l138 a
Vanadium very high asphaltness content. This affects filters and componei118-
It is an undesirable impurity in the fuel. During combustion o f fuel,
vanadium products like vanadium pentoxide are formed, which are Wax
deposited on the surrounding surfaces. These deposits are highly It is a residue formed due to high paraffinic content. It is soluble*11a
corrosive above 700 deg.C. petroleum oil base. It crystallizes at its cloud point which may ^ 38
high as 35 deg.C.
Vanadium a n d S odium
When both these impurities are presentinaNa:Varatio o f 1:3, vanadium Calculated Carbon A rom acity Index (CCAI)
pentoxide w hich is formed com bines w ith sodium to a form a very It is a rating o f the fuel which indicates ignition quality, because is?utl0n
hard compound whose m elting point is around 630 deg.C. This directly depends on the aromatic content in the fuel. AromaticS 31:6

114 115
Marine Diesel Engines Fuel System

compact benzene ring structures present in the fuel w hich affect the Fuel system line diagram
ease o f w hich a hydrocarbon fuel m olecule can bum . A low CCAI
rating means better ignition, better fuel quality and less ignition delay.
Low ratings are upto a CCAI ratio o f 850. High ratings are from 850
to 950, and 870 is the lim it for its use. It does not affect ignition in
modem 2-stroke low speed marine engines, but it mostly affects ignition
in medium speed engines.

Fuel Specifications
Given below are the m aximum limits for Heavy Fuel Oil and Marine
Diesel Oil:

Heavy Fuel Oil Marine Diesel Oil

(1) Density at 15 deg.C 991 kg/cub.m. 840 to 920 kg/cub.m.

(2) Knematic Viscosity
at 50 deg.C 700 cSt
Combustion Phases
at 40 deg.C 14cSt
There are 4 phases in the combustion process:
(3) Sulphur 5% 2%
1. Injection delay
(4) Conradson Carbon Residue 10 % 2.5%
(Micro Carbon Residue)

(5) Ash 0.2% 0.02 %

(6) Water 1 to 2 % 0.25%
(7) CCAI 880
(8) Sodium lOOmg/kg
(9) Vanadium 600mg/kg
(10) Aluminium + Silicon 80mg/kg
(11) Sediment 0.1 %m/m

116 117
Marine Diesel Engines Fuel System

1. Injection delay o r la g : It is the tim e delay between the closing of between the piston and the liner (worn rings or a worn liner). Diesel
the spill ports/ valve and the opening o f the fuel injector. It depends knocking depends o n engine speed, load, com pression ratio,
on the pressure rise in the fuel pump and the pressure ,in the injector turbulence, mixture strength, fuel characteristics, ignition delay, injection
line. timings, cetane number and octane number.

2. Ignition delay o r lag : It is the tim e delay betw een the start o f Factors Affecting Combustion
injection and the start o f combustion. Factors affecting ignition delay
A to m isa tio n
are a rise in scavenge air o r cooling w ater temperatures, retarded
It is the breakup o f the liquid fuel into a m inute vapour mist, so that
fuel injection tim ing, ignition quality o f fuel, low load and low
these fuel vapour particles possess a very high surface area to self
ignite with hot compressed air. Atomisation depends on the small orifices
o f the injector; the pressure difference betw een the fuel line and
3. Combustion o f the already injected fuel and fuel still beinginjected: '
cylinder; and the temperature, mass flow rate and viscosity of the fuel.
Ignition delay directly affects the combustion in this phase. In case
If too much atomization takes place, then very small particles will not
o f a large ignition delay, a large pressure rise can cause a diesel
have enough kinetic energy to go through the whole combustion space.
They w ill gather near the injector due to resistance from the dense
compressed air. Hence, they will be starved during combustion and
4. A fter b urning: I t is the burning o f fuel after injection is finished.
afterburning will take place. If too little atomization takes place, larger
Afterburning is considerable in case o f a large ignition delay, since
particles will possess m ore kinetic energy and g et deposited on the
heat is now given out in the expansion stroke and cannot be utilized
liner wall. This causes after burning and poor combustion. Carbon
deposits w ill be seen on the liner walls, the side o f the piston crown
and the piston rings.
K nock
It is the phenom enon o f a high sudden pressure and temperature rise
P enetration
due to the detonation o f fuel. It sends heavy shock waves, an increased
It is the distance traveled by the fuel particles into the combustion
flam e front speed, an increase in noise and vibration and a shock
space before ignition takes place. A fuel je t should penetrate well into
loading to engine components like bearings, piston rings, cylinder, etc. the combustion space without im pingement onto the liner or piston
crown. Normally, penetration is up to 60% o f the liner bore for liquid
In case o f a knocking sound, check whether it is a mechanical or a
fuel, w ith only fuel vapour being allowed to im pinge on liner wall.
fuel knock by cutting out the fuel. M echanical knock is due to worn
Penetration depends o n nozzle diameter size, length o f nozzle hole,
out bearings; broken or loose com ponents; o r an excessive play
fuel particle size and atomisation.

118 119
M arine Diesel Engines Fuel System

F u e l D istribution m b u stio n C ham ber a n d Piston Crown Designs

Fuelshouldbedistributedevenlythroughoutthecombustionspace pious designs o f the combustion space cham bers with respect to
withoutoverlapping,forgoodcombustiontotakeplace. Mon crown shape are shown in the figure.

S w ir l
It is the motion given to the incoming air charge entering the combustion
space. T his is done by the shape o f the com bustion space and the
direction o f entry o f the air charge.

T urb u le n c e
It is a factor that has already been designed during manufacture and
can only be influenced by fouling o f inlet ports or exhaust ports; and
scavenge or exhaust pressures. It is given to improve the air fuel mixing.
It is done by giving a swirl to the intake air by means o f the inlet valve
passag e shape o r angle; changing the size o f scavenge ports; the
positioning and alignment o f the fuel injectors; the burning o f fuel; and
the squish from the piston shape.

A ir F u e l M ixing
T h e fuel is injected into the cylinder at a velocity o f 150 to 500 m/s Com pression Ratio
form ing a cone-shaped spray with a greater density at the center. Its It is the ratio o f the volum e o f air at the start and the finish o f the
penetration length depends o n th e injection pressure i.e. 120 to compression stroke. For compression ignition engines, it is 12.5 to
500 kg/ for slow speed engines. To ensure proper combustion 13.5. Loss o f compression is due to poor sealing or excess clearance
especially during overloaded conditions or poor air-fuel intermixtures, volume. The causes are w orn piston rings; w orn liner; or excess
excess air is provided. bearing clearances.

E xcess A ir C oefficient Im pingem ent

It is the ratio o f the actual am ount o f air to the theoretical am ount W hen there is less atomisation o f the fuel, the fuel particles are larger.
required to bum 1 kg o f fuel. On diesel engines, it varies between 1.3 They travel with a higher velocity and get deposited on the liner and
and 2.2 to achieve complete combustion. piston crown. This impingement is undesirable as it causes burning at
that area.

120 121
Marine Diesel Engines Fuel System

F u e l com bustion is also in flu en ced by 2. Separation o f water and sludge in settling and service tanks. The
Scavenge air pressure, tem perature, and charge air quality settling tanks and service tanks have heating coils and bottom
depending on the scavenging method. collection space to rem ove sludge and water. M axim um
Exhaust gas back pressure due to fouling o f exhaust passages which temperature o f the settling o r service tank must be 15 deg.Cbelow
also affect combustion and proper scavenging. the flash point o f the fuel, b ut not m ore than 9 0 deg.C or else,
Fuel parameters i.e. its tem perature at the inlet to the engine, its volatile vapours may form creating an explosive hazard.
viscosity, its ignition quality, its fuel ratings and its injection timings. 3. Filtration is done w ith filters to rem ove sediments and particle
Fuel pum ping faults due to fuel pum p internal wear; injector impurities; These are commonly fitted (a) at the outlet o f die storage
conditions affecting the m axim um pressure delivered; injection bunker tank i.e. at the inlet to the transfer pum p known as cold
delay; fuel particle size and penetration. filters; and (b) at the inlet to the supply pum ps after the heaters
known as hot filters.
4. A mixing tank or column to gradually mix heavy fuel oil and diesel
Residual Heavy Fuel Oils
oil during change over operations. It also serves the purpose o f
M arine engines use cheaper heavy residual fuels fo r constant MCR venting and degasification o f trapped air and gases.
operations and low viscous diesel fuels fo r starting, maneuvering, 5. Purification in centrifugal separators to rem ove w ater and som e
running-up and stopping. Heavy fuel oil is the residual fraction o f a amount o f sediment.
crude oil source after all other distillation products are extracted in a 6. Heating to reduce viscosity.
refinery. It is also a mixture with lighter distillate fraction oils. In modem 7. Usage o f a cylinder lube oil TBN having a high alkalinity to neutralize
engines, due to escalated fuel oil prices, residual heavy fuel oils are acids formed due to sulphur content; and maintaining a low cooling
used to cut on costs. Undesirable properties o f the heavy fuel oil are: water temperature.
high viscosity, increased sulphur, ash, sodium, vanadium, salts, water,
solid particles and sediments. The harm ful effects o f these contents Bunkering
have been discussed earlier.
Bunkering is done to replenish fuel and lube oil supplies required for
R esidual F u e l Treatm ent mnning the main propulsion plant and auxiliaries. A bunker plan is first
In order to use residual heavy fuel oil fo r the engine, the oil has to be drawn up. T his is a written procedure detailing all pipelines and
treated to reduce the problem s faced w ith these im purities. The sequence o f events. It describes in detail the quantities to be filled in
following treatment is carried out: each tank as well as the rate. The Chief Engineer is directly in-charge
1. Lim iting the im purities w hen purchasing o r bunkering the oil. and is required to personally supervise all operations. To assist him,
Lim its fo r each property and param eters are laid dow n by another engineer and an assistant are designated. Before starting, fire
ISO 8217 (1996). fighting equipm ent and spillage gear are to b e positioned and kept

Marine Diesel Engines Fuel System

ready. Com m unications betw een ship and bunker barge is to be Fuel Injectors
checked. D rainage scuppers leading to slop tanks on deck, which The fuel injector valve consists o f the valve body, valve head, union
can be filled in case o f a large oil spill are to be checked that they are nut and atomizer nozzle. In the valve body, there is the thrust spindle,
open. An air operated pum p to transfer oil in em ergency is set up. thrust spring, thrust foot and valve unit.
Hoses and seals are to bfe checked at the connections. Smoking is not
allowed. N o oil transfers during bunkering is permitted. Explosion- 1 O-Ring
proof tools and lam ps to be used. A breathing apparatus is to be 2 Fuel Valve Head
provided in case o f poisonous gas hazard. A fuel sample is to be taken 3 O-Ring
by a standard approved method. This is then sent for testing (FOB AS). 4 Locking Pin
Initially, oil is supplied at a very low rate. All lines and valves are 5 Thrust Foot
6 O-Ring
checked for leaks and whether the correct quantities are being received
7 Thrust Spindle
in th e d e sig n ated tan k s. O th er tan k s are also so unded as a
8 Fuel Valve Unit
precautionary measure in case of leaking valves. The bunker line valves 9 Union Nut
should be open and set under the Chief Engineers supervision. After 10 Spring
bunkering, once the fuel quality and quantity are acceptable, then only 11 Atomiser' Nozzle
will the Chief Engineer sign the receipt forms. 12 Valve Body
13 Locating Pin
Optimum Injection 14 O-Ring
Injection o f the fuel is best o r optim um if injection is done
immediately after maximum combustion pressure is achieved and
injection supply is very rapid at this point.
Injector F unctions a n d R equirem ents
Injection tim e is only 20 degrees o f crank angle a t full load, but It should inject and disperse the fuel evenly into the engine cylinder
maximum firing load is reached only in the latter half o f this period in a finely atomised spray.
i.e. latter h a lf o f the injection period. Therefore, w e m ust inject The size, position and orientation o f the injector nozzle has the
m ore fuel towards the end o f injection after the m aximum firing function o f creating a fine atomized spray with good penetration.
pressure is reached and supply this remaining fuel as fast as possible. The injector also serves as a non-retum valve not allowing any
combustion space gas back into the fuel system.
It is best achieved in the Intelligent Electronically controlled engine
It should not open till a preset pressure is built up.
series ( RT-flex or M E engines) for different load conditions. A t the start o f injection, the droplet size should not be too large as
this will encourage slow burning.

124 125
Marine Diesel Engines Fuel System

T he valve opening should b e prom pt to prevent pressure loss W hen the fuel oil pressure force overcomes the spring force, the
through throttling, during the opening process. needle lifts. Oil pressure acts on the annular area at the end o f the
valve spindle where it is machined to a smaller diameter than the
It should provide cooling o f the valve whilst in use which prevents
spindle diameter. A fter opening, the lift exposes the full cross
softening o f the valve and seat, as well as reduces expansion o f the
sectional area o f the spindle for quick opening.
trapped fuel in the sac area.
Prompt and rapid opening is achieved during opening, because an
extra effective area o f the needle seat is exposed for fuel oil and
Injector Types
pressure to act upon after initial lifting o f the needle.
Cam-operated o r Hydraulic-operated types. In m arine use, mostly
Coolant is circulated through the space around the bottom o f the
hydraulic operated type is used.
nozzle cooling oil flow. Passages are drilled in the valve body to
Open or Closed valve type: Open injectors dispense with a valve
the top.
between the fuel line and the combustion chamber, while as closed
Leakages o f the valve component faces will be seen in the spring
type do not do so. Open type are n o t used in m odem m arine
space vent hole.
engines because they suffer from after-dripping o f fuel after the
Atomiser holes vary from a diameter o f 0.075 m m to 1 mm.
injection stroke.
The valve lift is around 1 m m to 1.5 mm.

Hydraulically O perated F u e l Valve

Fuel Injector Faults
In this type, the operation o f opening and closing o f the fuel valve
is perform ed hydraulically by the fuel pressure delivered by the Improper Cooling
fuel pum p to the fuel valve. Valve opening is initiated by an oil Too m uch cooling causes sulphur corrosion o f the tip due to the
pressure shock wave in the oil contained in the high pressure fuel injector tip temperature falling below the condensation temperature.
piping. T he shock wave is caused by a sudden very high pressure This is not seen on m odem engines and was only experienced on
increase. This high pressure increase is d ue to the increasing older engines. Acorroded atomizing nozzle tip will alter the spray
acceleration o f the fuel pum p plunger and the fuel cam. This penetration, atomisation and pattern. Water condensation takes
accelerated fuel causes a shock wave when the inlet port or suction place at temperatures below 110 deg.C, allowing sulphur oxides
valve is closed during pump delivery. from the fuel to turn into acids.
Fuel pressure from the fuel pum ps act on the needle. The needle Too less cooling causes softening o f the valve and seat, and allows
opens inwardly. T he needle is loaded by a thrust plate, a spring expansion o f trapped fuel in the sac area. This causes carbon
and a screw ed spindle. T he thrust plate serves the function o f trumpets on the tip, poor combustion and smoky exhausts. A t
limiting the needle lift temperatures above 180 deg.C, the fuel starts cracking into particles
which clog the nozzle.

126 127
Marine Diesel Engines Fuel System

Dribbling Nozzle Here, hot oil is circulated when

A dribbling nozzle will result in fuel-burning at the nozzle tip which is the injector is n ot injecting.
seen as carbon trumpets. Dribbling nozzles are a result o f poor seating O nce the fuel pressure a t the
o f the fuel valve, which in turn, is caused by the impurities in the fuel beginning o f the fuel pum p
causing abrasive w ear to the seat surfaces; poor cooling; increased pressure stroke, increases to
banging o f the valve needle; poor maintenance and overhaul; and wrong more than 8 bar, the recirculation
spring pressures. line is closed.
During re-circulation, 2 to 8 bar
Carbon trumpets adversely affect combustion since they influence
pressu rised fu el o il flow s
the spray pattern o f the fuel. This leads to smoky exhaust, higher exhaust
through the center bore in the
temperatures, poor combustion and loss o f power.
valve body to a hole in the thrust
Wrong Spring Pressure spindle; then to the thrust piece
The spring pressure directly influences the size o f the fuel particles. to a circulation hole at the slide
Low er spring pressure leads to the valve opening and closing a t a top; and out o f the valve housing
lower pressure. W hen the injector opens at a lower pressure, larger through an outlet pipe. R e- n
fuel particles are formed and these larger fuel particles bum ineffectively, c irc u la tio n sto p s w hen oil
resulting in a reduced cylinder pressure and smoky exhaust. The causes pressure exceeds approximately Fig-87
of a wrong spring pressure are incorrect overhauling; fatigued material; 10 bar. T h is in c re a se in
or extended life o f the spring. pressure above 10 bar overcomes the slide valve spring pressure.
Nozzle hole diameter, depth a nd num ber The slide pushes the thrust piece, thereby closing the circulation holes
This will influence the penetration, atomization and overall combustion. and fuel oil now passes further down to the space above the valve
Nozzle holes may be choked due to fuel impurities, carbon trumpet spindle seat.
formation, burning o f sac area, trapped fuel and prolonged running
o f engine at low loads. T he length o f the nozzle hole is usually thrice Injection System Requirem ents
the size o f the diameter o f the hole. The fuel injection system consists o f the fuel injector, fuel pump
and metering control.
U n-Cooled Injectors It should supply a finely atomized spray w ith correct penetration
These are used in m odem engines using residual heavy fuel during and even distribution into the combustion chamber.
maneuvering operations. In order to run on residual heavy oil during The quantity o f fuel is to be metered and the same amount is to be
maneuvering, un-cooled injectors are used on latest engines e.g. MAN supplied to each cylinder to obtain equal pow er and balancing of
B&W. all units.

128 129
Marine Diesel Engines Fuel System

Correct timing and quantity o f injection corresponding to different 2. Gas Compression Injection System
stages in the com bustion cycle is important. T his is required to In this type, combustion gas pressure from the main engine
efficiently utilize the heat and energy o f combustion and have the combustion chamber is led to drive the fuel pump piston in the fuel
correct cylinder pressure rise to control combustion. pump chamber. Hence, a camshaft is not required to drive the fuel
Prom pt and rapid opening and closing o f the injector is very
pump. T iming o f injection is done by m eans o f a timing valve
operated by an oscillating lever and eccentric fulcrum. M odem
marine engines do not use this type o f injection.
Types of Injection Methods
The main types are Blast Injection o r Solid Injection methods. 3. Individual Unit Injection System
In blast injection, fuel is blow n into the cylinder by an air blast. In In this type, an individual fuel pump and injector, meter and supply
solid or airless or mechanical injection, fuel is forced into the cylinder
fuel for combustion in the engine cylinder. Timing is carried out by
through a fuel valve by a high fuel pum p pressure i.e. by the solid
fuel. means o f a camshaft drive to the fuel pump plunger. The governor
linkage also influences the fuel pump rack control. Governor input
So lid Injection System s is common to all units, but the rack on each pump can be adjusted
There are 3 commonly used ty p es: to compensate for internal pump leakage. M ost m arine engines
1. Common rail injection system.
use this injection system.
2. Gas compression injection system.
3. Individual unit injection system.
Fuel Pumps
1. Common R ail Injection System The function o f the fuel pump is to control the quantity and timing of
It consists o f fuel pumps, distribution blocks, accumulators, a the fuel injected into the combustion space and to provide the high
com m on piping o r rail, and cam shaft operated spring loaded fuel pressure required to hydraulically operate the fuel injector. M ost
injectors. T he fuel pumps supply oil pressure to a common piping- commonly used fuel pumps in marine engines are discussed below.
or rail which is connected to an accumulator to damp out pressure
fluctuations. The common rail then supplies the fuel injectors through Suction Valve Controlled P um p
a fuel timing valve whose opening and closing is camshaft operated.
This variable beginning constant end type pum p uses a push rod
I t is an outdated system, used earlier in D oxford P and J-type
to operate the pump suction valve, w hich in turn, controls quantity
and tim ing o f fuel injected. It was used on older Sulzer RD engines
However, the latest camshaft-less RT-Flex and M E engines employ
upto the mid 1960s.
a type o f com m on rail system. D etails are discussed under the
engine description chapter.

130 131
Marine Diesel Engines Fuel System

peak combustion pressures and thermal efficiency. At low loads, charge

1 Plunger air pressure is lower and with this system, combustion firing pressures
2 Roller dec rease even further. Cheaper fuels imply longer ignition delay which
3 Cam
4 Governor Control Lever add to the already delayed ignition problems o f these pumps.
5 Eccentric Rocker Arm
6 Push Rod Suction a n d Spill Controlled F u el Pump
7 Barrel
It is a constant beginning
Working variable end" type pump, in
During the downward stroke o f which the suction valve is not
connected to the governor and
the plunger, the barrel is filled
hence a constant beginning is
with fuel oil since the suction valve
achieved, while the spill valve
is open. D uring the upstroke,
alth o u g h th e p re ssu re starts z connected to th e governor
controls the end o f ignition i.e.
increasing, no fuel is delivered till
a variable end. It is used in
the suction valve closes. Hence,
Sulzer RND onward designs.
the beginning o f delivery can be varied, depending on the suction
valve closing early o r late. After the suction valve is closed and the
pressure built up is sufficient to. lift the delivery valve, delivery
commences. Hence, the end is constant. Raising or lowering the
suction valve is used to alter the closing o f the suction valve earlier or
later, thereby changing the fuel timings.
A dvantages .
Volumetric efficiency is improved and constant. A djustment is easy
w hich enables geometrically correct delivery. The plunger design is Working
sim ple w ithout h elix edge w ear and it has a longer life. Easy During the downward stroke o f
maintenance, lapping, grinding and replacem ent o f suction valve is the plunger, fuel flows and fills
possible. the barrel since the suction valve
is open. D uring the upw ard stroke, the plunger and the spill valve
Disadvantages push rod rise, but the suction valve push rod goes down, which closes
It is m ore expensive than the jerk helix type pump. The fuel timing is due to the delivery pressure. Delivery now takes place once the suction
not ideal for all load changes. At a low rpm, most o f the fuel is delivered valve is closed and the delivery valve opens at its preset pressure. The
after TDC. This delayed later injection causes a drop in maximum

132 133
Marine Diesel Engines Fuel System

plunger is still moving up, along with the spill valve push rod and after
the clearance is passed, the spill valve is lifted to open. This shows
th atth e end o finjectionis variable, depending on the opening o f
the spill valve. The spill valve opening depends on the governor input
and corresponds to the engine load. The suction valve opening depends
on the length o f the push rod and the eccentric shaft position. It is
initially set and is not variable with the load.
Advantages as com pared to Variable BeginningPumps
B etter peak pressures and better therm al efficiencies are possible.
Fuel is injected at a constant beginning i.e. at the same crank angle.
Hence, at low revolutions, fuel would be injected earlier than required the top edge o f the plunger covers the suction ports and the pressure
and this would balance the longer ignition delay period required by is greater than the delivery valve setting. End o f injection is variable
cheaper fuels. and is controlled by the helical edge uncovering the spill port. (This
D isadvantages can be varied by moving a rack and pinion mechanism which rotates
the plunger and helix). The spill port spills fuel back to the suction
T he w hole quantity o f fuel is delivered before T D C even at low
revolutions. This m ay result in knocking effects. side. ;
Port-C ontrolled H elix J e rk P um p The port and helix control does not require the use o f suction or spill
It is commonly used in M AN B&W engines as well as 4-stroke engines. valves. It is more reliable and most commonly used.
Pilot Injection System
During the downward stroke, the pump barrel fills
up w ith oil through the suction port w hich is Pilot injection can be done by three w ay s:
uncovered as in fig. 91-A. During the upward A Jerk pump is used which has a cam with two lobes, instead o f a
stroke, the plunger covers the suction and spill delivery valve. The first cam lobe opens the valve at a Iowa: pressure
ports as in fig. 91 -B . The beginning o f injection is e.g. 75 bar, and injects a small pilot charge which has a long delay
constant and is achieved by the fuel pressure rising period. This pilot ignition heats up the combustion space so that
above the spring loaded delivery valve preset the main charge bums well. The second cam lobe opens the valve
pressure. The delivery ends when the helical edge at a higher pressure e.g. 415 bar, and injects the main charge.
uncovers the spill port as in fig. 91-C. Beginning of This reduces ignition delay for the main charge and gives a slower
injection is initially set and constant. It starts when rate o f pressure rise. The chance o f knocking is reduced. It was
used on outdated Polar 2-stroke medium speed engines.

134 135
Marine Diesel Engines Fuel System

Pilot ignition by means of a double injection profile jeik pump which Reasons fo r VIT
will give two injection pulses.
M o d ern e n g in e s (slo w
Pilot ignition by means o f an electronic control o f the injector.
Hpeed, h ig h p re s s u re
ch arged types) lo se too
Tw in Injection System much combustion pressures
In this type, two injectors are used i.e. the pilot and the main injector. and tem peratures a t low
It is used on Wartsila Vasa-46 engines. It minimizes ignition delay and lo a d s a n d s p e e d s. T h e
knock. The engine can run on low loads for unlimited periods. It allows Mater delayed ignition, as in
high viscous fuels (380 cS t at 50 deg.C) and highly aromatic fuels the case o f constant end
(low cetane no., but CCAI not high) to be burnt more efficiently. The types, led to low er peak
pilot injector injects a constant volume for different loads. Atomisation p re ssu re s a n d lo w e r f*-INJECTION
in the pilot injector is better due to finer nozzle holes. efficiency at low loads. With Fig-90
costs o f fu el increasing,
Tw in F u e l P u m p B arrel System cheaper highly viscous residual fuels are now used which have longer
In this type, tw o fuel pumps in parallel supply fuel to the same injector. ignition delays, lower peak pressures, delayed combustion, higher
exhaust temperatures and higher fuel consumption. Latest engines
One pump plunger controls the beginning o f injection, whilst the other
have a high stroke-bore ratio i.e. super long stroke for m ore power
controls the termination o f in je c tio n . T hey achieve m uch higher
output and run at a lower rpm. In 1978, Sulzer introduced the V IT on
pressures than that which can be achieved by a single fuel pump. This
the RLA engines mainly to allow better combustion and maximum
system is used on Wartsilas largest m edium speed engine.
pressure at low er loads (75% load) while using residual fuel.

Electronic In jectio n Control

VIT - Sulzer Engines
It is used on latest engines by Wartsila-Sulzer and M AN B&W. Here,
the engine rpm, crank angle position, etc. are fed into a microprocessor It is a type o f fuel pump control which allows the engine to achieve the
which gives an output signal to the injection pumps. More details are designed maximum combustion pressure a t a range o f 7 5% to 100%
power. It is done by varying the injection timings to maintain higher
listed in the engine description chapter.
combustion pressures a t reduced loads.
Variable Injection Timings (VIT) VIT Advantages
VTT = Variable Timings The thermal efficiency and combustion efficiency are improved, while
= Variable beginning and Variable end o f injection. Specific Fuel Oil Consumption (SFOC) is reduced i.e. a reduction of
7. gm /kw hr in Sulzer engines.There is no dark sm oky exhaust; less

136 137
Fuel System
Marine Diesel Engines

therm al stresses; im proved N O x emissions; im proved temperature

control for preventing corrosion; and the strength o f parts like the
crankshaft is betterutilized.
The fuel oil consumption directly depends on the expansion ratio and
thermal efficiency.
Expansion ratio = Ratio o f the m aximum combustion pressure
to the pressure at the commencement of
exhaust blowdown.

H eat added
In normal engines, Pmax is achieved only at full load power, whilst in
VIT, Pm ax is achieved at low er loads. A t low er loads, there will be
less fuel consum ption b ut an increase in Pmax. This leads to an
improved expansion ratio; improved utilization with higher Pmax at
lower loads; and im proved therm al efficiency. Therefore, SFOC is
VIT M ethod
In suction and spill valve controlled pumps, injection timings can be
varied by raising or lowering the position of the suction and spill valves.
Raising or lowering o f the suction and spill valve positions are done by
changing the position o f the eccentric. Raising the valve implies earlier
timings, while lowering the valve im plies later timings. The suction
end o f injection i.e. decreasing the amount o f fuel delivered. Hence,
valve controls the beginning o f ignition i.e. the timing of injection, while
quantity o f the fuel delivered does not increase.
the spill valve controls the end o f injection i.e. the quantity o f fuel.
Advancing = Suction valve lowered + Spill valve raised.
Here, the suction valve is low ered. Hence, injection commences Retarding
earlier. This results in more fuel quantity being delivered, since earlier This procedure is just the opposite of advancing.
injection gives m ore injection tim e and m ore fuel is delivered. To Retarding = S uction v alv e ra ise d + Spill valve lowered.
maintain the same fuel quantity, the spill valve is raised to give earlier

138 139
Marine Diesel Engines Fuel System

F u e l Quality Settin g (FQS) It is a means o f automatically varying the commencement o f injection

It is a m anually adjustable lever w hose setting can b e changed to In order to maintain the maximum combustion pressure (MCR) Pmax
com pensate fo r various fuel qualities. T he FQ S angle is a user constant, o ver a range o f 85% to 100% full load. T he break point
parameter setting in the engine control and can be adjusted within the normally at 85 % load is a pre-specified part load above w hich the
range o f- 2 t o + 2 degrees. T he governor output shaft is connected maximum combustion pressure is maintained constant. Super V IT is
to the V IT control and superimposed on the FQ S linkage. used on larger L/K/S - M C engines.
The Super V IT mechanism consists o f a jerk type pump with double
Super VIT
thread, a V IT regulation lever, a V IT position servo, a control air
It is a VIT m ethod used on B& W s larger L/K/S-M C engines. signal, a position servo unit with input from the governor, a FQS lever
Super VIT = A djustable Timings + A djustable Break Point and a regulating shaft.

Super V IT M ethod
In this m eth o d , the jerk type fuel pump
does n ot have a profile i.e. n o extra
oblique-cut on the plunger. The vertical
position o f the pum p barrel is raised or
lowered to change the commencement of
injection by a rack and pinion mechanism
and a double thread.

1. Upper threads control the suction ports

i.e. commencement o f injection by
changing the vertical position o f the
pump barrel with respect to the plunger.

2. Lower threads control the spill port i.e.

the fuel quantity and end o f injection
by rotating the helix scroll o f the plunger
with respect to the spill port.


140 141
Marine Diesel Engines Fuel Syster.

The VTT-rack setting is

controlled according to
the engine load via th e
regulating shaft and th e
governor. T h e V IT -
rack setting position is
done by m eans o f a
control air signal supply
which pushes the VTT-
ra c k 'ppositio
rack o sitio n servo.
The control air position sensor valve gets its input from the governor, lo w Load Operation
the FQS lever and th e regulating shaft. Here, the V IT system is out o f operation. As shown in the figure (at
*ero load), the beam is fully lifted and control air pressure is O.
Delayed injection takes place.

Increasing Load
As the load increases, the V IT is still zro (delayed injection) till point I.
Control air pressure at point I is now 0.5 B ar and the beam A has
made contact with the sensor pickup.

