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BIBAIOIIQAEION THI: "EI:TIAI:"

I1p0l111 EKoocrll: 'IOUVIO~ 1999

Ti1:AO~ 1tPOlTOTU1tOU:

Joachim Ritter, Hegel und die franzosische Revolution © 'EKcS6cret~ Suhrkamp Verlag, <J>puYK(j>OUPTll 1965

© yta Tijv i:AAllVtKij YAOOcrcrU, Bt~AI01tOlAeiov Tii~ «Ecriuc», 1998

ITOtxelO6ecriu: Mupiu reOlpyuK01tOUAOU 'EKTu1tOlcrll: rpu(j>tKi;~ Ttxve~ «CorfuBt~AIOOecriu: A, I1eTptAll~ & Yi6~

BIBAIOI1flAEION THI «EITIAI» L /1, KOAAAPOY & IIAl: A,E.

Eupmioou 84 - 'A61lvU 105 53

ISBN 960-05-0859-3

9 TIpOAOYO<; '"COD JlEtUq>pUcr'!Tj

15 '0 "Erdo~ xai 1] raUl1(ry 'Exavaataan

A, 15 - B, 27 - I', 51

83 LllJlEtcOcrEt<;

135 'Anoi56crEt<; opwv

137 LXOAtucrJleVll Epyoypuq>iu 'EyeAou

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ITPOAOrOL TOY META<I>PALTH

OWN A<l>OPA THN MOP<l>H TOY, 'to IllKPO avo. XElpa~ PlPAtO XroptSE'tUl crE buo ioooovcuc IlEPll. To xupio»; KEtIlEVO aVU7nUcrcrEl IlE YAaqmpo Kat 8EroPllnKo 'tpOTCO uiu 8Eon 01 EK'tE'taIlEVE~ crllllElrocrEl~ TCpaYlla'tEuov'tUl P01l811- nKE~ 8EcrEl~ Kat xupion; cruSll'taUV Eva IlEYaAO IlEPO~ 'tii~ Ssurspsoooou; PlpAlOypaq>ta~ Yla 't~v TCoAmK~ crKEljfll 'tOU "EYEAOU IlEXPl 'to 1956. Au'to~ 6 'tpOTCO~ £K8Ecrll~ aTCO'tEAEl Eva dbO~ TCPO'tUTCOU. Ilxsovexmu« 'tau slvci on TCPOcrq>EPE'tUl IlE buo 6AoKAllProllEvou~ 'tpOTCOU~ o rov avayvrocr'tll. 'H 8EroPllnK~ aVaTC'tU~ll 'tau xupio»; KElIlEYOU dval alllY~~ oorov TCAllPoq>0pwKmv (J'tOlXEtroV bEV aq>opouv 'tOY Il~ dblKWOIlEVO Kat allPMvouv 't~v buva- 1111 roii EmXElp~lla'tO~, Evm ~ £TCO\jfll roii TCpaYlla'tOAOYlKOU TCEbtou TCOll TCPOcrq>EPOUV oi o nusioio s«; dVUl aTCaUaYIlEvll aTCO roix; nspiopiouoix; TCOll EmpaUEl ~ cruvox~ Ka'ta 't~v aVaTC'tU~ll Ilta~ 8Ecrll~' 'to KEtIlEVO £XEl aTCObElKnK~ TCpo8Ecrll, 01 onueuocsu; npoouvoov 'tEKIl~pw' oro nporro Eva~ (J'toxacr't~~ ETCavaAallPavEl Evav cruUOYlcrllO TCOll uTC08E'tEl TCro~ aKoAou811crE iiUo~, cr'tt~ bEU'tEPE~ ouvnvopei UTCi:p 'tau 'tEAW'tUtOU.

"Ocov aq>opa rtopu 'to TCEPlEXOIlEVO, ~ 8Ecrll 'tau KElIlEVOU uTCiip~E ETCavacr'tanK~. 'YTCocr'tllPtsEl TCro~ 6 "EYEAO~ dVUl cr'taxacr't~~ 'tii~ iAcv(}cpia~ nov atotuov Evm IlEXPl rors, aUa Kat apYO'tEpa, oi TCOAUTCA1l8Ecr'tU't0l EX8pot 'tau -(HOiJ~ 6TCOtOU~ TCPocr'tE811Kav 01 TCOAUTCAll- 8Ecr'tEPOl TCOAElllOl 'tau Map~, ibtro~ IlE'ta 't~v Promxn 'Exuvucrcon- Bsoipoiiouv bEbOIlEVO 'tOY nvnuroutxtouo 'tOU.! '0 cruAAOYlcrllo~ 'tOU~ ~'tav on 6 "EYEAO~

I BA. H. Ottmann, Individuum und Gemeinschaft bei Hegel, t. A', Hegel im Spiegel der Interpretationen, de Gruyter, Bspoxivo-Ne« 'Y6plCT] 1977.

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aya1tU "Co crUVOAO, slvm «<'>Atcr"CiJ~»,2 apa aV"CtI.uiXE"Cat "Co U"COflO Kat slvci <piAO~ "COU aUtapXllCOU KPU"COU~. AE~ Kat "Co U"COflO OEV slvrn Kat uoro, 11 flUnOV xupio»; au"Co, Eva DAov, Evu «crUVOAOV» crUfl<pOlVU flE "CT]v EK<ppacrTJ 1tOD XPTJcrtflO1tOlEt <'> 'APlcr"CO"CEATJ<; Yla "Co KueEKucr"COV. AE~ KUt iJ 1tOAl"CEtU, av"Cicr"Cpo<pu, a1to"CEAEl apPUYE~ DAov, 1t.x. OEV 1tEPlEXEt rov XOlPtcrflO KOtVOlViu~ KUt KPU"COU~. "Ouox; <'> "EYEAO~ xupaK"CTJpit;Et "Co DAov ro~ «aATJeE~» avu<PEPOflEVO~ crov 'Aptcr"CO"CEATJ Kat flE 1tUPUOEtYflu "Co U"COfl03 Evro tmiip~E a1tO "COD~ dcrTJYTJ"CE<; "Cii<; OtUKPtcrTJ~ KPU"COU~ Kat KOlVOlViu~ "Crov 1tOAl"CroV!4

'0 Pit"CEP tmocr"CTJpit;Et D"Ct <'> "EYEAO~ elvci <'> cr"COXucr"CT]~ "Cii~ E1tUvucr"CacrTJ~ ErtEtOT] UV"CtAufl~UVE"Cut "CT]V E1tUvucrta"CtKT] piJ~TJ flE "Co 1tapEAeOv ro~ U1tOATJ~TJ "Cou rOwu "Cou 1tUpEAeOV"CO~.

AU"CT] iJ KEV"CptKT] OtUYVOlcrTJ roii E1tt"CPE1tEl va xutuVOEl "CT]v icropixn al"CtoAoYTJcrTJ "COU crUYXPOVtKOU <patVOflEVOU roii «OtxucrflOU»: 'H XPOVtKT] ucruvEXEtu E1tEVOUEt "CT]V piJ~TJ U1tOKEtflEVOU KUt UV"CtKEtflEVtKOu xoouou, Kuero~ "Co u"COflO Kueicr"Cu"Cut eEflu"CO<puAaKu~ "Cii~ icropiKii~ KU"CUYOlYii~ D"Cuv <'> xoouo; KUptaPXEltat U1tO "Co oiKOVOfllKO crUfl<PEPOV, Kat E"Ccrt 1tpuYflU"CcOVEt "Cov UVtcr"CoPtKO KE<paAaWKpu"CtKO opeOAOytcrflO Kat yiVE"Cat 1tUPUAATJAU UV"CtKEtflEVO Erttcr"CTJflOVtKii~ flEAE"CTJ~ KUt <'>peOAOytKii<; OWiKTJcrTJ~. 'H "CEXVTJ KUt iJ ePTJcrKEU"CtKo"CTJ"Ca KU-

2 BA. Karl Popper, The Poverty of Historicism (1957), uvu8. EKO., Routledge, Aovoivo 1961.

1 BA. Phdnomenologie des Geistes, W3, 24 K.E. (oi ouvrouovpulpiE~ imE1;T)youV'tUl (J'ti~ kTII.lEUMW; xai UVUKElpUAUlCOVOV'tUl cr'tl,V 'Epyoyparpla).

4 BA. A.X. Z.A. Pelczynski, «The significance of Hegel's separation of the state and civil society», me. Z.A. Pelczynski (smu.), The State and Civil Society. Studies in Hegel's Political Philosophy, CUP, KEf\ltpl't~ 1984, cr. 1-13.

o ErEAm: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAHA};H II

9icnaVtal Hhrotl1CEe; lm09icH:le; Otav aKpl~roe; 6 aVtlKE1- flEV1KOe; KOO"flOe; 1taVEl v' avta1toKpivEtUl O"tte; f:1tltayie; roue. 'H aUtOVOflTJO"TJ trov nperrrov YEvvii tOY prouuvnO"flO 01troe; il aUtOVOflTJO"TJ tOU a1tOflaYEUflivou KOO"flOU 6bTJYEl O"tOV 9EtlK10"flO. "Ouox Kat oi bvo EXOUV UblKO ylUtt Kat oi bvo bixoVtUlmOe; O,tl £1vUl O"UYK1VTJtlKO £1- Val f:~ro1tpaYflatlfcO f:vro 1tpaYflatlKO £1vUl flOVO to epyaAElUKo, flOAOVOtl ta 1tpoO"TJfla trov oprov elvm avti- 9Eta O"tte; bvo 1tEPl1ttOlO"Ele;. '0 ptouuvrucoq f:~ropat1,;El tOY uecuirovu, upa bEV tOY avtlKpi1,;El aKpl~roe; O"av f:VEPYO 1tpaYflatlKOtTJta Kat O"E tOUtO ouuorovs] flE tOY 9EtlK10"tT] Otav au tOe; O"tlYflati1,;El O,tl 9EropEi flT] 1tpayflatlKO Aiyovto:e; to «1toiTJO"TJ». 'Av flEta<pEp90UflE O"tT]V blKTJ flae; ouvxupiu, to"roe; fl1tOPOUflE vi: 1tOUflE moe; 6 vEOp90bO~0e; <P1AOO"O<p0e; ouuqxovei flE tOY aVaAUtlKO qnAOO"O<pO Otl il O"TJflEP1VT] 1tE1,;T] 1tpaYflatlKOtTJta aVTJKEl O"tOV U1tOAOY10"flO Kat elvot ~ivTJ 1tpOe; roi»; nvsoprmKOUe; O"tOXOue; tite; av9pro1totTJtae;, to ropalo, to KaAO ft to biKalO. Auto ollroe; bEV uxopei va iO"XVEl av il f:1tavaO"tatlKT] PTJ~TJ IlE to 1tapEA90v a1tOtEAEl a1tOATJ~TJ tOU tblOU tOU 1tapEA90vtoe;. AUtT] il (mAT] blo:yvroO"TJ a1taltEl AOl1tOV uin aUayT] ~A.iflflatOe;, Kat autT] il aUayT] E1- val il flEto:~aO"TJ O"tT]V to"tOP1KOtTJta.

'H aUaYT] ~AiflflatOe; ouviorctut O"tO E~ite;, O"XEtlKa flE tOY 1tapa1tO:vro blxaO"flO: 'H aVtieEO"TJ prouovriouoi; Kat f:pyaAElUKOtTJtae;, ft OUO"lOKpatlKite; Kat O"Ufl~aO"lOKpatlKite; O"K€lI'TJe; (Yla va XPTJO"lflO1tOlTJO"ro flia blO:KP10"TJ 1tOU bEV U1tO:PXEl O"tOV Pirrep), 1tpi1tEl vii yiVEtal bEKtT] flE tte; bvo 1tAEUpie; tTJe;, Ylatt oi bvo fla1,;t O"UYKPOtOUV to «O"VVOAO» tite; O"VYXPovTJe; atOfllKOtTJtae;.

Ti onuclvei auto; Mia EUOYTJ xoivcoviu £1val civoo-

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pu uiu K01VroVlU 1tOU smrpsnst ern urouu tTJe; vu stvut

EAEv9Epa ano iiiv ic5za titv xoivosvia: OXl Yla va KUVTJyouv xropte; <ppaYflOUe; to ioiuirspo couespov rou; Eie;

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~upO~ linO)v, ana Y1a va aVa7t'tucrcrOV'tU1 ro~ li'tOIlU,5 lipu va Sivouv ~upo~ cr'ta uicr9tlllU'tU rou; KUt va. avuyvO)ptsouv c' uu'ta. Iliu IlTJ EPYUA.E1UKTJ 1tpUwunKo'tll'tu. ~Av 1] D"A.oYll K01VO)viu oi:v \mo'tucrcrE1 'to utcr91lllU 01- KU10crUVll~ cr'tTJV a1tO'tEA.EcrIlUnKO'tll'tU, tors Of:V \mo'tucroat OU'tE YEV1KO'tEPU 'ta. «uicr9tlllu-ra» cr'tTJV «01UV01U» 9Eo)PcOV'tU~ IlOVO 'tTJV 'tEA.EU'tuiu aVnKE1IlEV1Ktl. 'H aV'tt- 9Ecrll «uicr9tlIlU'tO~» Kui «01UV01U~» ElVU1 0 rponoq Ilf: 'tOV 01tOtO 1tPUYIlU'tcOVE'tU1 1] A.OY1KO't1l'tU 11 1] EA.EU9Epiu. 'H aV'tieEcrll uicr9tlIlU'tO~ Kui 01UV01U~ ElVU1 0 rponot; r)1tUp~ll~ 'tOU «A.oyou».

Au'tTJ ti VEU K01VO)viu ElVU1 ti 01UKP1'tTJ a1tO 'to KPUro; «K01VO)viu 'tcOV 1tOA.1'tcOV», 1] .onoin EIl(jlUviSE'tU1 apX1Ka. ro~ «acrnKTJ K01VO)viu». '0 Pirrep OEiXVE1 IlE'ta. 'tOV AOUKU't~ 'tTJV O1lllucriu 'tii~ IlEA.E'tll~ 'tii~ 'tEA.EU'tuiu~ Y1a. 'tTJV OlUIlOP(jlO)(Jll 'tii~ 9EO)pllnKii~ 9Ecrll~ 'tOU "EYEA.OU xcl EOcO Ev't01tiSE'tU1 1] IlEyUA.ll crllllucriu 'tOU ~l~A.iOU rou, 1] VEU xntuvoncn 'tii~ 1toA.mKii~ (jl1A.ocrO(jliu~ 'tOU "EYEA.OU 1tOU E1t1'tPE1tE1 ti 9EO)PllnKTJ 9Ecrll roo.

'0 "ErcAo; «a! 17 TaUlIdl 'Enavaoraan, aVU9EO)PllIlEVll IlOP(jlTJ aVUKoivO)crll~ roii 1956 1tOU 01l1l0crtEU91lKE 'to 1957, £1tat~E crllw,,·rlKO pOA.O cr'tTJV aVUVEO)crll 'tcOv EyEA.1UVcOV cr1tOUOcOV xnruppinrovmq rov llu90 EVO~ "EYEA.OU A.a'tPll 'tii~ E~oucriu~ Kui 1tpOEK'tEiVOV-ra~ £'tcrt 'to EnEipllllU 'tou BE1Y A.tyu XPOV1U VO)pl'tEPU cr'tTJV rUA.A.iu.6 "01l0)~, EVcO 0 BE1Y aKOA.ou90ucrE 'tTJV li1to'l'll roii VEUPOU Ma.p~ crull(jlO)VU Ilf: 'tTJV onoic 0 "EYEA.O~ ElVU1 0 (jl1A.6crO(jlO~ 'tou VEcO'tEPOU rpaqJCI~,,(parIKojj KPU'tOU~, 0 Pirrep 'tOVtSE1 'tTJV a1tO(jlUcrtcrnKTJ crllllucriu 'tii~ a'tOIl1-

'« ... ~ £A&u9&Pll uva7ttu~ll tau ICa9&vo\; 9u elVa1 0 opo~ Y1a ti]v H.&u9&Pll uVa7ttU~ll OArov», Marx-Engels, Manifest der kommunistischen Partei, 1848, Iltlp. To I(OJ1JWVVICITII(O uavupeato (1944), 'A9,;va 1963, cr. 84.

• E. Weil, Hegel et I'Etat, Vrin, Ilupiot 1950.

o ErEAOr KAI H rAAAIKH EnANArTArH 13

Kite; f:A.W8€piUe; yta 'tT]V f:y€A.taVT] qnA.oao<piu f:7t€tOT] 11€A.€'ta 'tT]V EvvOtU 'tite; xotvosviac orov UEy€A.o.

"EXro 1tpoa1tu8Tta€t unou va OtWpuvro uu'tT] 'tT]V «qnA.OU'tOl1tKT]» uvuyvroall 1tpOe; Ku't€u8uVall roii iotOU 'tOu Mup~, I1E aK01tO v' u1tuv'tTtaro crov <ptA.oua'to Phrsp una Kui a'tT]v uv'ttua'ttKT] I1Up~ta'ttKT] 1tUpUOOall 1tOV 8€ropci 'tOY "Ey€A.o lJ1tEPI1UXO 'tlie; ua'ttKlie; xoweoviuq, nAy 0 "Ey€A.oe; a'toxut,;€'tUt 'tT]V xorvoiviu 'tOW 1tOA.t'trov, 01troe; EO€t~€ uu'to 'to nproronopinxo Kcll1€VO 'tou Pirrep, OEV cnucivsr ~E~UtU 1tCOe; a'tOxut,;€'tUt 110VO 'ta . Ua'ttKa yvropial1u'tu 'tlle;.7 "I au Ion, ouuqxovu I1E 'to oxs- 1t'ttKO 1tOV ciaTtyuy€ 0 iotoe; 0 Pirtsp, 0 "Ey€A.oe; elvrn 0 a'toxua'tT]e; 'tlie; f:1tuVua'tualle; yta 'tOY ioto A.0Yo 1tOV elVUt 0 a'toxua'tT]e; 'tite; ioropiuq, EvvOtUe; ~EVlle; a'tT]v duatKT] ua'ttKT] 8€ropiu 'tite; ua'ttKite; xotvovicc.

«Tcropucit» slvoi uic aKE'Vll tKUVT] va 1tpoacyyit,;€t 'to KUtVOUpyto roe; U1to'tEA€aI1U 'tOU 1tUA.UtoU, 'tOU onoioo roe; KUtVOUpyto DSV U1to't€A.€i roa'toao xposxtuon. ME Op80KuVOVta'ttKOVe; opoue; «lcropucn» elvci l1iu aKE'Vll ciOtKa tKUVT] va 1tpoacyyit,;€t 'to xutvoopyto 1tOV EX€t 'tOY XUpUK'tTtPU XElpaqJErTJUTJ<; -au'tO f:VOtU<pEP€t nporricro»; 'tT]V <ptA.oao<piu, f:vro EPX€'tUt f:~ Optal1ou af: PTt~ll 11f: 'to uv€A.€u8€po 1tup€A.80v. 'R uV€K'til1ll'tll npootpopu 'tlie; I1€A.E'tlle; 'tOU Pirrsp EYK€t'tat a' uu'tO 'to oxsnruco, a'tT]V 8€roPll'ttKT] 8Eall 1tOV uvwpiaK€t orov UEy€A.o, hro auyxpovroe; u1t€p~uiv€t 'tie; f:y€A.tUVf:e; I1€A.E't€e;, Ku8roe; u<popa 'to X€tpa<p€'tll'ttKO f:'YXclPlll1a a' OA.€e; 'tie; 110p<pEe; roo,

'Y1t€v8ul1it,;ro 1troe; iJ X€tpa<p€'tll'ttKT] aKE'Vll 11€'ta 'tOY

7 r. <lIapaKA.a~, «l:K1hl'T], imavacrtaCJT], 1tpaYllatlKOtT]ta», :4';10- AOYIICli 10, MalO~ 1997, cr. 7-61, tropa crto @iUT/ lCai aMj9EIU. KP1- tlK", 'A9"va 1997, ~A.. § 2. npo~ auti'] ti']v Kat£1J9uvCJT] xopeuetm 6 Avropvo: Th. W. Adorno, Drei Studien zu Hegel, Suhrkamp, <lIpaYK!jlOUptT] 1974' Iltlp. Tpei; j.lEAE.Eq yui rov XiYICEA, Kprnxn, 'AS,,va 1992.

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Map~ OEv (l1tOppi7ttEt tiJv icropin, 01t(O~ EV 7toU01~ 6 ota<pmttcrllo~ tOU oEKatOU oyooou uiorvu, uUa UVtt9Etm~ UVU'OEtKVVEt tiJv ioropucornru ffi~ cocrnnxo tfJ~ 9Empia~ 7tOIJ U7tO~AE7tEt crtiJv 7tpaKttKiJ Katapy'lcr'l tfJ~ aotKia~ Kat crUVE1t(i>~ crnv XEtpa<pEt'lcr'l U7tO to icropuco 7tapEA.90v. AutiJ iJ uvti<pacr'l -cvcoop« crtiJv ioropia Kat apv'lcr'l toii 7tapEA.90vto~- 7taVEt va Elvat uvti<pacr'l UKPt~cO~ Xap'l oro crxfJlla crK6V'l~ 7tOIJ OtEKptVE 6 Pirrsp orov "EyEA.O. 'H uUayiJ ~A.EllllatO~ 7tOIJ uvttKpisEt ta UVtieEta ffi~ crttYIlE~ tou iotOU ouvoxou U7tOtEA.El IlEta~acr'l crtiJv icropucornm. Auto to crxfJlla 7tPE7tEt va OpOUcrE 110'l crtiJv Otallop<pmcr'l tfJ~ crKEIJI'l~ tOU Map~, autou tOU UVttqEA.taVOu crtoxacrtfJ eYEA.taVcOV Kata~OA.cOV Kat crtoxacrtfJ tfJ~ E7tavacrtacr'l~.

r.ep., Iletpauic, Mtiptux; toii 1998

A'

§ I

H KPITIKH ENAlXOAHI:H IlE 'tT]V 1tOAlttKT] <jllAoaocpiu 'tOU "EYEAOU 1tOU aKOAou9llaE 'tT]V olllloaiwall 'tii~ (/)ZAO(JOqJia~ toi) Aixaioo (1821) (1)1 D"ll~E IlE 'tt~ Ilapaoooeu; ru'z roy "ErEAo xa! thv broX7} rov roii POUV'tOACP XUUIl (Rudolf Haym, Vorlesungen iiber Hegel und seine Zeit, BEPOAivo 1857). AU'tE~ KU'tUOlKU~OUV rov "EYEAO f:7tElO~, ro~ «cplAoaQ(plKo~ OlK'tU'tOpU~ 'tii~ Fspunviuc» (a. 357), IlE'tE'tPE'VE 'tT]V cplAoaocpiu aE «f:1tla'tlllloVlKT] f:1tla'tEyuall roii 1tVEUIlU'tO~ 'tii~ 1tpCOaalKii~ 1tUAlVOp9coall9) (a. 359), 1tpOaEcpEpE rov «a1tOAu'to 'tU1tO» Yla rov «1tOAlttKO ouv'tllPllttallO KUt f:CPllauxuallo KUt 'tT]v 1tOAl'tlKT] cdciooo~iU2» (a. 365) KUt E9EaE Etcrl rov f:uu'to rou a'tT]v U1tllpscic 'tii~ «smcmuovuce Ota'tU1tCOIlEVll~ OlKUtoA6Yllall~ 'tou aa'tuvolloKPUttKOU aua't~llu'to~ 'tii~ KupAa~uOll~ KUt 'tii~ oico~ll~ nov 0lllluycoyroV»J (a. 364) (2).

To a'totXEtO 1tOU a1tOOElKVUEl 'tT]V f:VOX~ rou, f:K'tO~ a1to 'to tOto 'to y&yovo~ Ott oEX9llKE viI olM~El a'to BEpoxivo (3) KUt 'tT]V spunvecousvn ro~ 1tOAl'tlKT] KU'tUOOall KPl'tlK~ rou orov <l>pEi~ (Fries) oiiv «~YE'tll f:KdVll~ 'tii~ PllXO'tll'tU~ 1tOU uU'tOU1tOKUAEt'tUl cplAoaocpEtV» «/)L1,

I ,Oi O'1]I1EIO>O'W; tOU Plrrep CllCOA.OUSOUV to lCElI1EVO xai 1i1]A.O>vovrui I1E I1EyUA.a 'V1]cpia EVtOe; 1tapEvSEO'Ecoe;, 0\ 0"1]I1E1O>O'Ele; tOU I1EtacppaO'tit Bpicxovcoi O'tO tEA.Oe; lCUSE O'EA.iliae; xui t\1]A.O>vOVtal I1E I1llCPOUC; ElCSEtEe;.

1 ME ti]v O'1]l1aO'ia 1tOU tlicoO'E 0 AUII11tVlte; (Leibniz) O'tOV opo, crUl1CPcova I1E ti]v oxoio 1;oul1E O'tOV «lCaA.UtEpO Suvnto lCOO'I10».

3 0\ «'A1tOcpUO'Ele; tite; KapA.O'~uli1]e;» tOU 1819 E1tE~aA.A.aV ti]v A.OyolCplO'ia, tOV tA.EYXO tOlV 1taVE1tlO't1]l1lalCiiiv xni ti]v liico~1] tiiiv IilacpcovOUvtCOV we; «1i1]l1aycoyiiiv» O'tU YEPl1avilCU lCpUt1].

15

16 nOAXIM PITIEP

CJ. 8),' E1VUt KUta KUptO AOYO il iotu il qltAoCJo<piu tOU. 'H qltAoCJo<piu tOU EXEt lmuYUYEt t1,v 9Eropiu tOU KPUroue KUt tlie; xoivrovicc CJt1,v clPX1, CJUIl<Provu IlE t1,v onoio to AoytKO E1VUt 1tPUYIlUttico KUt to 1tPUYIlUttKO AoytKO KUt EtCJt EXEt clVUAU~Et cl1tO 1tOAtttK1, U1tO'l'T] -CJUIl<PCOVU Ilf: tOY XUUIl- t1,v otKutoA6YT]CJT] tlie; 1tpuyIlUttKOtT]tUe; «01tCOe; u<piCJtutut to 1821 CJt1,v Ilpmorriu» (a.n., CJ. 366). 'E1tt1tA&OV XUPUKttlptCJE to KpUtOe; Ilf: ta KUtT]yoPtlllUtU «9ElO», «cl1tOAUtO», «Aoyoe;» KUt «;,9tK1, oocic», 1tPOKEtll&VOU va 9E01tOttlCJEt t1,v f:~ouCJiu tOU KUt va t1,v clVtttU~Et CJt1,v f:Aw9Epiu trov cltOIlCOV. '!:I 9EO- 1toiT]CJT] tOU KputOUe; KUt il otKutoA6YT]CJT] tlie; 1tpUYIlUrucorrrruq roe; op90AoytKlie; cl1tOtEAOUV yta tOY XUUIl clOtuCJEtCJtU tEKlltlPtU tlie; clVttOpUCJttKlie; 1tp09ECJT]e; KUt AEttOupyiue; tlie; f:YEAtUvlie; <ptAoCJo<piue;.

~tl.e; 1tUpUOOCJEte; tOU 6 XUUIl clVUAUIl~UVEt CJUVE1troe; va f:~OpiCJEt to CJuCJtT]IlU tOU "EYEAOU cl1tO to 1tUPOV KUt va to «f:1tUVU<P&PEt CJt1,v cl1tOVEKProll&VT] fJ illltVEKPCOIl&VT] ~co1, 01tOU E1XE tOY A6yo rmup~tle; tOU», 1tPOKEtll&VOU £tCJt va to 9U'I'Et CJtO «IlEYUAO oiKOOOIlT]IlU tlie; uirovtue; icropiuc» CJav CJf: «uviiuc» (CJ. 8).

'H KptttK1, tOU XUUIl U1tliP~E cl1tOtEAECJIlUttKtl. 'H <ptAOCJo<piu tOU "EYEAOU EIlEtVE xropte; f:1tiopUCJT] yta OEKUEtiEe;' Il&Xpt CJtlllEPU il <PtlllT] tOU KPUttCJIlOU KUt tlie; clVttOPUCJttKlie; cl1tOAUt01toiT]CJT]e; tlie; KpUttKlie; f:~ouCJiue; KUAa KPUtEl. 'AKOIlT] tropu OtUV IltAro yta t1,v 1tOAtttK1, <ptAOCJo<piu roii "EYEAOU EXCO clVUYKUCJttKa U1t' O'l'T] 1l0U t1,v EiKOVU tOu «nproCJCJOU clVttOPUCJttKOU» (4).

4 W7, 18. '0 Fries, uoviuo; avti1;T]AOe; tOU "E. at~v a1CaOT]llal1C~ crtaOto0pOllia tOU, Otci>XGT]1CE alto t~v Eopa tOU to 1817 cO<; i:1Cltp6awItOe; IltUe; q>tAEAEuGEpT]e; -fJ.AAa CJUyxp6vWC; i:GVt1Ctcrtt1Cije; xnl avttCJT]Ilttt1Cije;- tclCJT]e;. BA. 1. d'Hondt, Hegel en son temps, Ilcpiot 1968, ce. 121-146' 1Cai i:oiil CJT]1l. 17, a. 1111C.1:. - 0\ aUvtOIlO'YpmpiEe; i:~T]'Youvtat atic; 1:71J1.£I(;)(Jf:II; 1Cai ava1CEcpaAatrovOVtat at~v 'Epyorpaoia.

o ErEAOI KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAITAIH 17

Oi OlU'tU7tc.OO"l::l<; j.1£: 'tt<; 07tOis<; 0 XO:Uj.1 OUCUlOA.oysi tiJV lCU'tTlYOpiU tOU YUI eW7tOiT)OT) tOD xpcroi»; (l7tUV'tODV 7tP07tUV'tO<; OtiJv a>zAocroqJia toii oZKaiov. 'Eoro 0 "EySA.o<; OVOj.1O:~Sl 'tiJv 7tOA.ltdU «f:vSPYO 7tpUyj.1U'tllCO'tT)tu 't11<; iOtu<; 'tOD iieou<;» (§ 257) lCUt olu'tdvs'tUl 7t(o<; elVUl 'to «Ul)'tO lCUe' Ul)'tO A.OYllCO» (§ 258). 'H 7toA.udu elVUl «0 VOD<; 7tOV OiVSl orov EUU'tO roo tiJv £vspyo 7tpuyj.1UtllCOtT)'tO: roo lCU'ta 'tTJV OlUOllCuoiu 't11<; 7tUYlCOOj.1lU<; ioropiuc» (§ 259) lCUt ~ «£~ouoiu 'tOD uuroxpujuuro- 7tOlOUj.1SVOU A.oyou» o'to 7tA.UiOlO 't11<; «nopsiuq tOD eWD orov lC00j.10» (§ 258 Ilpoothpcn, t. 7, 0. 336).' 'Ee' OOOV ~ 7toA.l'tdu elvm 0 lC00j.10<; «7tOV OT)j.1lOUPyT)OS 0 VOD<; Yla A.0You 'tOU» O<pdA.Sl lCUVSt<; va 'tTJV «'tlj.1a oav £7tiySlOesio» (§ 272 npooei)lCT), 'to 7, 0. 269 lC.EV

'0 iOlO<; 0 "EysA.o<; aV'tlA.Uj.1~O:VS'tUl OA.s<; uu't£:<; 'tt<; OlUtU7tc.OOSl<; 00<; j.1StU<pUOllCt<;· oX.S'ti~Sl j.1SeOOllCa 'tTJV a>zAocroqJia toii Stxaio» j.1£: 'tTJV AOYZK7] (5)' esropsi 7t(o<; 'to «A.0YllCO 7tVSDj.1U» lCUt 0 «esropT)'tllCO<; tp07to<; yvc.OOT)<;» Suncpivoov 'tTJV a>zAocroqJia rou Sixaiou a7tO EVu «ouvnelOj.1tvo £yxslpiOlO» (a>A, 0. 4).7 'Evvosi 'tTJV j.1S'tU<pUOllCTJ crUj.1<provu j.1£: 'tOY 7tUpuOSOOj.1tvO OPlOj.10 'tT)<; 00<; 'tTJV esropT)'tllCTJ £7tl0'ti)j.1T) nspi 'tOD slvm 'tOD QV'tO<;' spyo 'tT)<; dVUl va OUA.AO:~Sl «o,'tl elvm» (0. 16)8 lCui va 'to evvon-

t, , _ " ,T , ,

OSl ro<; tT)V 7tUPOUOlU 'tT)<; «OUOlU<; 7tOU SlVUl Sj.1j.1SVT)<;»

lCui tOD «ukovioo 7tOV dVUl7tUPOV» (0.15).9 ·Apu oi npo'to:OSl<; 7tOV 'tOD lCu'tuA.oyi~Sl 0 XO:Uj.1 oT)j.1uivouv 7too<; 0 "EysA.o<; f:v'tO:OOSl 'to lCpo:tO<; lCui tTJV xowciviu OtTJV j.1StU<pUOllCTJ esropiu lCui ta lCUtUVO&i 00<; tTJV f:vSPYo 7tpuyuutonoinon (EvipYEIU, EV'tEUXEza, actualitas) tOD «d-

s WI, 403' n<]l~ 4, 632.

'WI, 434' n<]l~ 3, 744 (to XIp. AEEI JlOVO «9EioV»). 1 WI, 12-13.

• WI, 26.

• WI, 25.

18 nOAXIM PITTEP

VUt» IlEcrU cr't~v lcropucf tJ1tUP~TJ, f:vm 'tuu'tOXpovu 'to «alvei» 1tUpUIlEVet yt' unrov ruorocnuo Ill:: 'tOY Myo KUt 'to 8eiov 'tii~ q)tAOcrO<PtKii~ 1tUpaoocrTJ~. '0 'Aptcr'tO'tEATJ~ KUt 0 0rollii~ ovouconv «8eieq> Ill:: 't~v ibm 8VVOtU 't~v «<PtAOcrO<ptK~ t;;ro~» KUt 't~v 8eropiu 'tTJ~, cOcr'te va 'tt~ Stuxpivouv a1to 't~v 1tpUK'ttK~ yvrocrTJ. 'R <ptAocro<piu f:bpUt;;e'tat oro Bsiov KUt OXt cr't~v aVUYKTJ 'tOU 1tpUK'ttKOU ~iou' apu slvrn 8du ~ ibtU f:1tetb~ crUUEYHat nspi 'to 8eiov (divina quia de divinis, Bsiu 'to. nspi 'tmv Bsicov) (6). ~I:: ouvcprnor] 11' uu't~ 't~v 1tUpUbocrTJ -0 "EyeAo~ 't~v 1tPOU1t08E'tet KUt bl::v 81tUljle 1to'tl:: va 8eropei 't~v <ptAOcocic 'tOU nupovronoincn 'tii~ Iltii~ KUt ollom~ c' oAe~ 'tt~ f:1tOXI::~ <PtAocro<piu~ (7)- ocre~ f:K<ppucret~ 'tii~ t1>IAOoooia; toii Sixaiou dvat 1tOAt'ttKa a1tOKpoucr'ttKI::~ yta 'tOY XUUIl crTJlluivouv orov ibW 'tOY "Eydo 1tro~ 'to 1teplexollevo 'tii~ 1toAl'tdu~ slvm 0 av8pro1to~ cb~ cvoeepousvoc 1tpO~ 'to 8eiov KUt OXl 1l0VOV f:<P' ocrov €xet avuYKe~ a1to 't~v <pucrTJ roo 01tro~ cr'tt~ qnxnoxpuruce; 8eropie~ 'tii~ xotvorviuq, 'Epvo 'tii~ 1toAt'tdu~ elvci ouve1tm~ vii Ku'tucrnicret bUVU't~ 't~v f:yKocrlllU 1tpUYIlU'tOnoincn 'tow VOTJ'ttKmv, 8PTJcrKw'ttKmv KUt ~8tKmV bOllmv 1tOD cr'tTJpit;;ouv 't~v av8pro1ttvTJ U1tUP~TJ.

