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I. Jahmeerbacus 24 May 2004

The objective of this document is to present the general guidelines for the writing up of a
proper mini-project report. These guidelines are meant only for the module ELEC 1200,
and are not intended for direct use in other project reports that you will have to prepare
later in your course.

It is essential that you produce a clear and concise report that reflects the literature
survey, problem identification, project aims and objectives, the engineering design work
carried out, tests performed and discussion of results. The emphasis should not be on
the length of the report, but rather on the way by which the above aspects are presented.
In this context, you should avoid downloading bulk text and images from books or the
Internet or use unconventional fonts or graphics with a view to impressing the reader.
You should rather show the reader that you have understood the problem at hand and
used an engineering approach to produce a working solution by working as a team with
your group members. You should also be able to explain the working principle and
design of each stage of the developed system.

With the format given below, the mini-project report should normally not exceed 30 pages
(excluding the appendix), and should not be shorter than 20 pages.

Font and Size

• For Chapter Numbers and Titles: Times New Roman Size 18, Bold, Centered,
• Sections Numbers and Titles: Times New Roman Size 14, Bold, Left aligned
• Sub-section Numbers and Titles: Times New Roman Size 12, Bold, Left aligned
• For the main text: Times New Roman Size 12, Justified.
• Do NOT put the Chapter Number and Title on a separate Page.
• If there are less than four lines remaining at the bottom of the page, start the new
section or subsection on the following page.

Paragraphs and Line Spacing:

1.5 throughout. Leave a blank space from one paragraph to another.

Top, Bottom, Right: 25mm; Right: 30mm.

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Headers/ Footers:
Times New Roman Size 10.

Should be edited with Microsoft Equation, and should be numbered in ascending order in
each chapter: E.g:

di (t )
v s (t ) = i (t ) R + L (2.1)
is the first Equation in Chapter 2.

Page Numbers:
Start with Page 1 at the beginning of Chapter 1. Page numbers should be centered at the
bottom of the page.

Figures and tables:

• Position Figures and Tables as close as possible to the text where they are
• Figures and Tables should be numbered in ascending order for each chapter, using
the same sequence as for Equations.
• The number of the figure, and its caption should be typed immediately below it in
Times New Roman Size 12.
• The number of the table and its caption should be typed immediately above it in
Times New Roman Size 12.

The title page should include the following information:
• Mini-Project Title
• Student Names and ID Nos.
• A statement that the report is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for Practical Training (ELEC 1200) of the B.Eng. (Hons) in Electrical and
Electronic Engineering
• Date of submission

A sample title page is given as an example at the end of this document.

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The table of contents should list all the chapters, sections and other parts of the report,
along with their page numbers. In particular the following should be included:

Acknowledgement (iii)
Abstract (iv)

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 …
1.2 …
Chapter X Conclusion and Recommendations 20

References 22
Appendix 24

NOTE: The above page numbers are given as examples only.

Any person, institution, organization, department or lab, whose help or support you want
to acknowledge for the project.

A summary of 300 to 400 words of the practical application, the problem to be solved, the
approach used and the main results obtained.

A list of all Figure Numbers presented in the report, and their title (E.g. Figure 2.1 Circuit
diagram of the Traffic Light Controller) along with the page numbers.

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A list of Table Numbers presented in the report and their title, along with the page

For this mini-project report the introduction should describe at least the following in
different sections:

1.1 Background
A preamble to the practical aspects and applications: E.g. For the design of a traffic light
controller example: How and why is traffic light control is important and/ or useful, what
are the main system requirements (like how to give priority to traffic and pedestrians, and
under what circumstances, etc.).
You should also survey the different works that have already been done in this area and
highlight their main features and shortcomings. Proper references should be included so
that the reader can refer to these articles.

1.2 Problem definition:

What are the problems encountered (without the use of the proposed system).
What are the existing solutions (if any), and what are their limitations.

1.3 Project aims

What is being proposed and how will it help to solve the problem.
Include a general block diagram of the proposed system, if necessary.
Explain briefly how the functions of the different stages of the proposed system.

1.3 Project objectives

What will be done in this project, in order to achieve the above aims:
Detail out which stages are designed, simulated, implemented, tested and evaluated.

1.4 Report Outline

How the mini-project report is organized, from Chapter 2 onwards.

• To enhance the report structure, the above sections may be broken down into
further sub-sections.

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• It is essential that you include reference numbers to any text, Figure, Table or
diagram that you have been reading from the literature in books, journals or the
internet. For example, in the text below, the reference number is indicated in
square brackets:
Access to the motor shaft for coupling speed transducers can affect the mechanical
ruggedness of the drive or can be costly in several applications [1].
The article corresponding to the above number should then be indicated in the
reference list at the end of the report, in the recommended format.
• The use of references is not limited to the first chapter only. References should
also be indicated in other chapters, in the text, figures and tables, where

This chapter should describe the design and implementation of the proposed system. For
this mini-project, the problem was formulated so that the system design can be described
in one chapter. For larger projects involving, for example, hardware and software design,
the system may be broken down into several parts, and more than one chapter would
normally be required to report the design.