Run-up till 85% Load

From point I to point n , the control pressure increases further making
the V IT position servo change the V IT index setting. The timing is
x . now advanced.
1 Fuel index
i ' I (Quantify)
A t 85% Load
A t Point n , Pmax is achieved early due to the advancing from point I
{ VIT-index
v / 1 / , , (VIT control pressure!
to point II. T he beam A touches the supporting points. The sensor
pickup is fully depressed.
VIT Start Pt, Break-Point 100% ^0AD
Cornair0,5 Bat 85%

142 143
Fuel System
Marine Diesel Engines

retard timings. Collective adjustment is done to compensate for two

85% to 100% L o a d
A bove point n , the beam A rotates around the support. C ontrol air main reasons, which are (a) different fuel qualities, and (b) worn fuel
pressure causes the VIT-rack position servo to retard the injection pumps.
timing in order to maintain Pmax constant at this range. Break P oint and Pm ax Adjustment
This is carried out in case the fuel cams have been moved.
Break point values a re :
Fixed pitch propeller M K I engines = 78% load
Fixed pitch propeller M K II engines = 85% load
Controllable pitch propellers = 85% to 90 % load
New engines will set the break point 2 to 3 % higher to compensate
for an excessive pressure jum p from Pcomp to Pmax, as the engine
becomes older.
Non-Return Throttle Valve
This valve is fitted in the control air line between the position-sensor
valve and the position servo. It prevents excessive combustion pressure
during sudden reduction o f load in the upper load range i.e. above the
break point e.g. in rough weather. It prevents rapid fuel rack oscillations
from being transmitted to the VIT-rack i.e. for a stable V IT rack in
case o f slight governor jiggling.
Individual Adjustm ents Conventional VIT
These adjustm ents can be done at the individual pum ps to balance (B & W Engines)
Pm ax for all the engine cylinder units. (Pmax adjusted + o r - 3 Bar).
Adjustment is done by m oving the position servo at each VIT-rack,
or by adjusting the threaded connection betw een the position servo
and the V IT control shaft (sim ilar to balancing the fuel racks).
Collective (O verall) Adjustments
These adjustments aredonefor theengine as awholeunit, and common
to all fuel pum ps. A djustm ent is done by adjusting screws on the F ig -100
position sensor unit which alters the control air pressure to advance or

Marine Diesel Engir,
Fuel System

It is the mechanism fo r varying the ignition timings used on smaller

Cam Types
GB, L35M C and L42M C engines. Here, the break point is fixed in Regular, irregular, internal, external, inverse, single lobe, multi-lobe, etc.
relation to the pum p index and not adjustable as in super-VTT. The
fuel pum p plunger is profiled i.e. it has an extra oblique-cut. Base Circle
V IT conventional = Adjustable timings + Fixed Break Point It is the smallest circle o f the cam profile which acts as the base o f the
Fuel Cam 1 2
Cam A ngle
A cam is a m eans o f providing the
It is the angle o f the cam for which the follower is lifted.
required m otion to its follow er in
order to operate the opening and
A ngle o f D w ell
closing o f valves, o r regulate the
It is the peak section o f the cam profile during which the follower is
timings o f a fuel pump.
resting, although it is in a lifted position.The angle o f dwell is designed
to take into consideration the fo llo w ing: checking o f the plunger
clearance; allowing the exhaust cam to be fitted on the same camshaft
1 Spill valve push rod in case o f reversible 2-stroke engines; and smooth filling and spill o f
2 Suction valve push rod fuel without pressure changes.
3 Roller follower
4 Base circle
5 Fuel Cam F u el C am requirem ents
6 Camshaft At the beginning o f the injection stroke, a high amount o f acceleration
is desirable, b ut with a smooth transition to prevent shocks. During
the injection stroke, constant velocity should be maintained without
K g - 101 any pressure drop when the fuel valve opens. A t the end of the injection
Cam shaft Drive stroke, sharp deceleration is required to snap shut the fuel valve, but
Cams are mounted on a camshaft, which in turn is driven by the engine smoothly in order to avoid bouncing.
crankshaft through chain drive or gear drive.
High Pressure Pipe Safety
C am Profile
It is the very high pressure line between the fuel pum p and the fuel
It is the shape or curvature o f the w orking surface o f the cam which
injector, which is subject to pressure shock waves and vibration. It is
drives the follower with arequired motion to regulate the timings o f a
an im portant fire hazard because pressurized oil leaking from it can
fuel pump.
spray over numerous hot surfaces o f the engine and cause a fire.

Marine Diesel Engines

Protection and m onitoring o f the high pressure fuel line is a class

requirement, especially for UM S ships.



F unction o f Lubrication
It reduces friction, prevents excessive wear o f rubbing on surfaces,
provides corrosion protection, removes some frictional heat, helps in
cooling, and prevents accumulation o f unwanted deposits.

This high pressure fuel line has a protective double skin sheathing. It
also has a leak o fflin e from the space between the pipe and the outer
sheath. This line is led to a leak off tank which monitors leakage and
gives o ff an alarm if the leakage is in excess. In case o f minor leakages,
there is a small leak o ff hole connection which directly drains to the
main overflow tank.

Marine Diesel Engines Lubrication System

E ngine L u b e O il A pplications Friction Types

The following components o f the engine require lubrication: cylinder
D ry F riction
liner, piston, crankcase, bearings, centrifugal purifiers, camshaft gear
It is caused when solid surfaces move relative to each other without
or chain drive, exhaust valve actuation, crosshead guides, turbocharger any lubricant between them. It is totally undesirable and leads to
bearings, power generators and pow er take-in/out units.
serious breakdowns.
Lubrication Feed Types are: full force feed lubrication for bearings, Boundary Lubrication F ailure Friction
splash lubrication, combination lubrication, and m etered lubrication
It is the friction caused when the lube oil film separating the surfaces in
by a force feed lubricator.
contact is destroyed and dry friction patches appear. Examples a re :
(1) The lubrication between the piston compression rings and the liner.
(2) The lubrication in the small end bearing o f the connecting rod at
It is a rubbing force set up betw een surfaces in contact with each the start and stopping o f the engine.
other due to relative motion between them. It depends on the normal (3) The lubrication in bearings running at a very low rotational speed
load on the rubbing surfaces, the surface finish and the rate o f relative or a high unit load.
displacement. It causes wear and loss o f power because s.ome o f the
C om plete L ubrication Friction
power is used as w ork to overcom e the frictional force. Work done This is the type o f friction caused when the moving surfaces in contact
by frictional forces gets converted to heat energy, resulting in overheating
are separated by an adequate thickness o f lubricant.
o f the parts, which may lead to fusing or seizure in extreme conditions.
Lubrication reduces this friction and wear. It also provides cooling
Types of Lubrication
and removal o f any impurities o r products o f wear.
1. H ydrodynam ic Lubrication
It is also called full fluid film lubrication. It is the lubrication between
moving surfaces which are separated by a continuous unbroken oil
film o f adequate thickness. Oil pressure is self generated due to the
motion o f the moving surfaces.
Exam ple: A journal bearing with perfect lubrication due to the oil
wedge formed by the rotating shaft. .

2. H ydrostatic L ubrication
It is similar to hydrodynamic lubrication except that the oil pressure
is supplied by an external source. It is seen in slow-moving heavily
loaded components, w here sufficient oil pressure cannot be

150 151
Marine Diesel Engines Lubrication System

generated due to its relative motion and hence, external oil pressure Sedim ents
from a pum p is required. These are grit particles formed due to wear and carbon. Their maximum
3. B oundary L ubrication allow able content is 1.5%. They cause clogged oil filters and
It is a thin film lubrication which exists between the robbing surfaces purification problems.
so that full fluid film is not achieved and some degree o f dry patches
occur with metal to metal contact. It is usually seen in cases o f very
It is the tendency o f the oil to oxidize due to the presence o f oxygen in
high relative movement between the rubbing surfaces. high temperature gaseous surroundings. The organic acidic products
4. Elasto-hydrodynam ic L ubrication are very hazardous on lead bearing metals.
It is also called squeeze film lubrication. It is the effect o f elastic
deform ation o f the m etals and the effect o f high pressure on the Base N um ber
lubricant Examples: Rolling contact bearings or meshing gear teeth. It is the most important property o f lube oil for cylinder lubrication in
Here, contact is a nominal point or line contact. an engine. It is the capacity o f the oil to neutralize the sulphuric
compounds which are formed, especially in modem engines burning
sulphur rich residual fuel.
Lubrication depends on :
Oil quantity, quality, viscosity, oiliness, dynamic coefficient o f friction, N eutralisation Value
speed o f motion, load, surface finish and uninterrupted oil supply. It is the measurement o f the acidity or alkalinity o f the oil.

Lube Oil Properties Total A c id N um ber (TAN)

It is the measure o f the combined organic acids due to oxidation o f the
Viscosity oil, and the inorganic acids due to contamination by the acidic products
It determines the resistance o f oil internal cohesive forces and promotes o f combustion.
setting up o f certain conditions for the friction between the moving
surfaces. Lower or higher viscosity oils are both unacceptable. Viscosity Strong A cid N u m b er (SAN)
depends on the temperature. It is the m easure o f the inorganic acids w hich are form ed due to
contamination by the acidic products.
C oking Capacity o r Carbon R esidue
It is the tendency to form carbon residues while burning at elevated Total B ase N um ber (TB N )
temperatures. High carbon residue causes gumming o f piston rings It is the measure o f the alkalinity o f alkaline oils.
preventing their movement in the grooves. Example: TBN = 70 mg KOH/g for crosshead engines
T B N = 3 0 mg KOH/g for trunk engines.

152 153
Marine Diesel Engines Lubrication System

The difference is because trunk engines use the same oil for cylinder improve this property o f dispersing these harmful deposits. Additives
liner and crank case lubrication. are metallic based sulphonates o r phenates.

F lash P oint D e-E m ulsivity

It is a m easure o f the tendency o f the oil vapours to ignite. It is an It is the property o f the oil to separate from water in a non-miscible
important consideration especially in case o f the crankcase oil getting emulsion. Exam ple: Water ingress into the lube oil requires the water
contaminated with fuel leaks. to be separate (not miscible), so that the water can be removed.

P o u r P oint F oam ing

It is considered when the operation o f the engine component is at low It is the undesirable phenomenon of the oil mixing with air resulting in
temperatures. It m ay have to be preheated, if the oil is to be handled cavitation and overheating.
at temperatures exceeding the pour point by 15 deg.C o r less.
L ube oil additives
D ynam ic C o efficient o f F riction These are substances added to the mineral based lube oil to enhance
It is the ratio o f the tangential force to the norm al force required to and improve specifically required properties. Examples are: Anti foam
overcome friction. agents, pour point depressants, extrem e pressure agents, viscosity
index enhancers, anti-wear agents, dispersants, detergents, antioxidants
O iliness and rust inhibitors.
It is the tendency o f the oil to adhere o r w et the m oving surfaces.
C loud P oint
A n ti- O xidation It is the temperature at w hich a cloud forms, due to w ax crystal
It is the tendency to resist oxidation. Additives are used to improve formation at low temperatures. Example: Paraffin-base oils.
this property. Exam ples: Amines or organo-metallic additives.
Water Content
C racking Stability Water reduces the viscosity and therefore, reduces the load carrying
It is the property o f the oil to be stable and resist cracking a t high capacity o f the oil. Sea w ater ingress containing high salt content
temperatures. Cracking is the breakdown o f molecules into smaller increases the acidity and leads to corrosion o f metal. W ater reacts
sizes at high temperatures. with the additives blended in the oil and nullifies their effect.

D etergency a n d Dispersancy L ube O il D eterioration

It is the tendency to colloidally suspend, disperse and wash away any It is due to a reduction in viscosity, TBN, flash point or dispersancy;
harmful combustion products in the oil. Harmful deposits build up in and an increase in oxidation, water content or sediments.
the piston ring p ack area. Additives a re usually added to the oil to

154 155
Marine Diesel Engines Lubrication System

Lube Oil Testing 10 m l oil sample and 10 m l R eagent N are m ixed and placed in a
O n board testing as w ell as shore testing is carried out regularly to testing unit cup. 10 ml reactive reagent T is added and the testing unit
m onitor lube oil condition, deterioration and w hether oil is to be cup sealed and properly mixed. The resultant pressure rise in compared
with a chart according to the type o f oil used.
rejected. Crank case oil is changed after 10,000 running hours in low
speed engines, and 5,000 to 10,000 running hours in medium speed Water C ontent Test
engines. Oil samples are taken every 500 running hours in low speed The water content is ascertained by measuring the resultant pressure
engines and every 150 running hours in m edium speed engines. rise o f a test mixture.
A detailed sample-taking and testing procedure is outlined. Sample 5 ml oil sample and 15 ml petroleum reagent A (a paraffin o r toluene)
points are usually before or after the filter or the pump. These points are mixed in the test unit cup. A standard amount in a sealed satchet
are marked and are to be the same for all samples in order to maintain o f reagent B (calcium carbide) is added and the mixture sealed and
a standard. A testing file or record book is maintained to monitor and shaken thoroughly. The chemical reaction takes place between water
compare results. Excessive lube oil consumption is also monitored in the oil and the reagent calcium carbide to form acetylene gas which
gives a resultant pressure rise.
and the cause is to b e ascertained in every case. Company specified
standard testing kits are available on board fo r testing purposes. Water Crackle Test
The aim o f testing is to m onitor deterioration o f oil, am ount of It is done by heating 10 drops o f oil in an aluminium foil container over
contamination, oil consumption, replenishment, condition/wear of a flame. A crackling sound confirms the presence o f water in lube oil.
lubricated machinery, further use o f oil o r oil rejection. I f the tests
Viscosity Test
show satisfactory results, the oil can be used further and it need not be
Viscosity is usually measured using a flowstick comparator method.
replaced as per running hours. Hence, a saving in costs is achieved.
The relative flow rate is measured between a new oil and the used oil.
Good lube oil monitoring helps m aintain the m achinery in good 3 ml new oil and 3 m l used oil at the same temperature are placed in
condition, gives a warning in case o f deterioration, and lengthens time the flowstick reservoir respectively. The flowstick is tilted allowing
between overhauls and surveys. both the oils to flow through separate channels. When the new oil has
reached the reference mark, the position o f the used oil is checked.
Onboard Lube Oil Tests Markings on the flowstick give the conditions o f the oil.
T B N Test
The TB N valve is ascertained by measuring the resultant pressure A lka lin ity Test
rise o f a test mixture. The chemical reaction is that o f the alkaline lube A pH paper indicator can be used to check the reserve alkalinity in
oil additive (calcium) with the reagent T. the oil sample.

156 157
Marine Diesel Engines
Lubrication System

Fla sh Point Spectro-Analysis

This can be done if a Pensky-Martens apparatus is available on board.
This test determines the contamination by metal and additives.
The flash point will change if there is a fuel oil leak into the lube oil.
The following metals can be found by this test:
Sp o t Test Ti n. Lead, Copper, Aluminium - from bushes or bearings.
It shows the am ount o f insoluble particles in the oil. A standard oil Vanadium - from heavy fuel oil contamination.
sample is taken and mixed thoroughly. A spot o f oil is dropped on a Sodium - from sea water salt ingress,
special test blotter paper and allowed to dry. A fter a few hours, the HFO contamination.
spot is com pared with the standard spot reference. Chrome - from piston rings.
Iron - from lubricated moving parts of
Sea water content the engine like piston crown,
It tests the chlorine content o f the oil sample. 5 m l oil sample and 5 ml liner, camshaft, etc.
distilled w ater are m ixed and the w ater separates. 3 to 5 drops of
mercuric thiocyanate and an iron salt are added to 1 m l o f the water M ethod
from the earlier mixture. Chlorine ions react to form a reddish orange Spectro-Analysis is done by Plasma Atomic Emission procedure for
mixture o f chlorom ercurate and ferric thiocyanate. T his colour is particles o f 10 micron (or less) in size. The quantity o f these particles
compared to a scale chart calibrated from 0 to 300 ppm. can be determined by a particle quantifier which gauges the quantity in
terms o f PR index. Separation o f the particles is done by a rotary
Shore Testing particle depositor.
Standard samples are sent ashore for testing at regular intervals e.g.
Flash P oint Test
every three months. T he sample point should be marked and taken at
It is done by using the Pensky M artens standard apparatus. The test
the same point every time. The sample is to be taken when engine is
sample is slowly heated in a closed apparatus at a constant rate and
running at norm al speed, so that oil is circulated. It is taken at the
an external flame is introduced at different temperature intervals through
closest supply point into the engine. B efore collecting the sample,
an open shutter. For new lube oils, flash point should b e at least
drain the line. T he sam ple is taken at a very slow rate i.e. decanted
220 deg.C.
over 5 minutes. T he sample container label should have the following
details: ships nam e, date, oil purpose and equipment, running hours
Base N um ber
oil type and sample point location. Samples are not to be taken from
Oil sample + (Anhydrous chloro benzene + Glacial acid) is titrated
purifier lines, sumps or drain cocks. Shore testing involves the following
w ith ( perchloric acid + glacial acid). Accurate titration is done by
using an electrical potential bridge arrangement which gives a current
reading proportional to the titrating rate.

Lubrication System
Marine Diesel Engines

in the oil sample. It is allowed to incubate for 12 hours. Bacteria

Kinematic Viscosity
manifests itself by red spots on the slide which is then compared with
It is done by measuring the time required for a specific quantity o f oil
a reference guide.
at a certain temperature to flow under a fixed gravitational head in a
capillary. This tim e m easurem ent is directly proportional to the Microbial Degradation of Lube Oil
kinematic viscosity. It is the degradation that takes place due to microorganisms thriving in
the lube oil. M icro-organisms are bacteria, yeasts o r moulds. They
D ensity require phosphorous, nitrogen, carbon and water. They require water
It is measured by m eans o f a glass hydrom eter with its temperature to grow in the beginning, but later they can self-sustain themselves at
controlled. It is an im portant param eter when choosing the correct 20 to 40 deg.C in stagnant conditions. The danger is that they multiply
size gravity disc in a centrifuge. at a very rapid rate i.e. double in size and divide into two every half
hour. Once the aerobic bacteria have consumed the dissolved oxygen,
Insoluble C ontent the sulphate reducing bacteria is activated. I b is bacteria attacks the
It is a m easurement o f the Pentane or Toluene insolubles. metal and forms hydrogen sulphide. It results in corrosion o f steel.
For Pentane insolubles: A mixture o f the oil sample and pentane is The properties o f the lube o il and its additives are also affected,
centrifuged. It is decanted and the precipitate washed with pentane enhancing corrosion and reducing the load bearing capacity. Acids
twice. The dried weight gives the pentane insolubles i.e. insolubles are formed which cause corrosion especially at oxygen depleted zones.
due to wear, carbon or dirt particles. This microbial degradation is mostly seen in distillate fuels and not
For Toluene insolubles: Amixture o f the oil sample and pentane is residual fuels.
centrifuged. It is decanted and the precipitate w ashed o ff with
pentane twice. It is then washed once with a toluene alcohol solution, Indications
and again with toluene. The dried weight gives the toluene insolubles Rotten egg smells, sliminess o f the oil in the crankcase painted surfaces,
i.e. dirt and inorganic particles. increased acidity and water content, filter choking more frequently,
poor heat exchanger performance, black staining o f white metal
Water C ontent bearings and corrosion o f exposed steel surfaces.
It can be m easured by the distillation method. O il is heated under
reflux w ith a water-immiscible solvent. The condensed water is Prevention
separated from the solvent in a trap. Crankcase water content to be weekly monitored and within limits.
Lube oil bearing surfaces, exposed steelwork and crankcase painted
surfaces is to be visually inspected during every crankcase inspection.
M icro B iolo g ica l Test
This test is only carried out if the lube oil is suspected o f microbial Regular circulation o f oil is to b e carried o ut by pum ps to avoid
degradation. Anutritive gel is applied over a glass slide and immersed stagnant conditions. Lube oil temperature at the purifier is to be at

Marine Diesel Engines Lubrication System

least 75 deg.C as the bacteria perish above 70 deg.C. Purification Cylinder Oil Types
and re-circulation o f crankcase oil is to be continued even when the Crosshead Engines
engine is stopped at port. Regular testing at various sample points is Cylinder oil has aTBN value o f 70 mg KOH/g and a SAE 50 viscosity.
to be done. Inspection o f sludge from purifiers o r choked filters also Crankcase oil has a TBN value o f between 5 and 30, and a SAE 30
indicates any degradation o f lube oil. viscosity.
Treatment Trunk-Type Engines
U se o f biocides or fungicides is carried out. Heating and continuous Cylinder oil has a TBN value o f 30 mg KOH/g and a SA E 30,40,or
purification above 75 deg.C is done and the entire sump to be purified 50 viscosity.
within a period o f 12 hours. H eating is done to a temperature of
80 deg.C, but not exceeding the suppliers lim it. This kills the bacteria. The difference in the oil is because trunk-type engines use the same oil
M anual cleaning o f the sump, filters and pipelines is carried out. for the crankcase as well as cylinder lubrication, while crosshead type
Replenishm ent o f the sum p oil is done in case the lube oil is badly engines use separate oils. C rosshead engines use higher TB N oil
-infected. because only a limited small consumable quantity is injected into the
cylinder. In Trunk engines, a great amount o f oil is present. Hence,
Cylinder Lubrication TBN level required is lower.
R equirem ents T B N versus S u lp h u r Selection
to provide a lube oil film at the liner and the piston ring surface
Selection o f T BN is done with respect to sulphur content to ensure
to separate the surfaces and reduce friction between them low wear rates o f cylinder liner.
to neutralize the combustion and acidic products especially due to
sulphur content in the fuel providing corrosion protection. Sulphur Content in Fuel TBN Value
to disperse the carbon particles w hich tend to accum ulate at the Less than 0.25 % 10 m g KOH/g
piston rings. 0.25 to 1.0% 10 to 20 m g KOH/g
to help in the sealing o f the piston ring to the liner surface. 1.0 to 3 .0 % 70 m g KOH/g
Above 3.5 % M ore than 70 m g KOH/g
to bum without leaving hard deposits.
to cater to the problem s associated w ith cheap residual fuel and
O ptim um C ylinder L ube O il Injection
running-in requirements
to provide the correct feed rate i.e. quantity per feed The best timing for lube oil injection into the cylinder liner is between
the top two piston rings, when the piston is on its upward stroke. The
to lubricate and neutralize the combustion products under different
correct feed rate would be judged during overhauls o f the engine, if
load conditions
to inject the lube oil at the correct timing for optimum use o f cylinder the piston rings are slightly damp and rings move freely in the grooves
lube oil. without much accumulation o f deposits. Another indication is the liner

162 163
Marine Diesel Engirt* Lubrication System

w ear rates w hich should be less than 0.1 mm /1000 running hours. 1 1 Accumulator cylinder 12 Passage for lubricating quill
T he oil feed quantity depends on the type and specifications o f the 1 2 Spring , 13 Filling pin
3 Accumulator piston 14 Steel ball
lube oil, the quality and sulphur content o f the fuel, and the engine 1 4 Cap nut 15 Non-return valve housing
loading conditions. O il feed rates range from 0.3 to 0.8 gm/bhp/hr. 5 Diaphragm 16 Flange ring
6 Accumulator casing 17 Screw
7 Cap nut IS Support ring
Cylinder Lubrication Systems H Backing screw 19 Flange
9 Copper sealing rings 20 Joint
T he tw o im portant systems used in m odem engines a re : 10 Cylinder liner 21 Protecting bush
1. Accumulation and Quill S y stem -S ulzer engines II Lubricating quill 22 O-ring
2. Cylinder lubricator units pumping to orifices in the liner
-M A N B & W engines. In this system , the accumulator gets charged by the lubricator pump
for every 10 to 15 revolutions. This oil under pressure is stored in the
A c c u m u la to r a n d Q u ill System accum ulator and enters the cylinder whenever the cylinder pressure
falls below the accumulator oil pressure. The cylinder pressure is less
This system is used on Sulzer Engines. It consists o f a lubricator pump '
than the accumulator twice for every revolution, (a) when the piston is
supplying oil pressure to a quill fitted with an accumulator.
moving down in its expansion stroke, and (b) when the piston is moving
up, as th e piston rings pass the feed grooves.

- ^ - K _____ EXPN.

;.^ .| X -p r r ^ --------------
If B0C
F ig -106

In the figure, the shaded portion shows lubrication while the cylinder
pressure falls below the accumulator oil pressure ( A - A ), with
respect to the crank angle.

164 165
Marine Diesel Engines Lubrication System

Q uills engine speed, load index and LCD signals. It sends an on signal for
Quills are non-retura valves fitted at the liner oil grooves by screwing lubrication to the solenoid valve to control the oil injection. The
into the liner. They help to dam pen the pressure pulsations in the computer sends an off signal to the solenoid valve to allow the oil
supply line; prevent cylinder combustion gases or products entering back to the return line. The feed rate is adjustable by adjusting the
back into the oil line; and provide storage o f pressurized oil in the interval between injection i.e. every 5* and 6threvolution. More details
accumulator section. Direct contact with the quill and cooling water is on this system is given in the chapter on Engine Descriptions.
prevented by a sealing pipe which allows easy removal o f the quill. Advantages
Lower lube oil consumption, lower wear rates o f the liner, increased
Lubricator P u m p Unit time between overhauls; and better timing and utilization o f the
This lubrication pumping unit gets a rotary drive from the driving shaft expensive cylinder lube oil is possible. In case o f failure o f the solenoid
by means o f a gear and ratchet mechanism. This rotational drive is valve o r transducer, the other lubricator automatically changes to
converted into reciprocating motion o f the lubricator plunger. Checking maximum setting. If the air pressure fails, the standby pum p will
the pumping action can be done through the sight glass which shows a automatically start. The computer unit too has a backup computer to
steel ball lifted and pushed up when the oil is pumped. Acylindrical oil ensure lubrication is continued.
non-flow alarm is also fitted. T he oil feed ratio can be adjusted for
different load conditions. In modem engines, the lubricator pump drive Load Dependent Cylinder Lubrication
is by a frequency controlled electric m otor which varies with the load
Modem engines employ load dependent cylinder lubrication where
changes i.e. i t is load-dependent. S om e m odem units have a pre
the am ount o f cylinder lube oil to each lubricating point can b e
lubrication, post-lubrication and emergency lubrication option by a
individually adjusted and controlled as per the load changes, via the
switch in the control room , which starts an electric m otor for the
remote control system.
lubricator drive. This is during slow turning o f the engine for one
complete revolution. Manual cranking o f the lubricator is also possible. The specific oil feed rate increases with the decreasing engine load.
For example, at 20% engine load, the specific cylinder oil amount will
Lubricator Units also be 25% more than at 100% engine load. The desired increase in
One o f the latest types o f lubrication systems is the Alpha lubrication the specific liibe oil quantity can be programmed in the control unit.
system used in M AN B&W engines. Here, a high pressure lubricator Whenever there is a sudden load increase or a load fluctuation o f the
pump supplies oil to an injector to inject a fixed volume into the engine engine, correspondingly the cylinderlube oil flow rate will be increased
cylinder once in 4 revolutions. Acomputer control unit gets input from automatically. The input signal for the oil increase is initiated from the

166 167
Marine Diesel Engines Lubrication System

Specific Cylinder Lube Oil Consumption

According to power,
Specific cylinder lube oil consumption in g/kw-hr o r g/bhp-hr.
- Cylinder lube oil consumption in kg/hr x 1000
Effective engine pow er in kw or bhp

According to fuel consumption,

Specific cylinder lube oil consumption in g/kw-hr or g/bhp-hr
=K _ x Assumed S.F.O.C. for the engine in g/kw -hr or g/bhp-hr
w here K in kg/t = Cvl. lube oil consumption in kg per 24 hrs
Fuel oil consumption in tons per 24 hrs

F requency Controlled Electric M otor L ubricator

M ost m odern engines use this ty p e o f lu b ric a to r driv e fo r
load-dependent cylinder lubrication.

load indicator transmitter. This input signal from the load indicator
transmitter is sent to the rem ote control unit, w hich sends an output
signal to change the speed o f the frequency-controlled electric motor
drive to the lubricator. Below 20 % load, the oil feed rate is not reduced
anym ore i.e. the speed o f the electric m otor rem ains constant. In
emergency lubrication mode i.e. when the normal cylinder lubrication
control fails, the cylinder lubrication can be adjusted m anually by
adjusting the knob on the lubricator. In this m ode, the regulation of
lube oil quantity is no more load-dependent, b u t independent o f the
engine load. The remote control signals the electric m otor to run with
its nominal frequency.

168 169
Marine Diesel Engir, Lubrication System

Multi Level Cylinder Lubrication ( 'rosshead Lubrication

In this type, cylinder lube oil is injected into
the liner through quills at different levels K 1 Piston rod stuffing gland box
W 2 Crosshead bearing
(usually 2 levels). p 3 Crosshead guides
t-| 4 Crosshead pin
The position o f quills can be one o f the

5 Lube oil articulated arm
following: 6 Lube oil inlet
1. A t 10% stroke from TD C : In this case,
although the cylinder lube oil feed rate
is m ore, there is poor circum ferential E C ro ssh e a d L u b r ic a tio n
spreading due to oil flow breaking down \ Difficulties
at high temperatures. The requirements for effective
lubrication are pumping action,
2. A t 20% stroke from TD C : In this
tunple o f oil feed supply and an
case, lu b rication is m ost effective oil film creation strong enough
especially for a single level o f quills.
to separate m etal surfaces.
3. Combination o f a no groove row o f Pumping action o f acomponent
quills at 20 % stroke from TDC, and a to p ro d u ce o il p ressu re is
continuous groove row o f quills at 30 difficult in the crosshead, since
% stroke from TDC. th e c ro s s h e a d m o tio n is
oscillatory with a high sliding
4. A bove the exhaust ports, in case o f
velocity. The speed o f rubbing
loop scavenging engines.
F ig - 109 is not sufficient to supply ample
o il fe e d , n o r to p ro m o te
Usually, quills are 250 m m apart from each other around the liner p u m p in g a c tio n . U n lik e F ig - 110
bore. Grooves are angled downwards. T he combustion gas pressure 4-stroke engines, there is no
differential across the rings assist in pushing the oil downwards in the load relief in 2-stroke engines
groove. T he disadvantage o f grooves is that they increase the area which would allow oil feed to be supplied and the bearing lubricated.
into w hich oil flows. H ence the velocity and pressure o f the oil Rupture o f the thin oil film w hich separates the rubbing surfaces is
decreases, thereby reducing its spreadability. caused by cyclic unidirectional loads during firing, in large super
charged 2-stroke engines.