To ibW lle'tU<pUcrtKO VOTJIlU €Xel KUt ~ aUTJ apx~ 1tOD KU'tublKut;;e'tul cb~ av'ttbPucr'ttK~ a1tO 'tOY XUUIl Yla 't~v ruorornr« 1tPUYIlU'ttKO'tTJ'tu~ KUt AOYOU: «"O,'tt slvnt AO-

\1' ,\. ,\. ~I ; , \

ytKO stvm svspvu 1tpuYllu'ttKO' KUt o.ri stvm svspyu

1tPUYIlU'ttKO slvm AOY1KO» (cr. 14).10 'R apx~ a1to'tu1t(ovel 'tOY VOTJ'ttKO 1tUPTtVU Ku8e <P1AOcro<piu~, o'tt 0 «AOyO~ 'tOU 0V't0~» dVUl ~ 8elleAlro'ttK~ ouciu Ku8e 1tpUYIlU'ttKO'tTJ'tU~ KUt ~ aATt8em 'tTJ~' €tcrt, crull<Provu Ill:: 'tOY "EyeAO, f:1tUvu<pEpet oro 1tUPOV 't~v ibEU f:V't0~ 'tii~ o1toiu~ ~ <ptAocro<piu aVEKu8ev svvooccs 'tOY f:uu'to 'tTJ~, a<pou 0

\0 W7, 24.

o ErEA01: KAI H r AAAIKH EOANALT A1:H 19

napIlEVioT]~ OiOa~E 'tllV ruotorrrru 'tOU «VOEtV» Kat 'tOU «slvm» Kat 0 'Ava~ayopa~ UVEOEt~E 'tOY A6yo aE UPXll 'tOU xoouoo (8). "OIlO)~ roirto KaStcr'tu 'tllv KPt'ttKll 'tou Xuull aT]llav'ttKT]. AEV Suncplvst a' alJ'tE~ 'tt~ usruqnxnKE~ OT]AcOaEt~ 'tllv 1tOAt'ttKll oxomuomro uv'ttopaa'ttKil~ OtKatOAoyT]aT]~ nov OEOOIlEVO)V 1tOAt'ttKWV aUVST]KWV, f:1tEtOll dvat 'tuxa 'til~ yVcOllT]~ 1t(o~ il qltAoao<pia f:~toaVtKEuEt 'tllv 1tOAt'ttKll1tpaYlla'ttKo'tT]'ta Kat 1t(o~ 01. U~tcOcsu; 'tT]~ elvci U1tEP~OAtKE~· CJl(aVoaA(jj8e~ Ylli rov XavJl dVa! avnOirO)~ on 0 "EYSAO~ scpapJl6i;sl ri]v uettupu- 0"11(i] Osmpia atiiv xoivtovia toii xapovto; xai aro xoaro~ ttu; 'R O"uYXPOVT] xorvrovin slvnt il VEcO'tEPT] UO"'ttKll xotvmvin, il a'tT]ptSOIlEVT] O"'tllv 'tEXVtKll Kat 'tllV sm- 0"'tT]1lT]· alJ'tll il xorvorvin dauYEt OE YU1 'tOY XUUIl Ilia ve« uPXll Kat Ilia vEa f:1t0Xll «Ka'ta 'tllv onoiu il UA)l slVat aav va i:XEt SO)VtaVE\jIEt XUpT] a'tt~ IlEYUAE~ 'tqVtKE~ f:<pwpEaEt~ 'tOU uiorvo» f:VW «uuroi 01. Spiall~Ot 'til~ 'tEXVtKil~ UVE'tpE\jIaV Kat uvallop<pO)aav 'ta i:axa'ta SEIlEAta 'til~ UAtKil~ uUa Kat 1tVWllattKil~ sO)il~ lla9> (0.7r., a. 5). AlJ'tll il uvaKa'tu'ta~T] f:~1lYEt yta'ti il SWAoyia Kat il IlE'ta<puatKll i:ytvav 61ttaSOopOlltKE~ Kat i:xaaav 'tllv UAT]SEta 'tou~: «Tu aa'tpa 'til~ 1tia'tT]~» i:xouv 1tEO"Et «KU'tO) a'tllv Yil» (9), il SEO)PT]'ttKll <ptAoO"o<pia «nnprryxmViO"ST]KE U1tO 'tllv 1tpOOOO 'toD xoouoo Kat 'tllV so)V'tavll icropio» (a. 6). "Orn taXUE npiv (o~ «UV'ttKEtIlEVtKO iOEa'to» Kat (o~ «uiorvio Kat 1tUYtO» i:XEt 1tta IlOVO «xuSapa icropucn» crjuuo iu Kat uvaOta'tU1tcOVE'tat IlE «1tpaYlla'toAoytKOU~» opou~ (a. 9). LUVE1tW~, Ka'ta 'tOY XUUIl, il f:1l<PuVtaT] 'til~ VEcO'tEPT]~ xowrovicc aOEtaaE U1tO KUSE SE'ttKO 1tEptqOIlEVO Kat O"uYXPOVtKll UAT]SEta 'tt~ i:YEAtaVE~ i:vVOtE~ «elvm», «Bsio», «U1tOAU'tO», f:VW il O"T]IlEptVll f:<paplloyT] rou; f:KAall~UVE'tat 1tta IlOVOV (o~ «cvriopccn»: lloVaOtKO VOT]IlU 'tT]~ E,lvat il ull<pta~T]'tT]O"T] 'til~ vEa~ xotvovicc 1tOU i:XEt U1tEAWSEpO)SEt U1tO 'tOY

20 nOAXIM PITTEP

«oupuvo»: ~ «aVa9Ep~aVaTp) tt;e; ~Etaq)UcrtKt;e; 9Ecopiae; 1tOV EXEt aUti] tOUtTJ avaaKwaa9Ei a1totEA.Ei yui rov Xau~ iOEOA.OytKO K6A.1to ~i: crK01tO ti]v ueroooicxm trov o7tta900pO~tKrov Kai aVtt1tpOOOWttKroV OUVa~ECOV xapTJ ati]v A.a~'I'TJ ~tiie; autt;e; tOUtTJe; avu1t6atatTJe; 1tA.EOV 9E6- tTJtae;. 'H <ptA.oaO(pia tOU "EYEA.OU EXEt yiVEt, roe; <ptA.Ocoeiu, E~ opiouoii 1tapEA.90v E1tEtOi] ~ aUYXPovTJ E1tOxi] EXEt a1tEA.w9Epco9d a1to ti]v ~Eta<puatKi] Kai ti]v 9EOA.oyia. I'i' auto tOV A.6yo 1tPE1tEt va. ti]v a1tOtEA.EtCOaOU~E' 1tPE1tEt va. «XPEOK01tTtaEt» 61tcoaOTt1tOtE «a<pou OA.Oe; 6 KA.O:OOe; EXEt aVaOOUA.Eti:e;» (a. 5)' orepsiru. 61totaa0Tt1tOtE auyxpOVtKt;e; aTJ~aaiae; ato Eoa<pOe; tt;e; aattKt;e; xotvcovicq KatEA.TJ~E avttOpaattKTt.

§2

Elvat 1toA.A.oi autoi 1tOV aKoA.ou90uv 1tp09u~coc; tOV Xau~ Kai ~tA.OUV yta. 9E01toiTJaTJ tOU KpatOUe; a1to tOV "EYE- 1.0, ana. iacoc; <pavouv A.ty6tEPO 1tp69u~ot va. aa1taa90uv to E7ttxdpTJ~a ~i: to 61toio 6 Xuou 9ECOpd moe; a1tOOEtKVUEt auti] ti]v 9E01toiTJaTJ. "Ouex to yeyovoe; Ott 6 rsA.wtaioe; EKKtvd a1to ti]v XEtpa<pEtTJaTJ tt;e; VEcOtEPTJe; xotvoiviuq xnl ott a' auti]v 9E~EA.tcOVEt ti]v KptttKTt tOU t'iie; EYEA.tav'iie; ~Eta<puatK'iie; t'iie; 1toA.ttdae; elvoi to uovo 1tOV 1tpOaoiOEt ati]v KPtttKTt tOU <ptA.Oao<ptKi] aTJ~aaia yta. to ncpov ~ae;. 'H 9ECOPTJttKi] <ptA.oao<pia EXEt xaaEt 110TJ yta. tOV naKO~1t M1toupqapt (J. Burckhardt)" Kai

II 1818-1897, 0J.u:yaAoe; 'EAlktoe; ioropnccc. I:tO IJlIJAio tOU Ilapamtmoeu; yui riJv narxootua iatopia (l1tOppi1tt£1 ti]v EVVOIa J.1IUe; IjllAocrolpiae; tile; ieroptcc, Kai elOIKa toil "E., xapaKtT]pi~ovtae; tT]V roc; «EVa i>~piOIO t£patoUpYT]lla, ilia contradictio in adjecto», E1t£loiJ ~ icropic elver (JUvouacrlloe; atolllKOOV iOlalt£pOti]trov, otav ~ IpIAocrolpia slvm l£paPXT]crT] Y£VIKOOV io£oov (yan. Iltlp. Considerations sur l'histoire universelle, Droz, r£V£uT] 1965, cr. 1-3).

o EfEAOI: KAI H fAAAIKH EnANAI:TAI:H 21

tOY NitO"E (Nietzsche) Ku9E smxuipornr«: yt' uuroi»; cl1to'tEA.Ei ma 110VO KU'tUO"lCWT] KUt oo~uO"iu, «YO't9tKT] ui- 9EpO~uO"iu» (NitO"E, EKO. Musarion, 'to 16,0". 82). 'Avn9stro~ " I1EYUA.ll 9EnKT] onunoin 't~~ Kptm::~~ tOu XUUI1 KUt .cov q>tA.EA.EU9EProv aptO"'tEprov dvut on EXEt aK0I111 btlyvrocrll 't~~ 1tOA.mK~~ EmKUtpo'tll'tU~ 't~~ <PtA.oO"o<piu~ 'taU "EYEA.OU KUt 'tT]V 1tpoi.i1t09S'tEt. '0 XUUI1 avnA.ul1~uVE'tUt 1t(i>~ O"'tT]V <ptA.oO"o<piu tOU uEYEA.OU OtUKU~EUE'tUt - roco 9EI1EA.troOro~ KUt 11f: 't00"0 1tu90~ 00"0 oroix; avn1tuAOU~ roo- 'to 1tPO~A.llI1U roii nnpovroq KUt 't~~ xotvoiviuq 1tOU EI1<puvi~E'tUt 1tOA.mKa 11f: 'tT]V 'Enuvuorucn O"'tT]V fuA.A.iu KUt -E~ Ioou avu'tpE1tnKa-l1f: 'tT]V aVU1t'tu~ll 't~~ ~tol111xuviu~ O"'tT]V 'AyyA.iu, EVro hOtI1U~E'tUt va yiVEt " O"lll1EptVT] 1tpuwunKo'tll'tu. "Bioi 0 "Eveso; rive'rUl 0 «at' e~oxi]v aVri1raAo~' titv row «oivosvia 1rOV Kara roy XaVIl EAeV()epmVel a1ro roy oopavo rij~ ()eOAoria~ «a! rij~ IlcraqJvo"IKij~, 0 "EreAO~ iiiv evvod dx; ri]v napouoia «a! ro oatvouevo rij~ EUOrTJ~ oooiac 1rOV rIa titv qJlAotJoqJia rJ1rijp~e aviKa()eV " aAT/()eW rij~ nparuai> KOrTJ'rU~ xai rij~ latopiac (9).

"Etrn 9iYE'tUt ov'tro~ 'to oixsio 1tPO~A.llI1U KUt " oiKEtU u1t09EO"ll 't~~ 1tOA.mK~~ <PtA.oO"o<ptU~ roii uEYEA.OU. 'H l/JIAotJoqJia toii Bixaiou avnA.UI1~UvE'tUt 'to KPU'tO~ KUt 'tT]V xorvrovin, O"uvO\jlt~OI1EVU O"'tT]V EVVOtU «Sixcro», w~ 1tEptEXOI1EVU 't~~ «9EroptU~»" UU'tO E~llYEi ytu'tt 0 npOA.oyo~ ul09E'tEi E~ apx~~ 'tOY 1tUPUOOO"tUKO OPtO"I10 'tou «9EroPEiv 'to ov n ov», 't~~ cognitio speculativa entis qua entis," KUt on EKKtvEi a1to UU'tO w~ yvroO"ll 'tou A.6- you ('tou ov'to~): «"Epyo 't~~ <PtA.oO"o<ptU~ slvct vii EVVOEi o,n elver, ytu'tt o,n slvci, slvci 0 A.6yo~» (0". 16).13 "Ouox; 'tropu aKoAou9Ei Kun 1tOU a1tUv'tcl Ku90A.oU yta 1tPro'tll

12 BA. 'AP1(J"tO"ttAOU~ Ta uet« ra tpv(YlIai, Ft, 1003 a 21. 13 W7, 26.

22 nOAXIM PITTEP

cpopa im' UUtT] tT]V f.10pcpT] atT]v ioropiu t1i~ cptAoaocpiu~: '0 "EysAO~ C~OPOW)VEZ /ipEaa xai dx; tetota Tl]V napaoocrzalCl] PEWqJV(1ZICl] Beiopia pC Tl]V YVcO(1TJ toii ICaZpOV xai toii napovtoc. 'H cptAoaocpiu dx; yvroaT] "COu «elver» elvm ouvaua «0 KUtpO~ tT]~ cruVEtAT]f.1f.1EVO~ aE aKE\jIEt~» (a. 16).'"

Oi avepro1ttVE~ bttat1if.1E~ KUtUVOouv aUVTteCO~ rov 1tVWf.1UttKO 1tOAmaf.10, tT]v tEXVT], tT]v 1toiT]aT] KUt tT]v f:1ttatTtf.1T] ro~ f:KcpPclaEt~ "COu KUtpOU "COu~, ro~ uvnxstuevoxomos«; KUt axTtf.1utu t1i~ iatOptK1i~ ~co1i~. 'H f:YEAtUVT] aKE\jIT] Ott iJ cptAoaocpiu slvci «0 KUtpO~ tT]~» OEV aVclYEtat Of.1CO~ a' UUtO to YEVtKO ia"COptK01tVWf.1UttKO VOT]f.1u· Kcltt rsroio ea tT]V a.f.1~AUVE KUt ea tT]V f:~OUOEtEPCOVE' ea t1i~ acpUtpOUaE tT]V xpicurn f:1ttKUtPOtT]tcl rnc ytUtt 0 "EYEAO~ OEV a"COXcl~E'tUt YEVtKa tT]v icropiKOtT]tU t1i~ cptAoaocpiu~ KUt "COu 1tVEUf.1UtO~ ev YEVEt 1tUpa eEAEt va opio st tT]v nnpoiiou f:1tttEAEaT] t1i~ f.1EtUCPUatK1i~. 0ECOPEl 1t(O~ iJ f.1EtUCPUatKT] f.11tOPEl va 1tUpU-

, I _ '" , , \' 1" ,

f.1EtVEt yvcoaT] tOU ovroc EUV KUt f.10VOV EtVUt tUUtOXpo-

vu iJ yvroaT] tOU OtKOU tT]~ KUtpOU.

Ti OT]AroVEt a.pUYE UUtT] iJ crUf.11ttcoaT] t1i~ cptAoaocpiu~ KUt t1i~ f:pf.1T]vdu~ "COu 1tUpOVtO~; 'A1to f.1E'tU(puatK1i~ a1to\jlECO~ to «1tUp0V» OT]ArovEt 1tpcotiatco~ tT]V nupoucln tOU «EtVUt» (t1i~ Ucptatclf.1EVT]~ ouciuq): UUtO elvm 1tUPOV atT]v YEvEaT] KUt tT]v cpeopa KUt f:f.1CPUiVEtUt oro «f:00:1» KUt to «trope» auf.1cpcovu f.1E tT]V f.10Vtf.1T] nupooclc tOU. "Etrn 0 'AptatotEAT]~ Opi~Et to avttKdf.1EVO t1i~ cptAOcoeicc ro~ «to 1tclAUt tE KUt viiv KUt aEi ~T]"COUf.1EVOV» (METa Ta qJV(1ZICU, Z, 1)15 KUt 0 ioto~ 0 "EYEAO~ XPT]atf.1onoisi tT]V EvvOtU «1tUPOV» ~ «1tupouaiu»16 KUt' apxa~ yta

14 W7, 26.

IS 1028 ~ 2-3.

"l:ti:t YEp~aVl1ci:t EiVUl ~ia AE~l1: Gegenwart.

o ErEAm: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAl:TAl:H 23

va. xapaK'tll'Picr€l 'to 9€COPll'tlKO UV'tlKctll€VO ro~ rsroiouv'tlKctll€VO elvm a «A.6yo~ ro~ nupoixru" f:V€PYO~ 7tpaylla'tlK6't1l'ta» (cr. 16),18 iJ «oooiu 7tOD slvoi f:1l1l€Vll~ Kat 'to aio>VlO 7tOD elvm nopov» (cr. 15).19 M€'taqmcrtKa.lllA.O>V'ta~ iJ nnpouoin slvoi Ka'tu 7tpro'tO A.6yo Yla 'tOY "Ey€A.o

, , _ \ IT, T

iJ mrpouctu uurou 7tOU 7tav'to't€ nruv, 7tav'to't€ €lVal,

7tO:V'tO't€ 9a dVal.

'AUa a "Ey€A.o~ cruyxp6vco~ tl7t€p~aiV€l au'tll 'tllv 1l€'taqmcrlKll EVVOla 'tii~ nnpoixriuq, f:<p' ocrov f:~OIlOlO>Vel 'tllV <plA.ocro<plKll crKE'I'll Ilf: 'tllV crKE'I'll 'tOU KalPOU' 'to f:pO>'tlllla 7tOD 9E't€l elvot 7tro~ Il7tOPOUIl€ va ~POUIl€

\ , - T I \ , , , ,

rnv rtupouotu roo €lVal usou orov 7tapov'ta alcova xut

va 'tllV f:vVOtlcroUIl€ ro~ 'tllv UA.tl9€la rou, o'tav crtlll€pa iJ nnpouoiu roo EX€l yiV€l UIl<pi~oA.ll Kat U7tO't€A.€t 7tA.EOV 7tp6~A.lllla. 'H veorrepn f:7t0Xll E<P€P€ cr'tllv ioropiu Ilia YEa 7tpaYlla'tlK6't1l'ta iJ oxoiu -yqovo~ 7tpco'to<pavf:~ cr'tllv ()U'tlKll 7tapo:()ocrll- E9€cr€ U~lCOlla'tlKa «f:K'tO~ Eau'tii~» rnv <plA.ocro<pia Kat 'tllV UA.tl9€ta 't1l~' iJ nupoiiou f:7t0Xll apXlcr€ v' uvacrK07t€t 7tpO~ 'tllv <plA.ocro<pia crav KO:'tl 7tapCOXllIlEVO Kat V€KPO Yl' au'ttlv' 'to «7tA.ii90~ 'troY <plA.OcrO<plKroV crucr'tllIlO:'tCOV» «Boioxenn nioro 't1l~», apa U7tA.ro~ 7tpocr'ti9€'tal cr'tllv «tl7t6A.Ol7t1l cruUoYll U7tO 1l0UIll€~ Kat 'tOY Y€VlK6't€po otopo 'troY crull~€~llK6'tcov» (<1<1>1:', 1, cr. 39 K.E.).20 NO: A.Ol7tOV ri crUVE~ll, crull<Pcova Ilf: 'tOY "Ey€A.o· a Kalpo~ 7tOD KaA.€ltal va crUUO:~€l crf: crKE'I'€l~ iJ <plA.ocro<pia dVal iJ ()lKtl 't1l~ f:7tOXtl, f:<p' ocrov, Ka'ta 'ta qxnvousvu, au'tll E7ta'l'€ va 9€cop€t 7tci>~ EX€l ort()tl7to't€ KOlVO Ilf: 'tllv «Ilia» <plA.ocro<pia Kat Ilf: o,'tl au'tll ()la<pUA.acrcr€ &~ f:()ro uva 'tllv ioropiu. To 7tapov X€lpa-

17 Vorhandene, 1tapouO"a XropU(cl, ro~ 1tPOXElPll, 1tapEUplO"KOI1E-

vn, 1tPOKElI1Evll. " W7,26.

19 W7, 25.

20 W2, 16.

24 nOAXIM PIITEP

<pE't~9llKE a1tO 'tTJV <ptAOcrO<ptKTJ 1tapo:oocrll' 'to EpOl'tTlIla ytU 'tTJV oocin 'tOD irrtoptxonos.rrucoii nnpovro; Kat 'tTJV aA~9Eta roo IlE'ta~o:UE'tat crf: Epro'tlllla 'tii~ ustuqnxnKii~, 'tTJV ropa aKptl3W~ 1tOV ~ cruvEXEta 'tii~ icropinc Kat 1tapo:oocrll~ 'tii~ IlE'ta<pUatKii~ OtaK01tllKE Kat Ka'tEcr'tll all<pi~oAll. "Erot, o'tav 0 uEYEAO~ E~OIlOtroVEt 'tTJV <ptAOcocic Ilf: 'tTJV Bsmpin roii xmpoii 'tll~, xutumdverm Ilf: 'to ~~'tlllla 'tii~ XEtpa<pE'tllcrll~ a1tO 'tTJV icropucn xutuyroy~. "Ouox ~ pt~ocr1tacr'ttKo'tll'ta 'tii~ crXE'ttKii~ all<Ptcr~~'tllcrll~ Of:v EKollArovE'tat Ka'tu 'tTJV yvrollll rou IlOVO cr'tTJV icroptxn Kat KOtVroVtKTJ XEtpa<pE'tllcrll cO~ rsrour 'to IlEYE90~ 'tOD crXE'ttKOD KtVOUvou ouvspovsnn Ka'tu 1tpOl'tO A.6yo cr'to YEYovo~ o'tt IlExpt Kat ~ «U1tOKEtIlEVtxornro», 1tOV 9EAEt vu ota<pUA.O:~Et 9PllcrKEU'ttKU Kat qnAOcrO<ptKU 'to Bsiov ytU 'tOY i:au'to 'tll~, 'to Otacrro~Et E~ro a1tO 'to li9w 1ttU nopov IlEcra cr'tTJV i:crro'tEPtKo'tll'ta Kat 'tTJV <pucrll, yta'tt u' au'tTJv aKPt~W~ 'tTJV Oto:crrocrll ~ U1tOxsruevucornru i:YKa'taAEi1tEt Kat au'tTJ 'tTJV aA~9Eta 'tOD Beiou, avaYVropi~Et 'tTJV «XEtpa<pE'tllcrll», E<p' ocrov ~ iota a1tOcrUPE'tat a1tO 'tOY crUyxpovo xoouo hat ~ iota ~ U1tOKEtllEVtKTJ ota<puAa~ll yivE'tat ytU 'tOY "EYEAO <pat VOIlEvo 'tii~ XEtpa<pE'tllcrll~' cO~ prollav'ttKTJ <puYTJ EK'tO~ 1tpaylla'ttKo'tll'ta~, au'tTJ 1tPOU1t09E'tEt 1tcO~ 'to 9Eiov E1tmVE vu E~OUatO:~Et 'tTJv aV'ttKEtIlEVtKTJ 1tpaYlla'ttKo'tll'ta. BE~ata ~'tav 1to:v'ta i:<PtK'tf:~ Ilia aVa~~'tllcrll 'tii~ nupouciuq 'tOD «alvei» lillEcra ornv <pucrll ~va~~'tllcrll oiovsi a1tEpimtacrill a1tO 'to icr'tOPtK01tOAtnKO ncpov- Kat Ilia Aa'tpEia au'tii~ 'tii~ 1tapollcria~ cO~ 'tOD <patVOIlEVOll 'tOD ov'tO~. 'H <ptAocro<pia aV'ttAall~aVO'taV aVEKa9EV 'tOY A.6yo Kat cO~ 'tTJV «uirovtu apllOvia» Kat 'tOY «i:YYEVTJ VOIlO Kat ouoiu» 'tii~ <pucrll~ (<PA, cr. 7).21 "Oruv oJ.iro~ au 'to crllll~aivEt cr~uspu U1tOKPU1t'tEt cruyxpovroC; 'to aVE1tiAll'tO 1tpO~Alllla

21 W7, 15.

o ErEAOI: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAI:TAI:H 25

tOU KU1POU KUt tite; icrtOplKite; XE1PUcpEt11crTJe; tOU. AveOl1tAOUI1EVOl ~11taI1E tropu vi: otooouus tOV 1tUPOVtU I.6YO crtllv CPUcr11, 1tPOKElI1EVOU Vo. EXOUI1E UK0I111 EcrtCO tllV ouvutOt11tU Va. tOV uVU~11taI1E KO:1tOU -He; KUt npoKEltUl Ylo. tllV «CP1AOcrOCP1Kll AiOo»- 111ae; KUt to Kpo:tOe; KUt ~ xorvroviu, roe; «0 xoouo; tOU ii90ue;», «lJ1tOtiOEtUl 1tWe; oi;v U1tOAUI1~O:VEl tllV tUX11 UUtO noii EXEl 1tpuYl1uflKa. KUtUKtTJcrEl tllV OUVUI111 KUt E~oucriu cri; tOUtO to crt01X&i:0, UUtO 1t0t> E7tt~O:AAEtUl KUt KUtOlKEt I1Ecru tOU, va. &IVUl 0 Aoyoe;» (cr. 7).22 To Bsiov 1tEplOpi~EtUl Aomov crtllV cpucr11 inslD;' ~ 1tOAlflKll1tPUYI1UftKOt11tU EXEl1tO:",El vo. UVTJKEl crtllv E7ttKPO:tE10: tOU, i1rsID;' 9ECOPOUI1E Oft to Kpo:tOe; KUt ~ xotvoiviu slvci «1tUPUOOI1EVU crtO tUXUtO KUt tllV UU9U1PEcriu» KUt «EyKUtUAEAElI1I1EVU U1tO tOV 9EO», KUt Oft EXOUV, Aomov, tllV ud oucru UA.TJ9E1U «E~CO roue» (cr. 7).23 'H EUKOA.iu 11i; tllV onoiu yiVEtUl OEKtll ~ U1tOK01tll U1tO tllV icropucn KUtuycoYll UVft1tpOcrC01tEUEl Yla. tOV "EYEA.O to cr11I1Eio 01tOU CPUVEproVEtUl o Kivouvoe; tite; XE1PUcpEt11cr11e; o' 01..11 tOU tllV EKtucr11· '0 xoouo; aPXlcrE V' uVU~11ta tOV 9EO ornv cpucr11' 0 KOouo; 9EA.El vix OlUcrrocrEl crtllv cpucr11 to 9EtOV 1t0t> &IVUl U1tOKA.ElcrI1EVO U1tO to ictopuconoxvrucc nnpov. 'H 1t0- AlflKll UVUtP01tll tite; E1tOxite; E9EcrE U1tO UI1CPlcr~TJt11cr11 to V011I1U tite; I1EtUcpUCJlKite; 1tUpo:Oocr11e; KUt tllV UA.TJ9Eta t11e;' OPlcrE roe; U1tocrtOA.TJ t11e; tOV EKI1110EVlcrI10 t11e;· "OI1COe; UUtO cnuuivst i:1ticr11e; Ylo. tOV "EYEA.O 1tWe; ~ CPlA.ocrocpiu KUA.EttUl Va. OlU1tlcrtrocrEl 1tcOe; EXOUV to. 1tpo:yI1UtU. To 1tUPOV &IVUl apUYE to tEA.Oe; tOU 1tUA.U10n;pou KOcrl10U tOU 1tVEUI1UtOe; KUt tite; icropucij; 1tPOEA.wcr11t;, E~ uitiue; tite; uvO:Oucr11e; tite; vErotEP11e; KOlVCOviue;; 'H E1toxii elvm apUYE ihOtI111 vi: OtaA.UcrEl tllV 9P11crKWft-

22 W7,15.

2J W7, 15-16.

26 nOAXIM PITTEP

KTJ, T)8tKTJ, 1tVEUJ.lanKT) ouoiu tll~ Kat va tT)V npoonspcaEt aav Kan 1tapOlXllJ.ltvo Kat icroptxu tEtEAEaJ.ltvo; 'H qnAoao<pia bEV unopei 1tta v' (l1tOCPUYEt auta ta f:POltTJuntu: " cpuYT) atT)v cpuall ~ tT)V eomrepucornru 8EV J.la~ arot;Et. Ta «(mAa ytatpoaocpta» bEV npooipspoov xuuiu ~OTJ8Eta otav yiVEtat aJ.lcpi~oAll " «1tOAUXtAtEtT)~ spjnciu tOU AOYOU Kat tTi~ btaVOta~ tOU» (a. 9).24 'H a1tocpuyT) tOU tE8EtJ.ltVOU f:pOltTJl1atO~ ouviord llbll nupuirnall. 'Apn 6 110VO~ 8poJ.lo~ 1tOU J.ltvEt aVOtKtO~ slvoi v' avaAa~OUI1E to 1tpO~AllJ.la tTi~ XEtpacpttllall~ u' OAll tT)V ptt;oa1taanKOtllta roo: auto tOV bP0l10 aKoAou8Ei 6 "EYEAO~ otav f:1ttKaAEitat tT)V ~OTJ8Eta tTi~ «uice;» qnAoaocpia~ Kat I1Eta~anEl tT)V 8EOlpia tll~ aE 8EOlpia tTi~ f:1tOxTi~ Kat tTi~ avatpo1tTi~ 1tOU f:1tttEAEital a' autTJv.

B'

§3

To fEfONOl: nov l:Yl:nEIPQNEI HON EfEAO o<JOUC; CPtAO<JOcptKOUC; 7tp0<JOWpt<JI.1OUC; ucpopouv 'tT]V f:7tOxTj roo KUt 7tpoOtuypucp!:t E't<Jt 'to 9EJlU 'tlic; UJlUVUC; KUt 'tlic; f:7tie!:<JT)C; slvui iJ rUUtKT] 'E7tuvu<J'tu<JT) KUt 8tv V1CapX&1 UAA1] q)lAo<JoqJia 1COV elvai qJIAo<JoqJia rij~ i1Cava<JmC1T/~ ~ aiao ro <J1]Jl&lO xai JliXPI ni iv86r&pa xivntoa tnc.

'0 "EY!:AOC; y!:VVTj9T)K!: 'to 1770 KUt 7tE9uv!: 'to 1831.

Ilors oi:v dx!: 'tT]V suxutpiu v' UVU<JK07t!:t 'tT]V f:7tUVU<J'tU<JT) <Jo.v 't!:'t!:A!:<JJlEVO yqovoC; U7tO 'tT]V OX9T) hoC; U<JCPUAOUC; 7tAEOV KO<JJlOU. "O<JU CPEPV!:t 6 xPOVOC; U7tO 'to 1789 COC; 'to 1830 yivov'tUt 7tpO<JW7ttKT] uoipc f:7t!:VO!:OUJlEVT) Jl' f:A7tiou KUt cpo~o KUt 7tPE7t!:t xuveic va <J'tu9!:t oro llljlOC; uu'tlic; 'tlic; uoipuc KUt va. 'tT]V UV'tE~!:t: 'H uvu'tpo- 7tT] <J'tT]V rOtU 'tT]V ruUiu, iJ UK'ttVO~OAiu 'tT)C; <J'tT]V EupomT) KUt 'tT]V Fepuuvio, oi VU7tOA!:OV't!:tot 7tOA!:JlOl (7tOU yta. 'tOY "EY!:AO sivct 7tuv'tu f:7tuvu<J'tu'ttKoi), iJ 7t'tc.O<JT) 'tOU NU7tOAEOV'tU, oi U7t07t!:tp!:C; v' uv'tt7tUpu'tUX9!:t iJ 7tUAtVop9w<JT) 'tOU 7tUAUWU KO<JJlOU <J'tT]V f:7tEAU<JT) 'trov f:7tUVU<J'tU'ttKroV OUVUJl!:wv, iJ ~UJlw<JT) 'tlic; f:7toXliC;, O'tUV rixotu oi:v EX!:t Kpt9d KUt 'to. 7tUV'tU JlEVOUV UVOtK'tU, uv!:7tiAU'tU, f:KKP!:Jlli, JlEXpt 'tT]V KUtvOUpytU uvu'tp07tT] roii 1830 7tOU 6 "EY!:AOC; 'tT]V dx!: 7tpO~AE\j1!:L «ea. KA!:l<JW 'ta. nevTjv'tu», ypucp!:t orov Kpourosp (Creuzer)' mtc; 30 'OK'tW~piou 1819, «E~T)<JU rpuivnr XPOVtU <Ji: uic f:7t0XT] aotU-

I Georg Friedrich, 1771-1858, dOlK()~ tii~ apxaia~ 'EA.A.aoa~, npcoronopoc crt~V ~EA.ttll tii~ ~u90A.o"Yia~, lpiA.o~ tOU "E., nOI> cru~lpcovei ~E t~V ~t9006 tOU "yla t~V ~EA.ttll trov ~u9cov (Einleitung in die Geschichte der Philosoph ie, Meiner, 'A~poup"yo 1959, cr. 170,202-203, 205' W18, 103).

27

28 nOAXIM PITTEP

xonu tapaYIlEvTJ, YEllatTJ cpo~o Kat EA.nioa, Kat ~A.m1;a ott KanOtE Sa tEA.dcovav 0 cpo~o~ Kat ~ EA.nioa. E1llal imoxpEcollEVO~ va napaoqSro 1t(O~ auto cruvqi1;Etal, til; OUO'KOA.E~ cOPE~ Sa EA.EYE llaA.10'ta Kavd~ ott ta npayunrn OA.OEVa XE1POtEPEUOUV» ( 'EmO'TOA1] 359).

M' auti] ti]v EA.nioa Kat tOV cpo~o 1;Ei ~ CP1A.00'0cpia tOU uno upxii~ IlEXPl tEA.OU~. To KdllEVO nil '1]V ayYAlI(1] iK:A0YII(1] 11£:mppv()jlICTIJ,2 to tEA.EUtalO ypanto YEV1Ka uno to XEPl tOU, KataA.lJYElllE ti]v unOOE1~TJ nio~ EllnA.EKOVtal ouvallEl~ iKavE~ «va npOKaA.EO'ouv havaO'taO'TJ UVtt Yla IlEtaPPUSlllO'TJ» (BK, 0'. 506).3 "Ornv ~ EnavaO'taO'TJ EPXEtat O'tOV KOO'Il0, EypacpE tpEi~ oEKaEtiE~ EvcopitEpa, ~ EnOxi] naUEl vi: «upxcitut 1l0'uxa O'tO npaYllattKO» Kat va «unorucosrui xuptepucn». 'H EnavUO'taO'TJ slvci 0 «KA.OV10'1l0~ trov npaYIlUtCOV» (IlK, 0'. 150, 152).4 'H CP1A.00'0cpia elVal auti] tOUtTJ «KUttIlOVaXlKO», ollCO~ ~ havuO'taO'TJ rnv tJ1t0XPEolVEl vi: O'UYKEVtpcoSEi «oriiv icropiu tii~ ~IlEpa~» (npo~ Zellmann, 'EmO'T'OA1] 85 tii~ 23-1-1807) (10).

Ti onuuivst auto; Furri ~ EnavUO'taO'TJ Kat ta ouvuKOA.OUSa YE'Y0VOta unaltOUV ti]v CP1A.00'0CP1Ki] SEcopia, tt~ ~apli:~ EVV01E~ «alvei», «unOA.UtO», «SElOV», «TjS1Ki] ono iu»; I'urt] ~ i:vaO'xOA.TJO'TJ 11' auti]v OOTJYEl ev tEA.El O'ti]v IlEtacpUO'lKi] SEcopia tii~ noA.ltda~ nOD Sa O'ttYllarioet tOV uEYEA.O ro~ uvttOpaO'ttKO, 01t1O'SOOPOlllKO Kat ~EnEpaO'IlEVO; na v' unavtTJ90uv aUta ta EpCOtlJllata elval unapaitTJto, nprotov, va OlEUKPlViO'oUIlE n01U O'tUO'TJ KPUtTJO'E 0 uEYEA.o~ unEVavtt O'ti]v 'EnavuO'taO'TJ xni,

2 Refonnbill. To crXEOIO vouou Yla tl,V ~Etappu8~tcrT) tOU ayyA.llCOU £KA.OY1KOU crucrti]~ato<; ltPOta8T)KE crto K01VO~OUA.1O tOV Mriptto tOU 1831 altO tl,V ltpOOOEUnKl, KU~EPVT)crT) (Whig) Kat 'l'T)<picr8T)KE to 1832.

