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The most general form of planar quadratic curves is conic curves or conic sections
that include the previously covered curves; lines, circles, ellipses, parabolas, and
hyperbolas. The general implicit nonparametric quadratic equation that describes
the planar conic curve has five coefficients and naturally needs five conditions to
complete it.
The conic parametric
equation can be described
if five conditions are
specified appropriately.
One case is specifying
five points on the curve.
L1 = 0, L2 = 0, L3 = 0, L4 =
0
L1L2 = 0, L3L4 = 0
L1L2 + a L3L4 = 0
1
The design process Morphology of design, Product cycle Computer Aided Design, Benefits of CAD.
Basic concepts of CAD - principles of computer graphics. CAD/CAM data base development and
data base management systems. Programming and interface hardware – computer aided process
monitoring - adaptive control, on-line search strategies.
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification,
analysis, or optimization of a design.CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the
designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, and to
create a database for manufacturing.CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print,
machining, or other manufacturing operations.
Computer-aided design is used in many fields. Its use in designing electronic systems is known as
electronic design automation, or EDA. In mechanical design it is known as mechanical design
automation (MDA) or computer-aided design (CAD), which includes the process of creating a
technical drawing with the use of computer software.
A COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING system uses CAD-generated data to create the code
needed to operate a CNC machine. CAM software facilitates the programming of machine tools. It
lets users define part geometry and set machining strategies, create and confirm toolpaths, and share
programming data with other shop-floor machines.
The two basic types of CAM system
s are process-oriented and geometry-oriented. Process-oriented CAM systems are geared toward the
process part of manufacturing engineering, which includes the effective use of tooling and machining
operations, advantageous tool changes and the management of complex processes. In contrast,
geometry-oriented CAM systems lean toward the geometric aspects of manufacturing engineering,
including complex part geometries, sizeable CAD models, and running process details through
geometric conditions.
Many CAD vendors market fully integrated CAM systems, aptly called CAD/CAM systems. These
CAD/CAM packages deliver many advantages. For starters, they feature a common user interface
that allows CAD operators to quickly learn the software. Moreover, users can easily transfer CAD

data to the CAM system without worrying about translation errors or other difficulties. And finally,
some integrated systems provide full
associativity, which means 2

This allows existing CAD users to create the necessary machining for the part. Two of these specialized industries would be the custom woodworking and jewelry making industry.9. This is highly beneficial. Some CAD-CAM providers have teamed up with highly popular CAD vendors such as SolidWorks® to create powerful CAM machining modules that integrate into the CAD software as a plug-in. These industries have to then be able to create these programs to me machined on a CNC Mill or Router in 2. simulate everything and create the NC programs for them. 10. Seamless Integration with Popular CAD Design Products. they only need to learn the machining side. Turn Art Into CNC Programs & Finished Parts Easily. Typically CAM products that plug-in to CAD systems can be easier to learn and use after some training. 3 and 4 Axis. By going this way. These types applications require the ability to turn a picture into a 3D relief model that can be machined in a variety of ways. This also includes the ability to turn a picture into 2D profiles that can be used for engraving. Artistic CAD-CAM technology has evolved to support a wide range of custom applications. BASIC DESIGN PROCESS The design process mainly consists of six phases is given by 6 . Some even require 5 Axis CNC programming capabilities. a CAD Designer can acquire more value and seek more clients for being a full service design and programming facility. as the CAD users do not have to completely re-learn a new CAD-CAM system. pocket milling and profile milling.

Recognition of .

.

Data base ma .

nagement The manufacturing database and its management are major issues in CIM. This chapter hence is devoted to the organization of data. standards for product data exchange and standards for communication protocols. The standards for product data exchange are discussed and communication protocols have been discussed elsewhere. 8 . including schemes for organizing data. The issues are complex but they are beginning to be addressed in a number of ways.