170 171
Marine Diesel Engines

Crosshead L ub rica tio n M ethods

M ethod (1)
A s shown in the figure, o il is supplied at a m uch higher pressure
(16 bar in RTA engines). H ere, the generation o f high oil pressure is CHAPTER 7
done by hydrodynam ic m eans . A s the oil under pressure is now
confined to the small clearance area, its elasticity comes into play which
assists in maintaining the oil film for the momentarily instantaneous
loading. This is called Elasto-Hydrodynamic lubrication.
Oil supply is the sam e as bearing lubrication oil, whose main pressure
is now boosted to 16 b a r and supplied via the lube oil articulated arm.
Function of the cooling system
A s shown in the figure, th ere is a second lube oil supply inlet for oil
supply to the crosshead system in case o f crosshead pum p failure.
The function o f the cooling system of a marine diesel engine is to cool
M ethod (2) down the engine components, the lubricating oil and the scavenging
Providing a hydrostatic oil lift of the crosshead pin through hydraulic air to a point where optimum operating conditions are achieved. Cooling
pil pumps. is required for the piston, cylinder head, cylinder liner, exhaust valves,
turbochargers, injectors, etc. According to the heat balance chart,
only a fraction o f the heat liberated by the engine is converted into
useful work, the rest being wasted within the exhaust into the
atm osphere o r absorbed by the engine components in contact w ith
the hot combustion gases. T he loss o f heat energy to the cooling
w ater is 20% at the cylinder head, 10% through the piston and 5 to
8% through the exhaust manifold and turbocharger. Trouble-free
functioning is essential for the cooling system, not only during running
o f the engine, b ut also during warm ing up before starting and
manoeuvring conditions. Lack o f cooling causes non uniform heating
o f the components inducing thermal stresses. An overheated piston
or liner causes evaporation and burning o f cylinder lube oil and
deposition o f lacquer and carbon. This deprives the piston rings o f
elasticity and causes failures due to sticking o f rings. Under-cooling

172 173
Cooling System
Marine Diesel Engines

undue tension in the combustion chamber parts especially in the liner

reduces the cylinder clearance causing distortion and scuffing o f the and cylinder head region.
piston and liner. Thermal stresses trigger off cracks in the piston crown
which lead to combustion blow-by. Pistons were earlier water-cooled Piston Oil Cooling System
using telescopic pipes, b ut m odem engines use oil as the cooling
Oil is preferred in modem engines for cooling o f the piston due to the
absence o f water corrosion, or scaling, o r w ater leaks into the
B ore Cooled L iners
crankcase; simpler designs o f glands; and the absence o f telescopic
Bore-cooled liners provide intensive cooling at the working surface
pipes. The sam e oil and pressure can be used from the main lube oil
and also retain the strength o f the liner. Bores are drilled at a tangential
system, thereby avoiding the necessity o f separate piston cooling
angle or cooling pipes are inserted during the casting process. Insulated
pumps. Oil has the drawbacks o f coking at high temperatures; a
tubes are used in the bore holes to manipulate the desired control o f
reduced specific heat capacity compared to water; and a larger lube
the cooling required at various sections. T he liner temperature should
oil system size required in order to allow air release.
b e within 150 to 220 deg.C. Over-cooling o r under-cooling causes
problems and is undesirable. Piston ring region temperature is limited
Cooling Water Treatment
to 220 deg.C, otherwise ring lubrication is adversely affected. This is
achieved by bore cooling as well as keeping a high top land where the The cooling water used for engine cooling should be properly treated
position o f die top piston ring is much below the hot crown top surface. with an approved cooling water inhibitor and alkaline agents to avoid
corrosion attack, sludge formation and scale deposits. The following
Load Dependent Liner Cooling treatments are u se d :
In this system, the liner cooling rate is varied with respect to the load 1. Sodium Nitrite or Sodium Borate
on the engine. In order to achieve less cooling, som e o f the cooling They are safe for handling, non-toxic, not dangerous if over-dosed
water flow is by-passed away from the liner to maintain the liner wall and contain a pH buffer to provide protection against acidic
temperatures w hen load decreases. Maintaining the liner temperature corrosion. They form a thin passive oxide surface layer on the metal.
above the dew point has the advantage o f preventing cold sulphur Sodium Borate is used when the material to be protected involves
corrosion. T he m ass flow rate o f cooling w ater is reduced when the zinc or soft solder material.
load decreases. Latest developments in liner material and lubrication 2. Chromates
allows a m ajority o f the liner portions to go w ithout cooling. The It is not preferred since it is highly toxic and unsafe during handling
minimum cooling required is achieved from the scavenge air entering and disposal. It is an anodic inhibitor, so pitting is caused if its
the lower section o f the liner. T he maximum admissible temperature concentration is low. It is not to be used if the engine jacket water
fluctuations for cooling water outlet temperature is + /-2 d e g .C for is used for evaporator heating.
constant load, and + / - 4 deg.C during load changes. T his avoids
Marine Diesel Engines

3. Soluble Emulsion Oil

It is not preferred due to foaming problems, bacterial contamination,
disposal problems, and no control over the film thickness. It forms
a greasy film on the metal surface and prevents corrosion. CHAPTER 8


Starting System
M arine diesel engines are started and reversed w ith the aid of
compressed air at a pressure o f around 30 kg/ Pressurised
starting air is supplied from air compressors and stored in two air
bottle cylinders.

Starting Torque
The starting torque is achieved by the compressed air acting on the
top o f the piston to push it down. This reciprocating motion o f the
piston is converted into a torque at the crank shaft. T he am ount o f
starting torque required is the amount o f torque needed to rotate the
crankshaft at a speed that will produce the desired self ignition
temperature to ignite the fuel in the cylinders.

Starting is in three ste p s :

Cranking the engine by compressed air to produce sufficient starting
torque until some o f the cylinders fire.
Picking up the combustion cycle on fuel w ithout the engines

Marine Diesel Engines
Starting, Reversing and Manoeuvring

Acceleration to a speed in accordance with the fuel injection pump

setting. Start A ir Period
It is the minimum cranking period plus an overlap period to provide
The tim e period w hich elapses before the engine is under its own
sufficient starting torque to start the engine in any direction at any
pow er after being cranked by com pressed air is between 2 to 8
position. I t depends on the exhaust valve opening, as the start air
seconds. During this period, the engine running is irregular, combustion
improper and exhaust is smoky. The irregular running is because some should shut before the exhaust valve opens, or else the pressurized
o f the cylinders misfire initially, while the engine speed increases in compressed starting air is wasted as it willjust be blown out o f the unit
jerks as each cylinder fires one after the other. through the exhaust valve. In 2-stroke pulse turbocharged engines,
the exhaust valve normally opens at 65 degrees before BDC or 115
Start A ir Tim ing degrees after TDC. This gives a maximum starting air angle o f 115
The start air timing position should consider that the engine is started degrees.
in either direction. The best tim ing considering a reversible engine
would be when the start air is admitted at TDC, to utilize the positive Overlap
starting torque from the beginning o f the stroke. In practice, starting Overlap is a period when two (or more) cylinder units are receiving
air is admitted slightly before TDC in order to take care o f the time starting air, where one unit is phasing out while the other is phasing
lag for pilot valve activation, start air valve opening and full pressure into the start air period. It is essential to satisfy the requirement that
availability to produce the desired starting torque. The start air should the engine be started in any crank position. Overlap is reduced in case
be admitted after the firing dead center to provide a positive torque in there are m ore number o f cylinder unite, but necessary for engines
the correct direction at the start o f the working stroke.
with less units to assist the starting torque for cranking. Overlap ensures
that at every crank angle position, there is sufficient air turning moment
Id e a l F irin g S p eed
to enable positive starting. It depends on the start air period, exhaust
It is the ideal speed o f rotation o f the crankshaft created by
timings and the number o f cylinders.
compressed starting air cranking to compress the combustion air
in the cylinder to a temperature sufficient enough to self ignite the fuel
M inim um N u m b er o f Units fo r Overlap
when injected. Usually, the speed is achieved at 8 to 12% o f the MCR
speed. 1. 3 cylinder engine (2 stroke):
Firing interval = 360 deg = 120 degrees
F irin g In terval 3 unite
It is determined by dividing the number o f degrees in the engine cycle
Since maximum start air period is 115 degrees, no overlap'is
by the number o f cylinder units o f the engine.
possible. For overlap to occur in this case, the start angle
should be greater than 120 degrees which is not possible.
Fo r a 3 cylinder 2 stroke engine, firing interval = 360 / 3 = 120 deg.

Marine Diesel Engines Starting, Reversing and Manoeuvring

2. 4 cylinder engine (2 stroke): Air Receiver Capacity

= (Total air mass in receiver at m aximum pressure)
Firing interval = 360 deg = 90 degrees - (Air mass in receiver at minimum start pressure)
4 units
where, Total air mass in the receiver at maximum pressure
If the start air period is 115 degrees, = 12 starts x 2 x Total displacement volum e to give the
required air mass per start.
then Total Overlap Period = Startairperiod-Firinginterval
= 115 deg - (360 / 4) deg. A ir Bottle Description
= 115 deg - 90 deg = 25 deg. The start air bottle is of welded steel type with the following components:
A relief valve to limit accumulation o f pressure upto 10% with the
T he firing sequence is 1 - 4 - 3 - 2. compressor filling the bottle and the outlet valves closed.
A fusible plug, in case the relief valve can be isolated. The fusible
Start Air System Components plug vents directly o ut o f the engine room to atmosphere via a
separate piping, in case o f an excessively high engine room
Start A ir C om pressors
temperature (engine room fires). Usually, the melting pointofthe
Two or more start air compressors are to be provided having sufficient
fusible plug is 150 deg.C.
capacity to pressurize both the start air bottles to the working pressure
Outlet valves o f slow opening type to avoid sudden pressure surges
from the atmosphere pressure in one hour.
in the start air lines. The main stop valve provided allows for manual
Start A ir Receiver isolation o f the entire start air system during overhaul.
Manhole door for internal inspection.
For reversible engines, tw o air bottles o f equal capacity are required,
Drain valves to drain water from the air bottle receiver from the
sufficient for 12 cold starts o f the engine (w ithout simultaneous
lowest point in the receiver without choking.
replenishm ent by the start air compressors) in' alternate ahead and
astern directions respectively. F or non-reversible engines, 6 starts
are sufficient Start A ir Receiver Inspection
Inspection is done when there is adequate tim e during w hich the air
The capacity o f the air bottles are designed according to the swept bottle will not be required. The air bottle is isolated and,all valves
volume o f the engine cylinders, the specified number o f cold starts (6 lashed and tagged with notices. The air botde is de-pressurized through
o r 12) and the a ir required per start. Usually, this air requirement is the drain valve and then checked through another opening like the
10 to 12 litres per litre o f swept volume for cold engine starting and 5 pressure gauge connection in case the drain line gets clogged. The
to 8 litres for a warm ed up engine. m anhole door is opened and ventilation for the interior is provided.

180 181
Marine Diesel Engines Starting, Reversing and Manoeuvring

Visual inspection is to be carried out for the interior coating and paint. In the figure, the pilot start air valve is shown shut since the spring
A horoscope can be used where access is not possible. Inspection is lifts the roller off the cam.
carried o u t a t stress concentration areas like w elding seams, On starting the engine, the automatic valve sends air to the pilot
penetrations, drain holes, support points, sludge collection area, valve which pushes the roller onto the cam. As the cam turns, the
condensation areas, v alve connection openings, etc. The internal negative peak comes into play allowing air to pass through, to the
corrosion prevention coating layer is to b e inspected. In case o f automatic starting valve piston causing it to open. The shutting of
deterioration, a coat o f Copal Varnish can be applied after properly the valve happens when the roller comes onto the idle surface o f
preparing the internal surface to be coated. The fitting connections for the cam.
draining valves are to b e cleaned. T he relief valve is to b e tested
hydraulically to the stamped working pressure and checked for lifting Automatic Master Air Start Valve
in actual service after fitting back. In case o f serious deterioration e.g. Function
severe corrosion o r pitting, the receiver can b e de-rated along with To act as a stop valve which supplies o r shuts off main starting air
the compressor settings and relief valves to provide fo r a low er safer into the main start air line at the engine cylinders only during the
capacity. starting period.
To act as a non-return valve preventing any blow back o f
Start A ir Pilot Valve combustion gases in case an air start valve leaks back, and also
preventing a flam e by u se o f a flam e trap incorporated in the
assem bly.
To shut off starting air supply automatically to the start air line ahead
1 To and from cylinder air start valve
o f the stop valve, once the engine is on fuel or when the engine is
2 Venting to atmosphere shut down, thereby saving on air consumption and providing
3 From automatic valve to pilot valve additional safety.
4 Spring to lift roller off the cam Types
5 Cam They are classified into two types on the basis o f the operating
6 Clearance between roller and cam. principle:
1. Unbalanced type, w here the valve is opened due to relieving the
It is operated by the start air lever or button in the control room. Its pilot piston o f air pressure.
2. Balanced type, w here the valve is opened due to an air pressure
function is to operate the opening and closing o f the automatic start
valve and to operate the air distributor by loading up the distributor applied to the pilot piston.
slide valve.

182 183
Marine Diesel Engines Starting, Reversing and Manoeuvring

1 Tapping for pilot valve

2 Vent, when valve is shut A ir Start Valve
3 Valve An air start valve is fitted to each cylinder head o f the engine and is
4 Spring pushing the pilot operated by the starting air distributor control valve. It is operated by
piston down
5 Pilot piston the start air lever o r button in the control room. Its function is to
6 Pilot air to open valve operate the opening and closing o f the automatic start valve and to
7 Valve body
A Start air inlet operate the air distributor by loading up the distributor slide valve.
B Start air outlet to start air line
at cylinders. 1 Nut
2 Cover
T h e f ig u r e sh o w s a 3 Intermediate ring
4 Casing
balanced type automatic 5 Casing o-ring
m a ste r sta rt a ir valve, 6 Cylinder head
which is more reliable than 7 Self-locking nut
8 Pilot piston
the unbalanced type. It 9 Valve spindle
consists o f the valve closed 10 Allen screw
by the downward force o f 11 Spring
A Piston rings
the spring pressure along B Control valve
w ith a ir p re s s u re A. M Air gap
W hen the starting lever is
s h ifte d to S T A R T The start a ir v alve is shut
position, the pilot air valve compression spring force acting on
o p e n s a n d s e n d s a ir the pilo t piston. I f th e cylinder
pressure to the space a. pressure is higher than the starting
T h e upw ard force d ue to air pressure, the valve cannot open.
this air pressure on die pilot Hence, blow back o f combustion
piston is greater than the gas into the starting air manifold is
downward force and the Fig-112 avoided. The start air valve is opened
valve opens. A s soon as pneumatically by air supplied from
the engine is on fuel o r shut down, the pilot valve closes, stopping air the respective start air control valve.
pressure supply to the pilot piston o f the automatic valve, thereby This air pressure acts on the pilot piston causing it to overcome the
shutting it. A ir is then vented via vent pipe connection 2. spring force and open the valve.

184 185
Starting, Reversing and Manoeuvring
Marine Diesel Engines

During reversing, the distributor cam is also turned by the same

Start A ir D istributor
Function During running, the distributor piston valve is kept off the cam with
To admit pilot air to operate the cylinder air start valves with proper the help o f a return spring, with start air supply being shut off. On
timing and sequence for starting in ahead and astern directions. pushing the starting lever, air is supplied to the distributor which
To vent the low er cham ber o f the cylinder start air valves, which pushes all the respective control valves onto the cam.
are not being supplied with starting air. The distributor sends pilot air in a proper sequence to each cylinder
air start valve until the minimum cranking rpm is reached, after which
start air admission is stopped and fuel is injected to self-ignite.

Start A ir C am
The start air cam is usually o f inverse type as it has the following
Wear is reduced on the cam working edge because the roller is off
the cam during normal running, as there is a definite clearance
between them, when the engine is running. This ensures that the
air distributor functions correctly inspite o f the spring failure.
It allows more flexibility to position the control valve of the distributor
so that it does not touch the cam when the engine is running.

Starting Interlocks
Thesearemechanicallinkagesordevices which willnotallowfurther
operation until they receive an input signal that the predetermined
conditions are fulfilled.
The following interlocks are placed in the starting system :
. (1) Turning gear is disengaged
(2) Complete reversing is achieved
(3) Correct running direction is done
(4) Lube oil pressure is sufficient
The distributor is driven by a cam connected to the fuel camshaft,
which provides the correct sequence o f starting. Starting control (5) Spring air pressure is sufficient
valves are radially fitted around the distributor cam. (6) Auxiliary blower is o n auto.

Marine Diesel Engines Starling, Reversing and Manoeuvring

Slow T urning For 2-stroke the firing interval is 360 / Z, and for 4-stroke it is
Its function is to avoid fluid lock in case o f fluid accumulation in the 720 /Z , where Z is the number o f cylinders.
combustion chamber, during engine stand stills for long periods
(sim ilarto blow through).
This is a m ode o f the engine control system w here the engine is
turned slowly fo r one complete revolution at a slow speed o f 5 to
8 rp m .
During m anouevring, while the engine is on B ridge Control, the
slow turning m ode automatically starts, if there is no telegraph
movement for 30 minutes.
In order to achieve slow turning, the flow o f start air to the engine
is limited.

Scavenge A ir L im iter
It is a means o f governor control o f the fuel released depending on
the availability o f scavenge air in the desired ratio required for good
It is im portant w hile increasing the engine speed so that a
proportional amount o f fuel is released as the scavenge air pressure
The scavenge air limiter can be over-ridden, in case o f failed start
attempts so as to provide a better chance for starting with more
fuel available. This is done by sending a false scavenge air
pressure signal to the governor from the control air line.

F irin g Order o f Cylinders R eversing

The purpose o f a firing order is to relieve the crankshaft journals
between adjacent cylinders from excessive loads, unavoidable if
Repositioning o f the following cams are required for the correct firing
these cylinder loads would fire in succession.
sequence according to the reverse direction:
It provides better and regular crankshaft rotation w hen firing in
1. Fuel Cam 2. A ir Distributor Cam 3. Exhaust Cam.
equal intervals.

188 189
Marine Diesel Engines Starling, Reversing and Manoeuvring

F irin g Order Reversed RND Engine Reversing

T he firing order sequence in the
Fuel and Start air distributor cam s get repositioned by a common
reverse direction can be as follows:
hydraulic servomotor, which turns the camshaft by 98 degrees in the
opposite direction relative to the crankshaft.
6-Cylinder 2-stroke en g in e:
Ahead Firing O rder 1-5-3-4-2-6
Astern Firing O rder 1-6-2-4-3-5
Reversing Methods
(A) Camshaft is rotated with respect to crankshaft
Exam ple: R D & RNDEngines
(B) Camshaft is stationary but cams are turned
Example: RTAengines
(C) Camshaft is displaced in the axial direction
Exam ple: 4-stroke engines
(D) Shift in the contact position o f the fuel pump roller 3 2 Fig-116
Exam ple: SM C engines. r~i Gear train 2 To interlock systems
| 3 To/fromreversing control valve._______ ._______________________ 1
RD Engine Reversing
1. Fuel and Start air distributor cams get repositioned by a common RTA Engine Reversing
hydraulic servomotor which turns the camshaft by 98 degrees in In these engines, the fuel, air and exhaust cams are fitted on the main
the opposite direction relative to the crankshaft Here, the engine camshaft. Hence the camshaft cannot be repositioned, as this will not
is stationary and the camshaft physically rotates by 98 degrees. provide the correct repositioning o f all three types o f cams i.e. fuel, air
2. Exhaust rotary valve cams get repositioned by another hydraulic and exhaust cams. Hence, the solution is to reposition only the cams,
servomotor connected to the camshaft drive, which turns the rotary whilst the camshaft is stationary.
valve cam by 160 degrees in the opposite direction. In RD engines, 1. Fuel Cams are turned by 70 degrees in the opposite direction
since rotary exhaust valves are used, the tim ing is asymmetric while the camshaft is stationary. The cam s are m ounted on a
about BDC and repositioning o f exhaust cams is required. reversing servomotor, which is mounted on the main camshaft.
One servomotor is used to reposition two fuel cams.

190 191
2. Start A ir Distributor Cams are
tu rn e d b y 98 d e g re e s in the
opposite direction b y a separate
servomotor, while the camshaft is

3. Exhaust cams are symmetrical about BDC (since exhaust valves
are used and not exhaust rotary valves). Hence, no repositioning
is required. Exhaust cams are on the same shaft as the fuel cams.
2 3 Fig-117
MC Engine Reversing
1 Fuel Cam 2 Oil drained out for astern direction
3 Oil in for ahead direction. 1. Air Distributor
The engine drives a rotary disc (distributor) which can be turned
RTA Reversing S ervom otor f o r F uel Cam by the reversing angle by means o f areversing pneumatic cylinder.
It is a mechanism to turn and reposition cams for the reversal sequence 2. Fuel Cam
o f firing. As shown in the figure, each reversing servomotor has three The fuel pump roller (not the cam) is shifted by a pneumatic cylinder.
pipe connections: Fuel cam is o f inverse type. Each fuel pump roller has an individual
a) for sending oil pressure in for ahead direction. pneumatic cylinder. During reversing, the cylinder gets pressurized
b) for draining oil out for astern direction. pneumatically and moves the pump roller position. After completion,
the cylinder is depressurized and vented. T he rollers are o f self
c) for control pressure, which gets pressurized only when the
locking type in their end position. The shift o f all fuel pump rollers
flap is in the end position.
take place during the first revolution o f the engine while still on air.
The control air pressure is nil during reversal as it is connected to the After shifting o f rollers is done, this end position o f the rollers is
side o f the flap w here pressure to relieve is acting. This control air sensed by limit switches w hich gives an indication in the control
pressure can be used as a signal to cut off fu e l. room that reversal has taken place.

192 193
Marine Diesel Engines Starting, Reversing and Manoeuvring

Gain M otion
It is the gain in motion caused due to the camshaft turning in the same
direction as the required direction when the engine is being reversed.
It is used in B & W engines.

Governor Booster
It serves the purpose to boost the hydraulic pressure required for the
governor to push the fuel racks when starting.

Running Direction Interlock

It is an interlock w hich prevents
admission o f fuel to the engine, if the
running direction o f the engine does
not m atch with the telegraph lever.
It is fitted at the forward end o f the
fuel pumps.

1 Fork lever
2 Angle of rotation.

3. Exhaust cam s are symmetrical about B D C and are on the same

Crash Manoeuvring
camshaft as the fuel cams. Repositioning is not required for exhaust
cams. Crash manoeuvring is the application o f brake air, whilst the engine is
still turning in the opposite direction.
L o st M otion In B & W engines
It is the loss in motion caused due to the camshaft turning opposite to Acknowledge the bridge request for reversal o f direction.
the required direction when the engine is being reversed. It is used in The start air cam gets reversed due to telegraph acknowledgment.
Sulzer engines. However, the fuel is cu t off by the running direction interlock,
since telegraph is opposite to the turning direction o f the engine.

194 195
Marine Diesel Engines Starling, Reversing and Manoeuvring

Now put the fuel lever at O setting. Manoeuvring Flow Chart

W hen rpm reduces to 20% to 40% M CR rpm, put the fuel lever
to minimum start setting. Control is from bridge, engine control room, or local manoeuvring stand.
Safety interlock and pressure conditions are met.
Astern rpm is m uch less than the ahead rpm as the engine is Only in emergency conditions, safety devices can be overridden.
tremendously overloaded due to increased propeller slip.
Start air becom es braking air because the start air cam reversal
allows air supply inforastem timings, when theengine is still moving

Telegraph lever is put to ahead or astern.
with ahead timings.
Reversing of cams takes place.
Camshaft is in end position (either in ahead or astern).
Running direction interlock senses that correct reversal is completed.
Fuel lever is set to minimum setting.
Start button pressed or starting lever put to start position'._______

Turning gear interlock check is done.
Pilot valve opens automatic valve and distributor control valves.
Automatic valve sends start air to cylinder start air valves.

Engine turns on air to the minimum firing speed.
Minimum fuel is injected and cylinders fire.
Start air is shut off.

Engine speed is gradually increased.
Critical speed is overridden.
Engine speed is brought upto MCR revolutions and parameters checked.
Marine Diesel Engines Starting, Reversing and Manoeuvring

F ig - 121
I Running direction interlock Reversing servomotor
3 Fuel ptimp Cylinder start air valve
5 Automatic valve 6 Governor
7 Start- air distributor cam 8 Start air distributor
9 Fuel pump cam being turned by 10 Air cam being turned by the
reversing servomotor
1i Turning gear interlock 12 Air start bottle
13 Control slide valve 14 Starting lever interlock block valve
15 Engine room telegraph lever 16 Starting lever
17 Fuel cut out servomotor 18 Pilot air valve
19 Oil pressure supply at 6 bar 20 Automatic oil and water low
pressure cut out
21 Fuel speed setting lever 22 Load indicator

23 Reversing control valve

Starting, reversing and manoeuvring are explained with reference to a

RND manoeuvring diagram.

M edium s a r e :
Start air at 30 bar pressure is supplied from the start air bottle
when the main bottle isolating valve is opened. Start air reaches
the automatic valve (in closed position) and the pilot valve through
the turning gear interlock block valve.
Lube oil a t 6 bar pressure.

198 199
Marine Diesel Engines Starting, Reversing and Manoeuvring

Starting operation
Telegraph lever action to fr e e sta rt lever Start lever 16 is put to start position.
The Bridge gives a telegraph order w hich is acknowledged with the This leverage raises the pilot air valve 18 opening it.
telegraph lever 15 in the engine control room. T he telegraph lever Pilot air now passes to open the automatic valve 5 through line E
sets th e required running direction b y turning the reversing control by venting its underside and also to the start air distributor 8 control
valve 23 to either ahead V, stop U o r astern R positions via linkage J. valves along line F to force them onto the cam 7.
Lube oil at 6 bar pressure 19 now passes through the reversing valve
The start air distributor cam 7has already been positioned for the
to th e cam shaft reversing servom otor o il passages 2 and turns the
firing sequence by the reversing servomotor turning the camshaft in
camshaft. Only w hen the cam shaft has reached its end position, the
either ahead or astern end positions 10.
running direction interlock 1 w ill allow oil pressure to the starting
Pilot air passes through the air distributor and goes to open the
lever blocking device 14 vialineA . T h isfreesu p the starting lever
16 for movement. cylinder start air valve 4 via line G i.e. to the top o f the cylinder
start air valve piston to push it down. The underside o f the cylinder
Freeing up o f fu e l lever start air valve piston is vented via line H.
Simultaneously with the above operation, the lube oil pressure supply Starting air from the automatic valve is admitted to the engine
goes along line B to the slide valve 13 and then to the fuel cut out cylinders, after each cylinder start air v alve is opened b y the
cylinder 17 to free up the fuel control linkage along line C, so as to distributor in the correct sequence via line 1.
take up the position as per the load indicator setting 22, w hich is set The fuel lever 21 is already set to around 3.5 setting.The engine
up by the fuel lever 21. This freeing up o f the fuel lever assumes that turns on air and then fires on fuel.
the safety cut out pressures are met. Once the engine starts, the starting lever 16 is released to its normal
position by a spring fitted. This action m akes the leverage to
Safety c u t o ut device lower the pilot valve 18, thereby shutting it and shutting pilot air to
A safety cut out device 20 is set to ensure that the lube oil, jacket the distributor 8 and the automatic valve 5. Start air is now shut
cooling and piston cooling w ater pressures are above the pre and the air in the start air manifold line is relieved through small
determined setting.
leakage points in the starting air valves.
In case any o f the pressures are n o t upto the values set, then the
slide valve 13 moves down due to a decrease in pressure at line D. Reversing operation
This causes the slide valve to vent the fuel cut out cylinder, thereby The telegraph lever 15 is brought back from ahead to stop
bringing the fuel rack back to zero through line C. position.
In an emergency, the automatic cut-out devices can be overridden The fuel lever 21 is brought back to minimum setting around 3.5,
as in the case o f reduced pressures. so as to prevent excessive fuel injection when the engine is restarted.
Marine Diesel Engines Starting, Reversing and Manoeuvring

Bringing the telegraph lever 15 to Stop, puts the reversing control 5. Bridge control solenoid system in the engine control room.
valve 23 to stop position U via linkage J. This relieves the oil 6. A larm unit for alarms like low start air pressure remote system
pressure supply from the reversing control valve 23 to the reversing failure.
servom otor 2. T his pressure drop causes the slide valve 13 to
m ove down, thereby bringing back the fuel cut-out cylinder 17 to Bridge Control Procedure
cut fuel injection. O nce the engine is blown through and tested on fuel, controls are
handed ova: to the bridge by pressing a button in the engine control
Telegraph lever 15 is put to astern, thereby pushing the reversing
room, which must be acknowledged on the bridge.
control valve 23 to astern V position via link J. T he oil pressure
from the reversing control valve 23 is supplied to the reversing Starting w ill be blocked, in case any o f the pre-set conditions are
servomotor 2 to turn the camshaft to astern position. O h reaching not met, such as: starting air pressure low, turning gear engaged,
its end position, the running direction interlock will allow oil pressure lube oil pressure low, cooling water pressure low, reversing running
to the starting lever blocking device 14 via line A, to free up the direction interlock, etc.
starting lever 16 for movement. Starting operation is the same as the engine control room starting
The start lever 1 6 is now put to start position and the starting sequence.
sequence is repeated as per the starting operation described earlier. In case o f a failed start attempt, start air will be automatically kept

Bridge Control System Three to four starts are allowed in case o f start failures, after which
a false scavenge air pressure from the control air line is supplied to
B ridge C ontrol U nit the scavenge air limiter, so that m ore fuel can be injected for a
It consists o f the follow ing: better start attempt.
1. A telegraph lever handle for ahead / astern movement w ith speed Start air is always kept open in the engine room even after the
positions like dead slow, slow, half ahead, full ahead and navigational engine is full away.
full ahead.
O nce the engine is started, the speed is increased as per the bridge
2. A speed sensing u nit getting a signal directly from the engine telegraph lever position.
Speeds w ith each speed range can be varied by pressing a button
3. A control unit on the bridge. or a fine setting knob.
4. A load programme unit either on the bridge or in the engine control Automaticjumping over the critical speed range (around 8 to 12%
room. o f the M CR speed) is done by releasing m ore fuel.

202 203
In case o f a ny deviation in critical parameters, the engine is
autom atically slowed down or stopped.
Emergency manoeuvring is possible by overriding the safety devicesJ


In a single cylinder engine; during the expansion stroke, a force is

applied onto the piston due to the gas pressure and an inertia force of
the reciprocating parts. While the former varies with the crank angle,

Marine Diesel Engines Engine Stresses, Vibration and Dynamics

the latter equaling the product o f the acceleration o f the parts and their that the recurrence o f torque alterations increases directly w ith the
m ass varies directly w ith crank sh aft speed. T h e m ass o f the number o f cylinders and the irregularity o f the crankshaft rotation
reciprocating parts equals the m ass o f the piston assembly and decreases. The continuously changing engine torque is compared with
30-40 % o f the mass o f the connecting rod. The resultant o f these the moment caused by the force resisting the crankshaft rotation. The
forces, referred to as the motive force P is applied to the centre o f the torque exceeds the moment at the instance o f cylinder firing and is less
piston pin and transmitted to the crankshaft through the connecting than the moment during the intermissions. Hence, the two conditions
rod. T he motive force is resolved into tw o components N and S. The are extra torque and torque deficiency, causing irregularity in
norm al com ponent force N presses the piston against the cylinder crankshaft rotation.
liner in a trunk-type engine o r it presses the shoe against the
Irregularity Factor
corresponding guide in a crosshead engine. This force, varying in both
It is the ratio o f the difference between the maximum and minimum
direction and magnitude, produces a recurrent piston thrust against
angular velocities o f the crankshaft and the m ean angular velocity
the opposite sides of the cylinder liner. It also gives rise to an overturning
throughout a cycle o f torque alterations.
m om ent about an arm equal to the distance betw een the axis o f the
piston pin and the crankshaft axis. T he moment opposing the direction
F lyw heel
o f the crankshaft rotation is taken up by the bolts holding dow n the
A flywheel is fitted to the aft end o f the crankshaft to help reduce the
engine to the bedplate.
irregularity o f crankshaft rotation. It is an accumulator which stores
The second component force S is brought down the line o f its action the energy o f the gyrating masses when there is extra torque, and
and applied to the crank pin center. I t can be resolved into two supplying the stored energy during torque deficiency. Increasing the
com ponents : a force T tangential to the crankpin and a force Z number of engine cylinders also decreases the irregularity o f crankshaft
coinciding w ith the crankpin radius. T he force T produces a torque rotation. Exam ple: Adiesel engine with more than 12 cylinders does
w hich varies w ith the crank angle from a m axim um to a minimum not require a flywheel.
within a certain period. This torque causes the crankshaft to rotate
irregularly. T he force Z bends the crankpin and creates wear in the Static Loads
bearing. These are loads caused by the weights o f the engine components and
the bolt loads.
In a multi-cylinder engine, the crankshaft is set to rotate by the torques
produced by all the cylinders in succession. It w ill operate m ore
D ynam ic Loads
regularly than the crankshaft o f a single cylinder engine. However, the
These are loads caused by the cylinder gas fluctuating pressure and
torques w ill not coincide in time, because the cranks are arranged at
inertia loads o f the reciprocating and rotating masses.
certain angles to each other, rather than in the same plane. This implies

206 207
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Stresses, Vibration and Dynamics

Static B ala n cin g Prim ary a n d Secondary Im balance

It implies that the shaft is stationary or stops at a different position,
if rotated w hen supported between centres.
The sum o f all moments taken about its centre o f rotation should
be zero at any angular position.
It is done by placing counter weights to balance the moments so
that their sum becomes zero.