3 WII, 128.

4 WI, 268, 270.

o ErEAm: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAI:TAl:H 29

OElm:poV, Va. KUtUAU~OUflE flE 1tOlO aKpl~ro~ 1tPO~ATJflU KUtU1tlUVEtUl KUta. ~u90~ ~ qllAOcro<piu tOU tii~ E1tUVUcrtucrlK

'H yvroPlfliu tii~ 'E1tuvucrtucrTJ~ Kui 0 EV90UCJlUcrflO~ yt' uuti]v EV ocrro cr1tOUoa1;El ornv Tu~iYYTJ (1788-1793) CJTJflUOEUOUV ti]v acpEtTJPiu tii~ 1tVEUflUttKii~ crtUOlOOPOfliu~ tOU "EYEA.oU. 'A1t' UUtO tOY i:v90UCJlucrflo 1tPOiiA9uv ta 1tUVtu' UUtO~ EOput01VEt ti]v cptAiu tOU flE tOY XUiAVtEPAtV (Holderlin) xui flE tOY I:EU1YK (Schelling). "Onox; «OAOt oi EUYEVEi~ I'spucvoi» oi tpEi~ cpiAOt atEvi1;ouv to «yvtiCJlU CP1AOcrOCP1KO 9EUflU» tii~ rUAAtKii~ 'EnuvdcrucrTJ~ (Rosenkranz, O.1C.,s cr. 32). "OtUV elvci OiK001oa(J1(UAO~ crti]v BEPVTJ,6 0 "EYEAO~ OlUKUtEXEtUl aKOflTJ a1to ti]v crKE'I'TJ tii~ «E1tUVUcrtucrTJ~ crti]v I'spucvie»: UUti]v 1tPE1tEt va. U1tTJPEtEi Kui " CPtAocrocpiu. 'H CPtAocrocpiu, ro~ «CJTJflEio troy KU1ProV», 6CPetAEt v' a1tOtEAEi «rsxunpio» ott «to cprotocrtECPUVO E~ucpuvi1;EtUt a1to ta. KECPUAlU troy KUtU1t1EcrtroV Kui 9EroV tii~ OiKOUflEVTJ~». 'H CP1AOcrocpiu 1tPE1tE1 tropu va. KUtUOet~El crtOU~ AUOU~ ti]v «a~101tpE- 1tE1U» tOU~, 1tPOKElflEVOU uutoi «()Xl v' a1tUltticrouv ta. OlucrUPflEvu Kui KUtU1tUtTJflEVU OiKU1U tOU~, aUa. vis. ta. E1tUVUKtticrouv uovoi tOU~ -va. ta. OiKElO1tOlTJ90uv» (1tpO~ I:EU1YK, 'ElClO"rO).:i] 11 tii~ 16-4-1795) (11).

Auto to 1tu90~ Y1a. clflECJTJ (J1)flflEtOXi] Kui flEtUAUfl1tUoeucrTJ tii~ E1tuvucrtucrTJ~ apxi1;E1 va. U1toXropEi yupro crtO 1795. Ol Efl1tE1piE~ tii~ Tpouoxpcrioc a1tOtEAOUV 1tAEOV

, BA. crllll. 3 'tou cruyyp., 1tapmca'tro cr. 88.

, 'H i;roi] 'tou "E. IhalpEttal crE 1tEPlOOOU<; uvuAoya IlE 'ta IlEPll 01tOU i:i;llcrE. Tv{3£rrT/, 1788-1793 (<pOl'tll'ti]<;). BipVT/, 1793-1796 (OiKOOlOUcrKaA.O<;). (/IpayKqJOvprT/, 1797-1800 (OiKoOlOUcrKaAo<;). 'leva 1801- 1807 (OlOUcrKEl iiVEU u1toooXcilv cr'to I1aVE1tlcrti]lllO). BaJl{3ipYT/, 1807- 1808 (OlEU96vEl f:<PllIlEpioa). NVPEJI{3ipYT/, 1808-1816 (OlOUcrKEl oro rUllvacrto). Xai&)..{3ipYT/, 1816-1818 (OlOUcrKEl oro I1aVE1tlcr'ti]lllO). BEPO)..{VO, 1818-1831 (Iluvemcmino).

30 nOAXIM PITTEP

flEPO~ tii~ sixovuq tii~ f:1tavUataall~· "HOll TJ tPalvojl£vOAoyia (1807) 1tpaYflan;UEtal ti]v 'Enuvdorucn flf: tOY tltA.O 'H tlnOAVr1J f:Acv()cpia ij 0 tpouo; (r. 5, a. 414).' Ilpoxsrrm YHI «uuviu tOU a<pavlaflou» (a. 418),8 flEaa tll~ lmuPXOuv 0 «mo 1td:;o~ eUvatO~» «1tOD otspeirm a1to KUeE f:ao>tEplKi] olUataall Kai 1tA.~po>all» Kai «Of:V EXEl flEYaA.UtEPll cnucoic a1to to KO'l'lflO EVO~ xouvoumoroii 11 flla YOUA.la VEPOl») (a. 418 K.E_),9 ti]v xapaKtllpi~ouv «TJ autoKataatpE<p0flEVll1tpaYflattKOtlltU tll~» (a. 422)1° Kai «0 Kaeapo~ rpouo; tOU apVllttKou» (a. 421).11 Auta ea iaxuouv oro E~ii~ Yla tOY "EYEA.O Kai ea ImavEPXOvtal OA.OEVa ata ypa1ttu roo.

'Ausco E1taKOA.OUeO autii~ tii~ apVllttKOtllta~ tii~ E1taVUataall~ eEo>pElo "EYEA.O~ to YEYOVO~ Ott Of:V ~piiKE Kai Of:V da~yaYE uovuie; 1tOA.ltlKf:~ A.UaEl~. <l>uvllKE, 01t0>~ xplvsi tOY tEA.EUtalo Xpovo tii~ ~o>ii~ roo (tPI, t. 11, a. 563),12 Ott flf: ti]v E1taVUataall O£v aVaKU1ttEl «rinors oPyavo>ttKa ataeEpO». Ta 1tOA.ltEUflata OA.OEVa flEta~UA.A.OVtal Kai KataA.UOllV to Eva to UA.A.o· tcOpa aKOflll, «usru a1to onpdvru XPOVta 1tOA.EflO>V Kai a1tpOaflEtplltll~ auyXllall~» Kai Otav «flla Yllpata KapOla ea xalpOtaV crv orcunrobonv Kai E1tEPXOtaV TJ yaA.~vll», «allVE~l11tUA.l flla P~~l1 Kai TJ Kll~Epvllall aVatpu1tllKE» (a. 562 K.E.).1J To KElflEVO Yla ti]v ayyA.lKi] EKA.OYlKi] flEtappUefltall, tii~ iOla~ 1tEPlOOOll, KataA.~YEl flf: to f:VOCXOflEVO allvEXlall~ tii~ f:1taVUataall~, TJ of: tPlAoaorpia rij~ iatopiac OlamatcOVEl f:V KataKA.Elol1t(O~ oA.a ta 1tOA.ltlKa 1tpO~A.~flata

7 W3, 431. 'W3,436.

9 W3, 436.

10 W3,441. "W3,439. "WI2,534. IJ W12, 534.

o ErEAOE KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAETAEH 31

1tOV EXEt YEVVT]OEt iJ f:1tUVUO'tUOTJ 1tUPUJ.1EVOUV aAU'tU: «'E'tot iJ KiVTJOTJ KUt iJ 'tUPUXT] ouvEXi~ov'tat». To ~T]'tTJJ.1u 'tii~ 1tOAt'ttKii~ 0'ta9Ep01toiTJoTJ~ 1tapUJ.1EVEt 6 «KOJ.1- ~o~ ... orov oxoio ~pioKE'tat iJ lOW pia KUt 1tOV 1tPE1tEt vi:

AUOEt o'to J.1EUOV» (0.563).14 Aino elver EVU a1tO 'to. f:A.aXtO'tU xropia 01tOU 6 "EYEAO~ aVu<pEpE'tat oro J.1EAAOV. ~UYKEKPtJ.1EVTJ a<popJ.1T] a1to'tEAoUV 'to. 1tpO~AT]J.1u'ta 1tOV f:KKPEJ.10UV O'tT]V OUYKPO'tTJJ.1EVTJ a1to 'tT]V f:7tavuo'tUoTJ Kotvrovia Kat O'tT]V 1tOAt'ttKT] 'tu~TJ 'tTJ~.

'Oo'tooo, OU'tE iJ f:J.11tEtpia 'tii~ Tpouoxpnriuc OU'tE iJ KPt'ttKT] OtuyvrooTJ 'tii~ aVtKavo'tTJ'ta~ 'tii~ f:1tavuo'tUoTJ~ va KU'tUAT]~Et of: 9E'ttKf:~ Kat 0'ta9Epf:~ 1tOAt'ttKf:~ AUOEt~ 0'tU9TJKUV lKavf:~ vii J.1E'tU'tpE'I'OUV rov "EYEAO of: av'ti1taAD 'tTJ~. E>EroPEt 1t(b~ iJ 9E'ttKT] KUptUPXTIOTJ nov 1tOAt'ttKIDV 1tpO~ATJJ.1U'troV 1tOV aVEKU'I'aV f:~ niriuq 'tTJ~ O'tT]V irrropiu 1tapUJ.1EVEt 'to ava1tOopaOW Ka9iiKOV 'tii~ f:1tOXii~. '0 uEYEAO~ Of:V E1ta'l'E 1t0'tf: va f:1ttOOKtJ.1U~Et 'tT]V raUtKT] 'E1tuvuo'taoTJ' tinore Of:V elvot oueecreoo a1to uu'tT] 'tT]v f:1ttOOKtJ.1uoiu, dxrrooo 1tUpa~AE1tE'tUt f:1tEtOT] 'to OUYKEKptJ.1EVO 1tp6~ATJJ.1a 1tOV 1tpaYJ.1u'tEuE'tUt 6 "EYEAO~ o'tuv J.1tt...ii yta 'tT]V f:1tuvuo'taoTJ f:~U<puvi~E'tat apyo'tEpU a1to 'to 1tEoio oputornruq 'tii~ f:7toxii~' hot 90. XUOOUV 'to VOTJJ.1U rotx; Kat 90. xcrccroov OlOVEl aopU'tE~ Kat 01 OUVU<PEtE~ 01tOU f:K1t'tUOOE'tUt 'to OUYKEKptJ.1EVO 1tpo~t...TJJ.1a.

~'t0 tOto KE<pUt...Uto 'tii~ (/JalvoJ.lGvoAoria~ 1tOV lmuYEt 'tT]v f:7tuvuo'tUOTJ o'tT]v EVVOta 'tii~ «tpouoxput icc» 6 "EYEt...O~ f:1ttJ.1EvEt ouvduu o'tT]v avuYKato'tTJ'tu 'tTJ~ KUt oro 10WptKO oiKato 1tOV 'tT]v Ka9to'tii aKa'tUJ.1UXTJ'tTJ: «'R aOtUipE'tTJ ouotu 'tii~ a1tot...u'tTJ~ f:t...EU9Epiu~ U'l'cbVE'tUt orov Opovo WU K00J.10U Kat KaJ.1iu ouvaJ.1TJ Of:V unopai va 'tii~ av'tt0'ta9Et» (t. 5, o. 415)Y IIapaJ.1EvEt Ku90pt-

,. W12, 535. I' W3, 433.

32 nOAXIM PIlTEP

CHlKO Yla tOV "EYEA.O mOe; ;, UVUYKUlOtTJtU tiie; E1tUVUOtUOTJe; t~V OlKUlcOVEl 10tOPlKll. ~t~V 'Iatopia rijt;; cplsooooia; (t~V OiOU~E 1tprotU to 1805-1806 Ot~V 'Isvu, UOtEPU OUO <pOpEe; Ot~V XUiOEA.PEPYTJ KUt E~l (}to BEpoA.ivo, IlEXPl KUt to 1829-1830), 01 A.6yOl nob 1tPOKc:lA.Eouv t~V E1tUVc:lOtUOTJ OUVEXi~ouv va 1tEPlYPc:l<POVtUl 11' EVU OtpUtWIlEVO 1tc:l90e; 1toil OEv uotEpd OE ti1totu U1tO t~V VEaVlK~ UYUVc:lKtTJOTJ roo, "Hrov uvuYKuiu &1tElO~ ;, UVE1ttUYIlEVTJ uio9TJoTJ tiie; EA.w9Epiue; oUYKpouo9TJKE IlE toile; Kupiupxoue; «1tuA.lOile; 9EOIlOUe;». Aut~ ;, UVtt<pUOTJ U<pUiPEOE Kc:l9E ouciu U1tO toile; tEA.wtuioue; KUt 01 c'iV9POl1t0l E1tPE1tE vii E~EYEp90uv &vuvtiov rooc. "Erm, VUt IlEV ;, C1'U1l1tEPl<POpu tiie; E1tUVc:lOtUoTJe; KUt tiie; <plA.ooo<piue; noii t~V 1tPOEtOlllc:l~El ElVUl «KUtUOtPE1ttlKTJ», OIlO1e; uutO 1toil KUtUpyouv ~tUV t;OTJ EOO1tEPlKa KUtEOtpUIlIlEVO: 'H <PPlKt~ KUtc:lOtUOTJ tiie; xowoviuc, ;, UA.lK~ KUt i]9lK~ E~u9A.iOlC1'TJ, 6 u<pc:lVtu(}toe; pu9lloe; UVUloXuvtiue; KUt UOlKiue;, ;, U1touoiu UtOlllKrov OlKUlO1Ilc:lt01V OE VOlllKO KUt 1tOA.ltlKO &1ti1tEOO, Ot~V OUVElOTJOTJ KUt t~V (]'KE'IITJ. 'Evnvnc 0' UUta ~E01tUOE ;, 9UEnU, uvuYKUlU KUt IlE to OiKUlO roii A.0you, Yl' UUtO 6 "EYEA.Oe; ovo- 1lc:l~El «;,p01iKOile;» toile; uv9pc01toue; 1toil t~v EtoillUOUV KUt t~V 1tUPOOOtTJOUV «IlE t~V IlEyuA.o<puiu roix, t~V 9EPIlTJ, t~V ~EOTJ rooc, to 1tVEUIlU, to 9c:lppoe; rou;» (PA.. liP, r. 19, O. 517).16 To 1817 0 IIpoA.oyoe; tiie; 'EYI(VKA01CaiSeuu; OTJIlElcOVEl t~V «VEaVlK~ Xupa tiie; VEUe; &1toxiie;» 1toil «UVEtElA.E OtO PUOiA.ElO tiie; E1tlOtTJIlTJe;, 01t01e; KUt OtO 1tOA.ltlKO»' ;, VEU E1tOX~ XUlPEti~EtUl IlE «IlE9TJ» roe; «uuy~» (r, 6, o. 8).17 ME tOV iOlO EIl<PUtlKO tOVO 1tUpO- 1l0lc:l~El;' iPzAoaocpia rijt;; iotopiac t~V E1tUVc:lOtUOTJ IlE uiu «U1tEPOXTJ UVUtOA.~ ;'A.io\»): «"OA.U ta VOTJIlOVU OVtU

'6 W20, 297. 17 W8, 12-13.

o ErEAm: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAI:TAI:H 33

ytoptacrav sxsivn tilV btoxil flaS\. "Eva avrotEpO OEO<; lCuptapxollcrE f:KEivo tOV xuipo, Eva<; i:v90uatacrfl0<; roii 1tVEuflato<; OtEtPE~E tilv Uq>~A.lO» (t. ll, cr. 557 K.f:.).18 wApa f:1taVEPxoVtat a1to ta vurtu tOU flEXPt ta tEA.EUtaia Xpovtu tOU, flE craq>~VEta Kat smuovn, odYflata aflEta1tEtcrtTt<; 1tpOcr~A.Ol<rfl<; crtilv 'E1tavacrtacrTt Kat f:1tlOOlClf.lacria<; tTt<;. '0 "EYEA.O<; ytOptasE Ka9E XPOVO aotaA.d- 1tt0l<; tilv f:1tEtElO ti;<; O:A.OlcrTt<; ti;<; BacrtiUTt<;, EVro ouvafla OtatTtPollcrE sOlvtavil -Kat E~ Ioou EVtOVTt- tilv Efl1tEtpia «trov KtVOuVOlV Kat trov q>O~EProv yqOVOtOlV» (r. 6, cr. 354).19

1:tilv avaq>opa roii "EYEA.OU 1tpo<; tilv 'Esuvccruon cruvu1tapxouv hat 6 Ev90uatacrfl0<; yta ocra Eq>EPE crtilv ioropic Kat i] btiYVOlcrTt toii aVE1tiA.utou trov 1tpO~A.Ttflarorv tTt<; Kat ti;<; avaYlCatOtTtta<; ti;<; KatappEUcr~<; tTt<; <0<; «tupuvviuc». 'H 'E1tavacrtacrTt E9EcrE to 1tpO~A.Ttfla 1tOD 1tPE1tEt va A.UcrEt i] E1tOX~. Auto, <0<; CiA.uto, btt~aA.A.Et to EProtTtfla: Turri ~tav Muvatov i] iota i] 'Encvncruon lCat oi btavacrtat1KE<; Kat 1taA.tVOp9rot1KE<; a1t01tEtpE<; trov flEtE1tElta OEKaEt1rov vii E1tltuXOUV tilv 1toA.tt1Kil crta9EpOtTtta;

§4

Auro ro 1Cp6f3ATJJ.ta, 1COV EOCcrC liAAU oev EAvac " 'E1Cavaotaon, elvai " 1COAItIKT] 1CpaYJ.larmary rjjr; CAcvOcpiar;. 'H 'Enuvdo-rucn aVEOEt~E tilv EA.EU9Epia crE «vorrrq apxil ti;<; 1toA.ttda<;» Kat tilv 9Ecr1ttcrE <0<; «q>Uat~O OtKairofla» crta droits de J'homme et du citoyen, ta «OtlCatrouuru tOll av9pro1tou Kat roii 1tOA.ltTt». Fi' auto tOV A.6yo

"W12.529. "W4,467.

34 nOAXIM PITTEP

to «1tUA.UtO oixooounuc tii~ UOtKiu~» OEV ~tUV crE 9Ecr'll vii tii~ CPEPEt uvticrtucr'll' to a1tu~, to «UVTtKOUcrtO» tii~ E1tUVUcrtucr'll~ elvor ~ upx~ tii~ EA.EU9EpiU~ ro~ OtKUtWuuroc; «Toipu EVu 1tOA.1tEUflU iOpu9'llKE flE t~V crKE'V'll tOU Succiou KUt ero E~ii~ 9a. 1tPE1tEt Va. ~ucrisovtut ta. 1tUVtU c' UUtO to 9EflEA.tO. "Ooo 0 iiA.tO~ slvci crtO o-rsPEroflu KUt oi 1tA.UViitE~ 1tEptcrtPECPOVtUt yupro tOU, KUvsu; OEV dXE OEi KUtt 1tUPOfl0tO» (<PI, r. 11, cr. 557).20

"Erot 0 uEYEA.O~ 1tUiPVEt t~V iOEU tii~ EA.EU9Epiu~, to A.U~UpO tOU E1tuvucrtUt'llflEVOU A.UOU, KUt t~V KUVEt «ouoturuco» KUt «flOVUOtKO UA.tKO» tii~ CPtA.ocrocpiu~ tOU (E. Gans, Ilupoooiuon tii~ <PLi, r. 7, cr. 7) (l2). Auto oflro~ cnuuivst E1ticr'll~ 1t(O~ 0 uEYEA.O~ flEtUtPE1tEt uvticrtotxu t~V cptA.ocrocpiu crE 9Eropiu tii~ E1toXii~' EPYO tii~ qnA.ocrocpiu~ elver va. cruA.A.U~Et t~V oucic tii~ E1tUVucrtuttKii~ 1toA.tttKii~ EA.EU9Epiu~· 1tPE1tEt va. Optcr9Ei cptA.ocrocptKa. sxaivo to 9EflEA.tO 01tOU ~ E1tUvucrtucr'll «~UcriSEt ta. 1tUVtU».

a) «'EA.EU9Epiu» slvci cptA.OcrOcptKa. yta. tOY uEYEA.O ~ KUtUcrtUcr'll crt~V oxoio ~picrKEtUt 0 clv9pro1to~ OtUV unopsi va. 1tpuYflUtWVEt t~V uv9pw1ttv'll U1tocrtucrTt tOU KUt cruVE1t&~ va. elvm 0 EUUtO~ tOU KUt va. OtUYEt ~io uv9pwmvo, Auncpiverm U1tO rnv KUtUcrtUcr'll 1tOll OEV tOU 1tUPEXEt t~V EA.EU9Epiu vi: elvut 0 EUUtO~ tOU KUt 01tou. crUVE1t&~, OEV EXEt to «alvei» tOU flEcrU tOU UA.A.a. crE clA.A.OV (01tro~ 0 OOUA.O~ orov KUptO rou). Auto~ dvut 0 A.6- yo~ 1tOll 0 uEYEA.O~ EVVOEi t~V EA.EU9Epiu ro~ to yqovoc, Ott 0 clv9pro1to~ elvai «KOVta. orov EU~tO reo» it «orou EUUtOU tOu»:2J «To va. dflUt KOVta. crtOV EUUtO uoo ... EtVUt ~ EA.EU9Epiu, ytutt OtUV E~uPt&flUt, crXEtisOflUt fll; clUOV 1tOll OEV dflUt EyW ... dflUt EA.EU9EPO~ OtUV dflOl

20 W12, 529.

" Beisichselbstseirr auto tov cpo c!1tolHoco I1E ti~ ouo ElCcppacr&l~.

o ErEAm: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAI:TAI:H 35

crtOU EUUtOU uoo» (tPI, t. 11, cr. 44).22 'H f:A.W9EpiU f:V-

, !, ,u T _ f _

VOTjflEVTj ro~ to yqovo~ Ott suun «croo EUUtOU uou»

crUVE1t(IYEtUt E1tOflSVro~ KUt tiJv OUVUtOtTjtU tOU uv9pro-

,T , " I t,.,

1tOU VU sivm «omn tOU» ueou crov xoouo, Ott 0 xoouoc

Of:V dVat ~SVO~ una. 0 OtKO~ tOU xoouoc (~A.. tPL1 § 4, TIPOcr9ijKTj, r. 7, cr. 51),23 '0 xoouo; tOU 1tUPSXEt f:A.W- 9Epiu OtUV tOU OiVEt tiJv f:A.W9Epiu vi: slvoi O,tt SXEt tiJv OUVUtOtTjtU va. slvm ro~ EUUtO~ tOU.

~) M' UUtOU~ tOU~ crtOtXEtroOEt~ npocotopiouoix 0 "EYEA.O~ U1tOK01ttEt tiJv SVVOta tii~ f:A.W9Epiu~ U1tO OA.U ta. crufl1tUPUOTjA.OUflEVU flf: ta. 01tOtU tiJv dxuv nupceoptrocrEt KUt 1tUPUflOpcprocrEt uva. tOU~ UiroVE~ KUt f:1tUVSPXEtUt orov KA.UcrtKO opiouo tTj~, 1tOU dXE OrocrEt 0 'AptcrtotSA.Tj~ crta. Meti: 7:a qJVo'l1az: «'EA.EU9EPO~ slvci 0 av- 9pro1t0~ 1tOU lmapXEt yta. tOY EUUtO tOU KUt OXt yta. aA.A.OV» (13). 'H f:A.W9Epiu elvoi crUVE1tro~, KUta. tOY 'AptcrtOtSA.Tj, TJ OUVUtOtTjtU tOU uv9pro1tou va. alvei 0 EUUtO~ tOU KUt UUtiJv tiJv SVVotU Ut09EtEt 0 "EYEA.O~. To YEyovo~ elvor onucvruco KUt yta. rnv 9Eropiu tOU tii~ 1t0- A.mKii~ f:A.W9Epiu~. ~tov 'AptcrtotSA.Tj TJ f:A.W9Epiu dVat KUta. 1tprotO A.oyo TJ crUYKPOtTjttKiJ VOfltKiJ flOPCPiJ yta. tiJv «1tOA.t», tiJv EnTjVtKiJ 1toA.ttdu, pu9fli~Et KUt OtacrCPUA.iSEt tiJv cruflflEtOXiJ tOU «nos.irn» crtt~ 1tOA.ttlKf:~ (l1tocpacrEt~ tii~ 1tOA.Tj~, Siotxncn, VOfl09stTjcrTj KUt StKUlOcrUVTj. 'Ana. TJ 9EflEA.irocrTj uutii~ tii~ VOfltKii~ uopcpii~ Of:V elvm KUt UUtiJ 1tOA.ttlKij· A.6yo~ lmup~ij~ tTj~ E1- VUt flUA.A.OV TJ E:A.W9Epiu tii~ iOtu~ tii~ uv9pro1ttvTj~ U1tOcrtucrTj~, ytUtt 01tOW~ elvot EA.EU9EPO~, apu av9pro1t0~, <rUflflEtSXEt KUt' uvaYKTj atiJv 1tOA.ttlKiJ sroij. 'H «1tOA.t~» crTjflUOEUEt A.Ot1tOV yta. tOY 'AptcrtOtSA.Tj tiJv EicruyroyiJ crtiJv ioropiu fltU~ 1toA.ttlKii~ oOflii~ 1tOU 1tPOU1t09StEt

22 W!2, 30.

2J W7, 47' nc/>L14, 105-106.

36 nOAXIM PITTEP

tt,v uccvornrc tOU av8po)1tou va slvrn 6 EaUto<; tOU Kat EXEt aUVE1tro<; ro<; tmOKElJlEVO tt,v OUaUObT] f:A.W8Epiu tOU, bT]A.abt, tOY {iv8p<01t0 ro<; {iv8po)1t0. I'i' auto tOY A.0Yo 8E<opEl 1tro<; ~ f:A.W8Epia ro<; 1tOA.lttKt, VOJltKt, uopq>t, 1tEptA.aJl~UVEt Kat tt,v oxomuornru tT]<; 1tOA.lttKT]<; bOJlT]<;' ~ 1tOA.lttKt, bOJlt, Oq>dA.Et va f:~aaq>aA.isEt oro {itOJlO tt,v f:A.W8Epia vi: elvm 6 f:auto<; tOU' to (itOJlO 1tPE1tEt vo. sEl att,v 1tOA.T] ro<; 6 EaUto<; tOU Kat vo. Jl1tOpsi vo. f:K1tA.T]proVEt a' autt,v tOY av8pro1ttvo npooptouo tOU, rnv «EUbatJlovia» (14).

y) Autf:<; tt<; Mo 8EaEt<;, tt,v 8EJlEA.i<oaT] tT]<; 1tOA.lttKT]<; f:A.W8Epia<; ro<; btKaiou att,v oUataattKt, f:A.W8Epia lOU Ka8Evo<; vii elvoi 6 f:auto<; tOU Kat tOY aUVaKOA.OU- 80 Ka80ptaJlo tOU 1tEptEXOJlEVOU trov 1tOA.tttKroV bOJlrov, Etat WatE vo. f:1tttPE1tOUV tt,v 1tpaYJlut<oaT] tT]<; av8pro- 1ttVT]<; lmOataaT]<; Kat tT]<; f:A.W8Epia<; tT]<;, 6 "EYEA.O<; tt<; f:vatEpvisEtat Kat tt<; f:q>aPJlOsEt otav aUST]tii tt,v ibEa tT]<; f:A.W8Epia<; tT]<; raA.A.tKT]<; 'E1tavuataaT]<;. 'Av lmEp~OUJlE tt,v «romxornro» trov 1tOA.tttKroV avtt1tapa8E-

, • " , T ,

cerov Kat aUYKpouaE<Ov Kat porrnooous 1tOlO srvm to

«1tEptqOJlEVO» tT]<; f:1tavuataaT]<; (15) q>tA.Obo~roVta<; vo. npoofitopioouue 1tEptEXOJlEVtKo. to ~a8UtEpO btaKU~WJla OA.<ov trov ST]tT]JlUt<Ov 1tOA.ttEUJlatO<;, KpattKT]<; Kat VOJltKT]<; tu1to1toiT]aT]<;, ~ q>tA.Oaoq>tKt, 8E<opia tT]<; f:A.W- 8Epia<; Jlii<; i:1tttPE1tEt v' a1tavt~aOUJlE: To npof3A1Jp.a nov ,CfJ1JKE p.c ,0 enavaatatixo aitnua nOAmKij~ aEufJEpiac elvai 7} clVEVPEC11] ,ij~ VOP.1Kij~ p.opqJij~ ,ij~ EAEUfJEpia~, 81JAa8i] 7} 8wp.6pqJwC11] p.ui~ VOP.1Kij~ TCl~1J~ nov VIi avttototrei atiiv EAEufJEpia TaU EaUTaU, va titv ixavonoiei, va napcXEl a,o KafJcKaaTa UTap.o titv 8uva,o'1Jm va elvai 0 tau,o~ TaU xai va EKnA1JpWVEl rov clVfJpwmvo npoopiouo TaU.

"Erm yto. tOY "EYEA.O ~ q>tA.oaoq>ia eivor to KA.Etbt 1tOD lOU bivEt 1tpoa~aaT] ato fJEnKo vonuu tT]<; i:1tava-

o EfEAOl: KAI H r AAAIKH EnANALT Al:H 37

O"tatlKii~ aAA.aYii~ tOW Kalprov, Otav iJ EJ.17tElPlKT] nopsin tii~ 'E7tavucrtacrTJ~ Kat iJ cruvaKo,,-ou9TJ YEVlKT] SUJ.1IDcrTJ trov KUlProv cruYKaAU7ttOUV auto to VOTJJ.1a Kat Ka9lO"'t0t)V UI.upi~O"-TJ tT]V tmap~T] rou, 'H iOla iJ E7taVUO"tacrTJ Kat iJ 9EIDpia 'tTJ~ a7tal'tOt)v tT]V XElpa<PE'tTJcrTJ a7to O"-E~ 'tt~ 1tpoi.i7tUPXOUcrE~ icropuce; OOJ.1E~, opiSOVtal "-Ol7tOV Kat EV avn9EcrEl 7tpO~ 'tT]V (jn,,-ocrOCj>lKT] 7tapuoocrTJ, rocr'tocro 6 "EYE"-O~ KU'tUVOEt 'tT]V 9EnKo'tTJ'tu roue E7tElOT] aKpl~ro~ 9EIDPEt on 'to 9EJ.1E"-1O cr'to 07tOtO iJ E7tUvUcrtacrTJ «~acriSEl 'tu 7tuv'tu» elver iJ Cj>l"-OcrOCj>lKT] «oucuncn» EAEU9Epiu.

'H EVO'tTJ'tU 'tii~ E"-EU9Epiu~ KUt 'tii~ av9pro7tlVTJ~ U7tOO"'tucrTJ~ slvm Yla rov "EYE"-O KUt iJ apXT] 7tOO OlE7tEl 'tT]V 7taYKocrJ.1ta icropic- uU'to crTJJ.1UiVEl aKpl~ro~ 7t(O~ iJ ioropia yiVE'tUl «7tUYKOcrJ.1lU icropic» J.10VOV o'tuv EXEl ro~ lmOKdJ.1EVO rov aV9pID7t0 U7tO 'tT]V EVVOlU 'tii~ av9pro7tlVTJ~ lJ7tOcrtacrT]~ rou. "07tOU oi:v U7tUPXEt 0 aV9pID7t0~ ro~ iiv9pID7t0~, iJ ioropiu oi:v aVT]KEt cr'tT]V 7tUYKOcrJ.1lU icropia, ocrOOT]7tO'tE crTJJ.1UVnKT] KUt uv dvul. 'Y7tOKEiJ.1EVO 'tii~ 7tUYKOcrJ.1ta~ ioropiuq dVUl 0 aV9pID7t0~ ro~ av9pID- 7t0~, apu iJ aV9pID7t0'tTJta. 'ECj>' ocrov OJ.1ID~ iJ av9pro7tlvTJ U7tocr'tucrTJ 'tot) av9pro7tou 7tEPlKAdEl KU't' avuYKTJv 'tT]V EAW9Epiu, 0 "EYEAO~ EvVOEt 'tT]V 7tUYKOcrJ.1lU ioropiu cruYXpOVID~ ro~ Kun 7tOO OtE7tE'tUl a7to 'tT]V apXT] 'tii~ EAEU- 9Epiu~ KUt toii onoiou iJ nopsiu EXEt ro~ 7tEptEXOJ.1EVO 'tT]V avu7t'tu~TJ KUt EKOi7tAIDcrTJ 'tii~ E"-EU9Epiu~. "Etct iJ Cj>lAOcroCj>iu «acrxoAEt'tUl J.1i: 'tT]V AUJ.1Ij1TJ 'tii~ iOEU~ 7tOO avnKu't07t'tpisE'tUl cr'tT]V 7tUYKOcrJ.1lU ioropic ... 'to EVOtUCj>EPOV 'tTJ~ slvot va YVIDpicrEl 'tT]V E~EAlKnKT] nopsin 'tii~ EVEpY07tOlOUJ.1EVTJ~ iOEU~ KUt J.1U"-lcr'tU 'tii~ iOEU~ 'tii~ EAEU9Epiu~» «(J>/, 'to 11, cr. 568 K.E.).24

'n~ ioropiu 'tot) av9pro7tou KUt 'tii~ EAEU9Epiu~, iJ

"W12,540.

38 nOAXIM PITTEP

1taYKOaf.Ua ioropic clpXi~Et aUVE1t&e; yta tOV "EYEA.O Jlf: tilv EA.A.TlVtKil (<1tOA.t», ytatt a' autilv «UVEtEtA.E 1tp&ta iJ auvEibTlaTl t;;e; f:A.W9Epiae;». 'AUa auyxpovroe; oi upXaiot "EUTlVEe; (01troe; Kat oi Prouniot) dxav U1t' O\jlTl JlOVOV Ott «uepucoi elvm f:A.Eu9EPOt, oxt 6 clv9pro1toe;, roe; clv9pro1toe;»' dxav bOUA.OUe;, Kat !hat iJ «ropuic f:A.W9Epia» rou; U1t;;P~E JlOVO Eva «tuxaio, 1tapObtKO Kat 1tEpiopiouevo clv90e;». 'Eb& U1t;;PXE lzKOJlTl iJ «aKA.TlPil U1tObOUA.roaTl tOU uv9promvou, tOU 1tavav9promvou» (a. 45).25 TIp&tOe; 6 xptattavtaJlOe; E<pEPE tilv cruvEibTl<rTl1troe; 6 clv9pro1toe; roe; clv9pro1toe; slvoi f:A.Eu9EpOe;, Ott aUVE1t&e; OA.Ot 1tPE1tEt va 9EropoUVtat f:A.Eu9EpOt Kat 1troe; iJ f:A.WBspiu slvm iJ «oixstorum <puaTl» tOU uv9pro1tou. '0 XptattavtaJlOe; taUti~Et A.Ot1tOV tilv f:A.W9Epia Jlf: tilv uv- 9promvTl u1toataaTl Xropte; nsptoptououq, €v& iJ icropiu t&v Eupro1tatK&v A.a&v yiVEtat f:VEPyEif;l 1taYKOaJlta icropin orov pa9f,lo 1tOD 6 xptattavtaf,lOe; roix; f:mtpE- 1tEt va btWPUVOuv tilv f:1ttJlEpOUe; icroptn rooc Kat va tilv JlEtatpE\jIOUV at icropio lOU uv9pro1tou Kat t;;e; f:A.Eu9Epiae; roo.