Joining those islands into an effective CIM enterprise requires proper methods of processing information.A major problem to be solved to implement CIM has always been that of distributing information among different computer based systems. • Sort the data in some meaningful order. and available when and where it is needed. • Add new data to the database. if it is to be useful. As indicated in earlier chapters CIM is typically integration of islands of computer aided functions running on different computers using different databases. • Edit the data. They lack almost all the flexibilities offered by DBMS. therefore forced to be ab sorbed by user’s program. • Delete the data. • Print the data into formatted reports. machine-interpretable. His functions include: • Creating the primary database structure • Backing up and restoring data in case of crash • Modifying the structure • Transfer data to external files • Allocate and control user access rights • Monitoring performance COMPARISON OF DATABASE AND TRADITIONAL FILE SYSTEMS File system represents a tight coupling between physical data and user’s program. FEATURES OF A DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM A database management system consists of a collection of interrelated data and a set of programs to access that data. Information. • Search the database for types of information. 9 . must be appropriate. Most of the indispensable facilities of DBMS of are. Database management involves: • Organize a database. DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR The person responsible for managing the database is often referred to as database administrator.

The tight coupling and interdependence of between a user’s application and the physical data would not allow sharing of the same data by other applications that may need to view and manipulate them differently. the projections have to be necessarily reduced to two dimensions. File systems lack dynamism in the sense that the application programs are designed. Y and Z). Use of computer graphics has opened up tremendous possibilities for the designer. Some of them are listed below: Use of computer graphics has opened up tremendous possibilities for the designer. i. This has several limitations. and has to be responsible for maintaining the files that store the physical data. coded. Inconsistency vii. This then forces the data to be duplicated among various applications. The sketches have to be made only in two dimensions. Inability to handle ado requests.In other words besides the logic of the application the user has to provide logic for constructing the logical view of data. axonometric or perspective projections into simple viewing transformations. Rigidity iii. PRINCIPLES OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS Traditionally drawings are prepared on plane drawing sheets. Inefficiency ix. Lack of integration v. debugged. Difficulty in sharing information viii. 10 . Data dependence ii. Data duplication vi. • The mathematical representation reduces creation of views like orthographic. Static nature iv. and catalogued ahead of time for the preconceived requests and applications. The following list summarizes the problems of file systems that can be overcome by DBMS. Though the depth can be represented by pictorial projections like isometric and perspective projections. has to interpret the operations on the logical view and translate them in to the primitive file operations. isometric. Some of them are listed below: • The object is represented by its geometric model in three dimensions (X.

• Though the .

The quality of noninterlaced display is hence. This happens to be the smallest addressable screen element. They consist of basically three components. Graphic images are formed by setting suitable intensity and color to the pixels which compose the image. superior. • Drawings (geometric models) can be modified easily. • More important than all. an SVGA monitor with a resolution of 1024 x 768 will have 1024 pixels in every row (X . all lines are refreshed in 1/60th of a second. Monitors of larger size will have resolution of 1024 x 1024 or more. • Storage and retrieval of drawings are easy Modern computer graphics displays are simple in construction. • Revision and revision control are easy. • The associatively ensures that any change made in one of the related views will automatically reflect in other views. Display Controller Most of the computer graphics displays use raster CRT which is a matrix of discrete cells each of which can be made bright. Therefore. These systems. For example. In non-interlaced displays. there is no need to scale the drawings. A raster scan system displays the image on a CRT in a certain fixed sequence.size of the screen is limited. Monitor ii. 11 .direction) and 768 pixels in every column (Y- direction). The video display screen is divided into very small rectangular elements called a picture element or pixel. it is called as a point plotting device. require expen sive frame buffer memory and display controller. Even numbered raster lines are refreshed during the next 1/60th of a second. A graphic entity like line or circle is represented as a series of ―points or dots‖ on the screen. • Sections can be automatically created. • Drawings can be made very accurate. The refresh rate is the number of complete images or frames scanned per second. • The geometric models can be represented in color and can be viewed from any angle. however. i. Depending upon the resolution screens may have varying number of pixels. drawings can be reused conveniently. Digital Memory or Frame Buffer iii. In the case of interlaced refresh cycle odd numbered raster lines are refreshed during 1/60th of a second.