D ynam ic B ala n cin g

Although a shaft may be statically balanced, imbalance is caused while
it is rotating, due to rotating and reciprocating masses producing inertia
forces, couples and moments. Dynamic balancing is balancing o f the
unbalanced inertia forces together with their moments.

A n inertia force is set up due to the translating (reciprocating) masses

o f the connecting rod-crank m echanism , and due to unbalanced
gyrating (rotating) masses. Both forces cause foundation vibration.
Prim ary and secondary forces are set up due to the inertia force
The forces due to translating (reciprocating) masses o f the connecting
rod-crank mechanism tend to either tear the engine off the foundation caused by reciprocating masses.
o r to press it against the foundation, depending on the direction o f The variation in these forces are in the form o f a sine w ave of
action. simple harmonic motion.
Considering one revolution of360degrees, the variation o f primary
The unbalanced gyrating (rotating) masses act along the crank web . forces (Curve 1) and secondary forces (Curve 2) is shown.
and are constant at any angle on the crankshaft at a given engine speed.
They tend to shift the engine off the foundation or overturn it.
M om ents caused by these tw o inertia fo rc e s : It is the oscillation caused due to a disturbing force.
The gyrating (rotating) masses cause moments to act in the vertical It can be longitudinal, axial, transverse or torsional.
and horizontal planes.
T he translating (reciprocating) masses cause moments only in the E ngine Vibration Causes
vertical plane. - Constantly changing firing pressures.

208 209
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Stresses, Vibration and Dynamics

U n balanced forces, couples and m om ents due to reciprocating Resonance

and rotating masses. It is the coincidence o f the frequency o f the natural vibration and
Pulsations d ue to gas forces including exhaust gases. the frequency o f the forced vibration.
It results in vibration, local overheating and overstressing o f the
Guide fo rc e moments.
Axial fo rces due to in-plane bending o f crank webs.
Torsional vibration caused by varying torque and propeller thrust. Vibrations D uring Starting
Balanced engines tend to vibrate during starting, and gradually the
A m p litu d e vibrations die out as more cylinders develop their ow n power.
This is due to interm ittent fuel delivery and m isfiring o f some
It is the m ax im u m displacem ent o f vibration from the point o f
cylinders giving rise to unbalanced inertia forces and moments. After
a while, the combustion pressures in the cylinders level up and the
imbalance is reduced.
N ode
It is the point i n the vibrating system at which the amplitude o f vibration
Torsional Crankshaft Vibration
is zero.
The engine crankshaft, its flywheel gears and the different elements
Order o f V ibration o f the propeller shafting form an elastic system, incapable o f being
It is the n um ber o f vibration cycles in one revolution o f the engine. absolutely stiff.
Application o f a torque to the crankshaft causes it to twist within
Vibration M o d e elastic limits. Removal or reduction o f the torque causes the
It is designated by the number o f nodes in a system. crankshaft to twist o r untwist in the opposite direction. This state
will recur, for the crankshaft will be urged by the elastic forces of
N a tu ra l V ib ra tio n its material and the inertia forces o f its masses to vibrate at a certain
It is the vibration caused by the elastic forces o f the crankshaft material frequency.
and the inertia o f its masses in the absence o f external forces. Torsional vibration is the relative vibration o f the masses o f the
elastic system causing it to twist and untwist.
F orced V ibration
It is the vibration o f the crankshaft and the shafting coupled to it, which Critical Speed
is induced by a variable engine torque.
It is the crankshaft speed at which resonance m ay occur.
There may be more than one critical speed range for an engine.

210 211
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Stresses, Vibration and Dynamics

It manifests itself by a shaxp increase in the amplitude o f torsional 2. Axial vibration due to in-plane bending o f crank webs can be
shaft vibration. countered by fitting an axial vibration damper at the free end o f the
Critical speed can be measured by a torsiograph, which automatically crankshaft.
records the torsional vibration on a paper tape. 3. Torsional vibration due to varying torque and propeller thrusts is
countered by detuning or damping.
Barred Zone Range 4. Vibration due to guide force moments is countered by detuning, by
It is a range o f operational speed which is barred i.e. overridden. using top bracing to increase the stiffness.
This is a critical speed range w hich m ust be passed as soon as
possible. Detuners

U nder B ridge control, the B ridge control u n it program m e They are frequency control devices used to change the frequency of
autom atically increases the speed setting so that m ore fuel can the system.
enable the engine to cross over this speed range as fast a possible.
It is specified for a given engine.
1. Top bracing supporting the engine:
The means o f avoiding these resonant frequencies is to adjust the
The bracing increases the stiffness and raises the natural frequency
speed o f the engine or the mass o f the flywheel or the engine firing
beyond the operating range.
2. Flexible couplings:
T he m ost effective means o f reducing the amplitude o f torsional
These couplings sectionalise the system. T he flexible element
vibration is the sectionalizing o f the shafting and interposing special
absorbs part o f the vibrational energy and hence, decreases its
couplings between the sections.
amplitude. The flexible element can be either rubber o r a spring
A nother m ethod is to use vibration absorbers which are fitted to element
the crankshaft to dissipate the energy o f vibration in a given
3. Hydraulic oil-filled mechanical detuners:
range o f engine speeds. Here, the oil gets passed to and fro past the springs, causing detuning
as well as damping.
R eduction o f E n g in e Vibration
1. T he vibrations d ue to reciprocating and rotating masses can be Dampers
countered by com pensating masses rotating at the engine speed
for first order frequency, and tw ice the engine speed for second These are devices which absorb part o f the vibrational energy.
order frequency. T hese com pensators o r balancers can be Examples:
positioned in the chain drive. 1. Rubber damper using the elasticity o f rubber to absorb part o f the
vibrational energy.

212 213
Marine Diesel Engines

2. Viscous damper using a viscous silicone fluid.

It is made up o f tw o masses i.e. a light outer casing and a heavy
inner ring. The inner heavy ring rotates a t a lesser speed than the
light outer ring separated by viscous silicone fluid. This heavier
ring is driven by the viscous shear o f th e silicone. T he energy
required fo r the viscous shear (relative oscillating motion) is
provided from the vibration energy, thus giving a damping effect.

Unit Decarbonisation

Safety P recautions to be o b served:

The port authorities are to be informed that immobilization o f the

engine is to take place.
In case o f turning the propeller, propeller clearance is to be taken
from the Bridge.
Spare parts, tools, lifting devices, gaskets, 0-rings, hydraulic jacks,
special tools, gauges, operational crane, etc. are to be kept ready.
Engine is to be isolated:
A t Finished W ith Engines (FWE), bring the telegraph lever and
fuel lever to zero. Take over the controls from the Bridge to the
ECR. Stop pumps and shut valves for fuel, exhaust valve air, start
air, lube oil and jacket water systems. Use Do not operate tags
and signs, or lash valves. Engage die turning gear. Usually die turning
gear is engaged and run for a few revolutions before stopping the
lube oil pumps. Drain the jacket water for that unit.

214 215
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Overhauls and M aintenance

Cylinder Head Removal Hydraulic n ut removal

Tools required H ydraulic pressure is used to elongate the stud. The n ut is then
opened by a turn, by a tommy bar inserted into holes on the side
Hydraulic tensioning device, suspension lifting device and special eye
bolt screws. of the n u t Hydraulic pressure is then released and the nut unscrewed
Procedure Hydraulic pressure can b e supplied to one point as shown in the
Remove the cooling waterpiping for the exhaust valve; high pressure fig-124 and vented before applying full pressure. Example shown
fuel oil pipes to the injectors; air piping to the cylinder start air is as per a LG F engine.
valve; lube oil hydraulic pipe fo r exhaust valve actuation; drain Other engines use a hydraulic tensioning device consisting o f a pump
pipe between exhaust valve and hydraulic actuator; and exhaust and a single flexible hose branching out to each nut itself. Example
valve bellow. shown in fig-125 is as per a RTA engine.
Clean the threads o f the cylinder h ead studs after rem oving the
stud caps. Place the hydraulic device to remove the hydraulic nuts
on the cylinder head studs.The hydraulic pressure to b e applied
by the hydraulic pump is given in the manufacturers manual.
Example: 600 bar pressure fo r RTA engines;
700 b ar pressure for L G F engines.


1 Stud 2 Nut
3 Pin 4 Vent screw
5 Hydraulic nut piston 6 Hydraulic n at cylinder
7 Sealing ring 8 Hole to insert tommy bar
9 Oil pressure inlet
F ig - 124

216 217
Marine Diesel Engir, Engine Overhauls and M aintenance

Once the hydraulic nuts are removed, lifting eye bolts are screwed
on to lift the cylinder head cover (along with the small water jacket)
by the crane.
Land the cylinder cover onto wooden
blocks placed on the platform floor
D iscard the sealin g m etal gask et
between the cylinder cover and liner.
R em ove the mountings and clean the
cylinder head cover.
Lap the fuel, start air and exhaust valve
Use new seal rings and cooling w ater
connection gaskets while assembling
A fter assem bling, air supply to the
exhaust valve is opened first so that
the exhaust valve spring air closes the
exhaust valve, after which camshaft lube
oil pum p is started.

Exhaust Valve Removal

The procedure is similar to cylinder head removal. Only the exhaust
valve can be rem oved while the head is still in place.
T he necessary exhaust valve piping connections like hydraulic
actuation pipe, exhaust bellow and expansion piece are removed.
The hydraulic nuts which secure the exhaust valve to the cylinder
head are removed.
W ith the help o f a suspension device, eye bolts and the engine
room crane, the valve is rem oved and placed on woodenblocks.

218 219
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Overhauls and Maintenance

Piston Removal Piston Withdrawal

Rem ove the piston and land it in the space provided, through the
1. Cleaning o f the liner top and engine room platforms. Supporting devices in two halves are
the p iston crown hole threads provided for the purpose.
After the cylinder head is removed, A rubber sheet or a w ooden board is placed over the crosshead
clean the carbon deposits from the to protect it from dirt falling from the top.
upper p art o f the liner. Clean the
lifting holes in the piston crown top. Piston Inspection
Tap the threads o f the holes in the Check the crown surface for any traces o f fuel, water o r cracks.
crown to enable the fixing o f the The piston crown is cleaned and the bum -away on the surface is
lifting tool. Fitthe lifting tool into the checked with the help o f a template. For cracks, use a simple
threaded holes o f the piston crown. white chalk test o r dye penetrant
test. Mok. permiuible burn-away
2. Removal o f the piston rod palm The ring area and liner surface * pi,,on ,af>
n ut should be seen as slightly damp
The piston rod palm nut is removed with lube oil to confirm whether
hydraulically. T he w eight o f the cylinder lubrication is correct.
piston is now taken b y the engine R e m o v e th e rin g s w ith th e
room crane. expander tool.
3. S e p a r a te th e c r o s s h e a d
Turn the engine with the turning gear
and lower the crosshead bearing so
that it is separated and clear from
the piston rod. In some engines, the
stuffing box is taken out along with
the piston, whilst in other engines it FITTING OF TENSION SPRING
is taken out after th e p iston is
removed. Fig-128

F ig - 129

220 221
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Overhauls and Maintenance

Clean the grooves and measure the groove / ring clearances. The
groove inner com ers should be cleaned o f deposits.

Piston R in g Clearances
Wear rate = R ing w ear x 1000
Running hrs.
(1) R ing gap o r b u tt clearance
It is taken w here the liner is least w here Pi = 3.14
worn, usually at the lower part, or in
a new liner. T he used ring is inserted Piston Mounting
into the liner and the ring gap (or butt The rings are fitted correctly by checking the top m arking on
clearance) is taken ,by m aking an each ring.
impression o f the gap on a paper.
Coat the piston ring, piston rod, and liner with lube oil; and mount
the lifting tool.
(2) Groove axial clearance
It is taken using a feeler gauge inserted U se new 0-rings on the outside o f the stuffing box and smear a
horizontally in the gap between the top coat o f lube oil.
o f the ring and the groove. Remove the protective rubber sheet for crosshead protection.
Remove the stuffing box hole cover.
Mount the piston guide ring piece (bell mouth) and lower the piston
with the crane.
The piston rod foot is to be guided into the stuffing box opening.
Lower the complete piston in the liner leaving a gap between the
guide ring and the lifting tool.
Turn the engine with the turning gear to put the piston rod centre
hole into the crosshead bearing section.
Remove the guide ring and the lifting tool.
Tighten the piston rod screws and the stuffing box screws.

222 223
Marine Diesel Engir. Engine Overhauls and Maintenance

L in e r Removal
L in e r Calibration
D rain the ja c k e t w ater fro m the Once the cylinder head and piston are
cylinder unit after isolating it removed, the liner is cleaned before
Remove the cylinder head, piston and calibration.
stuffing box. A straight edge tool 1 is supplied to
Remove tw o screws which locate the p rovide th e points a t w hich the
liner on the support ring. measuring gauge is put.
Remove the quills, protecting devices
and oil connections.
Lower the beam tool 1 from the top
and fasten it w ith screws 2 at the
bottom o f the liner. Main Bearing Removal
Turn the engine to TD C and place a Fig-134
Example Sulzer RTA:
support piece 5 along with a hydraulic
jack 4 on to the crosshead pin 3. . Upper H a lf
A bridge lifting tool d ism ounted on Turn the engine so that the respective
the top o f the liner 7 with the help of crank web is approximately horizontal.
screws 8. Disconnect the lube oil pipes at 6.
Ja c k up slig h tly w ith h y d rau lic Som e engines have ja c k b olts 2
pressure and check that the two 0- securing the top half o f the bearing,
rings are detached and liner is loose. while other engines have thrust bolts
Pull the liner out w ith the help o f the or wasted stud bolts. Slacken them
crane. hydraulically and remove the nuts.
L ift the top cover vertically w ith a
L iner Inspection
lifting tackle 6, wire slings and a chain
Check and clean the corrosion layer o f the jacket.U se new 0-rings
when fitting back. Lubricate guide areas with lube oil.Clean landing
Now take the top cover outside the
faces and quill holes. W hen using a new liner, the protection coating
crankcase horizontally with another
layer should not be scraped out. Remove the coating with diesel oil to lifting tackle, wire sling and chain
prevent any damage o f the surface. Check the cylinder liner lubrication block.
after fitting of the quills Fig-135
Fit an eyebolt 3 on the top half bearing
4 and take it out.

224 225
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Overhauls and M aintenance

The figure 136 show s the removal o f the Crosshead Bearing Removal
main bearing top cover 1, upper bearing
The crosshead bearing is the same as the
shell 2 and low er bearing shell 3 as in a
connecting rod top end bearing. Example
B& W engine.
given is as per RTA engines.
First, take the crosshead clearances.

1. Suspend the lube oil articulate arm

Loosen the screws o f the lube oil
articulate linkage arm.
Bottom H a lf M ount the suspending tool.
T h e en g in e is tu rn e d so th a t th e Turn the engine to TDC to suspend the
respective crank w eb is parallel to the arm. Fig-138
bedplate separating face. 2. Suspend the piston
M ount the support cross-piece 2 and jacks 3 below the adjoining Turn the engine to allow access to the piston rod screws and
crank 4. Jack up 6 the crankshaft by 0.1 to 0.15 m m (m ax 0.2 remove them hydraulically.
mm). Check the lift with a dial gauge 1. To suspend the piston, first turn the engine to TDC to take the
The shim s 8 are rem oved and a rope support piece 9 is fitted. piston up. Fit two eyebolts to either side o f the piston rod foot,
A steel rope 7 is passed around the low er shell 5 and pulled out and suspend w ith two chain blocks to the hook provisions at
with a rope pulley. the top comer o f the crankcase (port and
Take the crosshead down with the turning
gear so that the piston is suspended
(hanging) b y the tw o chain block

3. Remove the con-rod top end upper h a lf

cover w ith shell
Rem ove the four hydraulic nuts which
secure the top end upper half cover.
M ount the lifting attachment to the top
cover o f the con-rod.
Fig- 139
226 227
Engine Overhauls and Maintenance
Marine Diesel Er\gir,

Using tw o chain blocks and tw o eye Top h a lf o f th e bottom e n d bearing

bolts, rem ove the upper h alf cover to Take the bottom end bearing section
inspect the shell. out with the help o f chain blocks and
wire slings.
. Suspend the crosshead Suspend th e crosshead w ith guide
Take the crosshead up towards TDC. supports o r retaining pins o r lifting
Secure the crosshead by fitting 4 nos tackles, etc. (as explained earlier in
guide supports (or by lifting tackles in crosshead bearing removal) as shown
some engines o r retaining pins). in 2.
F ig - 140 Turn the engine till the top half o f the
bo tto m end b earin g is c le a r fo r Fig-142
S u p p o r t th e c o n -r o d a n d tu r n th e e n g in e to in s p e c t the
bottom h a lf bearing inspection as shown in 3.
T he con-rod is to be supported on either side by chain blocks.
By turning the engine shaft with the turning gear, the bottom half Crosshead Pin Removal
can be inspected. T his is very rarely done, except in case o f dam age to the crosshead
pin. A brief rem oval procedure is described below.
Connecting Rod Bearing Removal
The con-rod bottom end bearing is the
same as the crank pin bearing.
Bottom h a lf o f the bottom end bearing
The crank case doors are opened for
T\im the engine to TDC.
Support the low er half o f the bottom
end bearing with chain blocks, tackles,
wire slings, etc. as shown in 1.
Remove the securing nuts hydraulically.
Lower the bottom h alf w ith a chain,

Marine Diesel Engines Engine Overhauls and Maintenance

Remove the working piston, crosshead Thrust B earing Transm ission

lubrication toggle lever and crosshead The thrust transmission is from the engine crankshaft to the thrust collar
b e a rin g to p c o v e r e x p o sin g th e to the thrust pads to the thrust block housing to the bedplate to the
crosshead pin top side. holding down bolts to the foundation plate and to the ships hull.
Mount a special lifting plate 2 onto the
crosshead pin and take its weight with Thrust Bearing Pad Removal
the engine room crane 1.
Secure the co n -ro d and raise the
crosshead head pin.
Remove the guide rails (fuel pump side)
leading to the neighbouring cylinder,
both guide shoes and the m iddle
piece 3 on each side o f the pin. Fig -141
The crosshead pin can now be removed from the middle piece.

Connecting Rod Removal

The connecting rod can b e removed, e ven w ithout rem oving the
working piston and crosshead pin.

Remove top-end and bottom-end bearing

covers as described in earlier procedures.
Suspend the crosshead with retaining
pins 1 or guide supports.
Remove the con-rod w ith chain blocks Remove the top bearing cover 1.
and wire slings 2 as shown. Remove the retainer 2 and its screws.
The crosshead pin m ust be carefully Insert a turning out device at the gear wheel.
wrapped for protection. Turn the crankshaft so that an eyebolt can be screwed into a
pad 3 w hich can be lifted and removed one b y one.
Fig-145 All pads are numbered.

Marine Diesel Engines
Engine Overhauls and Maintenance

Bearing Clearances Crosshead B earing Clearances

The following table gives an approximate idea o f clearance values:

Bearing Clearance Value

Main bearing 0.3 to 0.4 mm

Crank pin bearing 0.4 to 0.6 mm
(Conrod bottom end)
Crosshead bearing Pin and Shoe - 0 .1 to 0.3 mm
(Conrod top end) Shoe and Rail - 0.4 mm
Plate and Rail - 1.5 mm
Thrust bearing 0 .5 to 1.0m m (m ax 2 mm)
Camshaft bearing 0.1 to 0.2 mm The crank pin should stand in a horizontal position 90 degrees
towards the fuel pump side. Hence, the crosshead is automatically
Procedures for taking Clearances pressed by the con-rod against the rail surfaces on the exhaust
M ain B earing Clearances side and the clearance is taken on the fuel pump side.
M ethod 1 The crosshead bears on one side fully. However, clearances are
to be taken on both exhaust and fuel pump sides. One side should
A fter rem oving the bearing top
give a zero value or else, the piston is not aligned or the liner is
cover and shell, a special Bridge
is placed. The clearance is taken
by placing a feeler gauge between
the bridge gauge and the journal. 1. Pin a nd Shoe
The radial clearance between the crosshead pin and shoe is
very difficult to measure when the pin is fitted in the engine. It can
M ethod 2 only be taken by measuring the pin outside diameter and the shoe
The bearing lube oil pipe and insert inner diameter by a micrometer.
are removed, and a special feeler
2. Shoe a nd Rail
g auge is in serted to take the
reading. It is m easured w ith a long feeler gauge inserted at the top and
bottom o f each guide shoe.

232 233
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Overhauls and M aintenance

3. Plate a n d Rail M ethod 2

The complete crosshead m ust be pressed axially to one side with (Example : Sulzer engines)
suitable hardwood edges or sim ilar aids. This side pressure should
be exerted onto the shoe and not the pin. Clearances are taken The total displacement which
with a feeler gauge. results from pushing the
crankshaft axially both ways
until it touches the thrust
pads 1 in ahead and astern
is measured w ith a clock

It is com p ared w ith the

engine manual guide. Incase
o f increase, there could be
possible wear of thrust pads.
M ethod 1
(Exam ple: B & W engines): Example:
Turn the engine so that the aftermost crank is at BDC. This ensures Axial clearance fl = 0.8 to 1.3
that the thrust bearing collar rests on the forward (foremost) thrust M ax im u m f l v alu e due to w ear
bearing pads. Hence, the value 'B = 0 . = 2.5 mm
A feeler gauge is inserted at A between the side o f the aftermost
bearing and the crank throw. Connecting Rod Clearances
\ r
Maximum thickness o f gauge entering A should be 2 mm. These are taken with feeler gauges at the
crosshead pin (top end) and the crank pin
If the gauge entering Ais less than [2 m m - (B + C)], then clearance I F ig -152
is within limits. (bottom end).

I f th e g a u g e e n te r in g A is e q u a l to o r g r e a te r than
[2 m m - (B + C)], then clearance is more than the limit.
Clearance is 0.5 to 1.0 m m for new engines and its m aximum
value is 2 mm.
234 235
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Overhauls and Maintenance

F u e l P u m p Setting /A d ju stm e n ts Initializing Spill Valve an d the Plunger %

It is carried out in suction and spill type fuel pumps. Example: Sulzer R o ta te th e en g in e in th e astern
engines direction.
Cam roller to be on the base.
It's p u rp o se :
Fit dial gauges 2 with 1 mm pretension
To check if the fuel pum p setting is correct for the injection
over the spill valve (now closed) and
To compare w ith the original data f o r :
Set both gauges to O.
(1) Idle Stroke = a in mm.
(2) Beginning o f injection angle, before or after TDC.
(3) Total injection stroke = b in mm.
(4) End o f injection angle, after TDC.
(5) Effective plunger stroke = b - a .

Procedure C h e c k in g B e g in n in g o f In je c tio n
i.e. Closing o f Suction Valve
Initializing Suction Valve D ial Gauge
R o ta te th e en g in e in th e ahead
direction till die suction valve gauge 3
Rotate the engine in ahead direction. shows 0.02 mm.
C am roller to b e o n the peak. Note the plunger gauge 4 reading= a.
Fit dial gauge 7 with 1 m m pretension Also note the flywheel angle.
over the suction valve (now closed)
and set to O.

F ig -155
F ig - 153

Marine Diesel Engir Engine Overhauls and M aintenance

Checking E n d o f Injection' i.e. Fuel Pump Cut-Out

Opening o f the S pill Valve W hen the cut-out lever
at th e fuel pum ps is
4 Rotate the engine in ahead turned by 180 degrees,
direction till the spill valve the mechanism lifts the
gauge 5 show s 0.02 mm. rollers from the cams.
Note the plunger gauge reading H en ce, th ere are no Fig-157
= b \ plunger movements.
W hen the fuel pump is cut out by hand, the clearance between the
Also note the flywheel angle. rollers o f the plunger and the cam m ust have at least 0.5 mm
Plunger stroke = b-a. clearance.

4 Carry out cut-out checks.

Fuel Pump Lead
It is carried out in jerk type fuel
pumps e.g. B& W engines.
It is the distance that the
plunger top is lifted above
Fuel Pump Cut Out Checks and Zero Setting Checks the upper cut-off holes in
the barrel, w hen the units
1. A t zero position o f the governor, the load indicator and cut-out piston is at TDC.
servomotor should coincide for zero fuel injection. 4 F u e l p u m p le a d = Y
2. W hen the governor is tripped by hand, the suction valves o f the = X + D5
fuel pum p should be lifted by at least 6 mm. 4 D5 is a correction factor. It
3. When the governor and speed adjusting lever is at zero, the fuel is the distance between the
pum p eccentric shaft should also be at zero. plunger top and upper cut
4. W hen the fuel pum p is manually cut-out, the clearance between o ff h o les top, w hen the
the cam and rollers should be at least 0.5 mm. p lunger top reaches the
5. A t zero setting shield position, the suction and spill valves must exact position at which light
can be seen through the
never be closed at the same tim e i.e. when one is open, the other is
low er cut-off holes in the Fig-158
barrel and plunger.

238 239
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Overhauls and M aintenance

3. Adjust the measuring tool dial gauge to zero.

4. Turn the engine ahead till the engine piston is at TDC.
5. Note the dial gauge reading = X .
6. Fuel pum p lead = Y = X + D 5.

4 - Stroke Medium Speed Engine Fuel Pump Timings

In a 4-stroke engine, the fuel camshaft rotates at half the speed o f the
crankshaft. Hence, during the two revolutions o f the crankshaft,
injection takes place only once. In order to m ake sure that it is the
injection stroke, check the fuel cam.

Open the cam case doors to see the fuel cams.

During injection stroke, the roller will not be
on the base circle o f the cam.
Turn the flywheel to the angle specified by the
Preparation manufacturerforfuel delivery commencement.
Turn the unit to TDC, shut the fuel oil inlet and drain from the bottom. Check th e jerk type fuel pum p w indow
Disconnect the air pipe to the puncture valve. Remove the protection marking.
cover and the puncture valve. R em ove the erosion plugs from the The start o f delivery should coincide with the
pump housing. R em ove the connecting pin and disconnect the VIT top m ark 1.
index arm. Pull out the VIT index arm to zeroindex. A lign the cross Turn only in one direction o r else, there will
bore in the plunger with the lower cut-off holes in the barrel. Put the be an error due to play.
fuel oil index to 21.5 or 93.5. Verify the alignment by shining a torch Fig-160
through the put-off h o le s. TUrbocharger Overhaul
Compressor End
Remove air filter.
1. Turn the engine ahead till the upper edge ofthe plunger reaches
Drain lube oil.
the exact position at which light can be seen through the lower
Remove the bearing space cover.
cut-off holes in the barrel and plunger.
Check the true run B 1 o f the nipple with a dial gauge.
2. Mount the measuring tool so that it touches lightly against the Rem ove the nipple.
top o f th e plunger.
Check the true run B 2 o f the oil slinger with the dial gauge.

240 241
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Overhauls and M aintenance

Turbocharger Out of Operation

Case] : In case one turbocharger is damaged

The following measures are to be taken in
case o f one o r m ore turbochargers are still
in operation. The engine can still be run at
low rpm and with less power.
T he charge air pressure, tem perature,
turbocharger rpm, firing pressure, etc. are
to b e monitored.
R em ove th e expansion piece betw een
turbocharger and exhaust manifold and fit
Remove the cap nut and the locking washer. the flanges A and B.
Measure dimension K.
F it a b la n k fla n g e C b e tw e e n th e
Remove oil slinger using an extractor and holding device. turbocharger air outlet and diffusor.
M easure K1 and K2.
Isolate the turbocharger cooling system.
K1 is measured at the same place as K w hile pushing the rotor Stop th e lube oil supply only if the
towards the compressor. turbochargers are provided with external
K 2 is m easured at the same place as K w hile pulling the rotor lubrication system.
towards the turbine. Block the rotor o f the defective turbocharger.
Remove the bearing using the extractor screwed to the inner bearing
bush. Case2: In case all turbochargers are damaged
B lock rotor and stop lube oil supply from
Turbine End external lubrication.
Similarly, remove the turbine-side bearing also. Open all covers D o n the charge air receiver.
Using a special pipe and an eye bolt screwed to the shaft, the rotor Open and remove cover E o n the auxiliary
can be removed. blower.
The clearances K, K1 and K 2 are compared during disassembly Start the auxiliary blower and put in use.
and assembly. M onitor exhaust temperatures before the
Check the labyrinth seal, binding wire, blades, pitting on the shaft, turbine, exhaust smoke, charge air pressure,
casing nozzle ring damage and corrosion. turbocharger speed, firing pressures, etc.
Clearance L = K - K l , and M = K 2 - K .
Run the engine at a reduced rpm.

242 243
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Overhauls and M aintenance

Fuel Injector Overhaul The nozzle holes are cleaned and

A fuel injector is checked and overhauled for the following: cleared with special needle drills o f
Condition o f the valve spindle (sticky, etc.). diameter size 0.025 m m smaller than
Opening pressure o f the valve. the nozzle.
Functioning o f the slide valve. A test plug gauge is used to ascertain
Oil tightness o f valve seat between valve spindle and spindle guide. whether the hole is still proper. If the
Direction and spray o f fuel jet. test plug enters the hole, then it
Slackness o f the needle. should be discarded. The test plug is
10% larger in size than the normal
spray hole size.
The fuel valve is disassembled by The needle should not be too slack in the nozzle. Test it by leaving
unscrewing the union nut with a it to fall into the nozzle. It should go down smoothly and slowly.
tommy bar or a spanner, while
retaining the valve in a vice with Needles and nozzles are a pair and are to be replaced together.
Clean and examine all parts. Atomisation into a fine spray is checked by quick pumping
movement of the test machine handle.
Lapping o r grinding o f seating
surfaces by grinding mandrels is The direction o f the spray is checked at its opening pressure. Here,
done manually or by a slow speed the oil spray jet direction can be seen through a transparent control
drill if required. screen.

The correct functioning of the valve is checked by testing the opening

and closing pressures o f the spindle guide.

Apply and oil pressure to the valve to a value o f 50 kg/

below the opening pressure. This means that the pressure should
not be raised above approximately 200 kg/, following which
it w ill fall relatively slowly towards zero. A t around 8-10 kg/, when the return oil passage has been re-established, the
pressure should fall abruptly.

Engine Overhauls and Maintenance
Marine Diesel Engines

0-R in g Check If there is clearance, tighten the nut w ith the round tommy bar.
Release hydraulic press, apply non-acidic grease to the threads
Raise the pressure slowly so that the return oil and cap the nut.
connection is n o t closed, until oil flow s out o f
A. Then plug the outlet hole, raise the pressure Checks D uring L oosening a nd Tightening
to 100 kg /sq .cm , and m aintain it at this level Pinching or clamping screws should be removed.
for a moment to see that o-ring B seals tight. If the tie-rods are newly tightened, then the wasted studs or jack
bolts o f the main bearings also have to be checked for correct pre
Tightening is done in the correct sequence.