Knuiu 9EJlattKil t;;e; <ptA.oao<piae; tOU "EYEA.OU btv EXEt tooo 1tapaVOTl9Et, xuuic btv EXEt rooo EVtOVa xutabtKaa9Et aav \jItA.il Bscopiu oao iJ Bsmpiu t;;e; 1taYKoaJltae; icropiuq, Kat roiiro u<p' OtOU iJ EvvOta «1taYKOaf,lta icropiu» E1ta\jlE va EXEt to 1tapaJltKpO VOTlJlattKO 1tEPtEXOJlEVO yta tilv iatOptKil f:matTtJlTl Kat EytVE JlOVO Jlia aUA.A.EKttKil EVVOta OA.rov t&v yvroat&v 1toA.tttaJl&v Kat f:9VtK&V iotopuov, na tOV ibtO tOV "EYEA.O, Of,lroc;, autil iJ EVVOta dvUt aUVbEbEJlEVTl Kata 1tOA.D clJlEaO Kat 9EJlEA.trobTl tP01tO Jlt tilv 9Eropia t;;c; f:7tOX;;C; Kat t;;e; f:1tavaataaTlC; (Io). Koouoioropucf atilv Eupro1ta'iKil ioropiu slvor iJ f:A.W9Epia t;;c; uv9promvTlC; U1toataaTlC;'

"WI2,31.

o ErEAOI: KAI H r AAAIKH EnANAI:T AI:H 39

autO (HU1UiVEl ollroe; moe; 1] lOla 1] exavaotaon, f:<P' oeov 9EtEl tlJV H.w9Epiu roe; to 9EIlEA.1O oro onoio ~UcriSErut Ku9E pU9lllcrT] Ol1wiou, npbCSI va (}SWpGiTaI (}S'ClKa dJ<; Enoxi] rij~ svpwnai'Kij~ xoouoiatopiaq xai rij~ E?.SV()sp{a~ rij~ av(}pmlClV7]~ vnOUTaU7]~ nov rij~ npOUlOIU'SI. '0 "EYEA.Oe; rnv 6vOllUSEl crUVE1troe; «coouotcropucn roe; 1tpOe; to 1tEplQOIlEVO» tT]e; (cr. 563)26 KUi. tlJV aVU<pEpEl roe; «coouoicrooucn crpoon», roe; «1tUYKocrlllU xutuoruon» KUi. roe; «f:1t0XlJ tTie; 1tUYKocrlllUe; Icropice;» (1tP~A.· A..X. /(/), 'to 19, cr. 5l)Y Auto onuciver aKpl~roe; 1troe; ~ f:1tUvucrtucrT], IlOA.OVOtt UUt01tpocrolOpisEtUl XElpU<PE'tT]ttKa crE Pl)~T] IlE tlJV icrtOPlKlJ KU-rayroYl), 1tPE1tEl va 9EroPEttal ioropucu roe; 'to yqovoe; 1tOU OEv «1tPOXO>PT]crE» (mA.roe;, ana a7t07tEpUtrocrE 7tOA.ltlKa tlJV «XUA.E7tlJ IlUKpuiroVT] f:pyucriu» tTie; 7tUYKocrlllUe; ioropiuq va OlU7tOticrEl tlJV f:YKocrlllU KU'tUcr'tUUT] IlE 'tlJV f:A.W9Epiu tTie; ixv- 9pO>1tlvT]e; lJ7tocr'tucrT]e; (7tP~A.. (/)/, 'to II, cr. 45).28 'Evro cr'tlJV apXlJ 'tTie; 1tUYKocrlllUe; icropiuq 6 7toA.itT]e; 'tTie; apxuiue; xotvcovinc 7tOA.ltrov EXEl oi7tA.u 'tOU, 7tOA.lttKa KUi. vouiKU, tOY OOUA.O KUi. 'tOY aVEA.EU9EPO, uri] v Fa??..IKi] 'EnaVUUTau7] 1] nO?.lrlKi] E?"sv(}sp{a dx; Btxaitoua; apa xai 1] iKaVOr7]Ta rou av(}pmnov va elvtu 0 tavro~ rov, avaOeIKVVSTaI rIa npmr7] qJopa dx; apxi] xai oxono; rij~ KOIvoxviac xai toii KPUroV~ j1.E tpono OiKOVj1.SVIKO xa! avaqJopIKa npo; o?.ov~ toix; av(}pmnov~. Movo Il' uu'tlJV yiVEtUl A.Ol7tOV 6 av9pro7toe; xropi.e; nsptopiouob; 'to U7tOKdllEVO tTie; 1tOA.ltlKTie; tU~T]e; f:<P' ocrov KUi. «f:1tElOlJ dVUl av9pro7toe;, 0Xl f:7tElOlJ slvm €~putOe;, Ku9oA.lKOe;, OlUuepropousvoc, rEPIlUVOe;, 'ltuMe;, K.A.7t. » «(/).1 § 209, ~A.. f:oro 7tUPUKUtro § 6).

26 W12, 535. 27 W20, 297. "WI2,31.

40 nOAXIM PITTEP

§ 5

Auto to 8Ett1CO KOO}IOicrtoPtKO 1tEptqOJ,1EVO tiie; ~1tUvacrtucrTJe; ~1tt~aUEt orov "EYEA.O va. OtUcpoovijcrEt J,1i: tOY XEtpUCPEtTJttKO uuronpootiioptouo tTJe;. "Ouo»; to 1tproto crUJ,11tEPUcrJ,1U 1tOV 1tPOKtJ1ttEt a1tO tiJv otayvoocrTJ tiie; xoouotoropuciic crTJJ,1ucriue; tTJe; slvci Ott oi:v tJ1tapXEt 1tOA.ttlKa. KUJ,1iu OUVUtOtTJtU ~1ttcrtpocpiie; 1tPO tiie; ~1tUVUcrtucrTJe; KUt troy KUtUKtijcrErov tTJe;. KaOE VOJlII(I] xai noAml(l] 80Jll] toi) napovtoc xai toii JliAAOVmr; npenei Vii anOppiEI ano rl]v enavaotanxi; Oil(OVJlEVll(1] aPXI] rijr; EAEvOEpiar; xai Vii tiiv npovnOOirEI. 'A1tEvuvtt o ' UUtiJ tiJv apxiJ tJ1tOXOOpouv oi 01tOtEe; ~1ttcpUA.U~Ete; crXEttKa. J,1i: tOY «tU1ttKO» KUt «aCPTJPTJJ,1EVO» XUPUKtijpU tiie; ~1tUvucrtucrTJe;. ~tOV aPXU!O KOcrJ,10, J,10A.te; " «1tOA.te;» sicijx8TJ crtiJv ioropiu KUt " av8pro1ttvTJ tmocrtucrTJ KUtEcrtTJ apxiJ tOU OtKuiou (J,10A.OVOtt UUtiJ 1tEptoptsOtUV croix 1tOA.ttEe; KUt a1tEKA.EtE roix; OOUA.Oue;), ocrEe; 1tOA.ttlKi:e; KUt VOJ,1tKi:e; J,10pcpi:e; oi:v aVttcrtOtxoucruv c' UUtiJ rnv apxiJ KUtEcrtTJcrUV aVUYKUcrttKa. aVOUCTtEe; yta. tiJv 1tOA.tttKiJ 8Eoopiu. "Etrn 0 IIA.Utoov KUt 0 'AptcrtotEA.TJe; 8EJ,1EA.trovoov liJV 1tOA.tttKiJ cptA.ocrocpiu crtiJv «1tOA.t» KUt uovo, "01tOU to OiKUto EXEt yiVEt to Sixmo tOU av8pro1tou, 01tOto uUo OiKUto oi:v elvci OiKUto tOU av8pro1tou A.EYEtUt aKOJ,1TJ «OiKUtO» J,10VO Ku8' ouorvuuiuv. To 10to icrXUEt yta. tiJv rUUtKiJ 'Emrvdotuon. MOA.te; UUtiJ avuOEi~Et roe; tiJv apxiJ tOU Succioo tiJv ~A.f:U8Epiu yta. OA.OUe; roe; av8pro1toue;, 0 "EYEA.Oe; 8EOOPE! 1tioe; " ioroptxf avuyKUtOtTJtU aCPUtPE!, a1tO icrtOptKiJ aUa. Kat 1tpaYJ,1atoA.oytKiJ U1tOO/TJ, Ku8E VOJ,1tJ,1TJ a~ioocrTJ icrxuoe; a1tO ocroue; 8EcrJ,10Ve; Kat 8EttKa. oiKata aVttCPUcrKOUV 1tpOe; autiJ tiJv apxij. °H ~A.f:U8Epia, crUYKPOtTJttKiJ tiie; Eupoo1taiKiie; KOouoicropiuc, avaOEiX8TJKE cri: apxiJ Ku8E 1toA.ttlKiie; Kat EVVOJ,1TJe; ta~TJe; a1tO tiJv ~1tuvucrtacrTJ. Mv elver 1tAEOV

o ErEAOl: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAl:TAl:H 41

ouvatov va yupiO"oul1E nioto U1tO autil tilv upx';. To oiKalO -tcOpa U~lCOl1attKa «uv9pc01t1vo»- EY1VE E~ 10"0u OtKOUl1EV1lCO 11f: to uv9pc01t1vo doo~' Of:V I11tOpEi va xsptop1cr9Ei 1taA.1 XCOpt~ autil ~ ouppixvoxm va EA.9E1 O"f: uvtiq>aO"ll 11f: tilv uv9pc01t1Vll lm60"taO"ll tOU uv9pc01tou lCat cruvE1tCJ)~ 11f: tilv lCElCtlll1EVll OtlCOUl1EV1lCil uPxillCa9E vo- 111116tllta~.

~tt~ 1tOA.1t1lCf:~ 1tpaYl1atEiE~ tOU iTlepi rij~ npooear1J~ £awrspll(ij~ xataotaonc rij~ Bvprs/1/3spY1J~, i8i~ xepi rcOv £AaHW/1arWV rij~ crovra~7J~ rcOv apXcOv,29 1798, to Ilositeuua rij~ Fepuaviac tOU 1800-1803,30 ~ lCp1t1lCil tOW O"uvEop1aO"Ecov tOW ta~Ecov tOU ~aO"lA.Elou tii~ BuptEI1~EPYll~ to. £tll 1815 lCat 1816 1toil Oll1100"lEu911lCE O"tt~ 'E7Csr1Jpi8s~ rij~ Xai'8sA/3sPY1JpO 1817, tEA.O~ to lCElI1EVO tOU 1830 Y1a rnv UyyA.1lCil ElCA.OY1lCil I1Etappu91110"1l), O"tU ypal1l1ata tOU lCat uUou, O"U1;lltcOVta~ O"UYlCElCP1I1EVE~ 1tOA.1t1lCf:~ lCataO"tao"E1~ lCat y£yov6ta, 0 "EYEA.O~ Of:V E1ta'l'E va aVtttaO"O"Eta1, lCa1tOtE 11f: 1ta90~, O"tilv 1t0A.1t1- lCil1taA.1V6p9coO"ll. 'Eo' oO"ov EXE1 E1tEA.9E1 ~ uUay,;, 0 1tpaYl1attlCO~ xivduvoq, toico~ O"tilv Fepuuviu, elver ~ 1ta911ttlC6tllta, ollA.aoil va «v1c09E1~ 1tro~ to. 1tpaYl1ata lCA.ovi1;ovtam lCat roO"t60"0 «ve I1EVE1~ a1tpayo~ lCat 116vo va 1tEP1I1EVE1~, xutsovcouevoc lCat tuq>A.6~, tilv lCatapPEUO"ll tOU 1taA.lOU OtlCOOOI1';l1atO~ 1toil EXE1 YEI1iO"E1 pcoy- 11f:~ lCat EXE11tpOO"~A.1l9Ei I1EXP1 to. 9EI1EA.1a tOU, roO"1tOU va O"f: 1tA.alCcOO"ouv to. Soxupie» (IJK, 0". 152).31 "OI1CO~ tilv ropa 1toil Surmpsinn Olll1oO"ico~ auto to «u~E~alO ov, aXPcol1o lCat aOO"I10» 1toil «Of:V Uq>';VE1 va 1tapayivE1 OUtE

29 WI, 268-274. -A~ crT]JlEtCll8Ei Ott UUtO~ 6 titl..O~ CPUiVEtUt ypuJlJlEVO~ ano ~EVO XEpt EVcO 6 apXl1(O~ titl..o~ ~tuv: "On oi a~ICll}lamuzol TrpbCEI va Edeyovral am) rov Aa6, KUt crtijv cruvEXEtU to tEI..EUtaio (J1(EI..O~ tOU otop8ro8T]KE ro~ E~ik aTrO rOLl(; TrOMrE~.

JO Teopu Xpovol..0YEitat crtil 18()()-1802. JI WI, 270.

42 nOAXIM PITTEP

lO KaAO oirrs ro KaKO» (1tpO~ Niethanuner, 'EmcHoA17 255 lii~ 23-11-1815), lEKfl~PlO lii~ «U(HlflaVlolllla~ Kat lOU E~C01tpaYflallKOU xapaKl~pa lOU 0llflocnou ~iou» Kat lii~ «1tOAmKii~ U1tOVEKpcocr1l9) (KT, r, 6, cr. 356)32 (17), 61tayxoouio; voix; crUVexiSEt UYVcbcrlCO~ lflv nopsin lOU Kat «EOCOcrs crlflV E1tOXfllflV OtalaYfl va 1tPOXcop~crw) (1tPO~ Niethammer, 'EmcrroA17 271 lii~ 5-7-1816' 1tp~A. /(/J, t. 19, cr. 266). ~' aUlo 6<pdASlat i] peuoronoinon OAroV nov 1taAatrov ioropucirv 9Ecrflrov, Ka9tEpCOflEVCOV U1tO lflV 1tapuSocn xui lflV cruv~9Eta. «ZOUflE», 01tCO~ AEEt 6 "EYEAO~ crlO lEAO~ EvO~ fla9~flalo~ lOU yto. lflV 9ECOPllllKfl <ptAocro<pia, nov 1tapEococrs crlflv 'Isvu lO 1806 (D, cr. 352), «uiu crllflavllKfl XPOVtKfl1tSpiooo, uin SUflcocrll' 6 voi»; EXSt uva1tllo~crSt, EXEt ~ysi U1tO lO 1tPOYEVEcrlEPO crxiifla lOU Kat U1tOKlU Eva xmvoupyto». "01tOlE crufl~aivEt aUlo «OAll i] flusa lroV 1tPOYEVEcrlEPCOV 1tapacrlucrEcov, EVVOtroV, oi Ssouoi lOU xoouoo» OtaAuOVlat, «xutupPEOUV cro.v OVEtptKfl dKOVa» (o.n.). AUlfl dvat i] Efl1tEtpia lii~ E1toXii~. TO. lSAculaia slxoctxsvre xpovta u1tiip~av lO «<PO~EPO youob) 1tOV ouvsrpupe «\jIcuod~ EVVOtE~ otKaiou Kat 1tpOKalaA~\jIEt~ nspi 1tOAtlCUflUlCOV» (1817, KT, r. 6, cr. 396).33 "01tOlE hOtflUSElat flia YEa «EK1tOpeoon lOU VOU», EPYO lii~ qltAocro<pia~ elvm va «xatpEttsW) lflV YEa Efl<PUVtcr,; tOU «Kat va lO yvcopisSt, Olav aUot flEVOUV 1tpocrKoUllflEVOt crlO napEA90v Kat npo~uUOUV uvicrXUPll uVlicrtacrll svcvriov tOU» (D, cr. 352' ~A. (/J/, t. II, cr. 270 K.£.).

"Etot 0 "EYEAO~ slvm Kat' UPXflV Uvti9ElO~ flE Ku9E U1to1tstpa 1taAtvop9cocrll~, lflV 9ECOPEi «uvicrxuPll uVliotucn» (18) Kat aUlfl i] crlucrllloU ouvcprdtrn aflscra flE lflV 1tE1toi911cr~ lOU 1t(O~ i] i:1tavucrlacrll elvm i] nnpoii-

J2 W4. 469. "W4.507.

o ErEAOl: KAI H r AAAIKH EnANAl:T Al:H 43

CfU 7tOA.tttKi1 7tPUYIlUtO)CfTJ tli~ 7tUPUIlOV\IlTJ~ KOCfIlOlCftOP\Kli~ oUCfiu~. Tsroie; il7t07tl;tPE~ EXouv E~ <'>P\CfIlOU iio\KO E7tE\Oi1 KUt Eq>' OCfOV 7tpOo)OOUV ti1v E7tUVUq>Opa OECfIlOlV KUt OEtrov O\KuiO)v aVtiOEtO)V IlE ti1v upxi1 tli~ 0\KU\O)IlUttKli~ EA.EUOEpiu~ OA.O)v 07t0)~ ti1v EOECfE ~ 'EnuvUCftUCfTJ. To lCftOP\KO oiKu\O XUVE\ ti1v EYKUPOtTJtU rou 1l0A.t~ UVttq>UCfKE\ IlE ti1v 1;;0)'11 7tOD «1;;d tropu IlECfU tom>, IlOA.OVOtt iCfo)~ «E~Eq>pu1;;E ti1v O\KU\O(flJVTJ KUt E~OUCfiu, ti1v cooiu KUt UVOPElU 1tEPUCfIlEVO)V XpovO)v, ti1v t\lli1

, ,1' , , , "" - , \

KU\ to U\IlU, tTJV EUTJIlEP\U KU\ tTJV UVUYKTJ YEVEO)V U7tO

KU\PO U7tOCfUVtEOE\IlEVO)V KUt ta 7tUPO)XTJIlEVU i'-lOTJ KUt CfUIl7tEP\q>OPE~ tOU~» (IloAircuf1a Fepuaviac, IlK, c. 7).34 l:UVE7tro~ <'> "EYEA.O~ U7tOKA.ElE\ U~\O)IlUttKa ti1v ioroptKi1 UPXU\OtTJtU ro~ OEIlEA.io)CfTJ tOU O\Kuiou ~ O\KU\OA.OYTJCfTJ tli~ O\UttiPTJCfti~ roo: «Aixaiox; xatappixtetat Eva aiwv6/3LO xai EVcPYO 9crtlCO OlmLO arav idd7rcl r, f30,CfT] 7rOV elvai apo~ v7rap~7}~ rou» (KT, r. 6, o. 397).35 "Av EVU 7tUPOIl0\o OEttKO OiKU\o EV tOUtO\~ O\UtTJPEltU\ ~ E7tUVUq>EPEtU\, UVUKlJ7ttE\ UVtiq>UCfTJ IlEtU~D «tU7t\KOtTJtU~ KUt 7tpUYIlUttKOtTJtU~» IlE UVU7tOq>EUKtTJ E7ti7ttO)CfTJ to 7tOA.tnKO «UVOUCf\O» tli~ OEUtEPTJ~ tIlosiieoua Fepuaviac, IlK, o. 59).36 'H q>U\v0IlEV\Ki10\UttiPTJCfTJ trov 7tUA.\rov IlOPq>rov hro «to 7tPUYIlU OEV lJ7tUPXE\ 7tta» KUt tou elvci «UIlEtUKA.TJtU» aoUVUtOV vii lJ7tUPXE\ (KT, t. 6, o. 354)37 U7tOKPU7ttE\ ta iiA.utu 7tPO~A.tiIlUtU toii 7tUPOVtoe, ta E~uq>uvi1;;E\ xtuo: a7ro tiiv E7rifpaCfT] ioxopixiu; CfUVtXcta~ - E~UKOA.OUOOUV va 7ttE1;;ouv iivupxu oro ~uOo~' ~ «to)P\vi1 1;;O)ttKOtTJtU» OEV Uq>tiVEtU\ va EIl7tEOo)Od CfE VOIlOU~ (~A.. Ilokiteuua Fepuaviac, IlK, c. 7). Fi' UUtO tOY A.Oyo <'> "EYEA.O~ xupuKtTJpi1;;E\ uio tEtO\U O\U-

14 WI, 465. "W4,508. ,. WI, 505.

J7 W4, 466-467.

44 nOAXIM PITTEP

tTjPll(HI KUt E1tuvucpopa roe; «U1t(ltll» (KT, r. 6, a. 354)_3S 'H cptAoaocpiu OcpdAEt UVtieEtU va 1tpoa1tOpi~Et KpttTjpta, yta v' u1tocpuaiaoullE ri slvrn Surrnpnreo KUt ri OXt· ~ OpSl] oUIKptall uvullEau a' UUtO 1tOU EXEt otKuiooe; 1tUPEASEt KUt a' EKEtVO 1tOU EVOEXEtat va OtUtllPllSEt 1tPE- 1tEt va SEoopdtut ~ 1l0VUOtKl] OtKuwcrUvll KUt taXUe; «lKUVl] va KUtapyTjaEt 1tATjpooe; to KAOVtcrllEVO IlE 'ttlll] KUt oixooe; UVUtUpUXEe; KUt va 0111lWupyTjaEt uin uacpuAl] KUruoruon» (Lr5vra~T7 rwvapxwv, IlK, a. 151).39

Autl] ~ OtUKptall tOU OtUtllPlltEOU a1tO to uvu1toatato elvci allIlUv'ttKl] yta tl]V UV'ttIlEtcll1ttall tlie; 1tUAtvOPSooalle; U1tO tOV "EYEAO IlEt<i. tl]V 1tPWtll OtUtl)1tooaTj tlle; cro KdllEVO yta tl]V aUVtU~l1 nov uPxrov (1798), 01tooe; UVUOEtKVUEt IlE tOWltEPll EIlCPuall to KdJ.1.E:vO yui tu; rci~E:I~ tOU 1817 (19). ~tl]V BuptEIl~EPYll ~ auvEAwall trov tU~EOOV dXE UPVllSEt to aUVtaYllu 1tOU nporetvs 6 BoatAtUe;' 6 "EYEAOe; YPUCPEt EvUVttU crtl]V (l1toppnVll, ouvtUaaEtUt IlE tOV ~UatAta KUta trov tU~EOOV' UKOllll KUt Evue; crevorcroc cpiAOe; 01tooe; 6 NEltXUllllEP UVttllEtoo- 1ti~Et tl]V SEall tOU ec» ouaE~TjYlltll o:vttOpUattKl] to- 1tOSEtllall (20). Kut ollooe; OEV EXOUV hat tU 1tPUYIlUta. 'H auvEAwall trov tU~EOOV Il1tOpOUaE KUntatU va dXE smxpivet to crUVtaYIlU tOU ~uatAui roe; UVE1tUpKEe; ~ vi: to U1tOpphVEt IlE tl]V ut'ttoMYllall1troe; «uVtt~UiVEt 1tpOe; to OiKUW 1tOU vouluo»; U1tUttOUV 01 tmTjKoOl yta tOV gUUto roue crnv 1toAttdu E1ttKUAOUIlEVOl to UtWVW OiKUW tOU AOYOU» (r. 6, a. 385).40 ~€ tEtOlU 1tEpi1ttooall Sa elXuv t01tOSEtllSEt ero EOUcpOe; tlie; «VEWtEPlle;» upxlie; KUt Sa EtXUV OtU1tpuYIlUtWSEt IlE tOV ~UatAta tl]V 1tOAtnKl] KUt auvtuYIlUttKl] 1tPUYIlUto1toillaTj tlle; . .1EV aUVE~11 ollooe; UUtO, 01 tU~Ete; U1tEPP1'l'UV to ~UatAtKO auvtuy-

38 W4, 467. J9 WI, 269. 40 W4,496.

o ErEAm: KAI H rAAAIKH EOANALTAI:H 45

J.1u «f:1tf:tOT] OEV [~'tavl to Ku9E(mO~ tTi~ 1tUAUUi~ BUptEJ.1- ~&PYll9) KUt ouvsmo; «OEV ~tUV i] (mAT] f:1tUVmPOpa KUt uvu~iroall tOU 1tUAatoU» (a. 385).41 'Eoro SYKEttUt to «BeatKO Aa90~» tTi~ aUV&AEUall~ (a. 394)·42 oi ta~Et~ J.1tAOUV ro~ «9tUarotE~ tOU 1tUAUtoU Sucuioo»: OXt UUtE~ uUa 6 ~UatAta~ avtt1tpoaro1tEUEt c:ruVE1tro~ tT]V vemrepucn apxiJ· ioou to «ava1tooo 9&aJ.1u» 1tOU 1tapoucrtasouv oi auslltiJaEt~ tTi~ BUPtEJ.1~&PYll~ ata urrnn roii "EYEAOU. 'Evro 6 ~acrtAta~ aq>oPJ.1iitat U1tO tT]v VEcOtEPll apxiJ, J.1tii~ KU1. t01t09EtEi «to auvtuYJ.1a tOU oro 1tEoio tOU AOytKOU 1tOAttlKOU OtKuiou», «oi ta~Et~ f:J.1q>avisovtat aVti9Eta ro~ l.J1tipJ.1uxot tOU 9iaEt43 KUt troy npovouimv» (a. 396).44 'H ataall troy ta~Erov tTi~ BUptEJ.1~ipYll~ f:Kq>pasEt U1tOOEtYJ.1UttKa ti onuaivei xai ti elva! 7] llaAlvop(}(J)aT/ rui roy "EreAo ana nOAlrlICTJ ano'l'T/: E[val ro «al(pov rii; avvnOxmpT/rT/; euuovii; oto Beto nOAlrll(O 8i1(aLO /.ila; aneA(}ouaa; xaiaotaonc» (a. 395)45 xa! avv£nw; ro ev(}iox; «avri(}£!O rii; an0'l'T/; nov £la7}X(}T/ npmrT/ tpop« npo eixoatnevtastiac oi: r£I!OvlI(O /3aaiA£LO xai £[X£ rors an7}XT/aT/ ara nveouata OA(J)V, 7] ano'l'T/ n~ tinora 8f;V (}a Enp£n£ V' avarv(J)pit;£ral ox; Erl(VpO a' iva nositeoua napa /.iOVOV oaa elvai avarvcopiotua autupcova /.if; ro Sixau: toii AOrOV» (a. 395).46 'Enouevo»; i] 1tOAttlKT] 1tuAtv6p9roall OEV dvut yta tOY "EYEAO 1tapa i] avti- 9Etll 9iall a1to tT]V l':7tuvaataall· ElVUt aaXEtll J.1E tT]V ioropuci] apXT] roii nupovroq, KUt OtUV 1tUiSEt to XUptt tou 1tapEA96vtO~ svuvnn atT]v f:1tuvaatuall47 u1tO~t~a-

41 W4,496. 42 W4, 505.

4J Des Positiven (tou 9ELOU ~ 9EtllCOU ol1miou). 44 W4, 507.

41 W4, 506.

46 W4, 506.

47 ·AA.A.ll uVUYVWO"l1: «svdvnu O"tO nupov».

46 rIOAXIM PITTEP

~El !h(n to 1tapd90v aE KEV~ I.1OP<P~ iatopml f:atEpT]Il£Vl] OiOUb~1tOtE 1tpaYllatlKOU 1tEPlEXOIl£VOU. Ft' aUto 6 "Eydo~ XPl]alIlO1tolEi tOV~ 6~UtEPOU~ xapaKtl]ptaflov~ Kata nov ta~Erov tii~ BuptEIl~£PYl]~: «'AA.rovi~ouv uxupa» (a. 397)·48 <p£POVtal aav SIl1tOPO~ 1tOV «a~lrovEl va ~Ei mivru IlE tOY tblO tP01tO Kat va ~l]tii a1to tOV~ UAAOU~ oal] 1tiatroal] £IXE 1tprota uvuespouevoc a' Eva 1tAoio 1tOV IlEt£<PEPE t~V ncpiouoiu tOU aAAa vauaYl]aE aE Ilia 9UEAAa» (a. 394).49 «L\Ev ~£xaaav rinotu, bEV SllaBov rbroro»: ~ IlEYaAl] f:1l1tEtpia tii~ f:7toXii~ 1tiiYE orpri<pl o rnv 1tEpi1ttroa~ roo;: «xoiuovtuv» ta tEAEUtaia siKOat1t£VtE XPovla, «oivoupu ta 1tAOucrtOtEpa tii~ 1taYKoallla~ lcropiuc, ana Kat ta blbaKtlKOtEpa Yla Ilii~, a<pou a' aUta aV~Kouv 6 xoouo; Ila~ Kat oi 1tapaataosu; Ila~» (a. 396).50 'H aVtWEal] roii "EYEAou 1tpO~ t~V IjIEUtlKl] f:1tava<popa tOU 1tapEA90vto~ bdXVEl ti onuniVEl 9EtlKa ~ f:PIll]vda tOU tii~ f:1tavaataal]~ cO~ xoouoioropucoii YEYOVOtO~' ~ f:1tavaataall aV£bEt~E t~V f:AEUOeptu aE oiKOUIlEVtK~ apx~ tOU Succioo Kat stcrt f:1t£~aAE at~V f:1tOX~ t~V tmoXP£roal] va 9£aEl1tOAtttKa cO~ 1tEPlEXOIlEVO tOU blKaiou Kat tii~ 1tOAltda~ rnv ib£a 1tOV auVtatoUaE a1to Kata~OAii~ t~V apx~ Kat to vonuu tii~ Eupro1taiKii~ «xoouotcropicc». f\pa T] enavdocaon xai 0Xl T] rraAlvop(JWC17] exnooaomei titv apxiJ r1j~ euoomai- 1(1j~ latopiac. Mia sooneoixi; avtioaon 7CAryrTSI ouvs- 7CO)(; titv 7CaAlvop(Jwa1]' T] «avarro8ul» r1]~ ouviatatai ato Or! avturtpateiettu titv napoixra apxry, rrpo{3ciUsTal dx; T] avri(Jsr1] 7CpO~ avriJv (JiCY1], aAAa crCYI apveiTal tiiv i8za tiiv icyroPll(iJ oooia 7COV, dxrtoao, npotitieTal va c5zarpVAci~SI xai v' a7COl(aTacyrrycysl. "Etm Katavtii Kat' avaYKl]V KEV~ rumxcrnru f:vro tEAtKa KatablKa-

48 W4, 508 .

• , W4, 505-506. so W4, 507.

o ErEAm: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAnAl:H 47

sEtal KUt af: 1tOA.t'ttK~ U8uvu~iu oaov aq>opii '[a 1tpuyJ.1UtlKa 1tpO~A.lJ~u,[u nov KUtpcOV, '[a ()1t01U KUt 1tUpU~Evouv iiA.uta.

'0 "EYEA.Oe; eEo>pEl E1tO~EVo>e; 1[(0e; it 1tUA.tVOpeO>tlK~ 'l'EUooaUV'[lJPT]aT] ElVUl 6 KUe' UUtO Kivouvoe; '[Tie; E1tOxTie;' it KUtU1tOA.E~T]alJ tT]e; ea rov a1tuaX0A.lJaEt KUe' OA.T] t~V oHlPKEtU tTie; so>Tie; tOU, 01t0>e; aKO~T] to 1830 oro ,[EA.EUtU10 tOU YPU1ttO aXEtlKa ~f: '[~v auslJ'[T]aT] tTie; ayyA.tKTie; aUYKupiue; KUt ,[cOv 1tpOa1tUeEtcOV va OT]~toUPyT]eEi uin atUeEpOtEpT] tU!;T] 1tpuy~UtO>v ~Eao> K01VO~OUA.EUtlKTie; ~EtUppUe~lOTJe; (na titv aYYAIKr, tdOYIKr, jJBmppv()jJIU7J) (21). Oi "AyyA.Ot 01UeE,[OUV uin VEO>tEPtK~ 1tOA.t'ttKT] opyuvo>aT] 1tOU 1tOA.A.Ot t~V euu~a~ouv EvcO K01ttU~Ouv va ~Etappue~iaouv KUt vix ~EA. ruooouv to KOtVO~OUA.EUtlKO rouq oucrnuc. "Ouox, tUUtOXpovu, ayvoouv KUt UUtOt t~V nupoiiou ~EtU~OA.~ tcOV KOtVO>VtKcOV cruveT]KcOV KUt ~EVOUV 1tpOaT]A.o>~EvOl af: 1tUPO>XT]!lEVEe; q>EOUOUpX1Kf:e; 1tA.EOVE!;iEe;, 1tPOVO!ltU KUt eEta oiKUtU, aU~~t~U~O!lEVOt 1tUpUA.A.T]A.U !If: ta qxnvouevu Otaq>eopiic; 1tOU 1tPOKUA.OUV uU,[f:e; oi aaU!lq>O>ViEe; 1tpOe; t~V 1tPUY!lUtlKOtT]'[U. "Ouox, 01tOtE au~~uiVEt KUtt tEtOto, KUeE 1tOA.ttlK~ avu~opq>o>aT] ElVUl KUt' avuYKT]V KUtUOtKUa~EVT] ya ueivei atEA.Eaq>opT] ~Exple; OtOU U1tEPV1- KT]eEl it tuaT] «va 01U10>vi~E'[Ut it 1tuA.uta 1tiatT] orov XPT]a'[o XUPUKtlJpU EVOe; eEa!lOU aKO!lT] KUt OtUV it KU'[uatuaT] 1tOU UUtOe; pUe!li~El EXE11tla EVtEA.cOe; aA.A.OtO>eEl» (BK, a. 466).51 'H «o!;du oluq>o>viu» aVU!lEaU a'[a KPUtOUVtU eEta OiKU1U KUt t~V KUtUatUaT] 1tA.T]eua!lOU, 1tA.OUtOU KUt ouuoepovrmv 1tOU Stuuopqxevetm t~V vsoi,[EPT] f:1tOX~ (a. 467)52 ElVUt 6 «xupxivoq» (a. 479)5) 1tOU KU'[U'[proEt 1tOA.t'ttKa rnv 'AyyA.iu KUt EXEt roe; a1to'[EA.E-

" WH, 86-87. " WH, 87-88. 53 WH, 100.

48 nOAXIM PITTEP

O"IlU t~V f:vtu1t(Oo"lUK~ Ku8uO"tEP110"'; t11<; «sv O"XEO"€l 1tpO<; ta UA.A.U 1tOA.1nO"IlEVU EUPC01tUtKa Kpat11» 0"' o,n (l(popa tOD<; «8EO"Il0D<; UA.1181VOU OlKUlOU» (0". 469).S4 AUt~ ~ UVtlcpuO"l1 uvallEO"U O"t~V tU1tlKOt11tCl tOU 8EtOU 01- KUlOU xui rnv Il~ tUUtOO"l1ll11 Il' UUt~V 1tpUYllunKOt11ta dVU1 f:oro, 01tCO<; 1tUVtOU, to 1tPO~A.11IlU1tOD t~V f:1tlA.UO"'; tOU 8a OCPE1A.E va f:1tlt;;l1tEi ~ «f:CPUPIlOY~ xui EiO"uycoy~ trov A.0Y1KroV uPxrov O"t~V 1tpuYllunK~ t;;co~» (1tP~A.. 0". 500),55 UV ~E~UlU Of:V 8EA.OUIlE vi: KUtUA.';~OUIlE O"t~v 01Ul(OV10"11 trov f:1tuvuO"taO"Ecov Uvti vii 1tPOXCOP';O"OUIlE O"f: YOV1IlE<; IlEtuppu8IllO"E1<;.

'Erot sxeivo 1tOD f:VOlUCPEPE1 tOY "EYEA.o CP1A.OO"OCP1Ka Kui 1tOA.ltlKa IlEXP1 tEA.OU<; dVU1 vi: f:~UlPEo"E1 t~V f:1tUvUO"tUnK~ uPX~ tii<; f:A.EU8Eplu<; ro<; 01KU1c.OIlUtO<; U1tO t~V 1tOA.tnK~ uvn1tupa8EO"l1 Kui va t~V KUtOXUpc.OO"E1, IlUKP1a U1tO t~V 1tA.11IlIlUPU trov YEYOVOtCOV, O"t~V t;;ullco- 0"1l WU KU1pOU. 'H 1tOA.ltlK~ OlOUcrJCUA.lU wu 1821 t~V uio- 8EtEi Kui t~V 1tPOU1t08EtE1 ro<; O"KE'I'l1 Kui A.0Yo toii 1tUpovroc. "01tOU ~ f:A.EU8EplU U1tOtEA.Ei 8EIlEA.1O WU 01- KUlOU, ~ 1tOA.1tElU1tpE1tE1 va f:VVOEitU1 ro<; «~ 1tPUYIlUt1- Kot11tU tii<; O"UYKEKP1IlEV11<; f:A.EU8EplU<;» (<PL1 § 260). 'H 1tOA.ltElU YlVEtUl Kpato<; OlKUlOU, \mapXE1 ro<; Kpato<; 01- KUlOU OtUV ta UWIlU ro<; UV8PC01t01 Il1tOPOUV va dVU1 6 f:UUto<; tOU<; Kui OtUV «~ 1tpOO"C01tlK~ Ku8EKuO"tOt11tU» Ilf: ta t01UltEPU O"UIlCPEPOVtU Kui f:V01UcpEpOVta t11<; U1tOA.UIl~avE1 O"t~V OtKOYEVE1UKui t~V K01VCOVlU t~V «uvuyvc.Opum tOU OlKUlOU t11<; Ku8' f:UUt~V» (§ 260). 'H «OUcrtUK~ f:A.EU8EPlU» ti8EtU1 hcrt ro<; 1l0VU01KO uino Kui O"K01tO<; tii<; 1toA.ltlKii<; f:~OUO"lU<;. Toiiro UAACOO"tE UVUlPEi xui O1Op8c.OVE1 OA.E<; ti<; 1tpOYEVEO"tEPE<; 8EIlEA.1c.OO"E1<; Kui uit1OA.OY';O"E1<; tii<; 1tOA.1tElU<; Y1a tOY "EYEA.o. 'H 1tOA.1tEla

54 Wll, 90. S> WII, 122.

o ErEAOI: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAI:TAI:H 49

1tUUEl Va. f:~l1YEi'tul ro<; (17tOtSA.EOIlU tii<; «KOlVO)VlKOt11- rc;», tii<; «UVUYK11<; f:~UO"(PUA.1011<; tii<; iOlOKt110iu<; ... tii<; EUOS~ElU<;» 11 f.VO<; «9E09EV OlOPlOIlOU tOU c'iPXOVtU» (r. II, o. 556).S6 'H V011tlKi'J upxi'J tii<; i:1tuVUOtU011<; EXEl 01tEP~Ei OA.E<; Uuti:<; ti<; OUVUtOt11tE<; 9EIlEA.io)0l1<;· OA.E<; c'ip911KUV Oti'Jv f.7mVUOtUtlKi'J iosu tii<; f:A.W9Epiu<; ro<; OlKUlcOIlUtO<;.