An essential aspect of this chapter is the detailed specification of the system to be

designed and implemented. You should list all the relevant specifications for the
proposed system. Specifications can be either in numerical form (e.g Range of water
levels to be measured: 0 to 1.5m), or in words (e.g. The traffic light controller should be
able to cater for pedestrian crossing facility for all four lanes).

The proposed system should be broken down into several functional blocks, as was done
in Chapter 1, and the design of each stage should be described in terms of:

• The working principle of the stage in words and/ or mathematics

• Why this particular circuit or system was chosen, as opposed to other
• Equations that describe the calculation of component values in each stage
• Design of Printed Circuit Boards

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The work allocation in the design and implementation tasks among the different group
members should also be detailed out in a separate section, with more details in the

CHAPTER 3 (Tests , Results and Discussions)

Once the design task is completed, it is useful to simulate the proposed circuit so as to
show the expected output(s) from the system. The name of the Software Simulation
Package should be indicated (e.g. PSPice, Matlab, Simulink, etc.).

If it is not possible to simulate the whole system in one step, the simulation results for at
least the individual stages must be shown. You should describe the tests performed on
the design in different sections of this chapter. As far as possible, the conditions for
simulation must be similar to the experimental test conditions. (e.g. component values,
supply voltages, etc.)

The equipment used to test the finished prototype (or each stage of it) should also be
listed, and the results can be expressed either graphically, in tabular form, in terms of
oscilloscope waveforms, or any other user-friendly means. It is most useful to express
the experimental results in a similar form to the simulation results so as to make the
comparison and discussion easier.

CHAPTER 4 (Conclusions And Recommendations)

4.1 Conclusions
The final chapter may include a summary of the project aims and objectives, the way the
problem was solved, and the significance of the results. It is essential that you indicate to
what extent have the aims and objectives been met, and what the factors that were not
taken into consideration, or any major difficulties encountered in the practical
implementation and testing phases.

4.2 Recommendations for further work

Since this is the first prototype that you have been producing, the finished system can
certainly be improved in a number of ways, based on your design experience or on areas
that are were not investigated due to the time constraint of the project. Minor
modifications to the existing system as well as new methods and strategies can be
proposed as recommendations for further work.

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Each reference listed should correspond (in ascending order) to the number tag assigned
in square brackets in the main body of the report. References can be from books,
magazines, research journals, conference proceedings, manuals, data sheets, the World
Wide Web or any other source. The recommended format to be used is given as an
example for each of the above sources.

Conference Proceedings:
[1] Boost, M., Ziogas, P.S., “State-of-the-Art PWM Techniques: A Critical Evaluation”,
IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 1986, pp. 435-439.

[3] Mohan, N., Undeland, T.M., Robbins, W.P, “Power Electronics: Converters,
Applications and Design”, Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1995.

[4] “Microsim PSpice & Basics: Circuit Analysis Software User’s Guide”, Microsim
Corporation, Irvine, California, 1996.

Research journals:
[9] Key, T.S., “Diagnosing Power Quality-Related Computer Problems”, IEEE
Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. IA-15, No. 4, Jul./Aug. 1979, pp. 381-393

Dunker, K.F., Rabbat, B.G. "Why America’s bridges are crumbling”, Scientific
American, Vol. 268 No. 3, pp. 18-24, March 1993

Data Sheets:
[10] “ LM111/ LM211/ LM311 Voltage Comparator” Data Sheet, National

World Wide Web:

[11] Jahmeerbacus, M.I. “ Guidelines for mini-project report writing for the practical
Training (ELEC1200)”,, University of
Mauritius May 2004.

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The appendix contains additional information on the theoretical or practical aspects of the
project, in the theory, design or implementation stages. It can include derivation of certain
mathematical expressions relevant to the project, data sheets of the components used,
program listings, etc.

The Appendix must also contain the activities of the group over the project period. This
should be presented in tabular form as follows:
Week No. Activity Group Member Results

It is advisable to use separate sections for the appendix items. E.g:

Appendix A Data sheets for components
A.1 Data sheet for the LM311 Comparator
Appendix B Program Listing
B.1 Main Program
B.2 User Interface
B.3 Control Program
Appendix C Group activities.

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Raj SOOKHUN (ID No. 09023434)

Sameer GOPAUL (ID No. 09023435)
Didier WONG (ID No. 09023436)

Mini-Project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for

the Practical Training (ELEC 1200) module of the B.Eng. (Hons) in Electrical
and Electronic Engineering

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Faculty of Engineering
University of Mauritius

July 2004

I. Jahmeerbacus 24 May 2004