Checking Pre-Tension of the Tie Rods Tie R o d T ensioning M ethods

This is done to check if the tension is correct for already tightened tie
rods. If tensioning is incorrect, then there will be fretting which may
permanently misalign the affected components. If fretting is already
present, then even correct tensioning over fretted tie-rods will cause
misalignment. The only remedy is corrective machining.

Pretensioning C heck P rocedure

Exam ple: (Sulzer RTA)
Remove the thread protection caps and clean contact face o f the
intermediate ring.
Screw both pre-tensioning jacks onto the two tie-rods lying opposite
M ethod (1) .
each other, until the hydraulic jack cylinder rests on the intermediate
ring o f the n u t Example: (Sulzer RTA)
Slightly slacken vent screws o f the hydraulic jack. Slacken the m ain bearing w asted studs o r ja c k bolts, i f initial
C onnect operate and vent the high pressure oil pump. tensioning is to be done for new fittings.
Operate the oil pum p till 100 M pa pressure is obtained and Slacken the pinching or clamping screws.
maintain this pressure. Attach a hydraulic pumping unit to opposite nuts.
U se a feeler gauge inserted into the slot, to check that there is no
clearance between tie rod nut and intermediate ring o f the nut.

Marine Diesel Engir. Engine Overhauls and M aintenance

Follow the correct tightening

sequence starting from m id
Raise the hydraulic pressure to
350 bar.
W ith the round bar, tighten the
nuts as per tightening sequence.
Raise the hydraulic pressure to
600 bar.
M easure the elongation o f the
tie-rod and com pare w ith the
reference manual values.
Tighten all bolts at 600 bar.
Check w ith a feeler gauge that Air Compressor Overhaul
there is no clearance between Before disassembly, record all temperatures; pressures; and starting
n u t an d in te rm e d ia te rin g and running current parameters; as a reference for later comparison.
Spare parts and tools to b e kept ready.
R e -tig h te n th e p in c h in g o r
clamping screws, so that it just Compressor to be properly isolated and tagged.
nips (touches) the tie-bolt. Disassemble the compressor.
Check the piston condition, piston ring clearances, liner wear,
gudgeon p in surface and w ear in the outer diameter, crankshaft
M ethod (2) bearings, oil seals, crankcase lube oil condition and renewal, lube
Exam ple o f B & W M C Engines oil strainer, float switches, lubricators for cylinder lubrication, valves,
Ensure pinching or clamping screws are slack. unloaders, pressure testing o f inter and after coolers, cooling pump
Attach and operate the hydraulic pum ping unit to 700 Bar, starting safety devices like bursting disc, relief valve testing, alarms and cut
in the correct tightening sequence. outs, automatic drain valves, etc.
Tighten the nut with the round tom m y bar.

248 249
Marine Diesel Engir, Engine Overhauls and M aintenance

Testing of Materials Tempering : Heating to 250deg.C + Retain atthis temp + Airquenching.

D estructive Tests Normalising: HeatingtoUppercrit. temp + (30to40deg.Q+ Aircoolingnormally.

1. Tensile Test is done to test the strength and ductility. The specimen Annealing : HeatingtoUppercrit.temp +'(30 to40deg.C)+ Furnacesoak+cool.
is elongated an<J its elongation measured. Quenching : Hearing toUppercrit. temp + (30to40deg.C)+ Waterrapidcooling.
2. Hardness Test is done to test the m aterials surface hardness.
Indentation is carried out with a 10 m m diameter steel ball under Work Hardening
load, which gives either Rockwell hardness num ber o r Brinell Here, cold working is done e.g. shot blasting with steel balls.
hardness num ber i.e. Load / Indentation area.
Flame Hardening
N on-D estructive Tests An oxy-acetylene flame is used on the surface and later quenching is
carried out with a water spray.
1. Visual or microscopic lens examination for cracks. . .
2. Chalk test. Induction Hardening
3. Fluorescent dye o r red dye aerosol method. Electro-magnetic heating and quenching is done.

4. Magnetic crack detection.

Case Hardening o r Pack Carburising
5. Hammer ringing noise test. Pack the material in a charcoal box, heat to 900 deg.C and retain.
6. X-Radiography. The outer case gets hardened.

7. Ultrasonic high frequency sound test. Nitriding

The material is placed with NH3 in a gas tight chamber and heated to
Heat Treatment of Materials 500 deg.C and retained.
A very brief description is given below.

Heating is done to a temperature higher than upper critical range. At
this range, the iron structure gets transformed to a new structure i.e.
martensite. Stresses are to be relieved by tempering, annealing and

250 251


Sulzer C om p ariso n : RD / RND / RTA Engines
Parameter BD END RTA
Turbocharger Pulse(no auxiliary blower) Constant pressure Constant pressure
Scavenging Loop + under piston Uni-flow
Exhaust valve Rotary Hap valves Exhaust ports Hydraulic operated
S/B ratio 1.7 1.7 3 to 4.2
Piston Convex shape Convex shape Concave shape
Piston cooling Water Water Oil
Fuel pump Suction valve control, Suction valve + spill Suction valve + spill
no spill valve valve introduced valve + VIT
Drive Chain Gear Gear
Cylinder Mechanical drive Mechanical drive Load-dependent,
lubrication electric motor drive
Cylinder quills No quills at bottom Quills only at upper part Quills at two levels
Crosshead bearing; 2-piece type 2-piece type Continuous bottom
half type
Piston skirt Short Long in order to Short
blank exhaust ports
SFOC 208 g/bhp/hr 203 to 208 g/bhp/hr 115 g/bhp/hr
MEP 8.6bar 10.6to 12.3bar 17 bar
Peak Pressure 76 bar 84 to 94 bar 140 bar
Power /cylinder 1700 kw 2100 to 2500 kw 3700 kw
Piston speed 6.1 m/s 6.3 m/s 8 m/s _

Engine Descriptions and Specifications
Marine Diesel Engines

Sulzer Engines
R TA E ngines

7 RTA 84 M Engine:
7 - Numbers o f cylinders
R - Welded bedplate
T - Superlong
A - First in series
84 - B oreincm s
M - Modified

Cylinder bore 840 mm

Piston stroke 2800 mm
Stroke/bore ratio 3 t4
Total power 23,000 B H P (20,552KW)
Engine speed 92 rpm
MEP 17.2 bar
Pmax 135 bar
S.F.O.C. 115gm/bhp/hr
Liner wear 0.05 to 0.7/1000 hrs
Cylinder oil consumption e.g. 240 kg = lO kg/hr
24 hrs

Specific cylinder oil consumption 0.85 g/kw/hr

Engine features
Superlong stroke.
Uniflow scavenging in a tw o stroke cycle.
Constant pressure turbo-charging.

254 255
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Descriptions and Specifications

Gear driven camshaft driven by the crankshaft. Integrated thrust block.

Exhaust valves opened by a cam driven hydraulic oil actuator and Crosshead lubrication at 16 bar pressure.
closed by spring air. The crosshead is a single piece. It has the piston rod bolted at its
Welded bedplate o f deep, single-wall, fabricated box type. upper surface and a continuous full length lower half bearing.
Electronically regulated VIT system. Thecontinuous crosshead bearing is of large surface Tin Aluminium
Liner made o f alloy cast iron with stiff upper collar to resist heavy white metal thin shell type.
load tangential entry. Crankshaft is semi built up i.e. each crank throw is separate and
Bore cooled liner, with low er end uncooled within the scavenge then shrunk fit onto the journal.
space. Large surface main bearing is o f thin walled white metal type.
Multi-level cylinder lubrication o f load dependent type. M ain bearing caps are secured by jack-bolts from engine frames.
Exhaust valve m ade o f Nimonic alloy, rotated by vanes fitted to Fuel pump is cam driven and o f suction and spill type.
the spindle.
Each cylinder has three un-cooled fuel injectors. Hot fuel circulates
Solid forged bore cooled cylinder covers with exhaust valve cage. only when the injector valve is not injecting.
Concave shaped piston m ade o f an alloy-steel crown, short cast Two piece un-cooled injection nozzles with stellite 6 tips.
iron skirt, and oil cooled by je t and shaker method.
Crosshead lubrication oil is same as main bearing oil, boosted to
Piston rin g s: Top ring is RVK-C (Wear reducing, chromium layer
16 bar.
plasma coated into base metal for high mechanical strength).
On failure o f the crosshead pump, oil is supplied from main bearing
Piston cooling oil is supplied and returned through the piston rod
oil supply via another pipe connection to the lube oil articulate arm.
from swinging links at die cross head i.e. the lube oil articulate arm
at crosshead. Reversing: Fuel and air distributor cams are to be reversed. Fuel
cam s are reversed by supplying oil (control oil lin e ) to the cam
Water separator o f high efficiency after the scavenge air cooler.
spaces. Therefore, cams change their direction while the camshaft
Scavenge ports w ith reduced height.
is stationary. The exhaust cam does n ot need rotation as it is
Bore polishing ring fitted on the topmost part o f liner. It comes out symmetrical about BDC. The start air distributor cam is reversed
slighdy from the surface thereby giving a jerking effect to the piston. separately by a separate servomotor.
This increases the compression ratio. It reduces and removes
Safety cut-off device: It is independent o f the fuel pump regulating
carbon particles on topmost piston rings and grooves, thereby saving
linkage. It operates in case o f overspeed or emergency stop. It is
lube oil and reducing liner wear.
a mechanical-pneumatic activation device mounted on each injection
Vibration damper on the crankshaft. It is a silicon filled damper.
pump between the suction valves.
Uncooled turbocharger.

256 257
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Descriptions and Specifications

R T -F L E X C am shaftless -Intelligent E n g in e ' They are used as intelligent engines b y electronic control and
feedback. Sulzers Intelligent Engine is a concept on which the
Research on the RT-Flex design w as started in June 1998. It is a
RT-Flex engine provides a fully operational basis.
new design which offers distinctive operational benefits which are
not possible with Camshaft engines. An Intelligent Engine is one which will monitor its own condition
according to its feedback and pre-set settings and adjust the key
The first RT-Flexengine went into shipboard service in September
parameters o f the engines performande, under various conditions
without manual intervention.
The first RT-Flex 60 C engine was built in 2002.
The improved control reduces operational costs, exhaust emissions,
It is an engine incorporating m any o f the design features o f the fuel consumption and time between overhauls.
previous RTA-T and RTA 96 engines, but without the constraints
This flexibility is provided by electronic control o f fuel injection
imposed by the mechanical drive o f fuel injection pumps and valve
exhaust valve actuation, starting air and cylinder lubrication.
actuation pumps.
Using a Common Rail reduces the hydraulic power requirements
It provides far greater flexibility and scope in the engine setting to
and allows fuel and hydraulic pumps to be arranged in a neat set
reach future requirem ents and operational benefits to the ship
up driven off the crankshaft.
owners. .
The WECS 9000 control system electronically controls the function
These are standard Sulzer low -speed two-stroke m arine diesel
o f starting air, load dependent cylinder lubrication, engine cooling,
engines, except that, instead o f the usual cam shaft and its gear
electronically driven Lanchester Balancer (ELBA), etc.
drive, fuel injection pumps; exhaust valve; actuator pum ps and
reversing servomotors; it is equipped with a Common-Rail' system Starting air distribution to different cylinders is controlled by
for fuel injection and exhaust valve actuation, and full electronic individual solenoid valves controlling the start air valves, rather
control o f the engine functions. than the conventional mechanically-driven start air distributor.

It was found to be m ore cost-effective to achieve the benefits of There is no need for the camshaft drive, since all functions are
the RT-Flexseries by using a completely new design, rather than operated by hydraulic pressure (fuel oil or servo oil) under electronic
adapting to the previous existing engine designs. Hence, a new control. This allows a net reduction in engine weight, simplifies
d esig n w as m ade to o ptim ise po w er and speeds for ship engine erection w ork and removes som e physical constraints for
applications. future engine design.

258 259
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Descriptions and Specifications

RT-Flex 60 C en g in e:
Cylinder bore 600 mm
Piston stroke 2250 mm
Engine speed 91 to 114rpm
M E P atM C R 19.5 bar
Pmax 155 bar
Piston speed 8.5 m/s
Fuel viscosity specification 730 cst at 50 deg.C
Power output/cylinder 2360 K W or 3210 BHP.
Brake specific fuel consumption
A t full load 170 g/kw-hr or 127 g/bhp-hr
A t 85 % load 167 g/kw-hr or 123 g/bhp-hr.

Electronically Controlled. Common-Rail System

Marine Diesel Engines Engine Descriptions and Specifications

Common R ail System Starting A ir Valve Control

The common rail system consists o f : Starting air valves are controlled by the electronic control system
(1) Common fuel oil rail (1000 bar Heavy fuel or Diesel). through solenoids.
(2) Common servo oil rail (200 bar).
Control Unit
T h e Common-Rail is basically amanifoldrunningalongthelength
The control unit is an integrated Wartsila WECS-9500 electronic
o f the engine ju st below the cylinder head level, while its piping is
controlled system, w hich controls and monitors the functions of
at the engine top platform.
th e RT-Flex design.
Highpressurefuelpumpsrunningonmulti-lobecams, supply heated
It is a modular system with separate microprocessor control units
fuel oil at a pressure o f 1000 bar (ready for injection).
for each cylinder and overall control and supervision by duplicated
A fuel injection control unit controls the fuel injection valves. Fuel microprocessor control units.
injection valves are standard valves, hydraulically operated by high
The microprocessor control unit is an interface for the electronic
pressure fuel oil.
governor remote control and alarm systems.
The fuel control units use quick-acting rail valves which control
fuel injection timing, volum e and set the shape o f the injection Advantages o f the RT-FLEX System
pattern. The lowest fuel consumption over the whole operating range.
Each o f the three fuel injectors are individually controlled, so that Competitive initial cost
they can be sequentially cut o ff o r run in unison, according to the
Three years time between overhauls (TBO).
load, although all engine cylinders are firing.
Lower maintenance costs.
High operating flexibility offers excellent slow running capability.
Exhaust Valve Control
Full compliance with the NOx emission regulations (Annex. VI
Exhaust valves are operated by a hydraulic push rod with hydraulic
o f M arpol 73/78) due to optimizing o f fuel injection and exhaust
actuating pressure supplied from the servo rail at 200 bar pressure.
valve processes.
The hydraulic servo oil pumps are incorporated in the same supply
Smokeless operation even at lowest speeds and loads.
drive as the fuel oil pumps.
Lower steady running speeds (10 to 12 % o f MCR) can be
Opening and closing o f the exhaust valve is regulated by the
smokeless due to sequential shut-off o f injectors, although all
electronic-controlled actuating unit.
cylinders are firing.
Reduced running costs a t part load operations.

262 263
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Descriptions and Specifications

Reduced maintenance requirements with the simpler setting o f the timings (in older series) which resulted in low excess combustion
engine. The as new running settings are automatically maintained. air supply b y the turbocharger at low loads.
Fuel injection control with integrated flow-out security is precise, VTTis easier to arrange in an electronically controlled engine, unlike
leading to reduced m aintenance costs and longer tim e between . the mechanical arrangements o f earlier engines.
overhauls (TBO).
Increased exhaust heat recovery fu rth er reducing th e fuel
Fuel injection common-rail system provides improved volumetric consum ption, e.g. RT-Flex 60C has an exhaust gas outlet
control resulting in excellent power-balancing between cylinders temperature o f 285 deg.C giving a high potential for waste heat
and cycles with precise injection and equal thermal loads. recovery.
Reliability o f the common-rail hardware and fuel oil pumps, long Potential for future developments. e.g. Differentmodes for different
proven in Sulzers 4-stroke engines. emission regimes. One mode for minimum fuel consumption and
Higher availability due to integrated monitoring functions and built- another to comply w ith global N Ox lim its or local port limits.
in redundancy. Lowering NOx emissions however, increase fuel consumption.

Full power can be developed with one fuel pum p and one servo oil Tribo-Pack Technology
pump inactive. The high pressure fuel pipes, servo-oil delivery pipes
and electronic systems are also duplicated for redundancy.
Fuel injection rate, pressure and shape can be changed.
Stable pressure levels in common rail and supply pipes.
Better suited for heavy fuel oil use through clear separation o f fuel
oil from the hydraulic pilot valves.
- Highly efficient common-rail fuel pumps.
Freedom to select optimum injection pressure, fuel valve timings
and exhaust valve timings at all engine loads and speeds.
C ontrol o f exhaust valve tim ing allows the system to keep
combustion air excess high by earlier closing, when load decreases.
This reduces fuel consumption and component temperature at low
loads. Hence it is m ore advantageous than fixed exhaust valve

264 265
Marine Diesel Engines
Engine Descriptions and Specifications

It is a combination o f design features which allow the time between Description o f the Engine a nd its components
overhauls o f cylinder components, including piston ring renewal,
The bedplate is of a sturdy type surmounted by very rigid A-shaped
to be extended to at least three years.
double- walled columns and cylinder blocks, all screwed by pre-
It also provides m ore safety fo r the piston w hile operating under tensional vertical tie-rods.
adverse conditions. The engine structure is very sturdy withlow stresses buthigh stiffness.
It allows standard cylinder lubricating oil feed rates to fall as low as The cylinder jacket is a single piece iron casting.
1 g/kw-hr. Thethrustbearingisof the tilting pad type, integrated in the bedplate.
The thrust bearing girder has only two Steel cast pieces omitting
welding seams in critical comers. The girder is stiffer than earlier
Features o f Tribo-Pack designs.
Pre-profiled piston rings in all piston grooves. The crankshaft is semi-built type with special care taken for the
Ghromium-ceramic coating on the top piston ring. fillet areas and shrinkfits to cope with compact cylinder distance.
RC (running-in coating) piston rings in all lower piston grooves. The main bearings are o f white metal, thin steel shell type.
Anti-Polishing Ring (APR) at the top o f the cylinder liner. The bearing bores are co-machined, mounted and tightened with
the bearing caps.This allows better precision in the geometry o f
Increased thickness o f chromium layer in the piston ring grooves.
the mounted bearing shells, thereby improving running safety.
Multi-level cylinder lubrication. The crosshead has a full width lower bearing. The pin is o f uniform
Liner o f the appropriate material, with sufficient hard phase. diameter and the two guide shoes are m ade in single steel castings
Careful turning o f the liner running surface and deep-honing o f the with white metal-plated running surfaces. Guide shoes have better
liner over the full length o f the running surface for ideal running flexibility to adapt to the natural deformation of the guide rails under
surface for rings. load.
Mid-stroke liner insulation. The crosshead bearing has a full width shell for the low er half
Liner corrosive wear also depends on water droplets entering the
There is a separate elevated pressure o f 16 bar lube oil supply to
engine cylinders. Here, ahighly efficient vane-type water separator
the crosshead. This allows hydrostatic lubrication which lifts the
after the scavenge air cooler is used fo r effective water drainage.
crosshead pin off the bearing at every revolution, ensuring sufficient
Load dependent cylinder lubrication by the multi-level accumulator oil film thickness at all times.
system. The piston rod stuffing box gland is a new type (as used in
Lubricating pum ps are driven by frequency controlled electric RTA-68 TB and RTA-84C engines). It reduces the crank case oil
motors. consumption and maintains the oil quality. It consists o f a highly
effective dirt scraping top part w ith an oil scraping bottom part.

266 267
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Descriptions and Specifications

Oil scraping is done by six spring-loaded Combustion chamber conditions influence the tim e between
grey cast iron segments w hich run on a overhauls, the engines reliability and the NOx emissions.
hardened piston rod. Oil can flow back to Piston cooling and fuel injection spray patterns influence the surface
the crankcase through many large vertical temperatures in the combustion chamber as well as earlier deposit
holes. It results in practically no flow from formation.
the neutral space. Instead, there is complete Bore cooling is provided for the liner along w ith shaker cooling
re-circulation o f the scraped off oil to the effect o f the piston for im proved heat transfer, temperature,
c ra n k c a s e , g iv in g le s s s y s te m o il 'mechanical and thermal stress control o f the components.
Cylinder H ead Cover
It is m ade o f steel material and bore-cooled. It is secured by eight
Combustion Chamber elastic studs arranged in four pairs. Anti-corrosion cladding is applied
to the head covers, downstream o f the injectors to protect the cylinder
head covers from hot corrosive or erosive attacks.
The Exhaust Valve
It is m ade o f Nimonic 80A material and is housed in a bolted-on
exhaust valve cage.
Fuel Injector Valves
These are three in number. They are symmetrically distributed on the
cylinder head. This arrangement equalizes the temperature distribution
on the piston crown over the liner and head circumference.
It has a forged steel crown and a very short skirt.
Piston Rings
These are four in number and o f the sam e height, thickness and
It employs bore-cooling with insulated tubes,to adjust the temperature
Fig-175 distribution in the liner and limit stresses.

Marine Diesel Engines Engine Descriptions and Specifications

Scavenging B & W Engines

It; is o f uniflow type, with air inlet ports in the lower part of the cylinder. S M C E ngines

Turbocharging Specifications
It is of constant pressure type augmented by electrically-driven auxiliary 6 SMC 60 engine:
blowers. Cylinder bore 600 mm
Piston stroke 2300 mm
Scavenge A ir Receiver Stroke bore ratio 3.8
It has integral non-return flaps and hanging cooler bundles with tubes Total power 16680 BH P (12240 KW)
and fins, circulated with fresh water. Engine speed 105 rpm
MEP 18 bar
Water Separator
Pmax 140 bar
It is o f vane type. It is a new design o f high efficiency. It has ample
drainage provisions to completely collect the condensed water at the S.F.O.C. 118gm/bhp/hr
bottom and drain it. To avoid blow-back through the drains from the Scavenge air pressure 3 bar
high pressure areas, all the drains a re collected at the bottom o f a M ean piston speed 8m /s
vertically m ounted pot, w hich is filled w ith w ater and kept under Specific cylinder oil consumption 0.6 to 1.0 g/bhp/hr
scavenge air pressure. D rain w ater then leaves from the top o f the
pot into an orifice controlling the discharge. Features
Superlong stroke.
Engine Seating Uniflow scavenging in a two-stroke cycle.
It is simple w ith a m odest num ber o f holding down bolts and side Constant pressure turbocharging.
sto p p e rs. N o en d sto p p ers,
The piston crown has chromium plated grooves for four piston
thrust brackets or fitted bolts are
rings. The top-most piston ring is of controlled pressure relief (CPR)
needed, as thrust transmission is
type. Piston rings 2 ,3 ,4 have oblique cuts. Piston ring no. 3 has a
p rovided b y th ru st sleev es,
right-hand cut. Piston ring nos. 2 and 4 have left-hand cuts. An
which are applied to a number of
Aluminium coating is given for running-in.
holding down bolts. The holes in
the tank top for the thrust sleeves The piston rod has a through-going bore for the cooling oil pipe,
which is secured to the piston rod top.
are made by drilling or even flame
cutting. Epoxy resin chocks are Cooling oil is supplied through a telescopic pipe connection on the
used by pouring resin around the guide-shoe or on the crosshead and passed through a bore in the
thrust sleeves. Fig-176 piston rod foot and, through the cooling oil pipe in the piston rod,

270 271
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Descriptions and Specifications

to the piston crown. The oil is passed on, through a number of

bores in the thrust part o f the piston crown, to the space around
the cooling oil pipe in the piston rod. From the bore in the piston
rod foot, the oil is led through the crosshead to a discharge spout
and to a slotted pipe inside the engine framebox as well as through
a control device for checking the flow and temperature.
The piston rod foot rests on a face cut-out in the crosshead pin. A
shim is inserted between the piston rod and the crosshead. The
thickness o f the shim is predetermined to m atch the actual engine
layout. The piston rod is fastened to the crosshead pin with screws
or studs and nuts. The nuts are tightened w ith hydraulic tools.
The cylinder cover is made o f steel.
The cylinder frame has a bolted-on or integrated camshaft housing.
The cylinder section is tightened together with the engine framebox
and the bedplate by means o f stay bolts.
The scavenge air ports are bored at an oblique angle to the axis of
the cylinder liner so as to give the scavenge air a rotary movement
in the cylinder.
The crosshead is equipped with steel shells with bearing metal.
The lower shell is provided with an overlayer coating.
The crosshead is provided with bores for distributing the oil supplied
through the telescopic pipe, partly as cooling oil for the piston;
partly as lubricating oil for the crosshead bearing and guide shoes;
and through a bore in the connecting rod for lubricating the crankpin
The piston cooling oil outlet is led through a control device foi
each cylinder for the purpose o f checking the temperature and
flow before the oil is passed on to the lube oil tank.
The sliding faces o f the guide shoes are lined with cast-on bearing
metal. The guide shoes are guided by crosshead shoes in the engine

Marine Diesel Engines Engine Descriptions and Specifications

framebox and properly secured against displacement by guide strips main bearing support. The axial movement is damped as a result of
fastened to the guide shoes. the restrictions incorporated in the bores, which interconnect the
oil-filled chambers on the two sides o f the piston. Lubricating oil
The crankpin bearing is fitted with steel shells lined with bearing is supplied to both sides o f the piston from the main system.
metal and assembled in the sam e w ay as the crosshead bearing.
The cam shaft is m ade in one o r more sections. The sections are
T he crankshaft is provided with a chain wheel for the camshaft assembled by means o f flange couplings. For each cylinder, the
drive and a turning wheel. Furthermore, a tuning wheel, a torsional cam shaft has a cam for operation o f the fuel pump, a cam for
vibration dam per and a chain wheel drive for second order and operation o f the exhaust valve and a cam for operation o f the
fourth order moment compensators are installed. indicator drive (option).

At the aftmost end o f the engine, a thrust bearing is fitted. A thrust The fuel pump and exhaust valve cams are shrunk onto the shaft
bearing serves the purpose o f transmitting the axial thrust o f the by heating, whereas the indicator cams are in two parts, which are
propeller through propeller shaft and intermediate shafts to the assembled with fitted bolts.
ships thrust collar.
After the engine has been test run, the camshaft parts and the cylinder
The thrust shoes rest on surfaces in the thrust bearing housing and frame will be provided with pin gauge marks, and the necessary
are held in place by means o f stoppers or cross bars. The segments pin gauges are delivered together with the engine, enabling the
have w hite m etal cast onto the wearing faces against the thrust cam shaft tim ing to be checked and readjusted if the parts have
collar. been dismantled.

The thrust bearing is lubricated by the pressure lubrication system M oment compensators: On the basis o f calculations, the engine
o f the engine. T he oil is supplied between the segments through may be provided with flyweights to counteract engine forces and
spray pipes and spray nozzles. moments.

T he thrust bearing is provided with alarm, slow-down and shut The exhaust valve is actuated by a cam on the camshaft through a
down devices fo r low lube oil pressure and high segment hydraulic transmission.
Puncture v a lv e : In the top cover o f the fuel pump, a puncture
To counteract heavy axial vibrations and any resultant adverse valve is fitted. The puncture valve consists o f a piston which
forces and vibrations, the crankshaft is provided with an axial communicates w ith the control air system o f the engine. In the
vibration damper. The damper consists o f a piston and a slit-type event o f actuation o f the shut-down system, and when stop is
housing. The piston is made as an integrated collar on one o f the activated, compressed air is supplied to the top o f the piston, causing
main bearing journals and the housing is mounted on the pertaining the piston with pin to be pressed downward and keep the suction

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Marine Diesel Engines Engine Descriptions and Specifications

valve in the open position. This will puncture the oil flow to the The engine is provided with two or m ore auxiliary blowers. The
fuel valve. As long as the puncture valve is activated, the fuel oil is suction sides are connected to the space after the water mist catcher.
returned through bores to the pump housing, and no injection takes The discharge sides are connected to the scavenge air receiver.
place. Separate non-return valves are installed at the suction side or
discharge side o f the auxiliary blowers, in order to prevent reversed
T he roller guide o f each fuel pum p incorporates an angular air flow. The non-return valves protect the blowers and the engine,
displaceable reversing link. Reversing is achieved by shifting the during start-up as well as during the running o f the auxiliaiy blowers.
roller in the fuel pump drive mechanism at each cylinder. The link
From the exhaust valves, the exhaust gas is led to the exhaust gas
connecting the roller guide and roller is provided with a reversing
receiver where the pulsatory pressure from the individual exhaust
arm, and a pivot is mounted at the top end o f die reversing arm.
valves is equalized and led to the turbocharger at a constant
T he pivot travels in a reversing guide connected to an air cylinder.
pressure. Inside the exhaust gas receiver, a protective grating is
The link is self-locking in either the ahead or astern position without
mounted before the turbocharger.
the aid o f external forces. Each cylinder is reversed individually,
and the reversing mechanism is activated by compressed air. The charging air cooler insert is o f the block type. T he cooler is
designed with an air reversing chamber which incorporates a water
The fuel valve consists o f a valve head and a valve housing. Fitted
m ist catcher. The w ater m ist catcher is built up o f a num ber of
within the valve housing is a non-return valve, and a spindle and
lamellas which separate the condensation water from the scavenge
spindle guide with a pressure spring and a nozzle. The spindle may
air during the passage o f the air flow.
be provided with a cut-off slide. W hen the fuel valve is fitted in the
cylinder cover, the valve parts are tightened together by the pressure Each cylinder cover is provided with a spring-loaded safety valve
from the securing nuts. which is set to open at a pressure som ewhat higher than the
maximum firing pressure in the cylinder.
The functioning o f the fuel valve is as follows: The electrical fuel oil
prim ary pum p circulates preheated oil through the fuel pump and On the exhaust side o f the engine a number o f spring-loaded relief
fuel valve. The fuel oil passes through the fuel valve, leaving through valves are fitted, which will open in the event o f excessive pressure
a circulation bore and the return oil pipe on the valve head. When in the crankcase/chain casing, for instance as aresult o f the ignition
the pressure at the beginning o f the fuel pum ps delivery stroke o f oil mist.
has reached the predetermined pressure, the circulating bores are The scavenge air receiver is fitted with a safety valve.
closed. When the pressure has reached the predetermined opening The bedplate consists o f two welded, longitudinal girders and a
value for the fuel valve, the spindle will be lifted and oil injected num ber o f cross girders w hich support th e main bearings. The
through the nozzle into the engine cylinder. On completion o f the main bearings consist o f steel shells, lined with bearing metal. The
fuel pum ps delivery stroke, the valve spindle is pressed against bedplate is fitted with an axial vibration damper.
the seat and injection now ceases. T he circulating bore is now A framebox is bolted on to the top o f the bedplate. Together, the
uncovered and oil starts to recirculate through the valve.
bedplate and the framebox constitute the crankcase o f the engine.