"Etm ~ q>lA.ooocpiu OlU1tEPVU tOY cpA.OlO tIDV CPUlVOIlSVO)v Kui Kutw9UVEtUl 1tpo<; tOY 1tUPTtvu' aVlxvEuEl oti'Jv iOlu ti'Jv f:1tOxi'J ti'Jv apxi'J 1tOD mSSEl OtO ~u9o<; tii<; ~101tUA.11<;, tIDV olXOYVO)lllIDV, tii<; aVti9Eo11<; i:1tUVUOtUtl11<; Kui 1tuA.lvop(0)011<;, Kui f.tOlllUsEtUl va. KUtUOtEi tOtOPlKO oxiillu.

§6

H ENAl:XOAHrH TOY ErEAOY J.1E tllV raA.A.UCll 'Exnvriornon OA.OKA.1]proVEtat atllV fPIAoaorpia toii Sixaioo J.1E tllV ui09Et1]a1] tiiC; i:1tavaatattKiic; apxiic; tiiC; f:A.W9Epiac; a1to tllV 1tOA.l'ttKll 9Eropia, ~ onoin Kat tllV 9EroPEi 1tpOU- 1t09Ea1] o1tOtaaO,;1tOtE J.1EUOVttKiic; vOJ.1tKiic; Kat 1toA.t'ttKiic; oOJ.1iic;· '0 VEUVtKOC; f:v90uataaJ.10c; yta tllV f:1tavuataa1] 1tOU f:YKatvtui;;Et tllV qnA.oao<ptKll nopein toil "EYEA.OU lJ1tEtaEPXEtat atllv Ka9' auto <ptA.oao<pia 'tOU Kat f:~aKoA.ou9Ei va elvci i;;rovtavoc; oro roptJ.10 axiiJ.1a t1]C;. 'H <ptA.oao<pia 'tOU 1tapaJ.1EVEt <ptA.oao<pia tiic; f:1tavuataa1]C; J.1' autllv aKpt~roc; tllV EvvOta, i:K:Ktvd a1to tllV f:1tavuataa1] Kat tpE<pEtat a1to autllV J.1EXpt to tEA.OC;. Tinoru OEV xapaKt1]pii;;Et tllV 1tvwJ.1anKll f:~EA.t~1] roii "EYEA.OU oao 'tOUt1] ~ 9EttKll ava<popa atllv i:1tavuataorr autll opii;;Et to tEA.OC;; 01troc; Kat tllV apx,; t1]C;.

AUtll ~ 9EttKll ava<popa OEV ouvemivstut OJ.1roc; J.10VO tllV Kata1tOA.EJ.11]a1] OA.rov trov 1taA.tVOp9rottKrov tUaErov aUa i:1tia1]C;, Kat f:~ Iooo aa<proc;, tllV KPl'ttKll tiiC; iotac; tiiC; f:1tavuataa1]C;, tllV 9EJ.1EA.tro01] otuyvroa1] tiiC; aouvaJ.1iac; t1]C; vi: daayuYEt lKava 1tOA.ttEUJ.1ata Kat J.10VtJ.1EC;, aKA.OV1]tEC; VOJ.1tKEC; OOJ.1EC;, J.1E a1tOtEA.EaJ.1a va 01]J.1toUPYEitat ~ f:vtU1troa1] 1tCoC; 0 "EYEA.OC; f:A.iaaEtat OUtroc; slnsiv J.1Eta~U trov J.1Etro1trov 1tOU aX1]J.1atii;;ovtat atllV raA.A.ia, atllV Fepunvin Kat aUoil atllv Eupro1t1] roc; UJ.1EaO f:1taKoA.ou90 'tOil f:1tavaatattKoil KtV';J.1a'tOC;. "Ouox; a' auto to f:~rotEPtKO «J.1Eta~U» yiVEtat f:J.1<pavEc; to sorotEPtKO ah1]J.1a tiiC; f:YEA.taviic; <ptA.oao<piac; ava<poptKa J.1E tllv f:1tavuataa1]. na tOV "EYEA.O ~ Sunorvion tiiC; i:1tava.ataa1]C; Kat ~ aVtieEt,; tt,C; f:1tava<popa roii 1taA.atoil

51

52 rIOAXIM PITTEP

ElVUl OUO 1tA.EUpE~ 'tOU iOlOU 1tpayJ.lu'to~. ~'tT]V UVtt1tUpa- 9Ecri] 'tOU~ yiVE'tat EJ.l<PUVT]~ 0 U<PTlPTlJ.lEVO~ XUpU1C'ti]pU<; 'tii~ huvacr'tUcrtK Msru 'tT]V btavacrtacrTl Of:v UV'tl1tapnrdorrovtm EK VEOU OUO UPXE~, 060 UUtOOUVUJ.l0l KOouoi, una ~ 1tuA.lv6p9cocrTl ElVUl KUt uU'tT] EVU KU't' ouoiuv J.lE'tE1tUVUcr'tUttKO 1tPOtOV 'tii~ huvacr'tucrTl~. 'H nuA.lvop9cocrTl EXEl 'tOY A.Oyo 'tTl~ ero yqovo~ Ott ~ Erravacr'taCTTl rrEplEXEl uiuv uv'ti<pacrTl: 'Ev& 9E'tEl 'tT]V OlKOUJ.lEVlKT] EA.EU9Epia 1tOU u<popa 'tOY (iv9pco1t0 ro~ (iv9pco- 1t0, crunpovco~ U1t01tEJ.l1tEl 'tt~ icropucsc oootsc 'tii~ uv- 9pc.01tlvTl~ urrap~Tl~ KUt urro'tEA.Ei (ipvTlcri] roix (22).

'Ev& cr'tT]V BEPVTl KUt 'tT]V cllPUYK<pOUp'tTl 0 uEYEA.O<; Uq>lEpc.OVE'tUl crE uin rrEplcrunOYT] 1tOU 'tOY urrOJ.lOvc.OvEl J.lEXPl KUt urro roix; <piA.ou~ 'tOU KUt OlUJ.l0p<pc.OVEl 'tT]V qnA.OcrO<PlKT] 9EcrTl 'tOU 1tpOXcopc.Ov'tU~ U1tO 'tOY <plA.OErrUVUcr'tU'tlKO i;v90ucrlUcrJ.l0 cr'tT]V 9ECOpiu 'tii~ huvacr'tucrTl~, 0 NoJ3aA.l~ (Novalis) OA.OKATlpc.OVEl 'tT]V 1tpuYJ.lu'tElU 'tOU 'H XPlanaVO(J"lJV1] ij r, EVpdJ1C1] (Die Christenheit oder Europa, 1799) noii ErrTlPEaSEl UK0J.lTl cri]J.lEPU roix; pcoucvnKOU~ UPVTl'tE~ 'tOU VEc.O'tEPOU xoouoo, To EPYo EXEl 'tT]V J.lOp<pT] irrropucoii J.lEA.E'ti]J.lU'tO~ KUt E1tlA.EYEl vii OlEPEUVi]crEl 'tOY Meouicovu EVVOOUJ.lEVO ro~ 'tOY 1tPOVECO'tEPlK<) xoouo, Ku9Co~ OJ.lCO~ 'tOY E~UJ.lVEi ro~ EKElVOU~ roix; «ropuiou~, A.uJ.lrrpou~ Xp6vou~» 01tOU «~ EUpc.01tTl ~'tav uiu XPlcrttUVlKT] Xc.OpU» (Werke, EKo. Wasmuth, 'to 1, cr. 279), 'to nnpov OpiSE'tat crE UVttOlUcrtOA.T] ~ urrc.OA.ElU 'tii<; OJ.lOP<PTl~ scoii~. TT]v VEU ErrOXT] ~ OJ.lOP<PTl scoT] 'tEA.WOVEl. To iEPO U1t0J.lUKpUVE'tUl, ~ J.l0UCTlKT] 'tOU crUJ.l1tUV'tO<; crJ3i]VEl, ~ 9PTlcrKElU xaVEl 'tT]V EiPTlVEU'tlKT] rrOA.mK~ hiopucri] 'tTl~ rocrrrou 'tEA.lKa ~ huvacrtacrTl OlUPPTl'YVU£1 'tOY o£crJ.lO 1tOU EVCOVE (inO'tE 'tOY «&VUV UPXTl'YO», 'tT]V «1toA.U1tA.Tl9T] ouvrsj viu» KUt 'tt~ «ropuiE~ crUYKEV'tpc.Ocr£l<; crE J.lUcr'tTlPlc.OOEl~ EKKA.TlcriE~» (cr. 279 K.E.). ~'tou~ NEO\J~ Xpovouc KUt J.lE 'tT]V E1tUvacr'tucri] roo; 'to 'tEA.O~ 'tii~ Xpl-

o EiEAm: KAI H iAAAIKH EOANAI:TAI:H 53

crtlavocruvllr; gytVE 1tOAt'ttK~ 1tpaYlla'ttK6'tll'ta Kat 1tE1tProllivo 'tiir; E1toxiir;. 'H «via 1ticr'tll» 'tiir; E1toxiir; «1tPOro9Et UVEUt1tCOr; 't~v Ka9apcrll 'tiir; <pucrllr;, 'tiir; E1tt<pavEtar; 'tlir; Ylir;, nov uv9pcOmvrov 'l'UXrov Kat 'trov emcr'tllllrov U1tO 't~v noinon - 't~v E~aAEt'l'll Ka9E lxvour; iEPOl») (cr. 291) (23).

Tpsic OEKaE'tiEr; upy6'tEpa, <hav 6 "EYEAOr; oioa~E YUl 'tEAw'taia <popa 't~v (/)IAocrorpia ri1; iatopiac Kat c' au't~ 't~v ouvuoeiu 't~v spunvsic 'tOU 'tlir; E1tavacr'tacrllr; ror; E1toxlir; cr't~v xoouoicropucn nopeic 'tlir; loiar;, upXi~Et cr't~v raUia ~ 01l1l0criwcrll 'tlir; @cnK::i1; (/)IAOcrOrpia; 'tOU Kovt (Comte, Philosophie positive, 1830). '0 «voIlor; 'trov rpuiiv cr'taOlroV» ota'tU1tcOvE'tat EOro ror; IlEt~OV a~irolla 'tlir; 1tp0600u. 'H 9EOAoyia, ~ IlE'ta<pucrtK~ Kat'ta ouo «cr'taOta» 1tOU cr'tllpi~oV'tat uv'ttcr'toixror; cr't~v Ilia Kat cr't~v UAAll U1tO'tEAOUV lcropuco 1tapEA90v <hav E1tipxoV'tat ~ VEcO'tEPll xorvoiviu KUt Emcr'tTJllll. '0 uv9pro1tor; 1tOU ~A9E orov euu't6 roo KUt u1tEAw9EPc09llKE U1tO 't~v KUptUPXiu 'tlir; 9EOAoyiur; KUt 'tlir; IlE'tU<pUcrtKlir; 60EUEl 1tpOr; 't~v 'tEAEt01toillcrll 'tlir; uv9pro1t6'tll'tUr; Ota uscoo 'tlir; VEcO'tEPllr; f:1ttcr'tTJllllr; KUt xoivmvinq KUt U<pTJVEt nioto 'rOU 't~v 1tpoYEvicr'tEPll icropic KUt 't~v 1tupaoocrTJ 'tllr; crav VEKp6, ioroptxo 1tta 1tupd96v (24).

'0 "Eydor; OEv YVcOptcrE oiirs 't~v 9icrll roii Kovr OrJ'tE rov proIlUV'ttKO nomtuco f:~ropuicrIlO 'tOU Meouioiva U1tO rov No~aAtr;, Ollror; ~ 'tacrll1tOU U1tOK'tU <ptAOcrO<plKO crxlillu cr' nutoix; roix; ODO, ~ proIlUV'ttK~ f:1tUVU<popa roii 1tUAUtOU KUt 'to ~E1tipucrllu toii 1tUAtOU U1tO 't~v rrp6000, £IVUt 'tumK~ 'tlir; crXicrllr; 1tOU U1tOK'tOUV 6 K6- allor; 'tlir; ioropucfp; Ku'tuyroylir; KUt ~ vsu f:7tOX~ IlE 'to rrpoooEU'ttKO lliAAOV 'tllr;. 'Axoouvoeovmr OtUPPllYVUE'tal ~ icropncn crUViXEtU' ~ vso f:rrOX~ urro'tEAEt 'to tiAor; 'tlir; lliXPt tors icr'topiur;' 6 No~aAtr; 't~v KU'tU" Aa~uivEt ror; Ku'tUa'tpo<p~ 'tlir; ioropucip; ouaiur;, 6 Kovr

54 nOAXIM PITTEP

roe; am:Aw9EpCOcrTJ 'tOU av9pomou areo au't'll 't'llv ouoin.

M6vov Etcrt KataVOOUJlE 'ti crTJI.lUiVEt ~ 9EcrTJ roi; "EYEAOU, reroe; ~ Ereavacr'tattK'll EAw9Epia slvm ~ nupoi» ou Kat OiKOUJlEVtK'llma IlOpq>'ll 'tlie; Ka'taycoytKlie; usruq>ucrtKlie; EAw9Epiae; vi: slvci xcvsk 0 i:au't6e; "tOU, Kat ~ cruvaK6AOu9TJ aVttJlE't(;)1ttcr~ ron 'tlie; i8tae; 'tlie; EreavucrtacrTJe; roe; xoouoicropuciic Ka'tucrtacrTJe; Kat Ereoxlie; 'tlie; «uinc» reaYK6crJltae; icropiuc, Jlf; yvfficr'tTJ Kat rtveuuuruco 9EJla'toq>UAaKa 'tlie; apxlie; 'tTJe; 't'llv reapu80crTJ 'tlie; «uioz;» q>tAocroq>iae;. 'H q>tAocrOq>tK'll Bsmpiu icrcoe; EJlq>avisE'tat E~co'tEptKa crav xutuoxeououu, crav uiu oxsnropiu 'tOU 9ECOPTJttKOU cr'tOXacrJlOU, ouv EYYEv'lle; avu1t'tU~TJ 'tlie; qnAocrOq>tKlie; crKEIjITJe; reOpW6JlEVTJ repoe; 'to cnxrrnuu, rocr't6cro are08EtKVUE'tat Ott ouvtc-rfi rnv iTrf)"vcrTJ TOU npof3Aill.J.aTO~ nov rtOT}I(e ano ri]v enavaotaon, Orl ry oovereia rij~ narxoouuu; lotopiac 8cv eucrraOd ma xa! ixel 8tapPTJXOd xati: K:OIVi] opoAoria rij~ exavaoraon« xai rwv naAIVOpOWrlK:WV aVrlnaAWV rTJ~. Auro nov npoexvwe pc iiiv via Enoxi] xai iiiv exavaataon anoreAd ria tic 8150 nAevpc~ ro rtAO~ rij~ npoveveatepn« tatopiac: ra tAevcropeva elvai acrxera pc titv npoiAevon. 'H Bsropiu roii "EYEAOU aVaAaJl~uVEt 'to rep6~ATJJla au'tlie; 'tlie; icr'tOptKlie; acruvEXEtae;· avapCOttEtat 'ti onuuiVEt ~ ouoio»; areoq>acrtcr'ttK'll yta 't'llv i8m rnv i:rtavucrtacrTJ Kat yta roix; Ex9poue; 'tTJe; epunvsic 'tOU nupovroc roe; 'tEAOUe; 'tlie; ioroptac, rtoii cr'tTJpiSEi:at Kat t.i 't'llv npoeo- 9El. "OJlCOe; 0 "EYEAOe; 8f;V ouvruoocrut Jlf; 't'llv Jlia '11 't'llv iiAATJ reAwpu, reapa ~ E~Eta~ roo 'tOU repO~A~Jla'tOe; au'tlie; 'tlie; xoouoioropucfp; acruvEXEtae; aYKaAtUsEt oA6- KATJPTJ 't'llv ptsocrreacrttK6'tTJ'ta"tOu STJ't~Jla"tOe;. 'H peouuvttK'llreaAtVop9cottK'll areOK~pU~TJ 'tlie; vEae; Ereoxlie; Kat 'tlie; Ereavucr'tacr~e; 'tTJe; Kat ~ Ereavacr'tattK'll XEtpaq>E'tTJcrTJ areo 't'llv icropiu 'tlie; Kataycoylie; cruJl~a8isouv· EXOUV 'to i810 nitro. '0 «a9EicrJloe; "tOU ~9tKOU xoouoo» (1PL1,

o ErEAOI: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAHAI:H 55

cr. 7)' tOU~ slvci KOlv6~' i:v@ YU1 tTjv E1tavaO'tatlKTj 9Eo)pia Kai roix; cruvEXlO'tE~ tT]~ to nupov UVtl1tPOO'O)1tEUEl to tEA.O~ tOU 1taA.alOU K60'flOU Kai tTjv U1tEA.EU9EPO)O'T] "COu uv9po)1tou U1tO ti~ «~~O)1tpaYflatlK€q) 1tA.EOV ouvaus«; tii~ 9pT]crKda~ Kai tii~ flEtaCPUO'lKii~, to ~1ticrT]~ uvayvO)plcrflEvo tEA.O~ tii~ irrropiuq tii~ KatayO)yii~ ~flcpavit;Etal Yla roix; anou~ ro~ U1tO~OA.Tj tOU 9dou U1tO tOY xoouo, um:OA.Ela tii~ UA.it9Ela~, tii~ ieporntm; xui roii KanOU~, KatacrtpocpTj tii~ UV9PW1tlVT]~ il1t60'taO'T]~ "COu iOlOU tOU uv9pw1tou. 'H exavaoraiuci; apv1Ja1J toii 1CapcM)6vro~ xai r, nasivopeomxi; apv1Ja1J toii napovtot; uuniiovtm AOZm)V ato orr npoimoeetouv tiiv latoPZICr, aavvixclU J-lcra~v ICaraymyij~ «ai J-liUovro~, xai iraz aurr, r, aavvixclU lCa(){araraz Ylli roy "Eydo ro arroqJaazarrlCo rrp6{3A1JJ-la rij~ trroxij~' 7rli(cz aAvro a' OAC~ tu; evttiaeu; xai avrr()iacz~ r1J~. '0 "EYEA.O~ ixvo» A.afl~aVEl auto to 1tp6~A.T]fla Kai to ~mA.UEl CPlA.OO'OCPlleU- Etm ~K9EtEl crunp6vO)~ tTjv iOla tTjv CPlA.ocrocpia tOU -O'XEOOV fl€ uvaYKUl6tT]ta- O'tTjv UVtiO'tOlXT] Ol1tA.Tj nnpspunveiu: Elrs UVtlflEtO)1tit;EtUl ro~ O'UPPlKVo)tlKTj uvayO)yTj tii~ 9pT]O'KEUtlKii~ oucria~ crta 1tOA.ltlKolO'toplKa, slrs ro~ uvtlOpaO'tlKTj iOEOKpatlKTj ~mKaA.U'l'T] tii~ ~1tavaO'tatlKii~ U1tEA.EU9EpO)crT]~ tOU uv9pw1tou U1tO tOY 9EOA.0YlKO xui flEtacpumKo oupuvo,

§7

Ti crufl~aivEl; rt 1tPOcrCPEPEl orov "EYEA.O i1 crUcrXEtlcrT] tii~ E1tavacrtacrT]~ fl€ tTjv upxaia Kai XPlO'tlUVlKTj ~A.EU- 9Epia xni tTjv 1taYK60'flla ioropiu tT]~ Kai i1 ouvuxos.oo- 9T] UVtlflEtWmcrit tT]~ ro~ ~1toXii~ tii~ OiKOUflEVlKii~ 1tO-

I W7,16.

56 nOAXIM PITTEP

AttUCij<; 7tpuYJlatc.ooll<; UUtij<; tij<; f:AW8Epiu<;, ti tOU npoO<PEPEt v' UVntaOOEt Elm tTjv cruvEXEtU tij<; 7tUYKOOJlta<; ioropinc tOOO OtTjv a.PVllOll tij<; KUtUyc.oyij<; U7tO tTjv f:7tuvaOtUOll 000 KUt OtTjv a.PVllOll tOU 7tUPOVtO<; U7tO tTjv 7tuAwop8c.oOfl KUt tTjv pc.oJlUVnKTj qnAooo<piu, 0llAUoTj OtOV OtXUOJlO 7tOV 7tPOU7t08EtOUV KUt oi OUO JlEtU~V KUtUyc.oyij<; KUt JlEAAovtO<;;

'0 "EYEAO<; OEV f:7ttXEiPllOE JlE tTjv f:PJlllvEiu tOU va. 7tUpUKaJl'JIEt UUtO tOY OtXUOJlO KUt tTjv 7tpUYIlUnKTj f:~ouoiu tOU OtOV<; uv8po)7tou<; KUt OtTjv ouvEiollo~ roue OUtE tOY 7tOVO 7tOV OOKtJla~Et ~ l)7tUP~ll OtUV u(jliotutut tOY OtXUOJlo. '0 OtXUOJlOe; U7tOtEAEt KUt' UUtOV to KUpio Ku8EOtcO<; tij<; VEU<; f:7tOxij<;.

'H (jltAooo(jliu tOU 7tpoijA8E U7tO ta. 7ta811 tOU OtXUOJlOU' U7tO tOY OtXUOJlO UVUKU7ttEt ~ uvaYKll tll<;: «"OtUv ~ OUVUJlll tij<; svoaotnorj; f:~u(jluvt08Ei U7tO tTjv ~ooTj trov uv8po)7toov KUt oi uvn8EoEt<; U7tOOAEOOUV tTjv ~OOVtuvTj 0XEoll KUt UAAllAE7tiopuo~ rouq ... YEVVtEtUt ~ uvaYKll tij<; (jltAooo(jliu<;» (L1I1>.l', t. 1, O. 46)·2 «7tllY~» tll<; elvci 6 «OtXUOJlo<;» (0. 44)·3 crov «07tUPUYJlO» tOU OtXUOJlOU O(jlEiAEtUt ~ «OtatUpuxTj tij<; f:7tOxij<;» (0. 150)" "07t00<; 6 ~iAAEP (Schiller) KUt 6 XUiAVtEPAtV, 6 "EYEAO<; ~EKWii tTjv nopsia tOU UVUOK07tolVtU<; tOY f:AAllVtKO KOOJlO, ytatt UUto<; KUtEiXE UKOJlll tTjv «EJl'JIuXll f:VOtlltu» 7tOV EXEt TolpU xu8Ei OtOV OtXUOJlo: «'AX, U7tO tt<; JlUKPWE~ ~JlE: pE<; tOU 7tUPEA8ovto<; UOtpa(jltEt 7tpo<; tTjv 'JIUX~ ... Jliu ElKOVU - ~ ElKOVU Jltii<; EU(jlutue; JlEtU~V trov AUrov - h<:i<; tEKVOU tije; EutUXiu<; ... rvOOpi~OUJlE UUtTj tTjv EU(jlutu JlOVOV EK (jl~Jlll<;, Jlii<; 86811KE va. 800pOUJlE u' uya7tll KUt BauJlUOJlO JlOVO JlEptKa. XUPUKtllPtOnKa tll<; 01: KUtUAEAEtJlJlEVU UVtiypU(jlU tOU OX~JlUtOe; tll<; 7tOV OEV OtEyEipouv

, W2, 22. 'W2,20.

4 W2, 120-121.

o ErEAOI: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAI:TAI:H 57

napa tt,v UA:YStVt, bn9ul1ia vorrrou crtO nporrorono» (J\ai"1C1] (JPTJcrlCEla, N, cr. 28 K.E.).5 To nupov SSl orov Otxacrl16· it vocrtaA.yia U1tOST]ta tt,v U1troA.ScrI1EVT] Ev6tT]tao :!:' auta UVttcrtOtXSl it icropucn 9sl1sA.irocrT] tOU Otxacrl1ou. "Onox; croix; 1tOtT]tE~, 6 otXacrl1o~ EI1q>avisstat 1tprota ro~ EPYO tOU VEOU xmpoii Kai. tii~ «otaq>rottcrttKii~ oUIVOUl~» roo 6 otxacrl1o~ slvrn 6 Kap1tO~ tii~ viKT]~ tii~ oUlvOta~. 'H oUlvOta Kai. it E1ttcrtTlI1T] tT]~ I1StatPE1tOUV to 9SlKO Ildv cri: VSKPl, l1T]xaVtKl, q>ucrT]. To 9Sl0 tii~ KatayroYii~ U1tO~svrovstat U1tO tl,v 1tpaYl1attxorrrrc: it oUlvota xuturuooet to 9Sl0V «oru; ostcrtoat- 110vis~ fJ crta OtacrKsoacrttKa 1tatxviotu» (..1<1>1:, t. 1, cr. 47).6 "Erot to ropuio yivstut 1tpaYI1U, it aA.tt~ oa.cro~, 6 vuo~ «~UA.U KUi. 1tEtpS~»" it Survotc u1to~aA.A.st to 9dov U1tO rnv UVtt1C£tI1SVtKl, 1tpuYl1uttK6tT]tu 1tOU EXSt 1tpUYuonomcei. To 1tpaYl1u KUtUVta U1tA.O 1tpaYl1u KUi. 1tUUSt va a1ttstat tOU voijl1UtO~ 1tOU KUtUA.UI1~avst KUtuyroytKa tl,V uv9pro1ttVT] tmup~T]. "Ouox; 110T] ta YPu1tta tii~ 1tSpt600u tii~ 'IEvu~ UVUyyEf....f....OUV tt,v tOEU 1tOU 9a E1tttPE\jiSt E1tSttU erov UEysf....o va opirrst 9SttKa to uirto tii~ ucruvEXStU~ KUi. to 1tp6~f....T]I1U 1tOU EI1q>uvisuut meortxo crti.~ 1tupucrtacrst~ 1tSPi. tEf....OU~ tii~ irrropiuq, 'Evro 6 omq>rottcrl10~ KUi. it otavotu UUtOV0l10UV KUi. U1tOf....Ut01tOtoUV tl,V UVttKStl1SVtKl, 1tpuYl1uttK6tT]tu troy 1tpuYl1atrov KUi. Etcrt I11tOPOUV va EXOUV «to UtroVto ... uovov E1tEKStVU» (lIicrrTJ lCai yvwcrTJ = Ill", r. 1, cr. 281),7 6 "EYsf....o~ 9SropSl 1tro~ it tmOKStl1SVtK6tT]tu UVijKSt c' UUtt, tl,V «~PV!lttlCt, crtacrT] tOU 6tuq>rottcrI10U» (cr. 280)8 KUi. tl,V 1tPUYl1o- 1toillcrij tOU tOU xoouou, 11i: ti.~ 61tOlS~ KUi. cruVU1tapXSt ioropucd. 'Avuq>sp6I1SVO~ orov «OUttKO EVt01ttcrI10» tii~

I WI, 42-43, 44. 6 W2, 23.

7 W2, 289. • W2, 288.

58 nOAXIM PITTEP

7tatoEiae; "COD otacprottO"lloD (.11/>1', t. 1. 0". 248),9 6 "EYEA.0e; OVOJl(it;;Et tTjv unoxsursvucornru «UpxTj "COD Boppii Kat U7tO 9PTJO"KEUttKTj U7tOIjlTJ "COD npoteerruvrrcuoii»: alnTj 7tpoO"ti9Etat O"tOV ~WCProttO"IlO roe; iJ UnTJ «IlEYUA.TJ 1l0PCPTj "COD 7taYKOO"lltOU nveounrot;» tIll", r. 1, 0". 281).10 AutTj tmOOEXEtllt O"tO Eoacpoe; tlie; rowe; tlie; icropucij; u7tap~TJe; O,tt iJ otuvota EXEl U7tOKA.EiO"El U7tO tTjv UVttKEtllEVtKTj 7tpaYllroOTJ 7tpaYllattKOtTJtU tTJe;' otacpUA.uO"O"Et O"f: «ai0"9Ttllata Kat epovnuctu» to KUnOe; Kat tTjv UA.Tt- 9Ela 7tOV f:YKataA.Ei7tEt iJ Survoic: «'H 9pTJO"KEia OiKOOOllE1 "COve; vcoix; Kat ~rolloue; tTJe; O"tTjv Kapoul "COD UtO- 1l0U, uvaO"tEvaYIlOt Kat 7tpOo"WXf:e; t;;TJtODV tOY 9EO 7tOV to UtOIlO U7tayopEUEt O"tOV suoro tOU va. f:7t07ttEUEt f:7tEloTj 0"0~E1 6 xivoovo; tlie; Survotuc, iJ onoiu 9a. YVroptt;;E to f:7t07ttWOIlEVO roe; 7tpuYlla, tTjv UA.tt roe; ~UA.(l» (0".281- 282)." Auto 7tOV ~tav Eva O"tOV 7taA.alOtEpO KOO"IlO xropit;;Etllt tTjv vErotEPTJ f:7t0XTt· to 9E10 Kat to i:YKOO"lltO, to Elvat Kat to OV uorovouoiivnn to Eva U7tO to uno· o,tt iJ otuvota Of:V otatTJpEi EnEtOTj «~EXropit;;Et aUO"tTJPa. to UVttKEtllEVtKO U7tO to tmOKEtIlEVtKO» 9EroproVtae; to OEUtq~O «UVU~tO Kat UVU7tapKtO», 6 «uyrovae; tOD U7tOKEtllEVtKOD KUA.A.OUe;» EntOtroKEt vi: «to otacpUA.U~Et 07troe; 7tPE7tEt U7tO tTjv uvaYKatOtTJta» (0". 282).12

"Erot 6 "EYEA.Oe; KataA.a~aivEt tOY OtxaO"llo roe; tTjv 1l0PCPTj "COD VErotEPOU KOO"IlOU Kat tlie; O"uvEiOTJO"Tte; tOU. 'Evro, 0Jlffie;, roco iJ U7tOKEtIlEVtKOtTJtIl 00"0 Kat iJ OtUVOw Ilf: tTjv EVVOtU tTJe; 7tEpt UVttKEtIlEVtKlie; 7tpaYllattKOtTJtile; ouuqxovoiiv Ott U7tUPXEt U7tOA.UtTJ UVti9EO"TJ UVUIlEou O"tO U7tOKElIlEVtKa. OWtTJPTJIlEVO ropuio Kat uA.TJ9f:e; Kat tTjv 7tpaYllrooTJ nepurorrrru, Ott U7tUPXEl UIlOt~aia

'W2,1I9. 10 W2, 289.

II W2, 289-290. 12 W2, 290.

o ErEAO:t KAI H r AAAIKH EnANALT A:tH 59

a1tO~EvroaTJ xni aaXEaiu Utl't(OV nov OUO, a "Ereso; &VVOEl (JeWdl roy Olxaapo rov; ox; ri]v poprpi] pt titv onoia Suxtnoeitoi 1] mraywYIl(i] evotntti rov; atu; ouv(JijKe; rov vedncpoo xoouoo. H aviixeiuevuci; nparuanxotnta toi) Siaoomauoi) xai 1] oovtnpntnci; V7rOKelpeVIKOrTJra otv elvai u(J'Xere; aUa aVp7rATJPWpanKi;' ~ lmOKEtJlEVtKO'tTJ'tU OiKOOOJlE1 WU~ ~roJlOU~ 'tTJ~ o rijv KupoHI &7reIOi] umlPXEt 0 avnKEtJlEVtKO~ KOaJlO~ 'tii~ oHIVOtU~. Aina 7tOU Xropi1,;ov'tUt w~ U7tOKEtJlEVtKO'tTJ'tU Kui avnKEtJlEVtKO'tTJ'tU xni uurovouoiivtm uvrupuoxov'tU~ 'to EVu 7tpO~ 'to lino 7tUPUJlEVOUV lcropncc axwptCHU a'tT]v JlOPCPT] WU otxuaJlou. '0 "EYEA.O~ EXEt unpocr'tu rou uu'to 1tOU 9a Jl1tOPOUcrE vi: OVOJlUcr9E1 «StcroiXiu» 'tii~ VEW'tEPTJ~ 7tVEUJlUnKii~ icropinq: L'tT]V methode" roii Kupt amou (Descartes) npoorillerut ~ logique du cceur" roii nucrKaA. (Pascal), cr'tT]v veritas logica" npoo'ti9E'tat ~ veritas aesthetica" (M7tUOUJlYKUp'tEV [Baumgarten]), crrov A.6Yto JlE 'to Op90A.OytKO aucr'tTJJlu roo npoouprdrui ~ uicr9TJnKT] U7tOKEtJlEVtKO'tTJ'tU 1:ii~ JlEYUA.Ocpuiu~ (LEcp'tEaJl7tEPU [Shaftesbury]), ornv cpucrTJ WU NEUrorvu (Newton) ~ wpuiu cpucrTJ 'tii~ uicr9TJnKii~ 7toiTJcrTJ~ Kui 'tEXVTJ~, orov op90A.oytcrJlO 0 EuaE~tcrJlO~ 'tii~ 9PTJcrKdu~ roii cruvata9TJJlu't0~. Knr' avuA.0Yov rpono 0 N'tiA.'tuii (Dilthey) OptcrE apyo'tEpU (A.. X. oro Jugendgeschichte Hegels, 1905) EVuv 1tUpUnTJA.O JlE 'tOY OtucproncrJlo KA.cOVO U1tOKEtJlEVtKii~ JlucrnKii~ avu7t'tu~TJ~ roii 7tVEUJlUW~ JlE 'tOY 07t010 E7tEnu aXE'ti1,;Et xui 'tT]V cptA.Ocoeio roii "EYEA.OU· f:VcO OJlro~ orov N'tihuii oi 060 ypuJlJlE~ 7tpoxropouv 7tUpUnTJA.U oixro~ va 'ti9E'tat 'to 1,;TJ'tTJJlU 1:ii~ crXEcrTJ~ rou; Kui roii A.oyou roii OtxucrJlOU toix, 0

u Mt90oo<;.

14 AOYIKl, 'ti;<; KUpOlii<;. 15 AOYIKl, UA.~9£lU.

16 Aicr9,,'tlKl, UA.~9£lU.

60 nOAXIM PITTEP

YEYEA.O~ crUA.A'(lll~aVEt tOY OtXacrllo tli~ icropucip; ll1tap~TJ~ crE tl1tOKEtIlEVtKOtTJta Kat UVttKEtllEVtKOtTJta ro~ t~v IlOP<P~ IlE t~V onoiu ~ tvOtTJta tTJ~ Siurnpsirm Kat Ul£OKtii erov VEoltEPO xoouo to crxlilla l£OU tli~ UPIlO~Et.