a picture must be built out of several hundreds of pixel DRAWING OF LINES Straight line segments are used a great deal in computer generated pictures. The drawing entities that a user may find in a typical CAD package include : point line construction line. Lines should have constant density iv. To construct a useful picture on a point plotting device. In computer graphics also drawings are created in a similar manner. drawing shown in Fig consists of several entities. If the end points of the line segment are known. arcs. circles. The smallest unit accepted by such displays is a single pixel. For example. Line should be drawn rapidly The process of turning on the pixels for a line segment is called vector generation. there are several schemes for selecting the pixels 12 . The following criteria have been stipulated for line drawing displays : Lines should appear straight ii. Lines should terminate accurately iii. polyline circle spline arc ellipse polygon rectangle. lines. Each of these is called an entity.GRAPHIC PRIMITIVES A drawing is created by an assembly of points. Line density should be independent of length and angle v. multi-line. POINT PLOTTING The frame buffer display is an example of a point plotting device.

Computers have the tremendous potential needed to integrate the entire manufacturing system and thereby evolve the computer integrated manufacturing system. TYPES OF MANUFACTURING The term ―manufacturing‖ covers a broad spectrum of activities. process industries like chemical plants. improvement in quality and reduction in product development time. However. Manufactur ing industries can be grouped into four categories: 13 . food processing industries. Real time optimization The computer has the capability to accomplish the above for hardware components of manufacturing (the manufacturing machinery and equipment) and software component of manufacturing (the application software. printed circuit boards. The capabilities of the computer are thus exploited not only for the various bits and pieces of manufacturing activity but also for the entire system of manufacturing. ii. robotized work cells. Variable and Programmable automation ii. CIM makes full use of the capabilities of the digital computer to improve manufacturing. oil refineries. assembly and testing in a majority of situations. the information flow. flexible inspection cells etc.between the end pixels. Two of them are: i. computers and entertainment electronic products etc. accessing incompatible and heterogeneous data and devices. Examples are flexible manufacturing cells. This requires sharing of information among different applications or sections of a factory. The ultimate objective is to meet the competition by improved customer satisfaction through reduction in cost. Metal working industries. Manufacturing involves fabrication. are exam ples of manufacturing industries. database and so on). electronic industries making microelectronic components. One of the objectives of CIM is to achieve the consolidation and integration of these islands of automation. in process industries operations are of a different nature. One method of generating a line segment is a symmetrical digital differential analyzer (DDA) COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS MONITORING The advances in automation have enabled industries to develop islands of automation.

work centres should have broader specifications. Another important fact is that small batch size involves loss of production time associated with product changeover. multi spindle automatic lathe and transfer lines are examples of fixed automation. Fixed automation is the first type to emerge.). the production process generally follows a specific sequence. These are discussed in detail later in this chapter. chemical plants. Automation can be either fixed type or flexible. integration of computer in process industries for production automation. and varieties of such products to be taken up in a single shop. Single spindle automatic lathe. bicycles. automobiles. The distinguishing features of this type of manufacture are the small to medium size of the batch. As mentioned earlier. Continuous Process Industries In this type of industry. food processing industries. Batch Production (Discrete Manufacturing) Batch Production (Discrete Manufacturing) The largest percentage of manufacturing industries can be classified as batch production industries. Mass Production Industries Industries manufacturing fasteners (nuts. Due to the variety of components handled. entertainment electronic products. process monitoring and control and optimization is relatively easy. etc are examples of continuous process industries. 14 .i. Oil refineries. Production lines are specially designed and optimized to ensure automatic and cost effective operation. bolts etc. iii. which are all mass produced can be classified as mass production industries. In the case of mass production and batch production computer integration faces a number of problems as there are a large number of support activities which are to be tied together. Automation of manufacture has been implemented using different techniques since the turn of the 20th Century. These industries can be easily automated and computers are widely used for process monitoring. integrated chips. ii. control and optimization. bearings etc.