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Marine Diesel Engines Engine Descriptions and Specifications

ME Intelligent Electronically Controlled Camshaft-less Engines

First generation research w as carried o u t in 1993 to 1997 in

Copenhagen. However it was over-engineered and expensive. Second
generation research w as carried out from 1997. It was sim pler and
tailormade. It facilitated more production, so costs reduced.
Pow er D rive Supply
Engine driven multi-piston pumps are used. These axial piston pumps
are very reliable. They pressurize a common rail servo lube oil system.
Lube oil pressure is the w orking m edium to drive fuel, air, exhaust, control o f the fuel injection. There are more number o f fuel injector
lubrication and.start-air systems. The hydraulic power is provided by valves usually three in number. Opening o f the valves is done in stages
hydraulic power supply units placed at the aft end of the engine. Control one by one, and progressively. Different amounts in increasing quantities
is from com puter units i.e. an Engine C ontrol U nit (ECU) and a can be supplied to each o f the three valves. This progressive opening
Cylinder Control U nit (CCU). N C valves are used to control the is done so that, the pressure at the injection start will not decrease in
functions. These are fast acting proportional qontrol valves controlled the rail system during injection. This woulcfhappen due to fuel flowing
by an electric linear m otor drive from the CCU.; out o f rail to the injectors, at a much faster rate than the fuel supply to
Fuel Pum ps rail. Double injection increases the specific fuel consumption slightly,
The pum p plunger has a modified um brella design to prevent heavy. but lowers the NOx by 20%. Electronically Profiled Injection (EPIC)
fuel oil entering the lube oil system. The beginning and end o f plunger is carried out. Electronic control ensures fuel injection timing and rate
stroke is controlled only by the hydraulic N C valves. T he fuel pump as well as exhaust valve timing and operation is exactly when and as
drive is hydraulically operated by lube oil pressure. desired. Camshaft-less control does not have the lifnitations o f a
mechanical cam, in respect to precise fuel injection pressure and timing
Fuel Injectors
control and variations over the load range. ELFI is the proportional
control valve controlling the servo oil pressure to the fuel oil pressure
1 Injectors
booster. It serves to control the fuel oil cam length, the cam inclination
2 Control NC Valves.
and angle and also the number of activations per stroke which varies
the fuel injection. The fuel oil booster along with the ELFI valve raises
O ptim um com bustion and thermal efficiency
the fuel pressure during injection, from 10 bar supply pressure to the
require an optim ized fu el injection pattern. In
specified load dependent injection pressure o f 600 to 1000 bar.
conventional type, this pattern was dependent
Permanent high pressure with pre-heated fuel oil on o f the
on cams, fuel pumps and injectors. In M E engines,
engine is thereby avoided, without losing any advantage o f high
electronic control with N C valves gives greater
F ig - 178 pressure injection.

278 279
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Descriptions and Specifications

Exhaust Valve Actuation

It controls timing o f the opening and the closing o f the exhaust valve
using fast acting on-off control N C valves. Here, pressurized control
oil is used to drive the hydraulic actuator. A ctuation is in a simple
two-stage design. T he first stage actuator piston has a damping collar
to provide damping in both directions. The second stage actuator piston
has no dam ping collar, and is in direct contact with a gear oil piston
which transforms hydraulic oil pressure into pressure in the oil push
rod. However, this gear oil piston includes a dam ping collar which
becomes active at the end o f exhaust valve opening, when the exhaust
valve movement is stopped by spring air. Changing the cam length in
respect to exhaust valve movement, can be done simply by changing
the point in tim e o f activating the ELVA valve. ELVA is the on-off
electronic valve controlling the exhaust valve actuator. ELVA can be
used to control the energy supplied to the turbocharger, both during
steady as well as transient conditions.
Engine Control System (ECS)
It is a fully integrated computer controlled electro-hydraulic system.
It controls the timing o f the fuel injection through close monitoring o f
the crankshaft position via a tacho-system, which is far more accurate
and responsive than any mechanical method. This results in savings in
fuel and lube oil consumption and much greater manoeuvring control.
The ECS consists o f several integrated u n its: the Engine Control Unit
(ECU), the Cylinder Control Unit (CCU), the Engine Interface Control
Units (EICU) and the Auxiliary Control U nit (ACU).
E C U controls the following :
T he engine speed with respect to the set reference. Optimum combustion requirements for that running condition.
Governor control and functions. Control o f the functions for start, stop and reversing.
Engine protection (overload) system and faults. Control o f the function o f the auxiliary blower and turbocharger.

280 281
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Descriptions and Specifications

Cylinder Pressure Measurement

This is done by a,strain type pressure sensor. It is a.rod sensor,
located at the bottom hole in the cylinder head cover, but it is not in
direct contact with the combustion products. O nline assistance and
measurement o f pressure is thereby available. There is less work load
for crew. It is reliable and no checking is needed. Compensation for
crankshaft twisting is used w ithout which there would be errors, in
pressure o f around 5% .The computer evaluates the indicator card
data. The pressure is transferred directly to COCOS EDS Diagnosis
Cylinder Lubrication
Here, intermittent lubrication is employed i.e. a large amount o f cylinder
lube oil is sent every 4 or 5 revolutions as required. Lube oil is injected
when the top piston ring passes through the lube oil quills. This gives
better utilization o f expensive cylinder lube oil and reduces die
CCU controls the following : consumption.
The functions o f the fuel injection pump, the injector, the exhaust
valve, the start air valve and cylinder lubrication for each cylinder. Start A ir Valves
The conventional pneumatic control o f individual start air valves is
E1CU replaced by the electronic control system activating solonoid valves
It handles the interface to the external systems. on the individual start air valves. This allows greater control and more
ACU precision.
It controls the hydraulic power supply and auxiliary blower pumps. The ALPH A Lubricator A C C System
Failures o f the Control System This system has reduced the specific cylinder oil consumption by
Each cylinder has its ow n CCU. Therefore, failure is lim ited to 0.3 g/bhp-hr. The A lpha A CC (Fig-182 and Fig-183)allows the
tem porary pow er loss o f that particular cylinder o n ly ..ECU has a cylinder oil dosage in g/bhp-hr to be controlled in such a way that it is
second standby unit fo r im m ediate take-over. EC U & C C U have proportional to the amount o f sulphur in g/bhp-hr entering the cylinder
the same hardware. Therefore, few and identical spares required. A with the fuel. T his is achieved by m aking the cylinder oil dosage
guidance program m e is present to find faults. Testing m odes are proportional to the sulphur percentage in the fuel and to the engine
incorporated in case o f failure o f the sensors, actuators o r wiring. load ( amount o f fuel).

282 283
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Descriptions and Specifications

The m ain element o f cylinder liner wear is o f a corrosive nature,

and the amount o f neutralizing alkalinic components needed in the
cylinder, w ill therefore be proportional to the amount o f sulphur
(which generates sulphurous acids) entering the cylinders.
A m inim um cylinder oil dosage is set in order to satisfy other
requirements o f a lubricant, such as providing an adequate oil film
and detergency properties.
Computer Controlled Surveillance System (CoCoS)
The CocoS system has been specified as the engine monitoring,
diagnostic and maintenance overview system on this engine. It is a
comprehensive collection o f M AN B & W Diesel-developed
software, which is designed to detect various data, determined
through the alarm system as well as other sensors in order to keep
the engine working in its optimum state.
The CoCoS systems four m ajor programme groups consist o f
the Engine Diagnostic System (EDS), a Maintenance Planning
System (MPS), a Stock Handling and Spare Parts Ordering (SPO)
facility, and the Spare Parts Catalogue (SPC).
The EDS continually monitors all stored operating parameters for
the entire lifetime o f the engine, and provides a warning to the
attendant staff if it suspects a problem is developing. If a problem
is likely to occur, the appropriate work can be scheduled through
the MPS, perhaps to coincide with other planned maintenance work.
The M PS normally shows scheduled maintenance work together
with tim ing instructions, list o f required tools, spare parts and
manpower requirements.
W hile scheduling maintenance, the SPO system automatically
checks whether the spare parts are available (while allowing for a
minimum and safety reserve), and the SPC gives the opportunity
for the staff to display them (either in graphical or textual form).

Marine Diesel Engines Engine Descriptions and Specifications

T he aim o f the system is to prevent longer than necessary off- Parts om itted in camshaft-less M E engine
service repair tim e by increasing the engines availability and Chain drive
reliability, thus reducing operational costs. Additional savings can Chain wheel frame
also be ach iev ed th ro u g h th e a p p ro p riate scheduling o f Chain box on frame box
maintenance and spare parts ordered.
Camshaft with cams
PM1 System Roller guides for fuel pumps and exhaust valves
The PM I system is a com puterized tool for evaluating cylinder Fuel injection pumps
pressures in M A N B& W D iesel engines. It consists o f a hand Exhaust valve actuators
held transducer and control unit, which interfaces with a PC.
Starting air distributor
A single operator can collect and display a com plete set o f
measurements in less than fifteen minutes. It uses a high performance Governor
piezo-electric pressure transducer and an advanced crankshaft Regulating shaft
angle trigger system for determining the TD C o f each cylinder to Mechanical cylinder lubricator
reliably and precisely measure cylinder pressures.
Local control stand.
T he cylinder pressure data is presented as easy-to-interpret
m easurem ent curves on the PC as well as in tabular form. By The above-mentioned parts are replaced by
calculating the maximum pressure deviation o f each cylinder and Hydraulic Power Supply (HPS)
computing index settings for balanced output from all cylinders, Hydraulic Cylinder Units (HCU)
the engine output can be adjusted for enhanced performance.
Engine Control System (ECS), controlling the following:
The system automatically calculates effective power, mean indicated
Electronically Profiled Injection (EPIC)
pressure, and gives proposals for fuel pump index adjustments.
Exhaust valve actuation
Alphatronic 2 000 Control System Fuel oil pressure boosters
This electronic propulsion control system for ships with CP propellers Start and reversing sequences
enables the navigator to manoeuvre the ship from the bridge. This can Governor function
be done without consideration for engine load conditions as the system Starting air valves
automatically enacts an overload protection. The pre-pulsion control
Auxiliary blowers
can be transferred at any time to other control areas such as the bridge
Crankshaft position sensing system
wing or control room panel. A separate emergency back-up system,
Electronically controlled AlphaLubricator
as required by the m ajor classification societies, maintains a pre-set
engine speed and propeller pitch, and is physically integrated into the Local Operating Panel (LOP).
control panel.

286 287
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Descriptions and Specifications

Advantages o f the M E-C range

Low er SFOC and better performance parameters, thanks to
variable electronically controlled timing o f fuel injection and
exhaust valves at any load.
Appropriate fuel injection pressure and rate shaping at any load.
Improved emission characteristics, with lower NOx and smokeless
Easy change o f operating mode during operation.
Simplicity o f the mechanical system with well-proven traditional
fuel injection technology familiar to any crew.
Control system w ith m ore precise timing, giving better engine
balance with equalized thermal load in and between cylinders.
System comprising o f performance, adequate m onitoring and
diagnostics o f the engine for longer time between overhauls.
Lower rpm possible for manoeuvering.
Better acceleration, astern and crash stop performance.
Integrated Alpha cylinder lubricators.
Up-gradable to software development over the lifetime of the engine.



Each development topic has already been clearly discussed in the

earlier chapters.

Fuel Injection System

The conventional type fuel valve had asacvolum eof
It was improved to the minimum sac type which had a sac volume
o f 520 The latest type in use is the Slide type which has
a sac volum e o f 0 This reduced sac volume drastically
reduces the SOx, NOx and unbumt carbon emissions.



Marine Diesel Engines Engine Developments

V IT and Super V IT is introduced.

2 to 3 number o f injectors are used. e.g. in RTA and M C engines.
Dual injection, pilot injection and twin injection systems.
Common rail system is used in camshaft-less engines like RT-Flex
and M E series.
FQ S (Fuel Q uality Setting) adjustm ent is possible for bad fuel
2 piece uncooled injectors with nozzles using Stellite tips.
Electronically controlled fuel injection to change fuel timings and
Cutting out o f injectors when running at low loads.

1. Constant pressure 2-stage turbochargers are used on large slow
speed modem engines. Turbocharger efficiency is improved and
hence the turbocharger needs less energy. Therefore, more energy
is available at the crankshaft. Pow er Take In (PTI) and Power
Take O ut ( PTO) units can be coupled.
2. U se o f two turbochargers rather than one. Standby reliability is
more. O ne turbocharger can be cut off at low loads w hich gives
more efficiency than using both turbochargers and less dependency
on auxiliary blowers. Bearing housing on the turbine end is cooled with a small amount
3. UncooledTurbochargers: o f water, thereby controlling the lube oil temperature.
Un-cooled turbochargers allow greater heat recovery as there Simultaneous cooling is carried out for the jacket o f the gas
is less heat loss to the cooling water as in cooled turbochargers. outlet casing to allow som e cooling and control o f the entire
Thermal efficiency o f the overall plant increases. casing surface within safety limits i.e. protection against fire
T he gas inlet ducts are totally uncooled. and accidental contact. Example o f the latest turbocharger
N o contact w ith cooling w ater at any point for the gas inlet series is A B B s TPL-B series used for large 2-stroke diesel
side. engines. This series gives a much higher turbocharger efficiency
This allow s m axim um h eat availability to the exhaust gas than the earlier VTR-4E and VTR-4D series.
economizer for further waste heat recovery.

292 293
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Developments

U ncooled turbochargers m ay also totally dispense o f water 10. Turbine and compressor cleaning i.e. water washing, is possible
cooling, thereby giving the advantages o f no water connection, under full engine load conditions.
easy integration, high application flexibility and reduced 11. The free floating axial bearing disc gives a compensation for
corrosion. inclination and friction allowing a low wear o f the bearing with a
4. Com pressor noise reduction is done by m eans o f felt-covered longer life time.
shaped plates.
12. Radial bearing bushes w ith squeeze oil dam per provide high
reliability and an increased time between overhauls.
13. The inlet and outlet o f the oil passages is from the bottom allowing
easy connection for lubrication.
14. Wide compressor map allowing high application flexibility.
15. Stiff construction with a high eigen-frequency mono block silencer.
This lowers the sensitivity to the engine vibration and reduces the
stress on the turbocharger supports.
16. Improved and extensive testing to ensure safe operations under
any circumstance. The tests include: resonance endurance test,
5. Improved bearings allow 35,000 running hours before bearing low cycle fatigue test, temperature cycle test, hot shut down test,
change. E.g. A BBs special TPL inboard plain bearings. oil leakage test, compressor and turbine containment test, blade
6. An emergency oil gravity tank (e.g. TPL91-B series) ensures safe vibration test, thrust bearing test and a prototype qualification
run-out o f the turbocharger rotor in the event o f a power blackout test.
causing failure o f the engine lube oil pump. This is for the new 17. Different turbine and compressor trims are available for optimized
TPL plain bearings designed fo r direct lubrication by the engine matching for all applications.
lube oil system through a 50 micron filter.
18. Im proved pressure ratio and turbocharger efficiency. Peak
7. A simpler, robust design is used. efficiencies of more than 87 % are obtainable. High compression
8. Fewer parts than the earlier series giving low er life cycle costs, ratios give increased mean effective pressures and less fuel
faster overhauls and easier service. consumption.
9. Complete dismantling requires minimum additional space. Turbine 19. R adial com pressor and axial turbine have the follow ing
parts can be dismantled from the compressor side and hence, there improvements:
is no need to disconnect the h o t gas pipes allowing easier and The turbine uses a w ide chord blade w ithout a damping wire
safer handling. for constant pressure use.

294 295
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Developments

The compressor uses a single piece aluminium alloy wheel with Honing is carried out o f the running surface o f the liner.
a splitter-bladed im peller and back-swept blades for high Higher jacket temperatures with load dependent cooling.
efficiency and a w ide compressor map. Anti polishing ring is incorporated at the topmost part o f the liner.
Enlarged compressor diameters further increase the volume of
the flow.
C ylinder L ubrication

Scavenge System Multilevel cylinder liner lubrication for better usage o f the cylinder
lube oil.
Uniflow scavenging m ethod is used for large slow speed modem Alpha lubrication system in B&W M E engines.
engines. Frequency control electric m otor drive fo r the lubricators with
A reduced cylinder oil consumption is therefore possible. automatic lubrication for pre-lubrication, post-lubrication, slow
Improved air cooler design w ith a new and very efficient water turning and emergency modes.
separator is introduced. Load dependent cylinder lubrication changing the feed rate with
Scavenge ports have reduced heights.
respect to the engine load.

Exhaust System
Variable Exhaust Closing (VEC) enables the exhaust valve to close A new Oros design is provided
earlier at 70% to 85 % lo a d , giving higher com pression and peak fo r th e p isto n . T h e a v erag e
pressures. temperature in the crown region
is 410 deg.C, rather than 480
Combustion Chamber deg.C as in conventional types.
Engulfed type combustion chamber with improved material selection The injector gets more distance for
is introduced. fuel penetration, thereby reducing
Low er temperatures are possible due to the the tem peratures in the crown
piston shape and design. region.

Liner A Conventional design

B Oros design
Uncooled ceramic fire ring.
Improved m aterials: Outer layer is m ade o f
Plasma coated top piston ring.
Cast Steel and inner layer is m ade o f Tark
Constant pressure relief CPR

296 297
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Developments

Sulzers SIPWAanalysis and monitoring. Pow er to W eight R atio

Al-Br coatings for running in purposes. This is im proved w ith large slow speed engines w ith a high stroke
Concave shaped crowns. bore ratio.

E ngine Speed
Short, rigid, hollow type with a larger diameter pin.
Slower speeds allow m ore pow er extraction. A larger propeller size
A continuous bottom half bearing. can be used with less propeller slip and more efficiency.
Bearing is o f thin shell white metal type.
High section modulus with a reduced mass.
Intelligent Engines
Lube oil pressure is increased to 16 bar in RTA engines, unlike
earlier 4.5 bar in older series. These are th e latest RT-Flex and M E series o f cam shaft-less
electronically-controlled engines. They are a whole new concept and
Stroke Bore Ratio design change, w hich is exhaustively covered in the engine
description chapter.
A n increased stroke bore ratio o f 4 .2 to 4.4. This allows a greater
ratio for expansion i.e. expansion ratio increases. Thermal efficiency
increases as more heat energy can be utilized. Thus, SFOC and fuel
consumption reduces. SFOC and thermal efficiency depend on the
exhaust blowdown pressure which is m uch less.

Specific Fuel Consumption ( SFOC)

SFOC reduces w ith VIT, Super VIT, VEC, super long stroke and
improved turbocharger efficiencies.

Engine Components
Semi-built welded type crankshaft.
Fabricated steel bedplate.
Integrated thrust block.
Tie rods terminating at the bearing housing level. The tie rods are
threaded and do not pass through tubes and, therefore easier to



Engine Emissions
The emissions from the engine exhaust consists o f sulphur oxides,
nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, particles, soot and

Marine Diesel Engines Engine Emissions

O ver 99% o f the em issions generated b y a diesel engine consist Measuring

o f the sam e elem ents as a i r : nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and It is done by the following m ethods: Infrared, ultraviolet or electro
water. T he sulphur dioxide com ponent can be reduced effectively chemical sensors.
by choosing the right engine fuel. The emissions o f carbon monoxide
(C O ), c a rb o n d io x id e ( C 0 2), h y d r o c a r b o n s (T H C ) and N x
particulates, are low due to the superior therm al efficiency o f the
These are oxides o f nitrogen, which cause smog formation and local
diesel process. M inim ising the NOx, SOx, and C 0 2 emissions is
ozone concentration. Nitrogen is present in the fuel as well as in the
im po rtan t to protect m arine environm ents. N O x fo rm ation in a
diesel engine is p rim arily caused by locally h ig h com bustion excess air provided for combustion. During combustion, nitrogen
combines with oxygen to form nitrogen oxide. This nitrogen oxide,
tem peratures in the com bustion space.
then gets converted to nitrogen dioxide N 0 2and nitrus oxide N20 in
the ratio o f 5:1. Nitrus oxide destroys the stratospheric ozone.
SO x
These are oxides o f sulphur, depending mainly on the sulphur content NOx limits
in the fuel. For new o r converted engines after the year 2000 operating below
130 rpm, the limit is 17 g/kw-hr.
E ffects
Sulphur gets oxidized to form S 0 2 and S 0 3in the ratio o f 15:1. The Remedy a nd control ' .
sulphur oxides em itted from the engine com bine w ith rain in the Basically, if w e reduce the cylinder temperatures, less NOx will be
atmosphere to form sulphuric acid i.e. acid rain. produced. M odem day engines have a large bore and a slow speed,
both resulting in high gas and cylinder temperatures. Therefore larger
SOx Limits quantities o f NOx are produced.
4.5 % w hen operating any w here in the world.
Methods used
1.5% when operating in new SOx emission control areas. Later injection during the combustion process is carried o u t. This
Remedy and control reduces the cylinder temperature, but peak pressures and.specific
Low level sulphur fuel to be used w hich how ever increases the fuel consumption increases.
costs, Using fuel-water emulsions: Water present in the fuel absorbs some
Removingsulphurfromfuel. o f the heat generated during combustion. 1% water addition reduces
Wash the exhaust gases in a scrubber tower and then neutralise it. NOx by 1%, but the specific fuel consumption increases by 0.3%
Use high alkaline cylinder lube oils to neutralize the sulphur in the as a penalty.
fuel, thereby reducing sulphur corrosion and slightly reducing Fuel injector nozzle adaption as in the Slide valve design.
emissions. Water injection or humidification.

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Marine Diesel Engines Engine Emissions

ExhaustGas Recirculation (EGR), where exhaust gas is recirculated Hydrocarbons

back to the scavenge side. This reduces the oxygen content o f the Efficient and correct combustion will allow a very small percentage of
airsupplied to the engine, thereby reducing the am ount o f NO hydrocarbons in the emissions. Hydrocarbons are basically unbumt
produced. fuel particles.
Increasing the scavenge pressure and compression ratios. This gives
a larger quantity o f air to the combustion cylinder, thereby reducing Particle Emission
cylinder tem peratures and diluting the N O x already formed.
Although this method improves specific fuel consumption slightly, The particles and soot in the exhaust emission come from partly burnt
it hardly reduces the NOxemissions. lube oil, ash in the fuel o r the lube oil w hich includes unconsumed
calcium additives, and the deposits peeling o ff from the cylinder
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR): Exhaust gas is mixed with
or the exhaust system.
am m onia a n d a 's e le c tiv e c a ta ly s t a t a te m p e ra tu re o f
290 to 450 deg.C. T h e NOx is converted to nitrogen and water.
NO( reduces to 130 ppm i.e. a 90% reduction, making it the most
cost effective method, but the specific fuel consumption increases Soot is the agglomeration o f m inute partly burnt fuel particles. It is
b y 2 to 3% and the SC R plant is a bulky one. T he reducing agent formed during combustion by very poor burning o f the fuel without a
is urea ( 40wt-% solution), w hich is a harm less substance used in flame. This type o f burning called prolysis can bum only the lighter
the agricultural sector. The urea solution is injected in to the exhaust fractions o f the fuel particle, leaving the partly burnt remainder as
gas directly after the turbocharger. U readecays immediately into soot. Soot increases with slow burning asphaltene fuels; burning o f
ammonium and carbon dioxide. T he mixture is passed through the fuel impinged on the relatively cooler liner surface; and with large fuel
catalyst, where N O x is converted into nitrogen and water. droplets. Soot is an environment pollutant as well as it fouls the exhaust
uptakes and increases exhaust boiler back pressure, sparking o r even
Measuring soot fires.
It is done b y the Chem ical L um inescence m ethod, w here NO is
converted to N O and then m easured b y a portable Electro Chem
Smoke and Opacity
Sensor (ECS) unit.
It is the degree o f blackening o f a white filter paper o r the amount o f
Carbon Monoxide light reduction when light is passed through the exhaust plume.

The exhaust emissions contain large quantities o f carbon monoxide, Methods o f measurement
because o f the excess oxygen supplied in combustion air. Increase in 1. Bosch smoke scale 0 -1 0
the norm al operating levels indicate poor atomization o f the fuel by
the fuel injectors.

304 305
Marine Diesel Engines

2. Bacharach sm oke scale 0- 9

3. Hartridge smoke scale % Hartridge

4. Ringleman number 0- 5



M ean Effective Pressure (M EP)

It is the theoretical constant pressure acting on the piston during the
pow er stroke.

I n d ic a te d M e a n E ffe c tiv e P r e s s u r e o r M e a n In d ic a te d
Pressure (M IP )
It is the pressure which on acting upon the piston, performs the same
w ork as the actual pressure in the operating cycle. It is the ratio of
work done during the w orking stroke to the sw ept volume. It is
determined graphically from a diagram or calculated from engine
M easurement o f M IP
It can be done by measuring the area o f the indicator diagram.
The various methods are :
1. Planimeter
2. Mid-ordinate method.
3. Counting the number o f squares, if the diagram is taken on a special
square type graph sheet.

Engine Performance and Indicator Cards
Marine Diesel Engines

Rated P ow er
O n board the ship, the M IP is obtained by m easuring the area o f the
It is a continuous effective pow er given by the m anufacturer for a
indicator diagram (in sq.cms) and dividing it by the length o f the
certain rated rpm o f the crankshaft, taking into account the auxiliaries
diagram (cms).
used under normal service conditions, with a provision for overload.
Indicated H orse Pow er
Gross Power
IH P = P x L x A x N
It is a continuous effective pow er guaranteed by the engine supplier
for an approximate rpm using a certain set of auxiliaries under normal
service conditions without any allowance for overload.
P = M IPinkg/
L = Engine stroke, in metres O verload Power
A = Cross sectional area o f o ne cylinder, in It is a short-time effective pow er in excess o f the rated pow er with
N = Speed o f the engine in rpm the same set o f auxiliaries, under the same service conditions, which
= N fo r 2-stroke & = N /2 for 4-stroke can be used periodically for a limited interval only.
4500 = The conversion ofkg-m /m in to H.P. in metric units.
M inim um Power
B rake H orse P ow er (BH P) It is the lowermost effective power guaranteed by the engine supplier
It is the pow er output m easured a t the crankshaft by a brake- for an appropriate crankshaft rpm.
dynamometer on the manufacturers test bed. O n board a ship, Bhp
can be determ ined by a torsiom eter w hich gives shaft horse power. M inim um Stable E ngine Speed
The Shp is less than the Bhp o f the dynam om eter by the frictional It is the rate o f crankshaft rotation at a given irregularity factor. Any
horse pow er at the thrust block. speed below the minimum stable speed would result in stalling o f the
M echanical E fficiency
It is the ratio o f the brake horse power to the indicated horse power.
E ffective Pow er
Its value is 0.75 to 0.85.
It is the pow er at the output end o f the engine i.e. at the crankshaft
= O utput at the crank shaft .= Brake H orse Power
flange position. It is the indicated horse power minus the mechanical
Input at the cylinder Indicated H orse Power losses.
Actual Efficiency = H eat converted into actual work
Therm al E fficiency
Total heat supplied
= H eat converted to useful work
Total heat supplied
= Indicated Efficiency x Mech. Efficiency
Its value is approxim ately 0.60

308 309
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Performance and Indicator Cards

Its value = 0.32 to 0.42 (2-stroke) E xcess A ir Coefficient

= 0.35 to 0.45 (4-stroke) = Actual air supplied
Stoichiometric air
H ea t B alance Diagram Excess air is supplied to the ensure complete combustion. Power o f
the engine also depends on the mass o f air supplied.

Testing of Marine Engines

(1) M anufacturers Acceptance Test
Here, tests are carried out at the manufacturers test bed to check
w hether the perform ance values are within the acceptable
standards o f specification.
(2) Sea Trial Test
Here, tests are carried out to check whether the engine and ships
C ontinuous Pow er perform ance are as per the contractual agreem ent supplied by
It is the brake horse pow er given by the supplier m easured at the the manufacturer.
pow er take o ff end, under continuous safe operation o f the engine (3) Comparative Testing
without a time lim it This is done after handing over the vessel by the manufacturer to
M a xim u m C ontinuous R ating the ship owner. It is carried out during the service life o f the
It is the maximum output power for the engine running continuously vessel to ensure m aintenance o f the service standards as
under safe conditions. Contractual maximum continuous rating is the compared to the same engine when it was newly built.
rating according to the contract agreed upon. (4) Research Testing
This testing is performed after feedback from the ships owner in
N orm a l o r S tandard R ating
case o f problems to be overcome, or m odifications, o r latest
It is the output pow er at norm al service speed corresponding to
improvements to be incorporated on the engine.
economical efficiency, thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency and
easy maintenance.
A stern O utput Pow er M arine diesel engines are normally tested by Test-Bed Tests and Sea
It is the maximum outputpower which theenginecan run whilstrunning Trials.
in astern directions.

310 311
Marine Diesel Engir.
Engine Performance and Indicator Cards

Test-Bed Tests
d) Overload T est: The engine is run in an overloaded condition
These include trials on the engine w hich is loaded by a water brake.
at a set" controlled overload rating.
The following trials are d o n e:
e) MinimumStableSpeedTest:Theengineminimumstable
Consumption trials.
(ii) Starting and reversing trials.
(m) Running astern trials.
factor. Theengineshouldnotstallatthisspeed.
f) Starting and Reversing T est: This test checks the starting and
(iv) Increased torque trials.
reversing system for reliability, and also the capacity o f the air
Se a Trials reservoir for minimum number o f starts and its pressure drop.
The following sea trial tests are performed on new ships to check the g) Vibration T est: Torsion vibrations and transverse vibrations
ships performance conforming to acceptable standards specified by are checked.
the manufacturer: h) Cylinder Cut Out Test.
j) Minimum number o f units firing test.
M ooring Trial j) Noise measurement test.
Before testing out in the open sea, a m ooring trial is done when k) Stop Trials : To test how quickly the ship can stop for
the ship is in a m oored condition. safety reasons, when sailing under constant propulsion.
(ii) Running-in Trial
This trial is done during the running-in period o f the piston rings Param eter Observation during Tests
and cylinder liner at a controlled output, only for a short running- The following parameters are to be observed and noted during the
in period. above tests for different loads: Fuel oil temperature, viscosity, density
and pressure at the inlet to main engine; engine room temperature;
(iii) Preliminary Trial
ambient air temperature; relative humidity; rpm; load index; exhaust
This is a trial done to confirm the engines performance before temperature for each cylinder; exhaust temperature before and after
going through the official trial.
the turbochargers; lube oil temperatures before and after the cooler;
(iv) Official Trial piston cooling oil discharge temperature for each cylinder; cooling
This is done officially in the open sea. T he following tests are fresh water tem perature before and after the cooler; cooling water
carried out: discharge temperature for each cylinder; lube oil pressure; air pressure
a) Consumption test. drop across air cooler; cooling fresh water pressure; air temperature
b) Guarantee speed test between tw o fixed points at maximum at air inlet; air temperature after air cooler; cooling temperature before
continuous rated power. and after air cooler; indicator diagrams; fuel flow m eter and
c) A ste rn r u n n in g te s t w h e re a s te rn p o w e r is lim ite d consumption calculation; cylinder oil flow meter and consumption; and
(50 to 80% o f maximum ahead running power rating). exhaust gas pressure before and after the turbochargers.

312 313
Marine Diesel Engines
Engine Performance and Indicator Cards

From the above readings o f trials, calculations are don,e and the
propeller graph is plotted.
A 1 0 0 % reference point
Load Diagram M Specified M C R
A load diagram is one w hich shows the graph o f engine speed O Optim ising point
relationship with power over the operating range o f a specific engine.
It is dictated by the Maximum Continuous Rating (MCR) for a specific
rpm and engine load. Point, A = M

Propeller Curve

$ S Si 3 ot 8 8 8 iS 8 8 3
It is a curve o f the propeller characteristics im posed onto a load
diagram. The propeller curve is a curve plotted with the relationship
between the propeller power and the shaft rotational speed.
The numbered lines in the diagram denote the following curves:
Line 1: The P ropeller Curve
It intersects the maximum continuous rating o f 100% power
and 100% speed values.
Line 2: Clean Propeller and H ull Line
It is the same as Line 1 assuming engine propeller and hull are
in clean condition.
Line 3: M axim um Engine Speed Line
It is the lim iting line drawn at 103.5 to 105 % speed for
continuous operations, depending on the engine builder. The
engine should not be ran at low loads and above 100 % speed
for long periods.
Line4: Am ple A ir Available Line
It gives the limit for ample availability o f air above which thermal
overload limits the torque and the speed.