'0 "EYEA.O~ KataA.tlYEt crt~V Ul£Q(pacrtcrttK~ otayvroon yupro crto 1800 crt~V 'Isvo, crtt~ l£protE~ tOU 0TJIl0crlEUcrEt~: ,Mv vmipxcl «auia Suvatotnta va f3rOVfJC U1rO roy 8lxacrfJO taaoouevoi fJE tiiv uia ij rr,v UAA1] 1rACVpa «a! E~aqJavi'ovra~ ro exaotote uvri(Ju6 r1]~ crav fJTJ av. 'Yl£OKEtIlEVtKOtTJta Kat UVttKEtllEVtKOtTJta l£apal£tlll£OUV l£po<pavro~ icropuce ~ uiu crt~V ciUTJ' ouvoxoreA.OUV t~V oucrtrooro~ 6A.tK~ icrtOptK~ \l1tap~TJ. 'R tEA.EDruiu tmapXEt IlE t~V IlOP<P~ tOU OtXacrllou' ~ <ptA.ocro<pta l£Ptl£Et va t~V cruUall~aVEt ro~ auto to «l£poi.il£apxOV» (L1cJ>l:, t. 1, cr. 49),17 va EVtacrcrEt to OA.OV -{(to Ul£OA.UtO»orov OtXacrllo ro~ t~v «OUVaIlTJ f:VOl£OtTJcrtl~» tOU Kat v' UVttti9Etat thcrt crt~V «Ul£OA.UtTJ l£aytrocrTJ tOU OtXaouoo», rocrtE va IlEcrOA.a~El t~V uvtt<pacrTJ troy «crtEPEOnomuevoiv» UVttetcrErov Kat va l£poroeEl t~V cruvotaA.A.ay~ 11 crull<PtA.trocrtl tOU~ (cr. 46).18 "Epyo tTJ~ E1Vat «va f:VolVEt» tt~ «l£poi.il£OetcrEt~» l£OU xropt~OVtat orov OtXacrllO tmOKEtIlEVtKOtTJta~ Kat UVttKEtIlEVtKOtTJta~, «vi: ettEt tOY OtXacrllo crtO Ul£OA.UtO - ro~ to qxnvousvo tOU, to nspuro oro cil£Etpo - ro~ ~ro~» (cr. 49) (25).19

"Errn ~ <ptA.ocro<pta tOU YEYEA.OU EKKtVEl Ul£O tOY OtXacrllO ro~ lcropucn UPX~ Otallop<procrTJ~ tli~ El£OXli~' ~ eEropta tOU OtXacrllou 0TJlltOUPYEl tt~ l£poi.il£OetcrEt~ l£OU xuetcrtOUV E<PtKt~ t~V El£tA.UcrTJ tOU l£pO~A.tlllatO~ tli~ l£oA.tttKli~ El£avacrtacrTJ~ Kat tii~ ucruvtXEta~ l£OU ettEt aut~ IlEta~U Katayroyli~ Kat IltUOVtO~. "Eva OEUtEPO ~lilla

17 W2, 24.

18 W2, 21-22. 19 W2, 25.

o ErEAOl: KAI H r AAAIKH EnANAH Al:H 61

&ivat Oflro~ onucvrtxo ytfl tt,V btiA.uaT] toii ST]tTJflatO~. Fivstm U1tOatOA.t, tii~ iOta~ tii~ q)lA.oaoqlia~ il UVUA.UaT] tii~ aUYKEKptflEVT]~ iatOptKii~ KivT]aT]~ Kat that OOT]YEitat U1tO tt,v flEA.EtT] roii 1tW~ Siuuopqxovsnn il UVtieEaT] proflaVttKii~ iJ1tOKEtflEVtKOtT]ta~ Kat Otaq>rottaflOll 1tpO~ ta 1tpO~A.TJflata 1tOD OP09EtOllV Kat atT]piSOUV autt, tt,V aVtieEaT] att,v icropucn OtaotKaaia. Toirro ~EKtvii ornv BEPVT], EOW E1tEPXEtat il U1tOqlaatanKt, atpOqlt, 1tOD EflEUE v' U1tC)flaKPUVEt tOV "EYEA.O U1tO tOD~ qliA.ou~ tOU Kat U1tO to VEUVtKO iOEWOE~ roo. Ta XPOVta 1tOD aXT]flattsotav il 9Eropia tOU yta tOV OtxaaflO 0 "EYEA.O~ £IXE UPxiaEt, aE; UflEaT] aUVUqlEta flE; ta YEVtKa 1tpO~A.TJflata tii~ E1taVUataaT]~, va Efl~aeUVEt EVOEA.EXW~ ata ST]tTJflafa tWV cruYKEKptflEVroV 1tOAtnKWV, OiKOVOfltKWV, VOfltKWV Kat KOtVroVtKWV aUV9T]KWV tii~ btoxii~. Autt, tt,V a1tOUOt, uvnKato1ttpisouv UflEaa oi 1tapatT]PTJaEt~ tOU att,v flEtUqlpaaTJ tOU, 1tOD 0T]flOcrtEU9T]KE uvrovuflro~ to 1798, tWV 'Eunurteutuabv £1flaroAwv Ylli tiiv xporeveoteon 1COAlnlCi] xauiotaon ari]v xwpa toi) Bw (Vaud) roii VtO- 1tlOU OtKT]YOpOU Kapt (Cart) flE; 9Efla tt,v Kata1tiEaT] U1tO tt,v uptatoKpatia tii~ BEPVT]~ flEta to 1791 (26). :EK01tO~ elvci 1tpwta 1tpwta v' uKoua9Ei Kat att,v Fspunviu to discite justitiam moniti" roii KEtflEVOU. Etvat oflro~ xapaKtT]ptattKt, tii~ aXEaT]~ tOll "EYEA.OU 1tpO~ tt,v 1tOA.tttKt, 1tpaYflanKOtT]ta il1tapatTJPT]aT] 1tOD 1tpOa9EtEt, on il E1tiKA.T]aT] roii auvata9TJflatO~ f:VOEXEtat vi: YEVVTJaEt «fliiUov ouamatia yta to 9Efla» Kat on 1tOA.A.ot iaro~ xpivouv on 9a E~U1tT]pEtOllaE KaA.UtEpa auto tOV aK01tO il «~EPt, Katu9EaT] tWV YEYOvotrov» Kat il1tapu9EaT] «1tT]YWV» (EiaayroYtKO aT]flEtrofla, D, a. 248).21

:E' aUtE;~ tt~ 1tpOOtaypaqlE;~ UVta1toKpivEtat il OtKTJ

'" «Muge'tf; eiOO1tOlTlI1EVOl viI eicrge Sixmot», AivEllz8a VI, 620. 21 WI, 256.

62 nOAXIM PITTEP

'tOU O"Uf.1~OA:ll. Ileprypuqiet 00"0 to Suvurov (l1Cpt~EO"tEpa OA.a ta Uf.1EO"a ouvuoj]: ~tatuYf.1ata tii<; BEPV'1<;, OtlCUHOunru svopuov, lCatUO"taO"'1 xopcov, tEA.rovEtalCOU<; oa- 0"f.10US;, Sucovouin noivucerv OtlCaO"t'1pirov, O"UO"t'1f.1a E7tita~'1<;, YEVtlCa tiJv tEXVtlCiJ tii<; lCata7tiEO"'1<;. 'Eoro otacpaiverrn ri dvat tropa O"'1f.1aVttlCO yta tOY "EYEA.O: 'H smf.1EA.iJ<; E~EtaO"'1 tii<; «7tpaYf.1attlCii<;» E7tttEA.EO"'1<; 'tOU xu- 90A.OU, tii<; «7tpaYf.1attlCii<;» A.Ettoupyia<; tii<; lCata7tiEO"'1<;, troy voutxeiv tunrov xni troy 7tpU~EroV (<7tpaYf.1attlCii<;» OtE~ayroYii<; tOU 7tOA.tttlCOU uyrova. 'E7tt7tA.EOV yvropi~ouf.1E 7t(O<; OEV uO"X0A.dtat f.10VO f.1E tiJv lCatUO"taO"'1 tii<; 'EA.~Etia<;' UO"X0A.Ettat 7tapUA.A.'1A.a E~ Icou EVOEA.EXro<; f.1E ta xowovix« xui OilCOVOf.1tlCa 7tpo~A.itf.1ata tii<; 'AyyA.ia<;, f.1E to lCOtVO~OUA.tO I'1<;, f.1E tiJv ioropic tii<; 'Af.1EptlCaVtlCii<; 'E7tavuO"taO"'1<;, f.1E tiJv f.1Etappu9f.1tO"'1 "tOU UO"ttlCOU Otxuiou tii<; Ilproootac, f.1E ~'1titf.1ata 7tOtVtlCii<; Sucovouice; lC.U. (27). Ka9ffi<; E7ttlCEVtprovEtat StO"t O"ta O"UYlCElCptf.1Eva ioroptxn ~'1titf.1ata tii<; E7toxii<; tii<; E7tavuO"taO"'1<; a "EYEA.o<; UVttA.af.1~uVEtat 7tffi<; OEV f.17tOPOUf.1E vi: O"XEOtu~OUf.1E lCai. va lCataO"1CEuu~OUf.1E VOEPro<; YEVtlCE<; A.UO"Et<; O"t'1Pt~Of.1EVOt O"E cptA.OO"OcptlCE<; UPXE<; yta ~'1titf.1ata 7tOU ucpopOUV O,tt E7tttEA.dtat O"tiJv 10""tOPtlCiJ 7tpaYf.1attlCOt'1- tu lCai O,tt slvci nnpov cb<; 10"tOptlCiJ 7tpaYf.1attlCOt'1ta. Ta 7tpo~A.itf.1ata tii<; E7taVUO"taO"'1<;, a OtxaO"f.1o<; tii<; r)7tap~'1<; lCai. ~ 9Ef.1EA.trof.1Ev'1 crov OtxaO"f.1o UO"uVEXEta tii<; 10"tOpias; yta tOY 7tOA.tttO"f.1o tii<; E7toxii<;, BEV f.17t0POUv va ~E- 7tEpa0"90uv f.1E tiJv 9EroP'1ttlCiJ 7tapayroyiJ EvO<; VEOU lCOouou O"Uf.1cprovou f.1E to OEOV. 'H icropic elvoi lCa9' autiJ to soacpo<; 07tOU ~ iOEa elver EvEpya 7tpaYf.1attlCiJ lCat EVEPYEt· a ap90<; A.oyo<; tii<; E1toxii<; dvat nupmv O"ta ona lCai. ~ Oeropiu acpEtA.Et vi: tOY 7tapaYUYEt cbs; SVVOta tii<; E7toxii<; f.1E ucpEt'1pia tiJv rOta tiJv E7tOXit. Ka9ffi<; a "Eydo<; u7tolCtii autiJ rnv uvtiA.'1'V'1 lCat 9EtEt cb<; U7tOO""tOA.iJ tii<; rOta<; tii<; CPtA.oO"ocpia<; tiJv xuruvonon roii

o ErEAO~ KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAHA~H 63

icrtOptKa xni ouvxsxpurevn nupovroc, cruflpaivEt to U1tocpacrtcrttKO: 'H YVOJplJ1ia rije; K01VOJV1Kije; 8sOJpiae; rije; lzrY},.IKije; 7ro},.mKije; OiKOVoJ1iae;. ~tilv BEPVTl ElXE 8tUPacrEt tilv "Epeova neoi rwv apxwv rije; 7ro},.mKije; OiKOvOJ1iae; (Inquiry into the Principles of Political Economy, Aov8ivo 1767) tOU ~twuapt (Steuart) Kai tilv ElXE crxoA.tacrEt A.E~Tl1tpOe; A.E~Tl (28). M' aUtEe; tie; flEA.EtEe;, 01tOJe; E1ttcrTlflaivEt 6 POsEvKpaVte; (Rosenkranz, o.7r., cr. 86' D, cr. 280), 6 "EYEA.Oe; (17tEKtTlcrE cracpil ElKOVa tfte; oucriae; tfte; ucrttKfte; xoivoivicc" Efla9E vi: xurcvoei EVVOtEe; 07tCOe; «UVaYKTl» Kai «epyuo in», «xnrnueptouoq tfte; Epyacriae;» , «ta~tKil nepiouctu», «cptroXEta», «Sioixncn», «cpO POt»' UVttA.aflPaVEtat moe; auro 7rOU xapaKrT/pi~SI lotopixa riJv exavaocaon xai o},.OdT/pT/ titv E7rOxiJ xai o},.a ra 7rpof3},.1jJ1ara rT/e; siva! r] Ewpavl(J'T/ tiu; V6COrSpT/e; f3LOJ1T/Xav1Kije; xai a(J'nKije; «oivcoviac rije; Epya(J'iae;.

~XE8ov KavEvae; U1t0TlXOe; aut&v t&v flEAEt&V xui tfte; (J'uvacpoue; u7tocpacrtcrttKfte; 7tVEUflattKfte; (J'tpocpfte; 8EV Ecp9acrE rots (J'tOUe; cpiA.oue;. '0 "EYEA.Oe; uvacpEpEl flOVOV U7tatVtKttKa Ka7tOlEe; «EpyacriEe; Kai flEA.EtEe;», Ott apXlos U1tO tie; «U7t08EE(J'tEpEe; UVaYKEe; t&v uv9pro1tcov» Kai uvapCOt~9TlKE «noui Enl(J'tpocpil umlPXEl, Yla va 7tapEflPOUflE ornv scoil t&v uv9po)7tcov» ('Em(J'ro}"iJ 29, 7tpOe; ~EA.A.lYK, $paYKcpoUptTl 2-11-1800) (29).

'H 1tA.~PTle; crTlfla(J'ia autou 7tOU cruVtEA.E(J'9TlKE E8& Yla tilv 1toA.lttKil cptA.o(J'ocpia tOU "EYEAOU 9a cpavE! OflCOe; dKOcrt xpovta apyOtEpa (30). 'H acrttKil xowroviu, roe; xowoiviu t&v 7tOA.tt&v, yiVEtat E1tttEA.OUe; to KEVtpO tfte; 7tOA.lttKfte; CPlA.ocrocpiae; crtilv (JJl},.o(J'ocpia toi) Sixaioo: oA.a

"Btirgerliche Gesellschaft: '0 opo<; Iil]A<ilVEl t~V a(JTlI(~ K'OIVWvia Kat t~V K'olvwvia nov ITOAmOV (t~V xowovic 00<; 1i1aKplt~ U1tO to xpriroc), 'A1toliiIiEtmuvaMyw<;: «uO'nK~ xoivoiviu» (iO'toP1KO), «coivevtu (nov) 1tOAmOW (IiO~!lKO), «uO'nK~ xorvcovic 1tOAmOW (YEV1KO).

64 nOAXIM PITTEP

to. nOA.tt1KU, VOlllKo. Kui nVEUIlUtlKo. npo~A.T]IlUta tOU KU1POU O"XEti~OVtUl 11' UlJtT]V, eE(()pOUIlEVll roe; ti]v uvctponT] nOD XUPUKtllPi~El tT]V EnOXT] Kui Kueopi~El to. mrvru 0"' UlJtT]V, O"tT]V OE eE(()piu tlle; UiPEtUl il avtlnupueEO"llllE tT]v nOA.tt1KT] i:nuVUO"tUO"ll·

§8

'H 1l0P<PT] tlie; aO"tlKlie; xowrovic; noA.mOv nOD EKeEtEt o "EYEA.Oe; O"tT]V (JJ1AoaoqJia toii Ssxaioo OEV nupoumu~El KUt' apxo.e; oumuO"tlKo. VEOUe; npoofiiopiouoin; O"E aUYKP10"1l IlE tT]V ayyA.1KT] nOA.tt1KT] olxovouiu. '0 "EYEA.0e; aKOA.OUeE! tT]V tEA.EUtuiu E<p' OO"OV KUtUVOE! UUtT]

, , f' _, _ T , ,

rnv K01V(()V1U (()e; «O"UO"tllIlU nov UVUYK(()V»" E1VUl EKE1-

Vl1 il «oivcovia 7] oxoia -xslpaqJsmUJ.l.svT] ()SJ.l.dlWc5ii)(; a1ro OAS~ tic npoimoiieoeu; rwv iatopuca 1rapac5sc50J.I.I§vwv /JlOrLKWV c5oJ.l.wV roj) lzv()pm1rov- lXSI J.l.OVac5IKo 1rSP1SXOJ.l.SVO titv qJuaT] roj) xaeexaatco av()pm1rov dJ~ ovm~ avaYKwv xai titv ixavonoinon tnt; J.I.(; titv J.l.OPqJr, aqJT]pT]J.l.iV1J~ cpyaaia~ xa! xatauepiouoii rij~ epyaoiac:

O"UIl<P(()VU IlE tT]V OlKT] tlle; apxi] OEV nEplEXEl tinotu nOD OEv tieEtat IlE «tT]V IlEO"OAU~llO"ll tlie; avuYKlle; Kui ano tT]V lxcvoxotnon tOU KUeEKUO"tOU atOIlOU IlEO"(() tlie; spyuO"iue; rou Kui IlEO"(() tlie; EPyuO"iue; Kui ixuvonoinon; OA.(()V nov tmoA.ol1t(()v» «(JJL1 § 188). AutEe; elvci O"tT]V ouoin oi ~Uo"lKEe; EVVOlEe; nOD dXE aVU1ttU~El 0 ·Anull rollW (A. Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and the Causes of the Wealth of Nations, "Epeova nept rij~ qJuas~ xai rmv aitui» mj) 1rAOUrOV rwv c()vwv, Aovoivo 1776) tOY onoio Kui E1tlKUA.El-ral Pllto. il (JJIAoaoqJia toi) Sixaiou Ilu~i Ili; tOY roui (Say) xui tOY P1KUPVtO (Ricardo' (JJL1 § 189). 'Evro Oll(()e; oi eEtlKEe; avu<pOpEe; roii "EYEA.OU O"E noA.tt1Ki:; eE(()piEe; tlie; i:nuVuO"tUO"lle;, A..X. tOU Poocoto (Rousseau),

o ErEAOl KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAlTAlH 65

1tavta m:PlEiouv Kat tilv KPltlKil tite; (UpalpEtlKOtT)tae; roix Kat tite; !lOVO!lEpElUe; 1tOU slvm f:~ <>PHl!lOD UKataA.A.T)A.T) YUl tilv KataVOT)O"T) tite; icropucfj; 1tpaY!latlKOtT)rue, aA.A.T) elvui il ouunspupope tOU otav Kata<paO"KEl tilv 7rOAITllCry oixovouia. Oi 1tOA.ltlKf:e; 9EOlpiEe; tite; f:1tavaO"taO"T)e; 9ttouv VEEe; 1tOA.ltlKf:e; !lOp<pf:e; 1tapayovtae; tEe; U1tO UPXEe;, a!lEO"Oe; npoopiouo; roix dval A.Ol1tOV ouva!la va Ka9lO"tODV ouvatil tilv i:1taVaO"tatlKil XElpa<pEtT)O"T) U1tO roix; lmapKtOUe; icropucoix 9EO"!lOUe; Kat VO!llKf:e; !lOp<pf:e; Kat va KataO"tpE<pOUV roix; teA.EUtaioue; 1tpOe; O<pEA.Oe; tite; 9EO"T)e; tOD VEOU· apa roix; dVUl f:~ optO"!lOD uouvatov va imEp~ODv tilv UPVT)tlKotT)ta 1tOU U1tT)PEtODV. 'AVtl9EtOle; <> "EyeA.oe; 9EroPT)O"E 1troe; il UyyA.lKil 1toA.ltlKil oixovouio dVUl il f:rtaYOlYlKil (f:P!lT)VEUtlKil) 9EOlpia tite; ilOT) nupouonc, ioropucn ilOT) O"XTJ!latlO"!lEVT)e; xorvrovucfp; 1tpaY!latlKOtT)tae;, il<>1toia /';T)tii va Siuxpivsr O"tilv tEA.EUtaia 1tOlEe; UpXf:e; tilv OlE1tOUV roe; f:YYEvile; VO!lOtEA.Ela tT)e;. 'Eow EYKEltal Kata tOY "EYEA.O il1tPOlt01tOPlUKil O"T)!laO"ia Kat il «ruri;» autite; tite; vEae; f:1tlO"tl]!lT)e;· il O"KE'I'T) f:~aYEl tte; UpXf:e; «U1tO to a1tElpO 1tA.it90e; Ka9EKaO"tOlV 1tOU EXEl UPXlKa unpocrd tT)e;» Kat tte; uva1ttuO"O"El hO"l roe; «upXf:e; tOD 1tpaY!latOe;» U1tO-

, , \ \ , !, T , , \

O"1tOlVtae; tEe; uno tle; O"uva<pElEe; 01tOU stvm EVEpYEe; KUl

KupiapXEe; (§ 189). BpiO"KOU!lE roix; VO!lOUe; Yla Ilia «!la/,;a cru!l~E~T)KOtOlV». Kat tors <> "EYEA.Oe; 1tP00"9EtEl rnv xapaKtT)plO"tlKil 1tapatl]pT)O"T) Otl «crnv upxil Of:V mO"tEuOU!lE» autOUe; roix VO!lOUe; 1tOU EXEl f:rtE~Epya0"9El il1tOA.ltlKil oixovouic «Ylatt OA.a ouivovnn 1tapaOO!lEvn O"tilv aU9UlpEO"ia tOD Ka9EKaO"tOU UtO!lou» (§ 189 llpo0"9l]KT), t. 7, 0". 271 K.f:.).2J MEta O!lOle; OlU1tlO"trovouue 1troe; il vsorrepn xoworviu elver 01t0le; to 1tA.aVT)tlKO crUo"tT) uu, 1tOU «OeiXVEl O"ta !latla !lae; !lOVOV UKaVOVt-

l3 ttos: 587.

66 nOAXIM PITTEP

crtE<; KtVTJcrEt<; Kat fl' OA.a ruiiru 01 vouot tOU fl1tOPOUV vii yivouv yvrocrtOt» (a.Jr.). '0 ~flie Kat 01 uUOt OTJfltoUPYOt tt;<; vEa<; OlKOVOfltKt;<; E1ttcrtTJflTJ<; EXouv A.Ot7tOV yta ti1v eEropia tt;<; o.crUKt;<; xotvcovir«; ti1v iota <rTJflacria 1t00 EXEt 0 KEnA.Ep (Kepler) YU1 ti1v eEropia tt;<; 1tA.aVTJtlKt;<; KivTJcrTJ<;. 'AvixvEUcrav roi»; VOflOU<; 1t00 E~TJYOUV ti1v i')1tap~TJ Kat KaeOpiSOUv ti1v o.VU1ttU~TJ tt;<; o.crUKt;<; KOtvroviuc, "Eroi 0 "EYEA.O<; U10eEtEt ti1v Becopiu tt;<; 1tOA.t-

_, , \ T f _ '" , \

tlKTJ<; oucovojnuc Kat stvm 0 nporro; -OXt uovo crnv

F'epunviu- 1t00 ti1v ouvuprd flE ti1v <ptA.ocro<pia. 'Eo' ocrov EPYo tt;<; <ptA.ocro<pia<; slvm ~ crUUTJ'I'TJ roii xuipoo tTJ<; crE crKE'I'Et<;, ~ o.cruKi1KOtvrovia t&v 1tOA.tt&v slvoi yt' alJ'ti1v ~ EvEPYO<; 1tpaYflaUKOtTJta 01tOU o.1tavtatat ~ crUYXPOVTJ nupoucic tt;<; iOEa<;.

Auto o.1tO~aiVEt o.1to<pamcruKo yta ti1v <ptA.OcrO<ptKi1 o.VtlflEtO:l1ttcrTJ t&v 1tPO~A.TJflUtrov tt;<; 1tOA.ttlKt;<; E1taVUcrtacrTJ<;, E<p' ocrov Kat aUta 1tPE1tEt v' o.va<pEpOVtat crtt<; o.A.A.ayE<; 1t00 cruvOOEUOUV ti1v o.vuoucrTJ tt;<; o.crUKt;<; KOtveoviuq Kat va xutuvooiivtm crE crUVUptTJcrTJ fl' aUtE<;. '0 "EYEA.O<; o.vayvropisEt 1too<; 0 o.1tO<pamcrtlKO<; yto. ti1v YEVtKi1KataVOTJcrTJ tt;<; E1t0Xt;<; 1tpocrOtoptcrflO<; 1t00 o.VEOEt~E 1tprotTJ ~ 1tOA.ttlKi1 oixovouic dvat ~ eEflEA.irocrTJ tt;<; xoiveovk«; crti1v EVVOta t&v o.vaYK&v 00<; crucrtaUK&v tt;<; o.vepromvTJ<; <pucrTJ<;, E<p' ocrov auti1 ~ EVVOta o.vaOEtKVUEt ti1v Kat' o.pxi1v o.vE~aptTJcria tt;<; xoivcovim; o.1tEVaVU crE OA.E<; tt<; OEOOflEVE<; ioropixe; 1tpOU1tOeEcrEt<; Klit crUVE- 1t&<; ti1v XEtpa<pEtTJtlKi1 flOP<Pi1 crUYKPOtTJcrTJ<; tTJ<;. 'Ape tOUtTJ ~ Evvota <pUcrEro<; nupouevst KaeOptcruKi1Kat yt' autov' 0.1t' auti1v E~apt&Vtat uflEcra Kat EflflEcra OA.E<; 01 1tEpattEpro ~amKE<; EVVOtE<; tt;<; xotvorviuc, 1t00 oavdSEtat 0.1t0 ti1v o.yyA.tKi1 Bsropiu flast flE ti1v iota ti1v oootoKpatlKi1 o.PXTJ.24 'Y1toKdflEVO tt;<; xotvervim; slvci, 01tro<;

24 Naturprinzip. ,1.Ev aVQ(jlepE'tlll EiolKa crT~V 1tOA.mK~ OiKOVO-

o ErEAOl: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAHAl:H 67

(nov ~1li9, ta atOJ.1a, 0Xl ro~ 1tpO~ to crUVOAO tlie; icroplKlie;, 1tVEUJ.1atlKlie; Kat i19lKli~ u1tap~~e; rou; o.Ua -ouuqxovu J.1E tilv q>ucrtoKpatlKil o.pxil- J.10VOV roe; q>OpEle; 1tapaycoylie; Kat KataVuArocrlle;. 'H iOla i1 xotvcoviu Otaq>oponoteitrn o.1tO OAEe; tte; 1tPOllYOUJ.1EVEe; t) 1tapUUllAEe; J.10pq>Ee; xorvtoviuq Kat xotvornruc f:1tElOil1tEplOpi~Etal Kat alltil o.vtlcrtoixcoe; o.1tOKAElcrtlKa crtte; crXEcrEle; 1tOU cruVOEouv ta atOlla roe; 1tpO~ tilv ixuvonolncn tOW o.vayKrov roue J.1E tilv f:pyacria. rla tOY "EYEAO taUti~Etul cruvE1t(:oe; roe; xotvmviu J.1E to «ouornuc troy o.VUYKroV» KUt ihcrt o.1tocruvOEEtal o.VaYKacrtlKa o.1tO 61tOlEcrO~1tOtE aAAEe; crXEcrEle; OEV tJ1tUYOVtal cr' auto, J.1E o.1tOtEAEcrJ.1a 6 KataJ.1EplcrJ.10e; tlie; f:pyacriae; va Ka9icrtatat J.10VaOlKil o.pxil OlaJ.10pq>cocrlle; tlie; xowrovicc 01tCOe; crov 'Avruu ~J.1i9. 'A1to f:oro ouvnvovrm oi nspmrspm 1tPOcrOlOPlouoi. '0 XCOPlcrJ.10~ troy J.1EcrCOV f:pyacriae; o.1tO roi»; f:PYU~OJ.1EVOUe;, crUYKpOtlltlKOe; tOU KataJ.1EplcrJ.10U tlie; f:PYucriue;, 00llYEl tilv xowrovia 1tpOe; Ouo KatEU9uvcrEle;, aq>' f:VOe; 1tpOKaAEl tilv «oucoropsuon toU 1tAOUtOU» Kat tilv cruYKEVtPCOcr~ tOU crE Aiyu XEPlU, o.q>' hEPOU, f:~ aitiue; tOU «J.1EJ.10VCOJ.1EVOU KUt 1tEPlOPlcrJ.1EVOU xupaKt~pa tlie; f:1tlJ.1EpOUe; f:pyacriae;», 0llJ.1lOUPYEl «f:~Uptllcrll Kat o.VEXElU» crtilv «tU~ll 1tOU dval oEcrJ.1la autlie; tlie; f:PYucriae;», 0llAaoil i1 xoivoiviu yiVEtat ta~lKil (§ 243). rEVVa «rov OXAO» f:1tEloil «uiu IlEYUAll J.1u~a 1tEq>tEl KUtCO o.no to J.1EtpO J.1iae; 6PlcrJ.1EVlle; f:1tl~icocrlle;» (§ 244) Kat 6 0XAOe; EPXEtat o.olaJ.1EcroAu~llta o.VtlJ.1EtC01tOe; J.1E tilv tU~ll t{i)v iOlOKtlltroV (31).

'E1tEloil OJ.1COe; i1 xotvcrvln tJ1tuYEtal ouvcuu orov V0J.10 tlie; au~oucra~ 1tapaycoyli~, i1 f:crCOtEPlKil1tiEcrll 6~uvsrm Kat tilv o.vaYKu~El va f:1tEKta9El crtilv Uq>~AlO:

Ilia 'trov «qnxnoxpcttav» aA.A.u (no on ICUeE 1tOA.lnICTJ oixovouin IlEA.Etii rov c'ivepollto ro~ IpUcrtlCO av.

68 nOAXIM PITTEP

«"Omv ~ UO"'ttKT] K01VCOvia A.E1tOUPYEI U1tPOO"K01tta tmuYEta1 O"£: &VOOtEPl11tA.119uO"Il1aKT] Kat ~101l11XUV1KT] 1tpOO- 00» (§ 243)' ~ oixsin «OtUA.EK'ttKTJ» t11~ tT]V O"1tproxvEI &KtO~ Euutii~ (§ 246). npE1tE1 v' uva~l1ta KataVaA.cot£:~ Y1I1 tU «tmEpa.p19Ilu IlEO"U» t11~ (~A.. § 246) O"£: aUou~ A.UOI)~, apa v' UKOA.ov9d tOV OPOIlO tOU U1t01K10"1loiJ (§ 248). TEA.lKC1 Y1I1 tOV "Eydo ~ ~lOll11XUVtKT] Kat UO"t1- KT] tU~lKi] xoivorviu 1tPOOpi~Etat va yiVEl1tUYKOO"llta E~ uitiu~ tii~ olxeinq VOIlOtEA.E1a~· 1] axi07] rije; EAEv8Epiac; }1f: tiiv uv(JpC07ror1]!U xai roy iiv8pco7rO dx; dooe;, u7rorpaoiotixi; Yl(i tiiv axia1] rije; 7rOAlrllCije; E7raVua!Ua1]C; 7rpOe; titv 7raYICOa}11U latopia, (JE}1EAU/)VE!Ul a' avril ri]v OVVU}1El OiICOV}1EV1ICOr1]!U rije; uaTllCije; xotvosviac. 'AKOA.ov9rovtu~ allEO"u tOV 'Avrnu l:1li8 6 "EYEA.O~ SEcoPEI O"tOlXdo tii~ uO"'ttKii~ xowroviuq tT]V Sa.A.uO"O"a cO~ «IlEY10"tO IlEO"O O"UVOEO"l1~»' Il£: to &1l1tOPlO KUt tt~ O"vvaUay£:~ ~ UO"'ttKT] xoworvin Upxi~Et va Evta.O"O"Et tOU~ 1t10 U1tOllaKpOv~ A.aou~ O"tT]V O"VVa.<pEta. t11~ (§ 247) (32). AutO~ 6 O"XE'ttO"IlO~ ouvsmryerm yta tOV "EYEA.O 1tcO~ ~ 1tEpa.tcoO"TJ tOV Sa UV'ttO"tOlXTJO"Et Il£: Ola.A.VO"l1 tOU U1tOlKtaKOU crvO"tTJIlUtO~' ~ U1tEA.WSEPCOO"l1 tOW U1tOlKtcOV Sa «EUVOTJO"E1 O"£: IlEY10"tO ~aSIlO» tT]V iota tT]V «1l11tP01tOA.11», 01tCO~ 11011 ~ XEtpa<pEt11O"l1 tcOV OOUA.COV suvosi allEO"a tOU~ xuptou; tOV~ (§ 248 npOO"STJK11, t. 7,0". 322).25

§9

"Etm O"tT]v (/)IAoaorpia roB Stcaio» 6 "EYEA.O~ UKOA.OUSEI tT]V KA.UO"lKT] 1tOA.lttKT] oixovouiu KUt 1tpocoSEI E1tt tEA.OU~ tT]V xotvorvin tcOV 1tOA.ttcOV O"tO IlEO"OV tii~ <p1A.OO"o<pia~ Kat tii~ 1toA.lttKii~ SEcopiu~ t11~ cO~ tT]V EKtEtvO-

" W7, 393' U<fJLl4, 616.

o ErEAm: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAHAI:H 69

~6VT] avo. ti]v Uq>TJAlO Kat OUVo.ll6l 01KOUIl6vlKi] KOlVO>via tii~ f:pyacria~. 'Evro 0 ~EA.A.lYK Xo.V6l oAoEva Ko.86 f:1taq>i] IlE to. 1tOAl'tlKa Kat KOlVO>VlKa 1tpO~ATJllatU tii~ f:1tavo.crtacrT]~, KUPlO Ep6lcrlla tii~ v6avlKii~ q>lAia~ tOU ~E tOY "EY6AO, Kat f:Vro 0 <l>iXt6 (Fichte) -McrJ.HO~ toU crt6VOU opisOVta trov Y6PllaVtKrov cruV8T]Krov Kat Ka8' autO~ OAo>crOlOAOU f:1tapXto)tT]~- 1tapo.Y6t Kat uirairut IlE 1tP061l1t6lPlKO tP01tO 1tOAlttKa Kat vouucc ouornuurc 1tOU ~yo.S6l a1tO to K6q>o.Al roo ro~ «a1tOAUto f:Yro», Tj vsoit6PT] xoivoivlu trov 1tOAltroV Ka8icrtatat Yla tOY "EY6AO to nnvnirto 1tpO~AT]lla, aVa1tOOpacrto Yla ti]v q>lAOcrOq>tKi] <11CE"'T], UV 8EA6l vi: cruAM~6l tOY A.6yo Kat oucria

_, _~, T " \II' '\II"

tT]~ E1t0XT]~ 01t0><; stvut nuprov oro ovtu Kat 0Xl va xa-

8Et crti]v ",lAi] oo~acria Kat ti]v 1tPoypallllattKi] nupdorncn. Toirro a1toKtii a1toq>acrtcrttKi] cnuccio Yla ti]v aVnllEtro1tlcrTJ tOU tii~ raA.A.lKii~ 'E1tavo.crtacrT]<;. I'urri, xo.pT] crti]v yVo>plllia tii~ 1tOAl'tlKii~ oixovouiuc, tOU yivsnn 1tAEOV craq>E~ 1tro~ TJ iOla TJ 1rOAln1(~ snavaocaon xai (J'vvt:1r~ £1ri(J'TJ~ TJ xevtptxi; ioia rTJ~ yui r~ v £At:VBeoia uVr]1(OVV iatopixa atitv uvaov(J'TJ rij~ vea; 1(OIVWviae, 1rW; (J" ainiiv XPWCJ'ra TJ 61rava(J'ra(J'TJ r~v emxatporTJra rTJ~ xai tiiv iatoptxit uvaymlorTJra rTJ~. 'H f:Aw8Epia Yla OAOU~ dvat 0 crUYKpOtT]nKO~ opo~ tii~

I " , tI t " T \

VEa~ KOlVO>Vla~ Eq> ocov U1tOKElIlEVO tT]~ sivm ru xu-

8EKacrta utolla, 1tOU 8EO>POUVtUl Ion ytatt EXOUV oAa eoO'lKE~ aVo.YKE~ Kat Kata ouvenstu a1tOOEcrIlEUOVtal a1tO ocrou~ 8EcrIlOU~ robe 1tEPlOpiSOUV 1tOAl'tlKa ~ vouucu (cruVtEXviE~, OOUA01tapOlKia, a1tayopeucrT] ustuvdorsuO'T]~, npovoutu K.A1t.). To tOlO ouvsmryerut Tj KOlVO>VlKi] f:pyacria' 1tPOU1t08EtEl 10~ f:pyacria- ti]v f:AEU8EPT] 1l1tocrtacrT] trov Ka8EKacrto>v atOIlO>V f:1tElOi] ~acrisEtal O'to yqovo~ on to. Utolla f:Vto.crcrOVtal crti]v 1tapaYO>YlKi] OlaolKacria Kat orov aV'ticrtOlXO ~atallEptcrllO tii~ epyacria~ a1tO tOtOV crUIlq>EPOV Kat 1tpO~ Oq>EAO~ roii f:au-

70 nOAXIM PITTEP

tOU roue, apa roe; EAEU9EPOt· cuvsndx; iJ EAEU9Epia npt- 1tEt vo. icrXUEt roe; o.pxi] tije; KOtVO>VtKije; Epyacriae; (33). '0 uEYEAOe; 0.1t08eXEtat 1tAijpo>e; crti]v (/J1AocroqJia rof 01- xaiou auti] ti]v a1tO\I'TJ 1tOD dXE 118TJ onuno iu a~lWl!a_ toe yto. ti]v 1tOAltlKi] oixovouiu Kai ti]v K01VO>V1Ki] 9EWpia tTJe;. MOAOVOtt 81amcrtWVEl Kai autOe; moe; iJ apX~ tije; Epyacriae; i:1tl~apuvEl ti]v xoivoivin flE to. 1tPO~A~_ flat a ta~tKOU 8ta<poptcrflou xui crXTJflattcrflou lOU npoAEtapUltOu Kai EVro xuruvoei OAO to ~o:poe; xni ti]v 8ucroimvn crTJflacria roue, 9EO>PEi moe; iJ 9EttKOtTJta tije; VEWtEPTJe; flOp<pije; Epyacriae; EYKEttUl c' auti] ti]v avaYKaia Ylo. ti]v i8ta crUV8Ecrij tTJe; flE ti]v EAEU9Epia, 1tOD ti]v Ka91crta aVWtEpTJ OAO>V troy npovsvecrepcov uopqxov K01VO>V1Kije; 1tpO:~TJe; crti]v icroptn: "Eve; «Bionopiouo; ... fli] flEcroAa~ouflEVOe; a1to ti]v Epyacria» Kai iJ aVEAEu9EPTJ Epyacria aVtiKEtVtat crti]v «apxi] tije; acrttKije; K01- vo>viae; 1tOAttroV Kai crtO aicr9TJfla aVE~aptTJcriae; Kai a~to1tpe1tEtae; troy atOflO>v tTJC;» (§ 245).26 ~UVE1troe;, iJ acrttKi] xotvrovic flEta~o:UEl 810. uscoo tije; Epyacriac; Kat' aVO:YKTJV tOY «i81WtTJ 1tOD a1tocrK01tEi crtO i8taitEpO crufl<pepOv roo» (§ 187) crE 1tOAitTJ Kai lmoKEiflEvo tijc; VEWtEPTJe; xotvorvicc, Kai 0 "EYEAOe; unops] vo. OVOflO:sEt PTJto. to EAEU9EPO atOflO «1tat8i tije; acrttKije; K01VO>viae; 1tOAttroV» (§ 238).