Robots can make use of abilities such as orienting parts based on features. Sequencing machines with punched card control /plug board control Developme nt of digital computers. reduces scrap and rework. vision and process related sensors (functionally similar to taste and smell). sound. The robot e ndowed with ability to adjust to its environment. ADAPTIVE CONTROL Adaptive control is the ability to modify a program in real time. Typical examples of programmable automation are: i. These were electrically controlled systems and programs were stored in punched cards and punched tapes. Sensor input can be used at different levels in the robot hierarchy.control functions integral with its tasks. Commonly.Fixed automation using mechanical. This type of automation has a severe limitation . Machine control systems are now designed around microprocessors and microelectronics is part and parcel of industrial drives and control. Electrical programme controlled milling machines ii. Adaptive control will greatly enhance role of the industrial robots in the computer integrated factory. Sensors may be used to adaptively control processes being 15 . they are used for robot path or position alteration. based upon sensory data. following a changed path. and a robot equipped with adaptive control can perform quality . pneumatic and hydraulic systems is widely used in automobile manufacturing. This has resulted in the availability of high performance desktop computing machines as well as file servers which can be used for industrial control with the help of application software packages. electrical. or recognizing work pieces. Adaptive control requires sensory input and the ability to respond to that input.these are designed for a particular product and any product change will require extensive modifications to the automation system. microelectronics and microprocessors significantly altered the automation scenario during 1950-1990. Hydraulically operated Automatic lathes with programmable control drum iii. The concept of programmable automation was introduced later. The significant advances in miniaturization through integration of large number of components into small integrated chips and the consequent improvement in reliability and performance have increased the popularity of microelectronics. Adaptive control sensors for robots are found in the same general categories as the human senses: touch.

Controlled path: Where the total control of the robot’s motion as in an arc welding desired. a detailed control program and sophisticated servo-control system must be used. the pick-and- place mode can be accurate and capable of high speed. Each application requires a certain mode of operations. with either mechanical stops or pneumatic logic. velocity. such as in a spray-painting application. then moves to another position where it ―places‖ the part. Each axis operates at its maximum rate until it reaches the desired endpoint position. A typical application is placing the IC’s on a printed circuit board.performed by the robot. The robot’s path is not determined by a series of pre- programmed points. The program can optimize the movements of the manipulator to reduce cycle time. are recorded. This provides coordinated control of all the axes in terms of their position. This is adequate for many applications where only the activity at the endpoint positions is important. minimize forces. Although the movement is normally under servo control. Because of the simplicity of the motion and the fixed positions involved. it is not precise. The path and movement of each axis is stored during a walk through programming session. Although this creates a continuous path. These modes of operation can be classified into four types: 1 Pick-and-place: Pick-and-place: As the name implies. The controls involved are generally the simplest. and relative motion between axes are not controlled. and acceleration. A non-servo control system. 3 Continuous path:: This mode is required when the control of the manipulator’s path is critical. All the movements of the operator intended or not. 2 Point-to-point : Point-to-point: Point-to-point: This is used for more complex movements where the arm is controlled in a series of steps that have been stored in memory. this mode involves a very limited sequence of moves to a fixed position where it grasps a part (―pick‖). The physical integration of sensors into the robot structure has been dictated by the specific task to be performed and the properties of the sensors. velocity. is adequate. and improve precision. Sensor data may also send by the robot to other machines. ROBOT OPERATION Robots are used for several applications. Applications like spot welding are examples of point to point operations. A large amount of memory 11. Some applications may involve several move positions. there is no coordinated motion between the axes. Sensors provide the 16 . The programming is usually performed by the use of teach pendant. The intermediate path. eliminate jerky motions.