Marine Diesel Engines
Engine Performance and Indicator Cards

Line 5: M echanical M EP Lim it Line

It lim its the value o f mean effective pressure from the 100% Propeller curve characteristics with Safety Margins
pow er-speed point. This line can be extended horizontally
from the M C R point in order to include a 100% power limit
after the 100% speed limit. Engine Power
Line 6: Fouled Propeller Curve
This is the propeller curve compensation o f 2 to 3 % light or
reduced load, so that it takes into account the fouled dirty
propeller or adverse weather.
Line 7: M axim um P ow er Rating Line
It is the line representing the m aximum pow er output o f the
engine at 100% Maximum Continuous Rating (MCR).
Line 8: Therm al Overload Line
This line represents the limit for the engine running thermally
Line 9: M echanical O verload Line
This line represents the limitfortheengine running mechanically

Safety Margins
There are 4 safety margins u se d :
1. Sea Margin (approximately. 15% power)
It is the expected increase in pow er required to maintain the
vessels calm weather speed, measured along the propeller curve.
2. L ight Running M argin (approximately 5 to 6 %)
This is the compensation for the loss in rpm between dry docks for
constant power operation. It consists o f :

316 317
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Performance and Indicator Cards

1.5 to 2% increase in ships resistance and w ake due to hull

rippling, local fouling and under paint roughness.
1 % increase in propeller friction losses.
1.5 to 2% increase due to wind and. weather influence on intake
w ater flow to th e propeller.
1% increase to compensate the decrease in engine'efficiency
d ue to fo u le d a ir coolers, p iston rin g w ear, p o o r fuel
injection, etc.
3. Shaft G enerator M argin
It is given in case a shaft generator is fitted.
4. Engine O perational Margin
Contractual speed is 90% o f M CR for m ost engines. This is the
m argin w hich allows the vessel to increase speed above the
contractual speed.

Indicator Diagrams
To enable the evaluation o f the pow er developed in each engine
To highlight conditions during fuel injection, combustion and
To highlight conditions prevailing in tire cylinder during the scavenge/
exhaust gas exchange process.
To show the pressure variations in the cylinder w ith respect to
piston displacements.


318 319
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Performance and Indicator Cards

Types of Indicator Diagrams T he figure shows an ideal,

compression card with fuel cut

Pc o m p
1. Pow er Cards (In-Phase) out, w here compression and
It plots the pressure variations e x p a n s io n lin e s a re th e
in the cylinder ( fig-195) and sam e. This show s correct
c a n b e in te g ra te d w ith a synchronizing o f the indicator
piston m ovem ent with the
planim eter to calculate the
engine piston movement.
m ean in d ic a te d p re ssu re
(as shown in fig -194). The
The figure shows compression
power developed in a cylinder
Fig-195 and re-expansion lines not
c a n b e c a lc u la te d by
coinciding. The compression
m ultiplication o f the engine card is positive in area and
sp e e d a n d th e c y lin d e r hence, th e in d ic a to r cam
constant. It also highlights sh o u ld b e re ta rd e d . T his
afterburning. implies that the indicator cam
setting is wrong. F ig - 198
2. D ra w C ards (9 0 d egrees
out o f phase) T h e fig u re sh o w s th e
It is similar to a pow er card compression card is negative
but taken w ith the indicator in a re a an d h en ce, the
drum rotation 90 degrees out in d ic a to r cam sh o u ld be
o f phase. It highlights the fuel advanced. This implies that
injection process, point o f the indicator cam setting is
Fig-196 wrong.
injection and com pression F i g - 199
4. L ight S pring Diagrams
3. Com pression Cards It is a diagram taken similar to the power card and in phase with
The compression card is only a line on the indicator diagram and the engine, but with a light compression spring fitted to the indicator.
gives the compression pressure and a timing check on the indicator It shows the pressure variations during exhaust and scavenge
cam. It is taken at a reduced rpm w ith the fuel cut-out. operations.

320 321
Marine Diesel Engines
Engine Performance and Indicator Cards

Analysis of Indicator Diagrams

F ig -2 0 2 sh o w s n orm al
correct com bustion.
O b se rv e th a t th e
c o m p re ssio n p re ssu re
(Pcom p) and m axim um
pressure (Pmax) coincide
w ith the m anufacturers

Fig-203 shows early ignition.

Ignition point starts earlier
resulting in a higher Pmax,
but the Pcomp is the same.
5. Pressure D erivative Card E x h a u s t te m p e ra tu re s
It shows the maximum rate o f pressure rise and the point o f injection. decrease and it may cause
It is used to highlight ignition delay. knocking. It is corrected by
adjusting theFQS setting for
Indicator Instrument bad quality fuel or injection Fig -203
1 Coupling Nut
2 Nut Fig-204 shows late ignition
3 Cylinder after-burning. Observe that
4 Piston the ignition point starts later
5 Indicator Piston Rod and Pm ax is low er but
6 Pen Arm Pcomp is the same. Exhaust
7 Chart Drum temperatures decrease as
8 Spring
more fuel is burnt later and
9 Driving Gear
sm o k e in c re a s e s . T he Fig -204
10 Three-way Indicator Cock
causes are wrong fuel pump

322 323
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Performance and Indicator Cards

timings, camshaft drive wear, worn fuel pump plunger, faulty delivery Fig-208 shows leaking exhaust
valve or suction valve spring, injectornozzle trumpets, or worn injector valve or worn piston rings. Observe
Pcomp is lower and ignition point
F ig -2 0 5 sh o w s p re ssu re is later. P m a x an d e x h a u st
o s c illa tio n s . O b se rv e th e tem p eratu res in crease, w hile
oscillations startonly afterignition. pow er decreases.
Oscillations are due to the gas
column or indicator drive. To use
this diagram, take the mean o f the Fig-209 show s an overloaded
oscillation amplitude as shown to engine. O bserve Pcomp is higher
Fig-205 get the curve. and Pm ax is higher. Exhaust
temperature and smoke increases.

Fig-210 shows a leaky injector o r a worn fuel pump. Observe Pcomp

is the same while there is a fluctuating pressure in the expansion stroke
Fig-206 after the ignition point. Pmax and power decrease. Injection is done
later and smoke increases.
Fig-206 shows high compression pressure. Observe that the Pcomp
is high, resulting in a higher Pmax. Ignition point is higher although
there is late ignition.

- F ig -2 0 7 sh o w s low
I com pression pressure.
"1 a r c c Observe Pcomp is lower,
R g-210
S u j resulting in a lower Pmax
and early ignition.
Fig-211 shows choked intake. Observe that due to a choked intake,
Fig - 207 compression pressure is less throughout the curve. It results in a

324 325
Marine Diesel Engines Engine Performance and Indicator Cards

Fig-215 shows a choked exhaust Observe ^

that since the exhaust is choked, there is less
pressure throughout. Exhaust temperatures
and smoke increase. Scavenging efficiency
decreases and and there is a possibility o f
K g-211 turbocharger surging.

low er Pcomp and Pmax, while exhaust tem perature and smoke
increases. The turbocharger surges.

Faults with Indicator Instruments.

Analysis of Light Spring Diagram
Fig-216 shows vibrations in the indicator
instrument drive. Only the pow er card is
Fig -2 1 2 show s a ch o k ed intake. T he
affected, w hile th e draw card is not
dashed line indicates the ideal curve, while
the dark line indicates the actual curve. Fig-216

Fig-217 shows the cord o f the indicator

Fig-213 shows early opening o f the exhaust instrument is too long. Hence, the TDC
valve. Observe the exhaust valve opening section is missing.
point X has shifted to an earlier position. Fi"213
Power decreases and exhaust temperatures

Fig-218 shows the cord o f the indicator

Fig-214 shows late opening o f the exhaust instrument is too short. Hence, the BDC
valve. Observe the exhaust valve opening partis missing.
point X has shifted to a later position.
Scavenge efficiency decreases and less
energy is passed to the turbocharger.

326 327
Marine Diesel Engines

Fig-219 shows friction in the indicator

piston. O bserve that both pow er and
draw cards are affected. It results in an
extra large working diagram area.


Fig-220 show s a w eak spring o f the
indicator instrum ent. It results in the
indicator piston striking the top end o f the
Governor Function
To control the engine speed within close limits, from no load speed
Fig-220 to full rated speed.
To control either the engine speed or the engine load.

Fig-221 shows a leaking indicator cock.

Observe that the atmosphere datum line Isochronous Governor
is untrue. It is a governor which maintains a constant speed, irrespective o f
load and power changes.
Example: Auxiliary engines.
Fig-221 -
A ll Indicator Cards Faulty
Variable Speed Governors
It indicates that the problem is w ith the instrum entC heck spring
tension, piston freeness, deposits, linkages, drum cord, clear indicator When there is a facility to adjust the set speed on the governor according
cock, etc. to the load, then the governor is a variable speed governor.
Exam ple: Main engine governor.
Electronic Indicator
It receives its input o f the cylinder pressure by a pressure sensor and Droop
also the flywheel position by another sensor. It is used in the latest It is the drop in speed from stable no load condition to stable full
intelligent engines. (More details are listed under the Intelligent
load condition i.e. a fall in speed due to load changes.
E ngine' heading in Engine Description chapter).

328 329
Marine Diesel Engines Governors and Control

L in e A sh o w s iso c h ro n o u s Mechanical Governor

c h a ra c te r is tic s i.e . sp e e d
(frequency) is same, 60H z at T h e fig u re sh o w s a basic
0% lo a d an d 100% lo a d . m ech an ical governor. T he
L in e B sh o w s d ro o p engine drive input signal 6 is
characteristics i.e. a fall in speed transmitted via the gearing 4 to
o r freq u en cy fro m 6 0H z to the governor mechanism. The
5 8 H z a t 0% lo a d to 100% governor mechanism consists of
load. flyweights 3 on a bell crank 7
pivoted 8 to act on a spring
KW LOAD lo a d e d c o lla r 9 w h ic h is
connected to the fuel pum p Fig-223
_ .. . Kg-222
Sensitivity linkage 5. The speed setting control can be adjusted by the screw 1
It is the measure o f the smallest change needed for which the governor changing the spring tension. W hen the engine speed increases if load
responds with the required output signal. It implies that the governor is reduced, the flyweights m ove outwards, due to their increased
can control the speed within very narrow limits. centrifugal force. This causes the bell cranks to push the spring loaded
collar to reduce fuel. M echanical governors have the following
Stability drawbacks: Increased wear, friction, mechanical damage, bearing
It is the ability to attain a stable speed fo r varied load conditions. failures, instability and a limited governor effect

G overnor E ffo rt Hydraulic Governor with Compensation

It is the force applied by the governor onto the fuel pum p control,
when there is a change in load or speed.

D ead B a n d
It is a band or range in speed, only after w hich the governor will

H u n tin g
It is the fluctuation in the engine speed due to over o r under control of
the governor. Too much sensitivity can cause hunting.

330 331
Marine Diesel Engines
Governors and Control

1 Ball head 2 Centering spring

3 Receiving piston 4 Reservoir
5 Transmitting piston 6 To fuel linkage increase or decrease
7 Needle valve 8 Oil drain
9 Oil supply 10 Pilot valve !
11 Conical speeder spring

This governor can be considered as isochronous (constant speed),

except during the compensation (transient speed drop) period.
It is a stable governor.
Compensation or transient speed drop is included in the form of
reset action.
Compensation can be changed by adjusting the needle valve setting.
W hen load increases, the engine speed decreases along with the
centrifugal force. T he spring force becom ing greater causes the
pilot valve 10 to move down. This allows oil to flow to the servo.
The servo causes the increase in the fuel racks 6. Fig-225
The servo simultaneously acts on the transmitting piston 5 which It basically consists o f fo u r components
applies a force onto the receiving piston 3. This receiving piston The load sensing input signal 1 which senses the load 12 after
pushes the centering spring 2 and causes the closing o f the pilot the governor alternator 10 and sends this input signal to the setting
valve (pilot valve moving up). Thus, equilibrium and stability are control unit 4.
achieved at a lower speed. Once the oil in the compensating system The speed sensing input signal 2 w hich senses the speed at the
leaks past the needle valve, the centering spring causes the speeder engine flywheel 11and sends this input signal to the comparator
spring to return to its original valve, so that equilibrium is brought amplifier unit 5.
about at the original speed, inspite of the increased load. The setting control unit 4 w hich has settings for droop or
isochronous mode 6, speed setting signal 7 and ramp generator 8.
The hydraulic governor has operational problems in case o f low
The Comparator / Amplifier Control unit which compares the
oil level, dirty oil, incorrect viscosity, air lock, wrong adjustments,
input signals with the reference settings and sends an output signal
excessive oil operating temperatures, and wear at fine clearances.
to the actuator 3 to change the racks position o f the engine fuel
pumps 9.

332 333
Marine Diesel Engines Governors and Control

The advantages o f the electronic governor Turning the knob clockwise changes the tension o f the speeder
Less mechanical components; quick response; no friction; capable of spring and increases the speed o f the engine.
com plex engine speed control; taking into account the engine load The number o f turns that the speed setting knob has turned can be
and electrical load; overspeed control; load sharing requirements; easy seen on the speed setting indicator, which has a minim um and
installation; and easy adjustments. maximum fuel setting limit.

The main disadvantages o f the electronic governor is that it can fail Load L im iter Knob
in case there is a failure o f input current to the governor from any
It limits the fuel and, therefore the load.
source. T he rem edy is to com bine the electronic governor with a
mechanical hydraulic governor which will act as the back up in case of It limits the stroke o f the power piston by altering the position of
electronic governor failure. the droop lever fulcrum point.
It is used only when load on the engine is to be limited, as in cases
Governor Adjustments of running-in after major overhauls.
Com pensation Range
It can b e adjusted by changing the fulcrum position on the lever Speed Droop Knob
connection between the servo output linkage and the compensation It is used to control the speed droop during load sharing operations
transmitter piston. between generators. It is not usually adjusted.

Com pensation R ate L o a d Sharing a nd th e N ecessity o f Droop

It is done only after the compensation range has been set. C o n sid e r tw o d ie se l
It is done only in case o f sluggish response, excessive hunting or g e n e ra to rs c o n n e c te d in
overspeeding during initial start-up. parallel.
The needle valve is opened till the control ju st becomes unstable,
after which it is shut by 1/4 turn. Fig-226 shows the condition I
ju st after synchronization has
been d o n e to ru n th e
Loca l S peed S ettin g Knob
gen erato rs in p arallel. A t
During norm al operation, the control o f speed setting is done p o in t X , it is seen th a t
remotely, via the electric m otor mounted on the governor. g e n e ra to r/ tak es fu ll lo a d 100 kwg52
This local speed setting knob is used only in case o f failure o f the (100 % ), w h ile g e n e r a to r
remote control system o r when on local control to test the engine takes no load (0%).
over-speed trip.

334 335
Marine Diesel Engines Governors and Control

in case o f a droop i.e. a change in speed (frequency) o f the generator

during transient conditions o f load changes.

In F ig -2 2 9 fo r isochronous o peration, b o th g e n e ra to r; and

generator2 share the same line i.e. at constant speed or frequency of
60Hz. There can be no crossing o f generator; and generator2 lines if
constant speed (isochronous) is to be maintained. Hence, sharing o f
load would not be stable.

Electronic Digital Governor for Bridge Control

Bridge Control using an electronic digital governor consists o f 4 units,
namely (1) Digital Governor, (2) Remove Control Unit on Bridge, (3)
Fig-227: G enerator2 speed (frequency) control increases so as to
Engine Telegraph and (4) Engine Protection Devices.
take up part o f the load.
1) D igital Governor
Fig-228 : Once g e n era to r has taken up some o f the load, generator?
w ill decrease its speed (frequency) as it takes up less load. The
frequency o f generator; will now be brought back to 60Hz.

F ig-229: B y comparing Fig-228 and Fig-229, w e can conclude that

fo r stable operation, droop is
n e c e s s a ry f o r lo a d s h a rin g G en t and <3an2
between generators.

N ecessity o f d roop f o r lo a d
In order to achieve sharing o f
lo a d , th e g e n e r a to r l a n d
g e n e r a t o r lin e s s h o u ld ,
in terse c t, as in th e c ase o f
Fig-228. This is only possible

336 337
Marine Diesel Engines
Governors and Control

The various components are described b e lo w :

I-gain increases in rough sea conditions which slows down the
R P M Command
controller response.
It is the order from the Bridge requesting a certain speed. This input
signal should meet the safety settings i.e. the rpm should not rise too The gain also improves with both P and I functions, as the difference
fast causing engine overload or the rpm should not be within the between the desired and measured rpm value increases to improve
critical speed range. the, controller response and prevent over-speed o f the engine.

M easured Command Fuel Limiters

It is the rpm m easured at the engine by means o f tw o inductance
There are 3 fuel limiters:
pick-ups, fitted at the toothed ring. The higher rpm value is chosen
from the tw o pick-ups. a) Maximumfiiellimiter
It is used to limit fuel to avoid mechanical overloading o f the engine
RPM Comparator (excess firing pressures and excess bearing loads). It can be
It compares the measured rpm with the rpm command desired by the overridden from the Bridge using the Cancel Limiterbutton, but
Bridge and sends a resultant signal to the regulator amplifier. the engine should never be run more than 110 % load for more
than an hour in a 12-hour period.
Regulator Gain
b) Torque (fuel) limiter
It regulates the gain o r sensitivity o f the governor during different
engine load conditions. It is used to limit the fuel to avoid excessive torque conditions i.e,high
Example: thermal load on cylinders and high torsional loads on crankshaft
With constant fuel setting, die dead band o f the controller output is especially at low speeds.
increased so that an engine speed change o f at least 2 rpm is needed, c) Scavenge air limiter
before the governor responds. It is used to limit the fuel as per the scavenge air pressure
W ith rough sea setting, the governor output varies with the engine available to ensure proper combustion.
speed changes.

Controller Gain Actuator P ositioner

This is a P and I controller. The actuator gets an input o f the desired fuel com m and signal. It
compares it with the actual position o f the actuator and sends a resultant
P-gain is varied between normal and rough sea options. Rough
sea has a slightly lower gain since the dead band o f the controller signal to the actuator which is amplified before being fed into the actuator
output is reduced.

Marine Diesel Engines Governors and Control

A ctuator Speed Pick-Up Start B lo ck : It indicates that the engine starting is blocked in case of
It is a feedback link which prevents excessive actuator motor speeds. turning gear engaged, low start air pressure, both ipm detectors failure,
It allows the actuator amplifier to position the actuator at the correct engine tripped, automatic start air valve blocked or start air distributor
position quickly. blocked.
Actu a to r Above Reversing Limit indicates that the engine speed is m ore than
It is a brush-less servom otor fitted w ith a digital encoder for motor the maximum level at which brake air can be supplied.
output position.
Start Set Point indicates that the governor setting is at its preset start
level to allow sufficient fuel for starting. This signal is maintained for 6
2) R em ote C ontrol Unit
Ahead / Astern S.V. indicates the presence o f the bridge speed
setting signal.
Stop governor indicates the presence o f a signal to the governor to
stop fuel admission. This is not a cut-out device.
Cancel Lim iter Governor indicates the scavenge air lim iter and
Fig-231 torque limiter are cancelled. This happens in case the engine fails to
start after three automatic starts. A n alarm indicates the repeated-
start function activation.
The mimic diagram as shown displays the functioning o f the remote
control unit from the bridge. This mimic diagram has indicator lights Above Start Level indicates that the start system will be activated to
to show the sequence and changes taking place during maneuvering. brake the engine before reversing can take place.
The following components in this mimic diagram are described below.
Start S. V indicates start air system is activated.

Bridge shows bridge control. Stop S. V. indicates the starting air has started the engine above the set
point for starting.
System S im u la tio n : It is used during testing and sim ulation o f the
engine running conditions while the engine is actually stopped. Set Point Limiter indicates that the bridge engine speed request has
not been allowed due to the load-up programme being activated above
Stop indicates th at the bridge telegraph lever is at stop or the
full ahead rpm, or due to the critical range speed being blocked by the
emergency stop button is pressed.
bridge control system, or a slow down condition has been activated.
Ahead/Astern C om m and: It only indicates the bridge command that This can be cancelled at the bridge panel.
has been requested and not the engine o r camshaft position.

340 341
Marine Diesel Engines Governors and Control

3) E n g in e Telegraph System c) Slowdown to dead slow speed rpm, due to:

It conveys the speed anddirection command from the bridge Low lube oil pressure (1.5 bar)
to the engine control room personnel. Low camshaft oil pressure (2 bar)
W hen on bridge control, the engine room telegraph control is Thrust block high temperature (75 deg.C)
disconnected and becomes a transmitter/receiver for the bridge
to engine room com m and communications. It indicates the
following: Scavenge air temperature high (65 deg.C)
Oil mist detection high.
Standard ring o f bell i f the bridge and engine telegraph
position do not match. Cylinder exhaust temperature high (450 deg.C)
W rong way alarm indicates that the engine room telegraph Lube oil inlet temperature high (60 deg.C)
and engine rotation are opposite. Piston coolant high temperature (75 deg.C).
Failure o f remote system power supply indicates that bridge
control is no m ore possible. Emergency control may have The Emergency run button on the bridge can over-ride the
to be done in case o f failure from engine room control. shutdown function.
A n internal comm unication failure between the telegraph
Indicators fo r the FW E, Standby and A t Sea modes.

4) E n g in e P rotection
It is provided to safeguard the engine d uring:
a) O verspeed i.e. 107 % o f M CR :
It activates the emergency stop solonoid for shutdown o f the
b) Shutdown for:
low lube oil pressure (1 bar)
jacket water .high temperature(96 deg.C)
thrust block high temperature (85 deg.C)
cam shaft oil low pressure (1.5 bar).

342 343


Taking Over An Engine Room Watch

A proper hand-over of important events and conditions of die machinery
from one w atch-keeper to the other is o f utmost importance. The
usual practice is that the relieving watch-keepers should come 15
minutes before the start o f the watch. He should come to the engine
room via the staircase starting at the highest entrance point. He should
first take a brief round or walk through o f the engine room before
the start o f the watch.

Taking a Walk Through or a Round

A walk-through the engine room is a must, as one can visually see and
check all important parameters and conditions.
T he follow ing aspects are checked during a w alk-through
or a round :
When starting around one should always be near the funnel so that
one can check the exhaust smoke colour from outside the engine
room. The smoke colour is checked to see whether it is whitish,
dark black or transparent light grey. Whitish smoke indicates excess

Marine Diesel Engines Watch Keeping And Safety

be no restrictions so that they can be quickly closed in emergency

o f air, while blackish smoke indicates poor combustion usually due
to fuel problems. Atransparent slightly greyish smoke shows good
combustion. Check the m ain engine jacket w ater expansion tank level and
condition, and monitor the loss in case jacket water level decreases.
One should also identify the source o f the sm oke i.e. from which
exhaust piping it is emerging. There is one exhaust funnel pipe for Check the presence and condition o f portable fire fighting
the m ain engine, separate ones fo r each diesel generator and one appliances, fire hoses and nozzles at their correct locations.
for the auxiliary boiler. Blackish sm oke from the exhaust is an On the upper platform, check the inert gas system, bubbler, fan
offence when the ship is at port. However, some blackish smoke and motor bearings, and fan leakages.
may emerge initially when starting or maneuvering o f the engine or
the auxiliaries. Check the boiler flame colour through the sight glass to see if the
combustion is correct.
Check to see if there are sparks emerging from the funnel. This is
due to m inute hydro-carbon deposits w hich self-ignite at the Check the boiler water level in the gauge glass. Blow through the
economizer. This happens either when soot-blowing the economizer gauge glass if required.
o r the boiler, or due to w ater in the fuel, or due to a very dirty Check the generator expansion tank water level, loss and condition.
economizer, o r due to running the engine at low loads for a long Also check the exhaust gas economizer circulating pump.
time especially during maneuvering, or due to poor combustion.
On the control room platform, check the temperature and level of
I t is dangerous i f th e w ind direction is blow ing th e sparks to a
the fuel oil tanks, drain them for water, and open steam heating if
hazardous cargo zone at the forward side o f the ship.
A ll pumps are to be checked for the follo w in g : M otor current
Check the steering gear room, oil level in steering gear tank and
amperes should not be higher than the norm al running amperes.
greasing o f the rudder.
N o o v erheating o f the m o to r o r th e pum p body. B earing
temperatures and all temperature and pressure gauges should be Check the diesel generators fo r operating load, exhaust,
show ing norm al values. N o unusual noise or vibrations. Slight temperatures, leakages, all pressures and temperatures, unusual
leakage o f the gland that is required fo r cooling, b ut excessive noise, loose parts, exhaust bellows and sump levels.
leakage requires tightening o f the gland packing.
At the bottom platform, check all pumps and ascertain which sea
On the top platform, check the exhaust gas economizer for exhaust, water suction is in use. Check double bottom tanks; sludge tanks;
steam, or water leaks. Check the condition o f the lagging on the bilges for oil o r water leakages and trace the cause; cofferdam
pipes and any leakages. Check the engine room ventilation, position sounding; stem-tube oil levels and pressure; and the intermediate
o f sky lights and access doors to the engine room. There should bearing and its lubrication.

Marine Diesel Engines Watch Keeping A nd Safety

Check the oily water separator and sample the water being pumped any problems encountered during the previous watches. Ensure
overboard. All over board pumping procedures should be followed proper knowledge o f procedures to be followed in the event o f a
strictly according to the companys policies and instructions. Ensure failure o f any equipment. Read the Standing orders and Chief
that weighted cocks on double bottom sounding pipes are in shut Engineers instructions.
position and caps closed. The main engine is to be checked Check if any operations are being carried out like fuel transfers;
thoroughly from the crankcase platform upto the economizer fresh water tank filling; and disposal o f oil residues, bilges, sewage
platform. Feel the crank case and scavenge doors for any increase or garbage.
in temperatures. Listen to the engine sound and observe any unusual
noise. Check all auxiliaries like air compressors and purifiers.

Check the piston cooling flow from the sight glass. Check the compressor running temperatures; tim e to press up the
air receiver; lubricator operation and level; sump oil level; and running
Check the scavenge drains to see quality and quantity o f oil or current amperes.
w ater leaks.
Check the purifier inlet oil temperature; overflow pipe for oil
Check the air cooler air-side drains to m ake sure that the drained overflow; running current amperes; back pressure, filter pressure;
w ater is from condensation and not from sea water. Scavenge and leakages.
temperature m ust not be too low.
Check all objects in the engine room in case they have to be lashed,
Check the hydraulic governor oil level. especially during bad weather conditions.
Feel air starting pipes to see if they are h o t and touch the high Check the nature and location o f all w ork being carried out on
pressure pipe to feel the pressure pulses o f injection. various machineries.
For hearing machinery sounds, use a metal rod with one end to' the Check the w ork being done by all engine room personnel and
ear and the other end touching the machinery. hazards involved.
Drain all air bottles o f water. Check if any system has been isolated or whether any abnormalities
Check all parameters and gauges in the engine control room. are present with the machinery.
Check that the load is sufficient on the generators. It is preferable Check proper working o f the communication system.
to run the generators at higher loads rather than at low loads which Some companies now require both watch-keepers to sign a hand
would cause fouling, especially when running on heavy fuel oil. over form listing all checks and abnormalities.
Check the engine room log book requirem ents for any cargo or . Only after the incoming watch-keeper is fully satisfied with the hand
maneuvering operations; requirements for adverse conditions; and over, will he take over charge from the outgoing watch-keeper.

348 349
Marine Diesel Engines
Watch Keeping And Safety

C hecks D u rin g T h e W atch

Problems During The Engine Room Watch
A fter taking a thorough walk through or round o f the engine
A list o f problems occurring during the watch are discussed below
room, it is imperative that periodic personal checks are made on
and the action to be taken. Safety and prevention o f further damage
all running machinery. should always be the priority.
In case o f any abnormal conditions, the watchkeeper should
immediately assess the situation. If it is an emergency, he can call Crankcase E xplosion
for help by pressing the engineers call alarm. Conditions fo r a crankcase explosion
In case o f a ship or fire emergency, he can press the Emergency 1. A source o f heat or ignition which is required to vapourise the oil
into a fine vapour.
general alarm .
2. The correct air to fuel ratio required for explosion.
If he is not in a position to understand the cause or the remedy, he 3. Fine oil vapour with a high surface area to mass ratio.
should inform the Chief engineer or the Second engineer.
The source o f ignition is mostly a hot spot due to a bearing running
In case o f abnormalities w hich affect the speed o r operations of hot. This heat causes the lube oil in contact with the hot surface, to
the m ain engine, pow er generators or the cargo plant, the vapourise into a fine vapour. This oil vapour forms an oil mist in
watchkeeper should also inform the bridge or the cargo control the presence o f condensation in a relatively cooler section o f the
room watchkeeper. crankcase.
W hen this fine oil m ist ignites in the presence o f a h o t surface, a
All starting, stopping and im portant procedures are listed in the
pressure rise occurs w hich depends on the weakness o r richness
engine room operation guide book which is now a requirement.
o f the oil particle to air ratio. An explosion occurs if this mixture is
In case the watchkeeper requires more manpower, He should ask in the explosive range.
the Chief engineer or Second engineer to provide mote manpower,
A primary explosion is relatively slow as the crankcase atmosphere
rather than compromise on safety. is too rich with oil vapour, but may cause a rapture of the crankcase
Priority to be given to the running machinery and operations, rather allowing ingress o f air. This ingress o f air causes a very good air to
than any overhaul work. oil-particle ratio and a secondary explosion occurs, which is more
A safe working atmosphere is required at all times.
A remedy for secondary explosions is the use o f crankcase relief
W hile logging down and recording parameters in the engine room doors, which relieve the crankcase pressure if it exceeds 0.05 bar,
log book, the watchkeeper should analyse any change and its cause. thereby preventing any rapture to the crankcase and ingress o f air.
Constant monitoring o f the crankcase oil mist is accomplished by
an oil mist detector.

Marine Diesel Engir, Watch Keeping And Safety

Crankcase R e lie f Valve Scavenge Fires

It is due to the ignition o f carbon or cylinder lube oil deposits.
C auses:
Blow past due to worn or damaged piston rings.
Stuffing box leaks.
Excessive cylinder lubrication.
Inadequate draining o f scavenge spaces.
Poor combustion, injector condition, fuel timings or worn liners.
Increase in scavenge temperature o f one unit as compared to the
Increase in temperatures in scavenge and exhaust systems.
Rough running of the engine with a slight rpm drop and surging of
the turbocharger.
Smoky exhaust.
Flame, smoke or sparks at the scavenge drains.

Self-closing crankcase relief valves are fitted at various points along Prevention
the crankcase 1 to relieve pressure, irrespective o f the origin in the Regular draining, cleaning and monitoring o f the scavenge spaces.
cran k case. Correct rate o f cylinder lubrication.
The valve should be self-closing to prevent ingress o f air which Correct maintenance o f piston rings, cylinder liners and fuel
leads to a secondary explosion. Self-closing function is achieved injection equipment.
by the spring 3 which shuts the disc valve 2, if the crankcase pressure
is less than 0.05 bar. Remedy
A n oil-wetted m etallic gauze 5 is fitted on the internal side for In Sulzer engines: Slow down the engine, cut-off the fuel, increase
stopping a flame emerging from the relief valve. cylinder lubrication; and continue running till the fire bums out. Stop
A rubber o-ring 6 provides oil tightness and sealing. A deflector 4 the engine. After waiting till the scavenge space cools down, open up
is fitted to deflect any flam e or pressure wave in case o f an for inspection and ascertain the cause.