'H i:1tavacrtattKi] i8ea tije; EAEU9Epiae; OAO>V 9EflEAtWVEtat AOt1tOV ornv Efl<PO:VtcrTJ tije; VEWtEPTJe; KOtVO>-

, -, , "f , T ~, ,

vtuc tTJe; Epyacrtae;' autTJ TJ KOtVO>Vta swm TJ uvuyxrnu

1tPOU1t09EcrTJ tije; EAEU9Epiae; OAO>V Kai 0 opoe; SovurotTJtO:C; tTJC;, 01tOtE Kai 0 <ptAocrO<ptKOe; Kai 1tOAltlKOC; Opt-

" ·Oq>£iA.co va i:7nClTlI.uiv<o 1t~ 0 Pirrsp a1toO"t<01tu i:&iJ tTjv ouvaq>Eta: '0 "EYEAO~ XPT]0"11101tOIEl aut£~ ti~ 9Eo"EI~ Yla v' apVT]9El tTjv iOl<Otl1CTj it Kpam::Tj ~Oit9Eta 1tpO~ roi»; a1topou~ aKOI1T] Kat uv O"UVOOEUEtat (J.1tO EiOIKa 9EO"I109EtT]I1EVT] i:pyaO"ia.

o ErEAm: KAt H rAAAtKH EnANA1:TAI:H 71

C1J.10e; tlie; EAEU9Epiue; <><pdAEt, KUta tOY "EYEAO, va EIlJ.16VEt C1tilv xotvoivucf crTJllucriu Kui lmocrtucrTJ tlie; EAEU- 9Epiue; roe; EAEU9Epiue; tOU 1tOAltTJ27 crtO 1tAuicrto tlie; KOtvwvu(lie; OOJllie; 1tOD 9EtOUV T] Epyucriu Kui <> KUtUJlEptC1J.10e; tTJe;·

Auto (l1tO~UiVEt U1tO<pUcrtcrttKO. To yqovoe; Ott ta

iOAtttKa 1tpO~Al]JlUtU tlie; EnUvucrtucrTJe; 1tUPUJlEVOUV iiAutU ouvnprdrm KUta tOY "EYEAO JlE tilv uvti<pucrTJ 1tOD U1tOtEAEi T] rl1tUp~TJ OtxucrJlOU oro 9EttKO xui xoouourroptKO 1tEptEXOJlEVO tlie; E1tUvucrtucrTJe;, tilv EAEU9Epiu· T] lOtU T] E1tUVUcrtucrTJ 9EWPEi moe; T] 9EcrTJ tTJe; UVtiKEttUt EYYEvroe; c' OAEe; tie; icropuce OEOOJlEVEe; OOJlEe; Kui tOY 1tUAUtO lcropuco KOcrJlO· u1toti9EtUt 1troe; T] 1toAtttKil 1tpuYJlUtwcrTJ tlie; E1tUvucrtUttKlie; 9EcrTJe; E1tt<PEPEt to tEAOe; tlie; JlEXpt tropu tcrtopiue;· <> "EYEAOe; <>VOJlUSEt tilv EAW9Epiu tlie; EnUvucrtucrTJe; «UPVTJttKl]», «U<pTJPTJJlEVTJ» E~ uitiue; uutlie; tlie; acruvEXEtUe; EVUVtt tlie; tcrtopiue;· T] apvTJttKOtTJtU tTJe; tilv JlEtU~UnEt crE «uavin u<pUVtouoii»: tilv ro9Ei crtilv UUtOKUtUcrtpo<Pl], EVro ouvcuu EYKUAEi roe; UVti9EtO tTJe; tie; 1tuAtvop9wttKEe; OUVUJlEte; 1tOD crtOXEUOUV crtilv E1tUVU<pOpa tOU 1tUAUtoU KOcrJlOU EVUVttU oro EnUVUcrtUttKO tEAOe; tiie; outtKiie; loropicc Kui <PtAOOO~ouv v' UVUVErocrOUV tOY 1tUAUtO KOcrJlO, cOcrtE va ~E1tEpucr9d T] E1tUVUcrtucrTJ Kui Etcrt va crw9d T] oooiu tOU uv9pro1tou. 'H 1toAtttKil crUYKPOtTJcrTJ tlie; EAEU- 9Epiue; U1tO tilv i:1tuvucrtucrTJ lmuYEtUt AOt1tOV crov VOJlO tou OtxucrJlou· KUptU crUV9l]KTJ tlie; i:1toxlie; ElVUt 6 OtXUcrJloe;. Autoe; ~tUV T] u<pEtTJPiu tOU "EYEAOU KUta tilv U1to<pucrtcrttKil yta tilv OtUIlOP<pwcrTJ tlie; <ptAocro<piue; roo 1tEvtuEtiu 1795-1800· EVUVttU crtilv 1tpuYJlO1totTJttKil UVttKEtJlEVtKOtTJtU tiie; OtUVOtUe; Kui tiie; Otu<pwttcrttKlie; uywYlie;, T] lmOKEtJlEVtKOtTJtU E1ttOtroKEt va OtUcrrocrEt crE opo-

21 Biirgerliche Freiheit. ·AA.~: «acrTlK~ EA.EU9Epia».

72 rJOAXIM PITTEP

vT]llata Kat ai0"8T]llata to dipnio, UA118E~ Kat lEPO 1tOD ~ buivota U1tEIl1tOAEt U1tO tijv btKT] tl1~ 1tpaYllattKOtl1- tu Kat to U1tObEO"IlEUEt. Kat 1l0VO IlE tijv buiyv<OO"l1 autli~ tli~ btaAEKttKli~ EVOtl1ta~ imOKEtllEVtKOtl1ta~ Kat UVttKEtIlEVtKOtl1ta~, 0 "EYEAO~ KataAUIl~avE Ilia 8EO"ll 1tOD tOU E1tEtPE1tE vb: hVOEt tOY btXaO"IlO Kat tijv uO"uvEXEta 8EttKa. ro~ 1l0P<Pij tli~ ioroptxfp; O"uvEXEta~ xui svornrcc. 'OO"toO"o 1tapEIlEVE O"u'YXpov<o~ uO"a<pE~ ytati ~ Op80AoytO"ttKij 1tpaYIlO1toil1O"l1 tli~ 1tpaYllattKOtl1ta~ EIl<pavi~Etat ro~ bUO"tUXl11la Kat ro~ EiO"~OAij Iltii~ buva- 1l11~ EX8ptKli~ 1tpO~ tijv oumaKij svornrc tOU lO"tOptKOU ~iou, hID ~ imOKEtllEVtKOtl1ta U1tO tijv IlEpui tl1~ U1tOllaKpUVEt U1tO rnv UVttKEtllEVtKij 1tpaYllattKotl1ta O,tt 8EAEt vi: bta<puAa~Et, to 8EtEt ro~ Katt imOKEtIlEVtKO, Ktlilla tli~ Ka8apli~ EO"<OtEPtKOtl1ta~, Kat to uerurpenst EtO"t U1tO IlEPOU~ tl1~ O"E Katt E~<01tpaYllattKO, UO"XEtO 1tta. 1tpO~ tOY UVttKEtllEVtKO KOO"IlO. Auto dvat 0 <ppay- 1l0~ 1tOD imapXEt E'Y'YEVID~ 0"' OAE~ tt~ 1l0P<PE~ imOKEtIlEvtKli~ O"UIl<PtAi<OO"l1~ Kat U<pT]VEt UVOtKtO to 1tpO~Al1lla tOU btxaO"IlOu Ka8' ai.Jtou Kat tou 8EttKOU lO"tOptKOU VOT]llatO~ ton. 'H (Jcwpia ,ijr; aanKijr; «oivmviac nl)V 7rOAIui>v YAmovcI T(JV "Eydo a7ro av,~ titv J.lOpqJ~ eototeptKij~ avv8IaUayijr;' i1ClqJipCI titv anoeaoumxii atpoqJ~ xa! toi) avoiyei 8popo 7rpOr; tiiv (J£TIK~ epunveia emr; xai toi) 8lxaapov xai ,ijr; avnxeiuevixomu»; 7rOV rov 7rpow(Jc i.

'H EVVOta <pUo"E<O~ tli~ 1tOAtttKli~ oixovouicc U1tl1PErsi tijv ibta IlE80btKij oxomuornrc Il' OAE~ ti~ eucnoKpattKE~ VOlltKE~ 11 1tOAtttKE~ 8E<opiE~ tou bEKatOU E~86llou Kat tOU bEKatOU oy06ou airova, tijv U1tOtP01tij tli~ aUll1tAEUO"l1~ IlE EVVOtE~ Kat UPXE~ 1tOD UVT]KOUV O"tt~ lO"tOPtKa. 1tpOU1tapxouo"E~ bOIlE~ Kat O"tijv IlEta<puO"tKij Kat 8EOAOytKij Bseopin roue, 1tpOKEtIlEVOU ~ veeorepn xoivcovia va. Il1tOPEt 1tta. vi: 8E<opEttat UIlEO"O <patVOIlEVO

o ErEAOl: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAl:TAl:H 73

tii~ av9pro1tlVll~ <PUcrll~, Illa~ <pucrll~ 7tOV A.Oyi~EtUl ffi~ <rta9Epil nnp' OA.E~ tt~ icrtOpl1d:~ o.nayf.~, 7tOV 9EroPEttal o.vE~UPtlltll o.7tO tilv icropin. Avtl9f.tro~ 6 uEYEA.o~ KataA.a~aivEl 7tffi~ avtil ~ <PU<rll, <rta9Epil Kat <rUVE7tro~ aVl<rtOplKil <rUIl<Prova Ilf: tilv obcovouixf 9Eropia, o.7tOtEA.Et to ioropuco xapaKtllPlcrtlKO yvropl<rlla tii~ o.crtlKii~ xoivorviuc, EK<PpU~El tilv XElpa<pf.tllcr~ tll~ o.7t' OA.E~ tt~ 7tpOYEVf.<rtEPE~ icropucsc OOIlf:~ Kat <rUVE7tro~ xurullaptUPEt tilv XElpa<pEtlltlKil <rUYKPOtll<r~ tll~. ~tilv tPlAo<rocpia mv ollcaiov ~ OavEl<rIlf.Vll o.7tO rnv 7toA.ltlKil oixovouiu <pucrlOKpatlKil o.pxil tii~ xorvorvinc svvoeinn <rUVE7tro~ Kat ffi~ ~ latopucit o.pxil tii~ XElpa<pEtlltlKii~ <rUYKPOtll<r~~ tll~. 'AVf.PXEtal <rtilv icropin ffi~ ~ ouvaIlll Ota<POPl<rIlOU, ffi~ «Sicoopc», Kat xropi~El tt~ ioropiKf:~ OOIlf:~ tOU olKOU Kat tii~ 7tOA.Ero~ o.7tO to KOlVroVlKO OV tOU o.v9pro7tou. Eicrf.PXEtal «IlEta~V» oixoveveicc Kat 7toA.ltda~, tt~ «OlXU~W>, e<p' ocrov E~f.PXEtUl tii~ ouvu<PElU~ tOU~ Kat o.7tOoEcrIlEUEl ihm xorvcovucu tilv lmap~ll tOU Ka9EKU<rtOU o.tOIlOU o.7tO tOY il9lKO Kat 9PllcrKCUtlKO 7tPO<rOlOPl<rIlO 7tOV to <rt~Pl~E Ilf.XPl tropa <rtilv ioropiu (~A.. § 182, § 184 IIpo<r9~Kll, t. 7, o. 264).28 'Eroi elver dlA.OYO Ylati OA.E~ oi imOA.Ol7tE~ <pu<rlOKpatlKf:~ i:VVOlE~ «xoivrovinq», «o.VUYKTt~» Kat «ixcvonoincnc o.vaYKroV», «Epya<ria~» Kat «xutuuepicuoii Epya<ria~» 7tOV oavd~Etal 6 "EYEA.o~ nupuuevoov Kata tilv yvrollTt tOU «o.<PTtPTtIlf.VE~» i:VVOlE~' 7tEPlf.XOUV tilv o.7tOOf.<rIlCU<rTt tii~ xorveoviuq Kat tii~ 7tpU~Tt~ tTt~ o.7tO tilv irrropin tii~ Katayroyii~. "Etot 6 a.vepro7tO~ ffi~ tmoKdllEvO tii~ xotvcoviuq nupuuevet ~f.~ata Kat Yla tOY "EYEA.o, 07tro~ Yla tilv 7toA.ltlKil oixovouiu, 6 7tapayroyo~ Kat xutuvuA.rotil~ 7tOV E1tl~lltEt tilv ixcvonoincn trov o.vaYKrov tOU o.7tO rnv Epya<ria, o.7tOcrK07tEt crtilv avto<ruvt~PTt<r~ tOU

l8 W7, 340-341' I1f1>Ll3, 571-574.

74 nOAXIM PITTEP

Kat O"tTtV aU~llO"ll tii~ nspiouoiuq tOU, una tOUtO enuuivsi tautOxpova yt' uurov 1tro~ TJ xorveovia xsptopi/;;€tat O"tTtv <PUO"ll tOU UVepID1tOU ro~ OVtO~ uvaYKrov Kat U1tOO€O"J.1€U€t tTtV 1tPU~ll tOU UVepID1tOU U1tO tt~ icropiKE~ tll~ cruVU<P€I€~. Movo J.1f: tTtV 1tpOU1tOe€O"ll autii~ tii~ U1tOOEO"J.1€UO"ll~ J.11tOP€l 0 uvepro1tO~ va Aoyi/;;€tat ro~ epya/;;oJ.1€vo~, 1tapayroyo~ 11 KataVaArotT]~, UO"XEtro~ tOU ti uno elvm, AutTt TJ OtuyvroO"ll ElVal to u1to<paatO"tlKO ~iiJ.1a tOU "Eydou 1tEpaV tii~ 1tOAtttKii~ OiKOVoJ.1ia~. ;t\ VTlAaJ1.!3a VEra I rryv 8EJ1.EAlWU1J rij~ xoivtoviac atitv ((JrJU1J dx; titv J1.0p((Jry avrov6J1.1J(j1J~ r1J~ tl1rO titv iatopia rij~ Kararwrij~, XElpa((Jir1J01]~ r1J~ tl1rO avnJv. 'H tlVI-

• ~ _ , T t t ., ,

atoptxn ((Juu1J r1J~ KOIVWVza~ Elval 1J IUropIK1J ouma

r1J~' auto to KatUAa~€ 1tprotO~ 0 "EY€AO~ (34) Kat £tat KatEO"tllO"av ouvatf:~ TJ eEO"ll Kat TJ i:1tiAUO"ll tOU 1tpO~AT]uuro; tii~ X€tpa<pEtllO"ll~, f:<P' oO"ov 1tPOKU1tt€t 1tro~ to. 1tpO~AT]J.1ata tOU OtXaO"J.10U Kat tii~ iO"tOPIKii~ UO"UVEX€ta~ 1tOD O"ElOUV tTtV i:1tOXTt uvuyovtat O"tTtV UVUOUO"ll tii~ xoivcrvinc Kat tie€vtat U1tO tTtV X€tpa<p€tlltlKTt cruyKPOtllaTJ tll~. Auto Of:V ElVat OAO: l:uJ.1<prova J.1f: tOV "EveAO TJ ouoic tii~ V€IDt€Pll~ 1tOAtttKii~ i:1tavuO"taO"ll~, 1tOD tTtv Suncptvei U1tO OA€~ tt~ Un€~ J.10p<pf:~ uvatpo1tii~, O"tUO"ll~, f:~EY€PO"ll~ 111tpa~tK01tT]J.1ato~, Of:V EYK€ttat rooo O"tTtV dOtKTt 1tOAtttKTt J.10P<PTt ~ta\01tpayia~ una O"tTtV KOtVroVtKTt X€tpa<pEtllO"ll 1tOD tTtV O"tllPi/;;€t Kat O"tTtV eEO"1ttO"ll OOJ.1rov 1tOD O"t€POUVtat U~lroJ.1attKa KUe€ 1tpOU1tOe€O"ll~, 1tOD slvci ob» pt/;;OO"1taO"tlKa vEa uPX1] UV€U 1tPOllYOUJ.1EVOU Kat U1tOKAElOUV O,tl 1tPOU1tUPX€I, O,tl slvci icropuco Kat 1tapaO€OOJ.1EVO. AutTt TJ i:1tavucreon tii~ X€tpa<pEtllO"ll~ uvuy€tat ev tEA€1 Yla tOV "EY€AO, 01tOt€~ Kat nv elvor oi J.10p<pE~ tll~, O"tTtv uO"ttK1] xorveovic 1tOAttroV' aut1] TJ xoivoviu slvct TJ iota Kata ~ueo~ TJ f:1tavuO"taO"ll 1tOD UJ.1<PtO"~llt€l Kat peocroxoisi to. 1tuvta ~aeUt€pa Kat xptcnuorspu U1tO 01tOlaOT]1tOt€

o ErEAOI: KAt H rAAAtKH EOANAI:TAI:H 75

1tOAttlKil E1tavU<Jta(Hl, 8E8ciJ.1iVOU Ott UUUSEt aJ.1E<Ja tilv <JUYKEKPtJ.1iVT] uvSpro1ttvT] i'map~T], KUtt1tOV i<JXUEt UKOJ.1T] Kat Otav ---01tOl<; <Jtilv 'AYYAia- 1tpaYJ.1at01tOtEttat XOlpt<; 1tOAttlKil uvatpo1t11·

'0 "EYEAO<; KataAiJYEt AOt1tOV Ott 1, xoivoivin slvm Kat 1, KtVT]tiJpta 8uvaJ.1T] tii<; 1tOAttlKii<; E1tavu<Jta<JTK 1, KOtVOlVia d<JUYEt tOY 8tXa<JJ.10 <Jtilv irrropin, OXt <JXEttKa J.1E KU1tOta bri J.1ipou<; 1tEptoxil tii<; uvSpro1ttVT]<; sOlii<;, 1tpuYJ.1a 1tOV Sa i:1titPE1tE tilv 1tapUKaJ.1'1'T] tii<; Katvorouiuc (01tOl<; J.11t0POU<JE Kavd<; va 8tatT]pEttat 1tVEUJ.1attKa UAro~T]tO<; U1tO tilv 1tat8da tOU ~tacpOltt<JJ.10U), uUa m<; tilv KaSOpt<JttKil yta to nopov Kat to J.1iUov 1tpaYJ.1attKOtT]ta 1tOV xapaKtT]pisEt tilv uvSpro1ttVT] rmap~T] ECP' o<Jov EmtEAdtat npuxrucd. WEt<Jt yiVEtat uva1to8pa<JtT] uoipn OAOlV. "0J.10l<; 1, KOtVOlVtKil ~u<JT] tii<; XEtpacpitT]<JT]<; cpavEprovEt E1ti<JT]<; tilv (}enKr, <JT]J.1a<Jia Kat ouvensin tOU 8txa<JJ.10u Kat tii<; ucpT]pT]J.1iVT]<; UVt<JtOpucorrrtuq 1tOV auto<; <JUVE1tuYEtat. 'Enuvccrcrncn Kat 1taAtVOpSOlttKil SEOlpia 8EV u1tEp~aivouv OUtE 1, uin OUtE 1, aUT] tilv ucpT]pT]J.1ivT] uVttt<J'tOptKil UPVT]ttKOtT]ta. 'Evro, UVttSitOl<;, SEttKO 1tpo<J8tOpt<JJ.10 u1totEAd to YEyovo<; Ott 1, KOtVOlVtKil XEtpacpitT]<JT] U1t08E<JJ.1EUEt to «crU<JtT]J.1a trov uvaYKroV» U1tO rnv ouvcestc tii<; ioroptKii<; KataYOlyii<; Kat to UVE~aptT]t01tOtEt. 'H xelpaqJirl1- mJ neoiopite: titv xoivoivia ato qJV<J'lKO neoio rij~ av(}PW1!lVl1~ V1!ap~l1~, atitv ixavonoinon aVarKmV Ola rij~ (;prauia~ xa! atitv «qJV<J'lKr, /3ovAl1Ul1» toii av(}pw1!OV, aqJrJvovra~ Erul (;Aev(}epe~ tic V1!OAOl1!e~ ouvtupetsi; rij~ t;wij~ mv. '0 aqJl1pl1pivo~ xapaKrrJpa~ rij~ «oivtoviac Exel ro rozo xepterouevo u' auro rov nepioptouo trp; urr,v qJvmJ rmv aVarKmV xai ouvexdx; (;Aev(}epwvel ti; pr, avarwrlpe~ otiiv teseotaia /3zonKE~ uxiuel~. I'i' auto tOY AOYO <> "EYEAO<; SEOlpd Kat auto<; 1tm<; <> aVSpOl- 7to<; m<; lmOKdJ.1EVO tii<; u<J'ttKii<; xotveoviuq 7tOAttroV el-

76 nOAXIM PITTEP

vm o «a<pT}P'lflEVOe;» (ivepO)1tOe; 1tOV a1tOoEcrflEuE'tal a1to 'tte; icropixe; Kat1tVEUflanKi:e; crXEcrEle; 'tOU Kat umiYE'tat cr't~V icornru 1tOV 1tpOmOUi~El o rnv <pucrT} 'tOU roe; i:voe; OV'tOe; fli: aVUYKEe;. 'Evm 6 (ivepO)1tOe; dvat «npooro- 1t0» cr'to OlKaLO Kat «U1tOKElflEVO» (fli: 't~V xuvncvh onueoic) cr't~V ~elKtl, ft «flEAOe; OtKOYEVElae;» cr't~V OtKOYEVEla, Aoyoe; YlU «ro crUYKEKPlflEVO bv 'tlie; nupdorucrT}e; 1tOV AEYEml "(ivepCIl1tOe;"» yiVE'tat «a1to 'tT]v oxom« 'tmv avaYKmv» Kat (01tClle; 1tpocreE'tEl Kat 'tOVi~El 6 "EYEAOe;) «1tpm'ta tom Kat fluAlcrm KupLOAEKnKU flOVOV i:om» (§ 190). '0 (ivepCIl1tOe; ll1tUPXEl YlU 't~v acrnK~ xoivrovic i:1tElO~ elvoi (ivepW1tOe; Kat 0Xl i:1tElO~ slvci i:~paioe;, KaeOAlKOe;, olaflap'tupOflEVOe;, Fepuuvoq, 'l'taAoe; (§ 209)' oi oOfli:e; 'tlie; icr'tOplKlie; Ka'taYCIlYlie; 'tOU, floAovon dval a1to<pamcrnKi:e; YlU 't~v OlKtl 'tOU i'l1tap~T}, oi:v U1tElcrEPxov'tal AOl1tOV cr't~v xoivrovln- i:om o<pEiAE'tal 6 a<pT}pT}flEVOe; Kat uvioropucoc xapaK'ttlpae; 'tOt> KOlVWVlKU rseElflEVOU avepromvou ov'tOe;, 6 o1toioe; Kaeopi~El cruyXPOVCIle; 't~v 1tOAmK~ eECIlpia 'tlie; i:1tavucr'tacrT}e; Kat 't~v apVT}nK~ tOEa i:AEUeEpiae; 1tOV 'tlie; aVtlKEl. XnpnxrnpicrnKo OflClle; au'tlie; 'tlie; a<patPEnKo'tT}'tae; orov xmpo 'tlie; xoweoviuq a1to'tEAEi ouvuuu 6 xsptoptouo; 'tlie; 'tEAEUruiuc cr't~v <pumK~ olucr'tacrT} 'tlie; avepromvT}e; rl1tap~T}e; Kat cr't~v crXEnK~ ixuvonoinrrn 'tmv avaYKmv a1to 't~v i:pyacria. 'Eom sYKEl'tal ~ eEnK~ onunoiu 'tT}e;, 1tOV OlKaLOAoYEi 't~v eEcrT} roii "EYEAOU on 1tEplqoflEvo 'tlie; xotveoviuq a1to'tEAEi ~ «U1tOKElflEVlKO'tT}'t(l») uovar« «roe; 1tpOe; 't~v <pUcrtK~ U1tOKElflEVlK~ i'l1tap~tl 'tT}e;, 'tte; avuYKEe;, KAicrEle;, 1tUeT}, oo~acriEe;, smvoncsu;» (§ 123). ~K01tOe; 'tT}e; dval a1tOKAElcrnKu Kat flOVOV ~ «eunuepin» (Wohl, wealth, happiness) 'tmv avepro1tCllV, 01tClle; AEEl 110T} ~ 1t0- AmK~ obcovouic: (ipa 6 crK01tOe; 'tT}e; eiYEl flOVO 't~V i:~CIlrepucn, <pUcrlK~ r)1tap~T} 'tmv avepro1tWv' 6 crK01tOe; tuu'ti~Eml fli: 'tte; «oxomuornre; 'tlie; 1tEpa'to'tT}'tae;») (§ 123)

o ErEAOI: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAHAI:H 77

KUt EtO"l tUUtOXPOVU OEV lmUYEl cmv KOlVOlViu OCTOUC; 1tPOCTOlOPlCTJ.lOUC; tOU 1tPOCTO)1tOU KUt tTjc; 1tPOCTOl1tlKTjC; u1tap~l1C; imEp~uivouv tilv eonuepic. 'Ee' OCTOV 1] KOIvaivia 1C£pliX£1 J10VO riW«rpVCTlKr, f30VA1}CT1J» toi) Czv(}pm- 1COV, rov Czrp~V£1 tiiv iA£rJ(}£P1} t5UZ(}£CT1} rrov «CzA1}(}'VroV 1CPOCTt5WPICTJ1roV rij; iA£V(}£pia9) xai rij; ixavotntti; rov Vii slva: 0 eaino; rov. Avrr, 1] &A£V(}iPOJCT1} elvai ro ()£r1KO latopixo v01}J1a rij; Czrp1}p1}J1iv1}; &Aw(}£pia; xai rij; X£lparp£r1}r1Kij; CTVrKpOr1}CT~; r1}; J1iCTOJ toi) t5lxaCTJ10V. 'E1tElOil CTK01tOC; tTjc; KOlVOlViuC; dVUl (l1tOlCAElCTttKa KUt J.lOVOV ~ «sunuepiu» tOU aVepO)1tOU, OEV eerst xuvsvnv CTK01tO KUtUCTtPE1tttKO Yla to OiKUlO tTjc; lOlUltEPOtlltUC;, (ipu Yla tilv OUO"luKil f:AWeEpiu tOU iivepO)1tOu. XUPll aKPl~roC; CTtOV a<PllPllJ.leVO aVlCTtOPlKO XUpUKtTJPU tllC; 1tUPUXOlPEl ~ KOlVOlViu CTtilv U1tOKElJ.lEvucotrrtu to OlKUiOlJ.lU tTjc; lOlUltEPOtlltUC;.

"Erot ~ aVUAUCTll tTjc; aCTttKTjC; xotvmviuq 1tOAltrov KUt ~ <pUCTlOKPUtlKil aPXTJ tllC; KUelCTtOUV CTU<PEC; Yla tOY "EYEAO 1troc; 6 OlXUCTJ.lOC; 0Xl J.lOVO OEV 6011YEt a1tUpuitllru CTtOV f:KJ.lll0EVlCTJ.l0 tTjc; KOCTJ.lOtCTtOPlKTjC; CTuveXEluc;, aUa Ion iCTa a1totdEl tOY opo 1tOU tilv KUelCTtU OUVUtil KUt dVUl CTE eeCTll va f:~UCT<puAi~El tilv OlUtTJPllCTll trov OUO"lUKroV OOJ.lrov tTjc; KUtUYOlyTjC; CTtO EOU<pOC; tOU vecetEpOU KOCTJ.lOU. '0 AOrO; 1COV ivv1CaPX£1 CTro napov t5ev napiatatai atiiv 6CTOJr£pIKr, t5!arpvAa~1} rij; rJ1COK£IJ1£VIKOr1}ra; 1COV Czvarpip£ral CzVrI(}£r1Ka 1CpO; tiiv KOIVOJVIKr, xai 1COAIrIKr, 61CavaCTraCT1}, CzAAa orov {t5w roy 15,xaCTJ10, opo Bvvatomttu; rij; 6CTOJr£pIKij; t5!arpvAa~1};. To KOCTJ.lOtCTtOPlKO VOllJ.lU tTj~ f:1tUVUCTtUCTllC; ouvicrurct lCUta tOY "Eydo CTtilv CTlCelJlll Ott ~ f:AWeEpiu dVUl to OlKUiOlJ.lU OAOlV trov avepro1tOlV. "OJ.lOlC; ~ 1tpuYJ.lUtOlCTll UUtTjc; tTjc; CTlCelJlllC; lCUelCTtU avuYlCuiu tilv XElPU<PetllCTll tTjc; lCOlVOlViuC; a1tO ttC; lCTtOPlKEC; 1tpOU1tOeeCTElC; tTjc; KUtUyOlyTjC;. 'H KOlVOlViu yiVEtUl oixouuevucn YlUtl OEV

78 nOAXIM PIDEP

m;plAall~uvEl tOV icropuco npoofitopiouo tOW av9prorerov Kat oO"a lOU~ Siuxpivouv i:rcElO~ aV~Kot)v O"f: OtaCPOPEtlKOU~ Aaou~ Kat EXOt)V OlacpopEtlKf:~ reVWllatlKf:~ Kat 9PTJo"KWtlKf:~ KatayroyE~. Mnopei va O"t)llreEplAU~El OAOt)~ tOU~ av9proreot)~ ro~ av9proreot)~ ro~ repo~ rnv ioornru tli~ CPUO"TJ~ roix, ouv ovta Ilf: aVUYKE~, Kat tli~ acpTJPTJIlEVTJ~ f:pyaO"ia~. "OJlOl~ auto arealtEt tOV OlXaO"llo' Yla tOV "EYEAO 6 olxaO"ll0~ elvm AOlTCOV 9EtlKa Kat 6 A6- yo~ Yla tOV oxoiov il-Kat' avuYKTJV O"t)YKpOtTJtlK~ tli~ xoivroviuc- aVlO"lOplK~ acpatpEtlKotTJta Of:V f:KOlKUi;El areapalt~tro~ t~V aVtlOlKia tTJ~ Ilf: rnv iotopin, Kat O"VVETC(O~ Of:V f:KIlTJOEvii;El t~V f:Aw9Epia lOU av9proreot) vi:

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stvm 0 suuroc roo IlTJtE tl~ ioropucsc Ot)O"lE~ nou tTJ~

T , ,

stvm unupurrnrsq,

'EvcO il qnxnoxpurucit 9Eropia tli~ xotvmvinc, ElO"l orero~ t~V oavEii;Etal 6 "EYEAO~ areo t~V reOAltlK~ OtKOvouin, Of:V O"t)i;TJtii t~V O"XEO"TJ tTJ~ repo~ t~V ioropiu, 6 "EYEAO~ f:TClAUEl CPlAOO"OCPlKa to repo~ATJlla autli~ tli~ O"XEO"TJ~. To nupov Ka90pii;Etal areo t~V KOlVroVlK~ Kat rnv reOAltlK~ f:reavuO"taO"TJ 0"' OAa to. reEOla tli~ somrsPlKli~ Kat f:~rotEPlKli~ i;roli~' xnuin CPlAOO"OCPlK~ Bsmpin Of:V unopsi va reapa~A.E"'El aut~ t~V repoure09EO"TJ' Ollro~ il iOla unopei f:~ Ioou va Aoyii;Etal ro~ i:rcox~ tli~ reayxoouiu; icropinc. 'R OlUO"roO"TJ tli~ O"t)vEXEla~ tli~ reayxoouu«; icropiuq Kat lOU revEUllatO~ tTJ~ Of:V slvci 1l0- vov EPYO tli~ ureOKEtllEVlKotTJta~ Kat tli~ f:O"rotEPlKli~ O"t)Vt~PTJO"~~ tTJ~ ana tli~ iOla~ tli~ KOlVroVlKli~ Ilopcpli~ lOU olxaO"ll0U, f:CP' OO"OV 6 xeptoptouo; tli~ xoivorvicc O"t~V cpuO"TJ tcOV avaYKcOV Kat O"t~V aVtlKElIlEVlK~ repayIlroOTJ repaYllatlKotTJta nob tli~ repoO"lolUi;El f:KXroPEt O"t~V unoxetuevucornru to olKairolla O"t~V tOlaltEpotTJtU tTJ~ Kat O"t~V f:Awgepia tTJ~ Kat tli~ acp~VEl ElO"l aVOlKt~ t~V Sovarorrrtu tli~ O"t)Vt~PTJO"TJg.