PRODUC T LIFE CYCLE OF CAD/ CAM 17 18 . For example vision sensors provide feedback of progress of a robotic welding operation.necessary feedback to control the process.

Design Morphology 19 .

Embodim .

ent Design (or Detail Design) Product Architecture Configuration Design Parametric Design Detail Design 20 .

intersection of two entities. shearing and combined transformation 3D homogenous transformation . or perpendicular to a line. rotation.UNIT II CURVES & SURFACES AND 2D & 3D TRANSFORMATION Analytic curves and surfaces. tangent to entity point. end points of existing entity. scaling. parabola (vertex and focus. three points). scaling. GEOMETRIC MODELING Types of Curves and Their Mathematical Representation Types of Surfaces and Their Mathematical Representation Types of Solids and Their Mathematical Representation CAD/CAM Data Exchange TYPES OF CURVES AND THEIR MATHEMATICAL REPRESENTATIONS Wireframe Model ( 2D in 1960s for drafting. rotation. 3D in 1970s) Wireframe Entities s and Bezier curves) …. shearing and zooming. reflection. ter and axes lengths. reflection. 21 . a radius and tangent to a line passing through a point. rotation.translation. reflection.translation. shearing and combined transformation 3D viewing transformation – panning. center point. two conjugate diameters). four points. 2D homogenous transformations.

parametric form: 1.e. Curve Representation: Two types of representation are parametric and non- parametric representation. B-spline curves (interpolate a set of data points with local control possible).. A circle for a center and the radius can be written as 22 . Non-parametric form of a circle: x^2+y^2=r^2. coordinates) are expressed in terms of common parameters.slopes). For example. a point can be expressed with respect to a parameter as Non-parametric representation is the conventional representation as Ex. es LINE AND CIRCLE A line between two points P1 and P2 can be expressed with respect to a parameter. This form can be used to find slopes at a certain angle for example. PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION OF ANALYTIC CURVES The following list shows most of the analytic curve that are used in CAD/CAM system for part design and modeling. In parametric representation all variables (i. Bezier curves (a set of data points).

ELLIPS .

E An ellipse with a center and major and minor axes of 2A and 2B can be expressed as. PARABOLA A parabola in the local coordinate system that is parallel to the global coordinate system with the vertex and the focal distance A from the vertex in a plane is given by 23 .

4). the equations to solve become 24 .When the parabola is inclined at an angle θ relative to global x-axis.√.1). Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -5 to 5. and P2(12.4). Solution: Applying the six conditions (two for each point).10). The solutions and the graph are √. and p3(12. Pπ(5. This is a set of nonlinear equations. the equation for the parabola is given by Problem 1: Determine the equation above for given three points. p1(5. P1(3.1). The parabola is inclines at an angle of 30orelative to global x-axis.10). Pπ is the vertex of the parabola. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from *5 to 5. p2(3.√ Problem 2: Determine the parabola for given three points .

- z = zy 25 . u1.Solving these equations for A. θ.372.372. and u2 = 3. and u2 yields the solutions as A = 0.543. θ = -4. u1 = -4.835 A hyperbola with the center (xy. xy) and the distance A and B in a plane z = zy in the figure below can be expressed as x = xy + A coshu y = yy + B sinhu.

the equations to solve become A cosh( ) cos θ – B sinh( sin θ – x1 – xy A cosh( ) sin θ + B sinh( cos θ – y1 – yy A cosh( ) cos θ – B sinh( sin θ – x2 – xy A cosh( ) sin θ + B sinh( cos θ – y2 – yy The solution is B = 0.881. is the vertex of the hyperbola.503. The graph of the curve is shown as 26 . u1 = 2881. Solution: Applying the seven conditions (two for each point). and u2 = -2. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -2 to 2.A hyperbola and its asymptotes Problem 3: Determine the hyperbola for given three points (2.464. θ = 0. and A=1.1).