352 353
Marine D iesel Engines Watch Keeping A nd Safety

I h B & W e n g in es: C ut-off the fuel, slow down the engine, request F looding
the bridge; and stop the engine and auxiliary blower. Apply extinguishing In case o f flooding, raise the emergency alarm, inform the bridge,
m edium , allow the scavenge space to cool, and then open up for slow dow n and stop the m ain engine. According to the capacity
inspection and ascertain the cause. Components affected by scavenge needed, designated bilge pum ps or sea water pum ps using the
fires include Piston rod, cylinder liner, stuffing box, piston and rod emergency bilge injection valve are to be started. Identify and isolate
alignm ent, scoring or cracks in the liner, and tie rod tension. the cause o f flooding. Once pumping is started make sure the level of
water should be going down and not increasing. Also, give due attention
O il S p ill that the level should not flood any o f the pumps or the engine flywheel
In case o f an oil spill, stop the fuel oil transfer operations and raise the bottom level. Take care that no water should fall onto any electrical
general alarm . Follow the O il Spill Contingency Plan. Identify the starter p anel, device o r w iring.
source o f the spill and immediately restrict any further oil spillage by
isolation- Drain and contain the oil on the ship by putting the oil into a G rounding
slop tank or an empty cargo tank. Clean the spill area using an oil spill In case o f grounding, immediately stop the main engine and raise the
dispersant and the gear from the oil spill storage station. Try to recover emergency alarm. Inform the bridge. Change over from low to high
as much oil as possible. Log events and communicate with the port sea suction. Take die soundings o f all double bottom tanks in the engine
authorities. room as well as the cargo tanks to check for intactness. Report the
condition o f the engine room to the Master who will assess the danger
C ollisio n o f sinking, flooding, capsizing, oil pollution and vessels stability.
In case o f a collision o f the ship, stop the main engine. Activate the Record the events and status o f the main engine.
emergency general alarm. The engine room should be immediately
manned in case f UM S mode. Check if there is any ingress o f water Check the following : crank case inspection and deflections if
into the engine room. Take the soundings o f all double bottom tanks necessary, stem tube system condition and leakages, steering gear,
to check that they are intact. Keep all fire fighting gear on standby. and all sea w ater coolers and filters.
Check for oil pollution around the ship. Check all machinery to see if
they are affected especially the electrical plant. R eport to the bridge Sudden Overspeeding
the condition o f the engine room , the main engine and the auxiliaries. Sudden overspeeding can be caused b y :
The Master will then assess the danger o f sinking, capsizing or flooding. Fuel racks getting stuck.
The designated person ashore, the superintendent o f the ship and the A faulty governor.
port authorities are to be informed. Racing or jum ping o f the propeller in bad weather.

354 355
Marine Diesel Engines Watch Keeping And Safety

Loss o f E n g in e Pow er Sparks F rom The F u n n el

A loss o f engine pow er is due t o : It can b e caused by too m uch after burning or poor combustion.
Incorrectly set fuel racks, A dirty economizer should be soot blown (and water washed when
Faulty fuel injection pump or timings. the engine is stopped). In case the exhaust temperature is too high,
VIT settings. there could be a soot fire. Check fuel oil temperature and scavenge
Afaulty governor. temperatures. Drain the fuel oil tanks.
Fouling in the air system.
Too M u ch Sparking F rom The F unnel
Fouling o f the h u ll. .
If the exhaust gas temperatures a re too high in addition to heavy
sparking at the funnel, there is a possibility o f a fire at the economizer
Detection o f S lack Tie Rods or a scavenge fire. Stop the engine, but do not run at low loads since
The cylinder jacket adjacent to the slack tie bolt can be seen lifting unbumt fuel is more at low loads. Start the standby economiser water
when the piston reaches the end o f compression stroke at TDC. circulating pump to increase cooling. Provide boundary cooling. Stop
Press the thum b nail to the tie bolt nut. Small movements which the engine and shut the air inlets at the turbocharger and auxiliary
cannot be seen can be felt this way. blowers.
A Dial gauge can be used to detect relative movement between the
bolt and the cylinder jacket. A fter A L o n g Voyage
Carry out crankcase inspection; check bearing clearances, crank shaft
Too M u c h Incorrect F u e l Tim ings deflections, foundation bolts, scavenge port inspection, cleaning o f all
The engine will not start, or it will start in the opposite direction. filters, etc.
Injecting too m uch fuel earlier m ay cause the engine to move
Cylinder R e lie f Valve L ifting Up
in the opposite direction.
This can be due to excess fuel supplied during starting or manoeuvring;
T he engine m ay rock i.e the next unit may fire in the opposite
accumulated or unbumt fuel igniting with excess air; a sudden increase
direction and the effect may be like braking. in load in rough weather; pre-ignition; leaking or sticking air start valves;
water or oil accumulation o n the piston crown; or excessive peak
E n g in e S peed F luctuation pressures.
This is due to presence o f water in the fuel, high fuel volatility, fuel gas
lock, injection v ariation, w orn o u t linkages o f the governor, Cylinder R e lie f Valve L iftin g D uring Blow Through
bad fuel quality, units not balanced, governor setting too sensitive, Causes :
or air in the governor. A choked indicator cock.
An incorrect relief valve setting.

356 357
Marine Diesel Engines Watch Keeping And Safety

Water accumulation into the combustion chamber. O ne Unit E xh a u st Temperature Rise

Excess w ater in the starting air. This can occur because o f :
Thermometer defective (local or remote).
Reduced C om pression Pressure Less air supply due to the individual unit scavenge valves in the air
This is due to worn piston tings, worn liner, worn piston crown, worn receiver o r scavenge ports fouled, or a scavenge fire.
exhaust valve, incorrect exhaust valve timings orinsuffidentscavenging. Fuel injector nozzle in a poor condition o r the tip broken.
Incorrect fuel timings or a fuel cam shift.
S m o ky E x h a u st
C au se s: Leaking exhaust valve.

Less air supply to the engine due to fouled gas o r air side o f the Blow past o f piston rings.
turbocharger; fouled air cooler; faulty scavenge valves in the air
E ngine Speed Drops
receiver; fouled scavenge ports; or fouled exhaust gas economizer.
This can occur because o f :
O verloaded running conditions. C heck load indicator, exhaust
Fuel pressure after the booster pump is too low.
temperatures and peak pressures.
Fuel pump defective or a fuel piping fault.
Excessive cylinder lubrication.
Incorrect fuel injection.
Injection nozzles n o t atom izing the fuel completely, e.g. due to
carbon trum pet form ation and eroded or blocked spray holes. Fouling o f air or exhaust passages.

Incorrect fuel temperature o r viscosity, or a shift in the individual Fuel air lock, gassing, water in the fuel, or poor fuel combustion.
fuel cams. Scavenge fire.
Com pression pressure too low d ue to leaking piston rings or Governor problem.
exhaust valve.
Too low turbocharger rpm. O ne U nit E xh a u st Temperature Drops
This can occur because o f :
Scavenge fire.
Afaulty thermometer.
Less fuel supplied due to faulty fuel injection pump, pipes, injector
A ll Cylinders E x h a u st Tem perature Increase
or timings; o r a shift in the fuel cams.
This can occur because o f fouling in turbocharger, air cooler, intake
Exhaust valve does not open due to the actuator pum p o r piping
air filter, scavenge valves in the air receiver, scavenge ports or exhaust
passages. Incorrect fuel timings, bad quality fuel or inadequate fuel being defective.
treatment also result in increased exhaust temperatures.

358 359
Marine Diesel Engines Watch Keeping And Safety

Charge A ir P ressure Drops R un n in g Gear H ot

This occurs due to the fouling o f the turbocharger air intake filter, R unning g e a r lik e th e b earin g s, pisto n , lin er, etc m ay g et
diffuser, blower, inducer, rotor blades, nozzle ring, air cooler, water heated due to:
separator or exhaust gas economizer. A problem with lubrication or piping.

E n g in e R u n n in g Irregularly, M isfirin g o r C utting O ut

This occurs due t o : Water o r dirt in the lube oil.
Fuel problems like faulty fuel booster pump or fuel pump, wrong Lube oil tank level decreases and therefore, the pum p is
fuel pressure or temperature, air lock or water in fuel, or a defective drawing air.
fuel valve. Incorrect clearances o r component damage.
Governor malfunction.
Turbocharger surging. E ngine Fails To Start On A ir
Running gear components overheated, causing severe alternating This occurs due t o :
friction. Low air bottle pressure or air line valves may be shut.
A ir bottle isolating valve o r autom atic valve or distributor
J a ck e t Water P ressure F luctuation malfunction.
This occurs due t o : Control air valves faulty or less control air pressure.
Air pockets in the jacket cooling water, or insufficient venting.
Start air automatic valve jammed.
Exhaust gas leaking into jacket cooling w ater d ue to a crack
Turning gear engaged or limit switch faulty.
in the liner, cylinder head o r valve cage.
Reversing has not taken place completely.
A drop in the static pressure at the pum p inlet due to throttling
in the return pipe. Control valve for fuel or start is not in its end position.
Bursting diaphragm on start air line damaged.
Jacket Water Temperature Increase Fuel lever on maneouvring stand not on remote mode.
This occurs due t o : N ot sufficient spring air pressure to shut the exhaust valve,
Valves may be shut o r insufficient venting.
thereby causing loss o f compression.
Overloaded engine or piston running hot.
Auxiliary blower not running or not on auto mode.
Crack in liner, cylinder head or exhaust valve cage.
No oil pressure due to the exhaust valve being open o r insufficient
Temperature controller malfunction.
spring air pressure.
Jacket cooler setting is wrong:
Start air distributor has not activated its end stop valve.

360 361
Marine Diesel Engines Watch Keeping And Safety

Start air distributor piston is sticking. Suction o r spill valves leaking or stuck.
Start air distributor is wrongly adjusted. Pum p push rods jam m ed or fuel cams displaced or incorrect
Start air distributor control valve is sticking. timings.
Fuel pump relief valve leaking.
Cylinder air start valves are defective or sticky.
Violent Start
E n g in e Turns O n Air, B u t N o t O n F u el This occurs due to:
This can occur because o f : Speed setting is too high. It injects too much fuel for the start.
In B& W engines, the puncture valves are not properly vented. Fuel setting or timings are wrong.
Fuel regulating linkage jam m ed or held back by the stop cylinder.
Fuel lever on local maneuvering stand is not on remote mode. oil.
G overnor is defective and does n ot release the fuel linkage, or Auxiliary blowers w ere not running earlier causing fuel oil
there is no boost air to the governor. accumulation rather than blowing away fuel vapours (like purging).
Rotary valve o f the rotation direction safeguard is sticking.
Shut down o f fuel pumps. N o t R eversing p r Starting I n O nly O ne D irection
This can occur because o f :
Fuel filter is blocked or fuel pum p index is too low.
Start air valve for that unit may be sticking. The remedy is to give a
Pre-set control air signal to the governor is too low. kick in the opposite direction. Now a different unit will receive
start air due to the change in the crank position.
E ng in e D oes N o t F ire The reverse control valve is jammed.
This occurs due t o : The reversing servomotor o f the fuel or start air distributor is jammed
Less fuel being injected or the speed setting knob is set too low. or gets stuck before reaching a new end position due to insufficient
Governor does not release the regulating linkage. oil pressure. Therefore the engine turns on air, but no fuel is released
V IT & FQS functions are too late. as the rotation direction safeguard blocks it.
Start air pressure is insufficient to turn the engine fast enough. If the engine is running in one direction and reversed, propeller
Fuel is unsuitable o r its viscosity high. continues to turn in that direction. Therefore, m ore air and fuel is
Compression pressure is too low due to faulty piston ring sealing required for starting against the propeller force (first to bring the
or exhaust valve closing. propeller to standstill like braking). If the engine still does not start,
Fuel pum p defect. Check the cut-out device, jam m ed plunger or the propeller m ay tend to turn the engine in the original direction
clearances. i.e. opposite to the given m ovement. Therefore the rotational
Injector nozzle needle sticking o r holes blocked. direction safeguard blocks the fuel.

362 363
Marine Diesel Engines
Watch Keeping And Safety

C hecks I f T h e E n g in e Is N o t Reversing B roken Piston R ing

Checks are carried out on the follow ing: Causes :
T he coil o f the solenoid valve fo r the desired direction or rotation, Excessive thermal load, insufficient cooling, or a distorted piston
does not get voltage. crown.
Control air signal for desired direction o f rotation does not reach Excessive piston ring clearance or distorted grooves.
the engine. Loosen piping and check the air route or the defective Sticking o f piston rings or incompatible materials.
Excessive lubrication or loss o f lubrication.
Collapse o f piston rings.
Cracked Piston
Indications: Effects :
Fluctuation in piston cooling water or oil flow. Loss o f compression.
Increase o f water or oil from scavenge drains. Blow past o f combustion gases.

Piston cooling w ater o f oil is excessively dirty. Scavenge fire.

Scuffing o f the cylinder liner.
Temperature o f the piston cooling w ater or oil rises sharply.
Colour o f the exhaust is whitish if water cooled, or grey blue if oil
Cracked L iner Indications
' Gas leak in the jacket cooling water.
Knocking sound. Fluctuation in jacket cooling water pressure.
Loss o f jacket cooling water and increase in its temperature.
Thermal stresses caused by too much temperature variation across Sparks from the funnel or water from the scavenge drains when
a small section o f the piston. the engine stops.
The cylinder gives a knocking sound.
Loss o f coolant flow due to pum p failure o r cooling passages
Piston R u n n in g H ot
Fuel injector needle and valve leaking causing impingement and Indications:
burning o f the piston crown.
Knocking sound at both ends o f each piston stroke.
Ineffective cylinder lubrication. Drop in the engine rpm.
Improper piston ring functioning, seized or broken rings, unbalanced Rise in the piston cooling water o r oil temperature, and jacket water
load or continuous overload operation. temperature o f that cylinder unit.
Smoky exhaust.

364 365
Marine Diesel Engines Watch Keeping And Safety

A c tio n : Check the crankcase w alls for carbon deposits, leaking from
Cut-out the fuel pump, increase cylinder lubrication and stop the diaphragm.
engine. Check the crankpin and web alignment mark.
C ontinue cylinder lubrication and turning even after engine is All bolts, nuts and locking marks.
stopped to prevent seizure.
Crankcase relief door.
O pen and dism antle the piston. If slight scoring is seen on the Any discolourisation signifying hot spots.
piston, then smoothen with an oil stone (carborundium stone) and
Clearances o f bearings.
an emery cloth. Check cylinder lubrication and piston clearances
after inspection.
Individual Piston K nocking A t TDC
C a u ses:
Cracked C ylinder H ead
Early fuel injection due to incorrect fuel pum p or fuel cam
Causes :
Excessive tightening o f cylinder head cover studs, combined with
Overloaded engine unit. Check effective delivery stroke of
thermal stresses.
respective fuel pump.
Corrosion at the combustion surface o f the cylinder head.
Fuel valve nozzle sticking.
Normal expansion facility for the cylinder head is restricted.
Fouled cylinder orunsuitable fuel.
Inflexible structure under firing.
Top piston ring strikes against the ridge worn a t the cylinder
Defect in cylinder head casting. liner top.
Indications: Excessive clearances between piston and cylinder.
Knocking in the cylinder. Excessive bearing clearance o f running gear.
Jacket cooling w ater temperature increases. Running gear bolts have loosened.
Jacket cooling w ater pressure fluctuates. The piston may be striking against the cylinder head cover at TDC.
Expansion tank level may drop.
Sparks from funnel. Bearing Temperature Increase
C ra n k Case In spection Checks Low lube oil pressure supply to bearing or low oil level in supply
W hite metal particles or foreign particles in the lube oil. tank.
Colour o f the lube oil and oil flow. Air lock in the lube oil or lubricating grooves obstructed.
Check for white metal squeezing at bearings. Oil piping defective or lube oil valves shut.

366 367
Watch Keeping And Safety

M a rin e Diesel Engines

T he connection screws on th e piston rod o r piston are n o t tight
Lube oil contains water or metal impurities. enough.
E xcessive bearing clearances, excessive w ear o r im proper Knocking o f all cylinders is due to an incorrectly set camshaft or
tightening. unsuitable fuel.

L u b e O il S u m p L evel R ising Safeties in the Main Engine

C auses: C rank Case
Pitching, rolling o r changes in cargo loading. R eliefvalvesetat0.05bar
Water leakage from piston cooling o r jacket water system. Oil m ist detector set at 2 to 5 % LEL.
Temperature sensing probes on bearings, and thrust block, which
Lube oil purifier wrongly operated e.g. discharge valves o f some
other purifier is wrongly opened thereby filling the sump. will shut down the engine.
Flame, spark arrestor and deflector incorporated in the relief valve.
Transfer pump valves wrongly lined up.
Lube oil inlet line valve from the storage tank may be open. Scavenge
Sight glass.
A u to m a tic S topping o f th e E ngine Drain cocks for monitoring leakages.
T h is occurs due to : Temperature sensing probes.
Activation o f safety shut down or overspeed cut-out device.
Fire extinguishing system.
Control air pressure in the shut-down servomotor too low, causing
Relief valve set a t 1.6 b ar in B& W engines.
pressure to pull the fuel linkage back to zero.
Governor defective. C ylinder H ead
F u el supply stopped due to clogged filter o r em pty tank o r air Relief valve.
lock. Non return air start valve.The pneumatic operated start air valves
are shut b y the cylinder pressure once the engine fires.
K n o c k in g in an E n g in e Cylinder E x h a u st M an ifo ld a n d T runking
Fuel valve nozzle needle stuck open. Fire extinguishing system.
Early fuel injection or too much fuel quantity injected, due to wrong
Drain cock.
fuel timings or pump settings.
Test cocks at individual units.
T h e ends o f the piston rings are knocking against the edges o f the
scavenging and exhaust ports due to deformation during fitting. Flam e and spark arrestor.
Protective grid and bellows before turbine.
O ne or m ore driving gear com ponents have excessive vertical
Marine Diesel Engines Watch Keeping And Safety

Drain cock in the trunking o f the exhaust gas boiler. Differential pressure low alarm.
Drain cock at the turbine housing to make sure that no water is A ir vent at the cooler.
coming to the turbine.
A ir vent at the discharge filter.
M anom eter at inlet and outlet o f exhaust gas boiler and a safety
valve. F u e l O il System
Drains at the service tanks, settling tanks, filters, mixing column
Piston C ooling System
Low pressure cut out approximately 2 bar.
Relief valves at the booster pump discharge, heater, common inlet
High inlet temperature slow down alarm at 60 deg.C and shut down
manifold to the pump and on the individual fuel pump.
at 65 deg.C.
Fuel high temperature alarm at 120 deg.C.
Low level alarm in the cooling water drain tank.
Low Fuel temperature alarm at 85 deg.C.
Sight glass at every unit with a piston cooling non-flow alarm.
Viscometer, thermometer and pressure gauges.
Jac k e t C ooling System
Low inlet pressure shut down at approximately 2 bar. Starting A ir System
High outlet tem perature slow down at 90 deg C and alarm at 85 Bottle
deg C . Relief valve set at 32 bar.
Low level alarm in the expansion tank. Fusible plug.
Sight glass in the expansion tank. Drain cock and pressure gauges.
A ir separator and v e n t Non return, stop, and isolating valves.
L ubricating O il System A ir Compressor
Sump low and high level alarm. Low pressure (first stage) and high pressure (second stage) relief
M ain lube oil pressure low alarm at 2.2 b a r and shut down valves.
at 2 bar. Non-return valve at compressor outlet to air bottle.
Lube oil outlet temperature alarm at 50 deg.C and slow down at Corrosion resistant bursting disc o r relief valve in the coolers
55 deg.C. on the water side.
R elief valves at the discharge side of both pum ps connecting Air discharge high temperature cut-out
the discharge side back to the suction side.
Cooling water high temperature cut-out.
Pressure gauges after cooler and after discharge filter.
Low lube oil pressure cut-out.

370 371
Marine Diesel Engines
Watch Keeping And Safety

Start A ir Line
Flam e tra p , bursting disc cap o r a relief valve. cock with main air from bottle open, and admitting start air to engine.
Automatic shut-off master valve. The engine does not turn on air, since the air to distributor is shut, but
Non-return start air valves. as a safety measure in case o f a leaking start air valve, the turning gear
Drain cock in the manifold and at other parts. has to be disengaged.

Drain cock before shut off valve. A t Sea

Temperature and pressure sensors and gauges. Feel the start air inlet branch pipes for each unit and see if they are
Running direction and turning gear engaged interlocks to prevent hot. If the engine fails to start because o f a sticking pilot or air start
starting. valve during maneuvering, then give a kick in the opposite direction so
that start air is now admitted to another unit. In case o f a generator
Control A ir System
engine, manually turn the engine to get it off the blind spot.
Pressure reducing valve.
Oil separator and moisture separator.
Start A ir L ine E xplosion
Control air drier. This is m ainly due to the accumulation o f oil due to carry-over o f oil
M anual and auto drain. from the starting air compressors. A defective start air valve on the
Relief valve. cylinder head provides heat if it leaks back into the start air line.
Pressure sensor probe fo r alarm at 6 bar and shut dow n at 5.5 Prevention
Good maintenance o f the air compressors.
Low pressure alarm for spring air to the exhaust valve.
Auto and manual draining o f water and oil in the air line.
E xh a u st valve actuator
J J h e starting air manifold pipes should be inspected and cleaned.
Automatic air venting unit.
The start air valves should be overhauled at regular intervals.
C ylinder L ubrication
N on flow alarm and slowdown.
S afe G uard A g ainst O verspeeding
Leaky Start Air Valves For slow speed main engines, the speed is sensed by a digital pick
A t Port up similar to an induction pick-up. If the engine overspeeds, the
To check whether the air start valves are leaking, disengage the turning fuel rack is shut down.
gear and shut off air to distributor. Indicator cocks are to be opened. In Sulzer engines, a collapsible link is fitted between the governor
Take each unit to TD C and check for air com ing out o f the indicator and the fuel rack.

Marine Diesel Engines

In B & W engines, puncture valves are fitted on the top o f each
fuel pump, which spill the high pressure oil back to suction side of
1. KANE, A.B.
the pump.
Marine Internal Combustion Engines, 1973.
In medium speed auxiliary generator engines, fly weights using
Prevention of Crankcase Explosions in Marine Diesels, 1969.
centrifugal force activate a stop cylinder to push back the fuel racks.
Reversing Gears o f Marine Diesels, 1965.

Marine Internal Combustion Engines, 1957.

Slow Speed Diesel Auxiliaries, 1968.

4. BOW DEN, J.K.

Marine Diesel Oil Engines, 1981.

5.M U N T O N R ., M cNAUGHTJ.
Automation o f Highly Powered Diesel Machinery, 1966.


Pounders Marine Diesel Engines, 2004.

Lambs questions and answers on the Marine Diesel Engine, 1990.

The running and maintenance o f Marine Machinery,1994.

Marine Diesel Engines


A pressure derivative, 322

A-frame, 24 Cetane number, 113
Accumulator, 48,164 Chain drive
Air compressor, overhaul, 249 camshaft re-adjustment, 68
Alarms, shutdown, slowdown, 342 elongation, 67
Alpha lubricator, 283 inspection, 66
Annealing, 251 materials, 66
Atomisation, 119 slack, tight, 67
tightening, 64
B Chocks
Balancing, static, dynamic, 208 resin, 27
Barred zone, 212 resilient, 28
Bearing temperature rise, 367 side, end, 26
clearance, 232 Clearance, bumping, 105
connecting rod bearing, 72 Collision, 354
crosshead bearing, 75 Combustion phases, 117
defects, 71 Common rail system, 261
main bearing, 71 Compression
materials, 69 faults, 106
pivot pad, 70 isothermal, adiabatic, 103
plain bush journal, 70 multi-stage, 104
Bedplate, 22 pressure, reduced, 358
Blowdown, exhaust gas, 84 ratio, 121
Bolts, holding down, 25 Compressor
Bracing, top, 20 map, 99
Brake horse power, 308 reciprocating, 104
Bridge control, 202 rotary, 104
governor, 337 valves, 105
Bunkering, 123 CoCoS, 285
Connecting rod bearing
c removal, 228
Cam, fuel, 146 vConnecting rod
Camshaft-less engine control, 258,278 2-stroke, 72
Carbon monoxide, 304 4-stroke, 73
Cards bottom end bolt, 74
case hardening, 251 clearance, 235
light spring diagram, 321 failures, 74
pack carburising, 251 removal, 230
power, draw, compression, 320 Consumption,
Marine Diesel Engines Marine Diesel Engines

specific cylinder lube oil, 169 PMI transducer, 286 starting problems, 361 setting, adjustment, 236
Conventional VIT, 145 sensor, 283 telegraph, 342 suction and spill control, 133
Cooling system Cylinder relief valve lifting, 357 Entabulature, 24 suction control, 131
function, 173 Excess air coefficient, 311 Fuel quality setting, 140
piston cooling, 175 D Exhaust gas Fuel timings, incorrect, 356
treatment. 175 Dampers, 213 grouping, 89 Fuel valve
Crankcase explosion, relief valve, 351 Dead band, 320 recirculation, 303 conventional type, 291
inspection, 366 Decarbonisation, 215 temperature rise, drop, 359 functioning, 276
Crankshaft Delay, ignition, injection, 118 Exhaust valve, 51 mini-sac type, 291
deflections, 63 Destructive, non-destructive tests, 250 failures, 57 slide type, 291
failures, 61 Detuners, 213 materials, 152 Fuel, water emulsion, 303
fully built up, 58 Developments, removal, 218 Funnel sparks, 357
fully welded, 60 combustion chamber, 296 rotators, 55
materials, 61 crosshead, 298 seat profile, 54 G
semi-built up, 59 cylinder lubrication, 297 springs, 53 Gas exchange process, 84
solid single piece, 60 engine components, 298 type, 52 Governor effect, 320
stresses, 62 exhaust system, 296 Exhaust, smoky, 358 Governor
Crash manoeuvring, 195 fuel system, 291 compensation range, rate, 334
Critical speed, 211 liner, 296 F effect, 320
Crosshead piston, 297 Fatigue failures, 21 electric, 333
bearing clearance, 234 scavenge system, 296 Fire ring, 296 electronic, 337
bearing removal, 227 SFOC, 298 Firing function, isochronous, 329
developments, 76 stroke bore ratio, 298 interval, 178 load limiter knob, 335
failures, 76 turbocharger system, 292 order, 188 local speed setting knob, 334
pin removal, 229 Droop, 336 Flame hardening, 251 mechanical, hydraulic, 331
Cycles Flash point, fire point, 112 speed droop knob, 337
2-stroke, 9 E Flooding, 355 variable speed, droop, 329
4-stroke, 12 Efficiency, volumetric, 105 Flywheel, 207 Grounding, 355
dual, actual, 7 Electronic control, 261, 278 Friction, types, 151
otto, diesel, 6 Electronic profiled injection, 279 Fuel H
Cylinder head Emissions, 301 definitions, 110 Hardening, 251
cover, 50 Engine specifications, 116 Hunting, 320
crack, 366 diagnostic system, 285 types, 109 Hydraulic nut, removal, 217
defects, 51 forces, 205 Fuel injector valve, 125 Hydrocarbon, 305
materials, 50 knocking, 367, 368 overhaul, 244
removal, 216 protection, 342 Fuel limiters, 339 I
Cylinder lubrication, 283 remote control, 340 Fuel pump timing, 4-stroke, 241 Imbalance, primary, secondary, 209
load-dependent, 167 reversing problems, 363 Fuel pump, Indicated horse power, 308
multi-level, 170 room watch, round, 345 cut-out, lead, 239 Indicator diagrams, 318
Cylinder oil, types, 163 speed drop, 359 cut-out, zero-checks, 238 analysis, 323
Cylinder pressure speed fluctuation, 356 port control, 134 Indicator instrument, 322
Marine Diesel Engines Marine Diesel Engines

faults, 327
Induction hardening, 251
testing, 156 2-stroke, 4-stroke, 34
composite, 33
Quenching, 251
types, 151
Injection Lubricators, 166, 169 crack, 364 Quills, 48, 164
electronic, 136 hot, 365
pilot, 135 M inspection, 221 R
twin, 136 Main bearing, jet-shaker effect, 30 RD, RND, RTA engine differences, 253
Intelligent engine, 259, 278 clearances, 232 knocking, 367 Residual fuels, 122
Internal combustion engines, 1 removal, 225 materials, 31 Reversing, 189
Maintenance planning system, 285 mounting, 223 methods, 190
J Manoeuvring oros, 32, 297 roller shifting, 276
Jacket water diagram, 198 removal, 220 RT-flex engines, 254
pressure, temperature rise, 360 flowchart, 197 defects, 35 RTA engines, 254
Material rotating, 35 Running direction interlock, 195
K engine, 78 water, oil-cooled, 30, 32- Running gear hot, 361
Knock, 118 testing, 250 Piston ring, Running-in, 40
ME engines, 278 anti-polishing ring, 43
L Mean effective pressure, 307 broken, 365
cleaning ring, 43
Light spring diagram, analysis, 326 Mean indicated pressure, 307 Safety
Liner, 45 Mean piston speed , 2 clearance, 222 cut-out device, 200
bore-cooled, 174 Mechanical efficiency, 308 coatings, 42 margins, 316
calibration, 225 Microbial degradation, 161 collapse, 38 Safeties
crack, 365 Motion, loss, gain, 194 compression type, 36 crankcase, scavenge, 369
failures, 49 CPR type, 42 cylinder head; manifold, 369
inspection, 224 N flutter, 38 fuel oil system, 371
load-dependent cooling, 174 Nitriding, 251 life, 43 jacket cooling system, 370
removal, 224 Normalising, 251 manufacture, 41 lube oil system, 370
Liner wear NOx, 302 oil scraper type, 37 piston cooling system, 370
corrosive, abrasive, 47 scuffing material, 40 start air system, 371
friction, clover leaf, 47 o
Octane number, 114
shapes, 41
air limiter, 188
diagram, 314 Oil spill, 354 Planimeter, 319
sharing, 335 Opposed piston, 82 Power, 310 Scavenging
Lubrication Over speeding, 355 rated, gross, overload, loop, cross, 82
boundary, 152 Over speeding, safeguards, 373 minimum, continuous, reverse flow, 82
crosshead, 171 Overlap, 179 maximum continuous, uniflow, 81
cylinder, 162 normal, astern output, , Sea trials, 312
elasto-hydrodynamic, 152 P Power loss, 356 Selective catalytic reduction, 304
function, 149 Penetration, 119 Power take in, off, 92 Sensitivity, 320
hydrodynamic, 151 Pinching, clamping screws, 24, 248 Pressure changing, 85 Stuffing gland, 44
hydrostatic, 151 Pipe, high pressure, 147 Propeller curve, 314 Slow turning, 188
properties, 152 Piston Puncture value, 275,77 SMC engines, 271
Marine Diesel Engines

Soot, smoke, opacity, 305 out of operation, 243

SOx, 302 overhaul, 241 Shroff Reprints & Original Titles
Stability, 320 un-cooled, 97, 292 The X Team Series
Start air Turbo charging
automatic master valve, 183 (An Imprint of Shroff Publishers)
2-stage, 91
cam, 187 axial, radial flow, 93 Computers
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Watch Keeping
Engine running problem s
Camshaft-less electronically controlled intelligent engines
Indicator card analysis
Engine perform ance and testing
Latest developments
Engine overhauls
Engine emission
Starting and reversing
Bridge control
VIT and Super-VIT
Faults, defects and problem s of a ll engine components.

S H R O F F P U B L IS H E R S &
D I S T R I B U T O R S P V T. L T D .