"Ouox; auto onuuivei f:reiO"TJ~ Yla tOV "EYEAO TC(O~ i1

o ErEAOI: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAHAI:H 79

iota iJ acrnKll xotvcovin 'trov ~OAt'troV OEV tmUPXEt nsptxupuKroJlEVll cr'tllv qnxnoxpurucf apXtl 'tll~, ana npou- 1t09E'tEt oAodllPO 'tOY 1tOAtttcrJlO WU av9pomou 01tro~ a1tOKpucr'tuAAw911KE cr'tllV xoouoicropucf !:pyucriu 'tOU Myou, iiv KUt iJ tOtUltEPll 9Eropiu 'tii~ xorvorviuc, 1tOD cr'tllpi~E'tat JlOVO cr'tllv qnxnoxpurucf aPXtl, OEV slvm crE 9Ecrll va. a~to1tOttlcrEt KUt va. !:KCPPUcrEt uu'tll 'tllv tmuyroytl 'tll~· 'R cptAocrocpiu 'tOU uEYEAOU 1tPE1tEt AOt1tOV va. tmEp~Ei uu'tll 'tllv 9Eropiu' !:vro acp' i:vo~ KU'tUVOEi 'tllv !:JlCPUVtcrll 'tii~ acrnKii~ xoivoivtce; 1tOAttrov KUt 'tii~ i:1tuvucr'tucrll~ 1tOD !:m'tEAEi'tut gmt JlE ~ucrll 'tllv OtKtl 'tll~ cpucrtoKpunKll aPXtl, acp' hEPOU crXE'ti~Et crUVUJlU rnv xoivorvin JlE 'tllv !:1tiyvrocrll 1tOD CPUAUcrcrE'tUt cr'tllv 1tUpUSoon 'tii~ CPtAocrocpiu~, on lmuPXEt gnOYll ouciu oA.6- KAllPll~ 'tii~ 1tUYKOcrJltU~ ioropinc, I;' uu'tllv Jla~ 1tUpU- 1tEJl1tEt 'to 'tEAO~ 'tii~ tP1AoCTo<pia~ 'WV Sixaioo. 'R 1tOAt'ttKll oixovouic KUt iJ xotvtovucn Bsmpiu 'tll~ 1tUpU~AE- 1tOUV KU't' aVUYKllV uu'tll 'tllv gnOYll ooclu, 'to «crotXEio tmup~ll~ 'tOU Ku90AtKOU voii», «rnv vonrucn svepyo 1tpuYJlU'ttKo'tll'tU JlE OAO 'to dipo~ !:crro'tEPtKO'tllta~ KUt !:~ro'tEptKO'tn'tU~ rnc» (§ 341), yta'tt iJ 1tOAtttKll OtKOvouiu 1tPE1tEt va. 9E'tEt !:V'to~ 1tupEv9EcrEro~ KUt va. aCPUtpEi Ku9E rt icropuco O'tUV aVUmUcrcrEt 'tllV !:crro'tEptKll apxll 'tii~ xotvorviuq KUt 'tOD~ VOJlOU~ JlE'tU~OAii~ 'tll~· 'Av'tt9E'tro~ iJ cptAocrocpiu unopei v' aVU1t'tUcrcrEt 9EnKa. 'tllv crXEcrll 1tpO~ 'tllV icropucn KU'tUyroytl, 1tOD uU'tll rou'tll' cruVU1tUPXEt ornv XEtPUCPE'tll'ttKll crUYKPO'tllcrll ana. !:~UCPUVi~E'tUt cr'tllv cpucrtoKpu'ttKll 9Eropiu. "Erot iJ CPtAOcooio oOllyEi'tUt cr'tllv crunll"'ll 'tii~ XEtPUCPE'tllcrll~ ro~ OtxucrJlou. Au'to Ku9tcr'ta 'tllV iota 'tllv xorvoiviu KUt 'tllv !:1tuvucr'tucrtl 'tll~ 9E'ttKa. !:PJlllVEUatJlE~ oro 1tAuicrto 'tii~ 1tUYKOcrJltU~ ioropiuq, 'R OE 1tUYKOcrJltU ioropiu unopei va. Oeropsirm «xivnon WU VOU» (§ 341) KUt !:mcpuVEta 'tOU ~90U~ (~A. § 181).

80 nOAXIM PITTEP

"Epyo tii~ 1tOA1tl1(ii~ 8EO)piu~ tii~ (/JIAo(1oqJia; toi; Sucaiou dVU1 tore i] avuYKuiu 1tAEOV 810p8(OtJTJ tii~ oumoxpurucfp; KOlVroV1Kii~ 8Eropiu~. 'H tEAElJtUiU 8€v Il1tOPEl Ku8' UUtlj va U1tEP~El to tJutJtTJJlU tOW aVUYK&V KUt tljv xoivoivin 1tOD 8EtE1 UUtO, KUt to JlOVO nOD yvropiSE1 ro~ 1tOA1tEiU elvor aVUYKUtJtlKa JlOVOV UUtO 1tOD 6 "EYEAO~ DVOJlo.SE1 «xpcro; tii~ aVo.YKTJ~ (Not) KUt tii~ 81o.VOlUq> (§ 183). ME8081Klj a1totJtOAlj tii~ 818utJKUAiu~ tOU "EYEAOlJ Y1a tljv 1tOA1tEiU ro~ «EVEPYO 1tPUYJlUtlKOtTJtU tii~ i8EU~ tOU 1i80lJ~» KUt ro~ «EYKOtJJl1U 1tpUYJlUt01tOlOUJlEVO VOU» -aUtlj 1tEP1EXE1 tOD~ 1tpOtJ81OP1tJJlOD~ 1tOD 8a 1tPOKUAEtJOlJV E1tE1tU tljv a1tOpp1ljITJ tii~ <p1AOtJO<piu~ tOlJ ro~ avtl8putJtlKii~ KUt ro~ 8E01toiTJtJTJ~ tOU KPo.-

T~" _! - " - I

roue- ElVU1 TJ E1tlKlJP(oCTT) tTJ~ 1tJtOp1KTJ~ OlJtJ1U~ tTJ~ vsm-

tEPTJ~ xowmviuc KUt " EitJuyroylj tJtljv EVVOlo. tTJ~ oorov 1tPOtJ81OP1tJJl&V 8f:V 1tPOKU1ttOlJV a1tO tljv a<pTJpTJJlEVTJ qnxnoxpnrucn KUt XE1PU<pEtTJtlKlj apXTJ tTJ~, aUa JlOVO tJf: tJlJVo.ptTJtJTJ Jlf: tljv icropucn outJiu (35).

§1O

"EttJ1 yiVEtU1 <p1AOtJO<p1Klj i] Beoipiu tOu "EYEAOlJ Y1a tljv xowrovio KUt tljv E1tUVo.tJtUtJTJ 1tOD 1tPOKUAEl' i] 8EroPTJtlKlj EVV01U Ku8itJtUtU1 avuYKuiu EVcl:mlOV tii~ tJlJYKPOtTJtlKii~ Y1a tljv i8m tljv xorvorviu a<patPEtlKOtTJtU~' i] a<pU1pEtlKOtTJtU KpU~E1 tOY Kiv8lJVO i] xorvoviu va bvo: yo.YE1 to EPYUtJlUKO Kat ta~lKO tJutJtTJJlo. tTJ~ tJf: uovc- 81KO 1tPOtJ810P1tJJlO KUt 1tpOOP1tJJlO lOU av8pcl:molJ. "Olav tJlJJl~El auto, otav tJlJVE1t&~ i] E~olJtJiu tii~ XE1pU<pEtTJtlKii~ apxii~ yiVE1 a1tOAlJtTJ KUt otJu 6 a.v8pro1t0~ slvci 8iXro~ tljv JlEtJoA6.~TJtJTJ tii~ xoivroviu; 8f:V U1to.PXOlJV EAEu8Epa aUa U1tOKE1VtU1 tJf: 1tPUYJlUtlKlj a.PVTJtJTJ, rors i] xorvoivia OVt(O~ aVUYKo.SEtat va EYKUtUAEiljlE1 rnv KO-

o ErEAm: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAl:TAI:H 81

C1l1oiO"toptlCil O"UVU<pEUl lCui vii lCUtUO"tEl tEAO<; tii<; 1tuylCOC1l1tu<; ioropinq, '0 "EYEAO<; ElXE i:1tiyvwO"l1 uutii<; tii<; ouvutOtl1tu<; (L1tOAUtOU ElClCOtVWVtO"I10U tOU UVepO)1tOU lCui O"UVE1tCO<; tii<; apO"l1<; tOU OtXUO"I10U U1tO tOY ElClCOtVWVtC1110: «'H UO"tllCillCOtVwviu ElVUt " repriernu E~ouO"iu 1tOV UOpUXVEt tOY aVepW1tO, U1tUttEl U1tO uutOV va EPYU1;EtUt yt' uutilv lCui va elvai ra mlvTa lila ueoou r1]~ «a! va npatxe: ra navTa )I.E titv )l.scroMf31]cr11 r1]9> (§ 238 npoO"eTjlCl1, t. 7, 0". 315' tmoYPUl1l1tO"l1 tOU tmoypu<poVtO<;).29

'0 xivoovo; lCAtl1UlCIDVEtat OtUV " xowovin «1tpOOOEUE\» lCui «AEttOUPYEl U1tPOC1lC01ttU» (~A. § 243) U1tWeIDVtU<; thO"t lCui ElCI1110EVi1;ovtu<; ti<; OUVUI1Et<; tii<; npoO"w1ttlCii<; 1;wii<;, tii<; lmOlCEtl1EVtlCOtl1tU<; lCui tii<; lCUtUYWyii<;, 1tOV EAEUeEpIDVOVtUt lCui UUtE<; tOUtE<; OtUtl1POUVtUt irrtopucu O"tOV OtXUO"I10. "OtUV " YEPillCui ~E~Utl1 yta ti<; O"XEO"Et<; tl1<; 1;wil tOU 1tOAitl1JO 1tUUEt v' U1tOtEAEl to «C1tEPEO EOU<pO<;», O"o~El «0 lCivouvo<; yta to. atol1u, tilv xoweoviu lCui to lCPUtO<;» yta tOY ioto AOyo 1tOV «uin enieu OEV ElVUt OtOAOU to ioto E1ttlCivouvl1 frv 1tEO"Et 0"' EVUV oropo 1tllpitlou<; 11 oro C1tEPW EOU<pO<;, 01tOll E~u<puvi1;Erut xwpi<; ixvo<;» (§ 319). M' uutil tilv EVVOta 1tpOE~AE- 1tE 0 "EYEAO<; O"tO tEAO<; tii<; 1;wii<; tou I1EAAOVtllCE<; SoVUtOtl1tE<; OtUtIDVtO"l1<; tii<; i:1tuvuO"tuO"l1<; lCui XUpUlCtTjpt1;E tilv iotu tilv E1tUVUO"tuO"l1 00<; to 1tpO~Al1I1U 1tOV lCAl1- POOOtEltUt aAUtO oroix; E1tEPXOI1EVOU<; XpOVOll<;.

Auto E~l1YEl ytuti E1tPE1tE vi: eEWpEl O"l1l1ElO I1Eyteroo lCtVOUVOll tOY «ueEiO"l10 tOU ..,etlCOU lCOO"I10ll», 01tw<; tOY UVtt1tPOO"W1tEUEt " 1tUA\VOpeWtllCTj, pWl1uvtllCil U1tOICEtl1EVtlCOtl1tU, tilv npofluuiu va eEWpEltUt " lCOtVWVtICil EvEPYO<; 1tPUYI1UtllCOtl1tU tOU UVepID1tOll iieEl1 xni 00<;

29 W7, 386' I1!l1,13, 700 .

. 10 Biirgerliches Leben. ·AA.A.l] avciyvOlCJl]: «aCJtlKT] sOlip>.

82 nOAXIM PITTEP

EK "COUtOU va (l1tOppl1ttEtal roe; tEAOe; Kat Katacrtpoq>~ tiie; ioropicq tiie; Katayroyiie;· 'H ioropucorrrru tiie; VEcOtEPTJe; xorvcoviuq iYKEltal crt~V U1tO ~opq>~ (hxacr~oi) 1(OlVroVlK~ (L1tEAw9EprocrTJ tiie; i)1tOKEl~EVlKa olaq>uAayJlEVTJe; oucriae; Kat crt~V olat11PTJcr1l tTJe; roe; 1;;rovtavou ncPlEXO~EVOU tiie; xotvcovtxu tE9El~EVTJe; EAw9Epiae;.

"Oruv o~roe; iJ U1tOKEl~EVlK~ aicr9TJcrTJ f:1tlOlolKEl vi: crolcrEl to 9ElOV a1tO t~V xoivorvin, aUt~ iJ oUlcrrocrTJ aq>atpsi a1to t~V tEAwtaia t~V ouoic 1tOD t~V crtTJpi1;;El icroplKa. Oi ouvsxnxe; ouva~Ele; KatacrtpEq>oVtat· iJ otaoroon 1tpoKaAEt iJ iOla t~V Katacrtpoq>~ 1tOD 9EAEl Y'

o (l1tOtpbVEt. '0 uEYEAoe; avtltax9TJKE cr' auto tOY 9avaouio Kivouvo. 'AvtE1tE~iiA9E c' autov E1tElO~ ava1;;TJtouO'E Kat ~piiKE tOY nnpovru AOYo, 0Xl uovo crt~V OlK1l roo EcrrotEPlKOtTJta Kat 1tEpaV roii Xpovou, a.Ua. crt~V icroPlK~ KiVTJcrTJ Kat t~V OlaolKacria tiie; OlKiie; tTJe; Sinuopq>rocrTJe;, crt~V 1tOAltlK~ Kat KOlVroVlK~ f:1tavacrtacrTJ Kat to a.Vtlq>atlKO qxnvousvo tTJe;, 1tOD KatEATJ~E uoipu tiie; YEoltEPTJe; YEVlKOtEpa f:7toxiie;·

:EHMEIQ:EEI:E

I. na 'd.~ f:lC06cr&t~ nov EPYO>V tOU "Ey&A.oU ~A.bt& tTjv 'Epyoyparpia.

'Ava<pEpo> ta LTOlxeia Tij; rplAocrorpia; rof DlIcaiov' Kata 1tapaypu<pou~ a1to tTjv Neue kritische Ausgabe nov EPYO>V (Hegels Siimtliche Werke, f:1ttflEA.&ta J. Hoffmeister, rouo; XII, [Meiner], 'Afl~OUPYO 41955). "Ocov a<popii tt~ Ilpooeiixe; a1to tt~ 1tapa06cr&t~ tOU "Ey&A.oU 1tOD nspteix& iJ ElCOOcrT] tOU rKaV~ (Gans)' Kat a<paip&cr& 6 X0<PflUtcrsp (Hoffmeister) a1to tTjv 1tapa1tuvo> EKOOcrT] flE oxono va tt~ crUYK&Vtprocr&t crE aOT]flocriwto alCOflT] rouo (~A.. ilp6AOyO O· EKOOcrT]~, cr. XIII K.f:.) 1tapa1tEfl1tO> crtTjv A.&YOfl&VT] «"EKOOcrT] t1i~ :EtOUtyupOT]~».J

rta ocra 1tOA.tttKa xeiuevc DEv 1t&ptEXOVtat crtTjv «"EKOOcrT] t1i~ :EtOUtyupOT]~» 11 crtTjv Neue kritische Ausgabe ava<pEpo> tTjv EKOOcrT] tOU Fx. Acocov (Lasson), Schriften zur Politik und Rechtsphilosophie, [Meiner], AstIjfia 21923.4 Ta 1tapa9Eflata a1to tTjv «Kpion nov OT]flOotsouevorv crUST]t~cr&o>v tOW crUV&Optucr&o>v tOW tU~&O>v tOU BacrtA.&tou t1i~ Bupt&fl~EPyT]~ ta EtT] 1815 Kat 1816»5 dvat a1to tTjv «"EKOOcrT] t1i~ :EtOUtyupOT]~», r. VI, ta OE 1tapa9Eflata a1to to ap9po «na tTjv ayyA.tKTj f:KA.OytKTj fl&tappu9fltcrT]» 1tPOEPXOVtat a1to tTjv ElCOOcrT] nov Berliner Schriften 1818-18316 (Neue kritische Ausgabe, r. XI, [Meiner], 'Afl~OUPYO 1956) 1tOD f:1ttfl&A.~9T]K& 6 X0<PflUtcrsp. Oi 1tapa1tOfl1tE~ crta VeaV1Ktl KElJ.l.EVa (a1to tt~ xe-

I I:uVTOJloypa<pia: 11>.1. 2 BA.. Werke 1832-1845.

3 Glockner 1927 K.E. BA.. 'EpyoypaqJia. • I:uvToJloypa<pia: IlK.

s I:uvToJloypa<pia: KT.

6 I:uvToJloypa<pia: BK.

83

84 nOAXIM PITTEP

piodoi»; tii<; Tu~iY'Yll<;, tii<; BEPVll<; lCui tii<; <I>pUylCq>OUptll<;} aVtA.OUVtat a1tO ta Hegels Theologische Jugendschriften, i:1tllJ.EA.EtU H. Nohl, Tu~iY'Y1l19061, lCui a1tO t~v (mnoy~ lCEtj.lEVCOV 1tOU E~El)cocrE 0 Xoq>j.l(ltcrtEP, Dokumente zu Hegels Entwicklung, I:tOUtyuPI)1l1936.8

'AVUq>EPCO ti<; E1ttcrtOA.E<; apt9j.lllttlCa aUj.lq>covu j.lE rnv cruVEX~ apiej.lllcrll roii Xoq>j.lUtcrtEP ornv lCptttlC~ &lCl)om; tOU nov Briefe von und an Hegel (r, I, 1785-1812, &lCI)Oon rssz- t. II, 1813-1822, &lCl)ocrllI953' t. III, 1823-1831, ElCl)0tJTJ 1954). ~OA.a.1i v1l'oA.ol1ra xeiueva, ElCtO<; fLv 1tEptEXOVtUt crE ocru EXEt ElCl)rocrEt 0 Xoeumorsp a1tO to 1949 crt~V «Philosophische Bibliothek»,? aVUq>EPOVtUt a1tO t~v «·ElCl)ocrll tii<; I:tOUtyuPl)ll<;» j.lE a1tA.~ 1tUpu9Ecrll tiie; apiej.lllcrll<; tou tOIlOU j.lEta tOY thA.o tOU ElCUcrtOtE xetj.lEVOU.1O

2. Oi 1tUpUl5OcrEt<; tOU XUUj.l1tPOU1t09EtOUV lCui oeeiucrttlCa cruvO\"i~ouv t~V lCptttlC~ tOU "EYEA.OU a1tO roix; «NEOU<; 'EYEA.tUVOU<;» npiv a1tO to 1848, j.lE t~V I)tuq>opa Ott to ~l]tllj.lU tii<; acrttlCii<; xotvrovicc-xotvmviuq nov 1tOA.ltrov ll1tOXCOPEi crllj.lUVttlCa crt~V I)tlCl] tOU 1tEpi1ttcocrll

7 l:uVtOl1oYPUlpia: N. • l:uVtol1oypacpia: D

, Toii OiKOU Meiner, 1tP01tOA.EI1IKa O"ti]v AEilVia, I1Eta1tOA.EI1IKa O"tO 'AI1~oiipyo.

10 '0 I1EtacppaO"ti]~ O"UI11tA.T)pcOVEI OA.E~ ti~ 1tapa1tol11tE~ 1tpo0"9irovtuc ti]v avacpopa O"ti]v VEcOtEPT) EUXPT)O"tT) £KlioO"T) Werke in zwanzig Bdnden, Suhrkamp, Cl>paYKcpoUptT) 1969-1971, ti onoiu avacpipEtal W I1E 1tapa9EO"T) toii apl9110ii t0l10U Kai roii apl9110ii O"EA.ilia~· Yla ti~ npo0"9iiKE~ O"ti]v <1J1AoaoqJia roo olKaiov avacpipEI xul ti]v £KlioO"T) nov XElpoypacprov CPOltT)tcOV 1tOU £1tII1EA.ti9T)KE 6 K.-H. I1ting, Vorlesungen uber Rechtsphilosophie 1818-1831, FrommannHolzboog, l:toutyapliT)-Cannstatt 1973-1974, t0l101 3 Kai 4, ti onoic avacpipEtal n<1J,1 I1E 1tapa9EO"T) toii apl9110ii t0l10U Kai roii apl9- 110ii crEA.ilia~.

o ErEAOI: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAI:TAI:H 85

EVro it O"T]~uO"iu ti;<; XEtPU<PEtT]O"T]<; t01t09EtEitUt xopio»; ornv UVci1ttU~T] trov 9EttKroV Ento"tT]~rov KUt O"tilV ll1tEP~UO"T] ti;<; 9EOAOyiu<; KUt ti;<; ~EtU<pUo"tKi;<; 1tOD E1tt~ciAAOUV. '0 AE~tt (Lowith) 1tUpUtT]PEt UVtiO"tOtXU 1tcO<; 6 Xciu~ OiVEt «UKuoT]~uiKil ~op<pil» O"tilv «9E~UtOAoyiu» trov Nerov 'EYEAtUvrov (~A. Von Hegel zu Nietzsche, ~tOUtycipOT] [1941] 31953, 0". 71 K.I':.).II Mio KUAil1tprotT] 1tPOo"EYytO"T] ti;<; KptttKi;<; svcveiov tOU uEYEAOU KUt ti;<; icropiu<; tT]<; ~piO"KOU~E O"tOV B. M6oYK, W. Moog, Hegel und die Hegelsche Schule (Geschichte der Philosophie in Einzeldarstellungen, tX. VII, t. 32-33, M6vuxo 1930, 0". 438- 487). Tnv ~umKil o~ro<; EK9EO"T] ytU tilv <ptAoO"o<ptKil uvtt1tupci9EO"T] ~E: tOY "EYEAO tilv ~piO"KEt KUVEl<; O"tO 1tUpu1tcivro ~t~Aio tOU AE~tt (~A. 0". 78 K.I':.). "Ooov u<popii tilv ioropic ti;<; 1tOAtttKi;<; <ptAoO"o<piu<; tOU "EYEAOU 1tUpU1tE~1tro O"tilv E~OXT] ~EAEtT] tOU 'E. BEty (E. Weil) YH1 tilv 1toAtttKil <ptAoO"o<piu tOU (Hegel et [,Etat, [Vrin], IIupkn 1950), O"tOV X. MUPKOU~E H. Marcuse, Reason and Revolution. Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory, Aovoivo [1941], [Routledge and Kegan Paul], 21955,12 O"tOV ~iVtVEU XOUK, Sidney Hook, From Hegel to Marx (Studies in the Intellectual Development of K. Marx), Aovoivo 1936 (6 XODK UVtt~Etro1ti~Et rnv Bsropiu tOU "EYEAOU U1tO rnv U1tO\jlT] ti;<; -KUtU tilv yvro~T] tOU --uvuYKuiu<; ll1tEp~u(J1i<; tT]<; U1tO tOY Mup~ [Marx]), O"tOV Brov, Vaughan, Studies in the History of Political Thought before and after Rousseau, r. II, From Burke to Mazzini, E1tt~EAEtU A. G. Little, McivtO"EO"tEP 1939, KE<p. 4, 0". 143-183, tEAO<; O"tOV ~u~1tiv, G.H. Sabine, A History of Political Theory, NEu 'Y6PKT] 1937, 1950,0".620 K.I':. 'IOtuitEpu 1tAOUO"to VAtKO 1tP0o"<pE-

" 'EU. I1'tCP. f\mJ roy XiylCEA. <Troy Nitae, rvrocrTj, 'Ae"va 1986,2 'to

12 'EA.A.. I1«P. J\6yoq /CUi enavaataon, 'Ae"va 'X.'X., 2 'to

86 rIOAXIM PITTEP

psi E1ticrTJ~ 6 Xipc, H. Hirsch, Denker und Kampfer, Gesammelte Beitriige zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung, <l>paYK<poUptTJ 1955 (crXEttKIl Ili: roix; 8uo XiI. YKapt [Hilgard], tOY Kat1t1tEV [K. F. Koppen], tOY MOSE~ Xi:C; [Moses HeB], tOY Map~ Kat tOY Zcopsc [Jauresj).

3. 'H i8Ea tii~ Sovarornrr«; vi: EPyacreEt crtO BEPOA.ivo 1tProtOEIl<PavisEtat o rqv UUTJA.oypa<pia tOU "EYEA.OU c' Eva YPuIllla 1tpO~ tOY nUOUA.OUC; (Paulus) tii~ 30- 7-1814 U1tO rnv NUPEIl~EPYTJ. '0 "EYEA.O~ xapaKtTJpisEt ro~ «u~E1tEpacrtTJ» ti]v E1tteUllia tOU vi: 8t8U~Et 1tUA.t cri:

Iluvsmc'nuuo. BE~ata, 01tro~ YPU<PEt, lmuPXEt «E8ro Kat IlEptKa XPOVta» " 1tPOO1tttKi] va KA.TJeEt crtO 'EpA.UYKEV, auti] OJ.lCO~ ea 1tPE1tEt vii Il1tEt cri: 8EUtEPTJ uoipu IlEta U1tO Ilia UA.A.TJ 1tPOO1tttKi] 8E8ollEvrov trov «nupouotov cruVeTJKroV» ('En. 235). '0 XO<PIlUtcrtEP crti]v 3TJ U1tocrTJIlEirocrTj yta ti]v i8ta E1ttcrtOA.i] (t. II, cr. 376) Ila~ 1tA.TJPO<pOPEt 1tio~ oi KaeTJYTJti:~ tOU 'EpMYKEV ~picrKOvtaV cri: 8UcrXEpi] oiKOVOlltKi] KatucrtacrTJ A.oyro 1tOA.UXpOVTJ~ KaeucrtEPTJcrTJ~ trov Iltcrerov tOU~ (ro~ 1tpO~ ti]v YEVtKOtEPTJ KatucrtacrTJ oro i8w Iluvsmrrrruno 8i:~ 'En. 223, crTJIl. 1, t. II, cr. 372). Tropu 6 "EYEA.O~ EllaeE 1tio~ dvat EA.EUeEPTJ crtO BEPOA.ivo" E8pa tOU <l>iXtE (Fichte) 1tOV 1tEeaVE crtt~ 29-1-1814' 1tapaKaA.El A.Ot1tOV tOY nUOUA.OU~ va IlUeEt yta tt~ npo~A.E"'Et~ Kat va «uvuqispei» to OVOIlU tOU (~A.. Kat 'En. 236,241). To ypulllla 1tpO~ tOY NEitXUllllEP (Niethammer) tii~ 26-10-1824 IlVTJIlOVEUEt.E1ticrTJC; tt~ 8uvatOtTJtE~ 1tOV npompspet to BEPOA.ivo: «I:tO E~rotEPtKO», YPU<PEt crXEttKa 6 "EYEA.O~, ~EPEt xuvsic KaA.UtEpa «ri eEA.Et, IlEta~V uUrov Kat c' o,tt u<popa ta Iluvsmcrnuic Kat ti]v SinVOTJcrTJ» ('En. 243). 'AUa 6 "EYEA.O~ EXEt ~A.E"'Et~ Kat 1tpO~ ti]v 'Ievu 01tOU 6 I:EA.A.tYK (Schelling) 8i:v 8EXeTJKE va 1tUEt ovta~ ~8TJ KaeTJYTJti]~ crtO Movere ('En. 262)' otav crti]v 'Isvu «1tpocrA.lJ<PeTJKE» 6 <l>pd~ (Freis), 6 "EYE-

o ErEAOI: KAI H rAAAIKH EOANAI:TAI:H 87

AO~ EO"tPE'VE to EVOta<pEpOV tOU 1tpO~ t~V XalOEA~EPYT] ('Err. 263). ~EV elvoi UJ.1EAT]tEO to 9EJ.1a tOW EO"OOWV 0"' OAE~ aUtE~ tt~ O"1(E'VEt~: ~E O"XEO"T] J.1E t~V 'Ievu 6 "EYEAO~ YPU<PEt O"tOV <l>poJ.1J.1av (Frommann) O"tt~ 14-4-1816 1t(O~ OEV J.11tOPEt va. Epya0"9Et EKEt «J.1E tt~ O"uVT]9tO"J.1EVE~ U1tOOOXE~ tOU Ka9T]yT]tTj <PtAoO"o<pia~» J.10AOVOtt tOY «EVtUnoxriucc» to YEYOVO~ «Ott iO"w~ lmuPXEt uic Suvurorntu O"t~V 'Isvc» ('Err. 262). ~XEttKa. J.1E tt~ AE1ttoJ.1EPEtE~ tTj~ xpourropinq tTj~ uvaK';pu~,;~ tOU O"tO BEPOAivo OE~ oO"a uva<pEpEt 6 XO<PJ.1UtO"tEP O"t~V 0"T]J.1. 1 tTj~ 'Err. 278 1tpO~ von Raumer, t. II, 0". 397-403.

'A1tO t~V UUT]Aoypa<pia 1tPOKU1ttEt O"UVOAtKa. 1t(O~ to 1tPWtEUOV 0"' O,tt u<popii tt~ 9Eo"Et~ Kat eioucorepu tOY OtOptO"J.10 tOU "EYEAOU O"tO BEPOAivo alvei oi o"UVT]9tO"J.1EVE~ Kat EVtEAcO~ tU1ttKE~ 1tAEUPE~ tOU i;;T]t';J.1ato~: ~uvatOtT]tE~ htppoTj~ Kat EpEuva~, O"XEo"Et~ Kat O"Uv9TjKE~ tcOV ~XOAcOV, J.1t0"90~. "Erm Kat ~ u1to<paO",; tOU va. 1tUEt O"tO BEPOAivo lmTjp~E 1tP01tUVtWV i;;';tT]J.1a uKaOT]J.1alKTj~ O"taotoopoJ.1ia~· 1tOU9EVa. O"t~V UUT]Aoypa<pia tOU OEV u1taVtOUV OT]Aroo"Et~ 1tOD 9a. uxopououv va. O"tT]pi~ouv t~V a1to'VT] 1tc'o~ t~V u1to<paO",; tOU unoxtvs] J.1ia OTj9EV Eo"WtEPtK~ O"UVOEO"T] tTj~ <PtAoO"o<pia~ tOU J.1E t~V IIpwO"ciu Kat t~V 1tPWO"O"tK~ 1tOAtttK';. Auto 1tOD 1tP0o"<pEPEt to BEPOAtVO OEV dvat 1tapa. uin KaAUtEpT] 1tAT]PWJ.1~ tTj~ <PtAOO"O<PtKTj~ Ka9T]YEO"ia~ Kat nponuvroq t~V EUVOlKi] 1tPOOtU9EO"T] 1tpO~ tOY "EYEAO Kat ti]v <ptAoO"o<pia tOU tOU ~aprovou <pOV "AAtEVO"tUtV (von Altenstein) 1tOD ~YEttat U1tO t~V 3-11-1817 tOU UpttO"UO"ta9EVtO~ «Ynoopvsioo 9PT]O"KEUttKcOV, EK1tatOEUttKcOV Kat iatptKcOV i;;T]tT]J.1utWV» Kat Kupiw~ xapatT] pii;;Etat ro~ «<PtAOO"O<pcOV lmoupyo~» (Kata. tOY Boisseree, ~A. XO<PJ.1UtO"tEP, 'Err. 326, 0"T]J.1. 1, t. II, 0". 422. Fsvtxorepc yta. tt~ O"XEo"Et~ tOU J.1E tOY "EYEA.O ~A.. 'Err. 326, 328, 331, 332, 333, 337, 338, 339, 341, 343). Moxovon 6 "EYEA.O~ -Kat J.10VOV E1tEtOi] elver ~oua~o~-

88 nOAXIM PITTEP

1tPOtll.UI OUto><; ~ UA.A.o><; tOY YEpflaVtlCO Noro, to BEPOAivo OEV 1taUEl Va. slvci ~ 1tlO EA.EUtlEPTJ 1tOA.TJ, 1tl0 1tpOO'<pOpTJ crtilv <plA.oO'o<pia, O'tilv <plA.ocro<ptlCil opaO'tTJP10tT]tu 1Cai. tilv A.0Yla 1tatoEia. Auto sivm to a.1to<paO'lO'tl1CO crtOlXElO. «3epEtE», ypa<pEl O'tOV NEitxaflflEp a.1t0 to BEPOAiVO O'ti.<; 9-6-1821 (·En. 390), «1tcO<; ~A.tla EOro yta. vi:

Elflat c' Eva 1CeVtpO 1Cai. OXt O'tilv nspupepeie». To xsiflEVO Yla. tilv cruVeA.EUcrTJ trov ta~EO>v tOU 1817 <pavEpwVEl a.P1CEta. 1tro<; xpivst 6 QEYEA.O<; rnv VOtloYEPflavl1C~ 1CatacrtacrTJ, iOlaitEpa crtilv BUptEfl~epYTJ, 1Cai. tilv 1CUpiapXTJ E1CE11tOA.ltl1Cil «uonucvromrc» 1Cai. «U1tOVe1Cpo>O'TJ» (~A.. 1CEiflEVO § 5). 'H U1tocrtpo<pil yta. tilv i:1tapxia SXEt ~e~ala uin 1toA.ltl1Cil O'TJflaO'ia StO'l 01t0><; Efl<pavi~Etat O'tOV "EYEA.O. 'A<popa tilv ~atlla tOU U1texOEla trov 1taA.1VopOO>tl1Crov tacrEO>v 1tOD ouvoeovrut flE tilv E1tapXla1Cil crtEVo1CE<paA.la· 1Catl tsroio OflO><; UVtl<paO'1CEl UflEou flE ti.<; ~A.e'l'El<; 1tOD U1tOOetEl 6 Xaufl Otl tOY 60TjYT]ouv O'tO BEP0A.ivo. 'A1to tilv UA.A.TJA.oypa<pia 1Cai. flOVO 1tp01CU1ttEl flE 1CaOE cra<pTjvEla 1tcO<; ~ rmmon tOU "EYEA.OU flE tilv «1tpo>crcrl1Cil uvtiopacrTJ» OEv crtTJpi~Etal1tOUOEVa. crtilv 1tpaYflatl1Cil1topEia trov 1tpaYflato>v. Aut~ il tautlcrTJ u<popa tilv nspiodo flEta. to 1830 1Cai. tOY uywva 1Cata. tll<; tors OVto><; UVtlOpacrtl1Cll<; 1tOA.ltl1Cll<; tll<; npo>crcria<; 1Cai. taUti~El uvaopofll1Ca. tilv i:YEA.lavil <ptA.Ocooic u' autil tilv uvtiopacrTJ. 'H 1tPWtTJ ~tOypa<pia toU "EYEA.OU, ypaflfleVTJ U1tO tOY PO~Ev1CpaVt<; (K, Rosenkranz, G. WF. Hegels Leben, BEPOA.ivo 1844), cruve~aA.E crtilv OTJuioopyiu tll<; El1COva<; tll<; <P1A.ocro<pia<; tOU "EYEA.OU 00<; OUO"lo>oro<; 1tpo>crO"l1Cll<; --O:v 1Cai. 6 cruyypa<pea<; tTJ<; ElXE ola<popEtl1Ca. xivnrpu (6 iotO<; oa. ypa'l'El to 1858 uic «'A1toA.oyia» tOU "EYEAOU svuvnc orov Xaufl}. '0 Po~Ev1CpaVt<; U1t01tElpatal, E<papflo~OVta<; 0lltlEv tilv OEO>pTJtl1Cil fleOooo tOU QEYEA.OU crtilv ~tOypa<pia, va. «nnpcyaYE!» tilv ~EpOA.1Ve~11CTJ OloaO"lCaA.ia tOU tEA.EUtaiou fl£

o ErEAOI: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAI:TAl:H 89

(l<pEtT]pia uiu EamtEplKi] UVtlatOlxia UVU~Eaa orov 7taYKOalito VOU 01tm<; EVEpyouaE, Ucp' EVO<;, ati]v Ilpoxraia Kat tOY i:bto 01tm<; bibaaKE, ucp' EtEPOU, bla croueto<; 'EyEAOU. 'AvtlIiEtm1ti~El rnv Iljxocotc ro<; Eva reXVT]tO KPUtO<; 1tOU bi:v to npocrureust KavEva CPUcrtKO ouvopo !':vOl 8EV EXEl UKOIiT] u1to1tEpatm9EI xmplKu, KPUto<; Kata8lKaaliEvo «va 8latT]pEI ti]v 9EaT] tOU» IiOVO «liE il8lUK01tT] npoooo ati]v 1tVEUliatlKi] UVU1ttU~Tt tOU». Ilpdno; 0 Kuvt (Kant) lmOtieEtat 1tro<; 1tpOaEcpEpE ati]v Ilprooctn ti]v «cplAoaocpia 1tOU tii<; taipla~E». MUI<; Kat o "EYEAO<; U1t01tEpatrovEl ti]v KaVtlavi] cplAoaocpia, " 8lKTt tOU cplAoaocpia 9a 1tPE1tEl va Oeropeirut 1tEpUtmaT] tii<; 1tpmacrtKii<; cplAoaocpia<;. AUtOAE~Ei: «'Ecp' oaov " EYEAlavi] cplAoaocpia U1tOtEAEI 1tEPUtm<rT] tii<; Kavtlavii<;, UVaKU1ttEl " UVrotEpT] uvaYKalOtT]ta ati]v onoiu ocpEiAEtal" 1tpoadT]aT] lOU "EYEAOU ati]v Ilpmorriu Kat to yoPyo pi~mlia tii<; cplAoaocpia<; tOU a' auti] rnv xropa» (a. 317). 'H «avdneot; avanauomto» 7tporo9T]aE AOl1tOV ti]v U1tO\I/T]CPlOtT]tU ron: «Auto 1tOU oi 1tOAAOt 9EropT]aaV (mAi] 1tpotiliT]aT] tOU U1toupyEiou "AAtEVatUlV lmiip~E Kata ~u9o<; EPYO tii<; 1tpoo8EUtlKii<; tuaT]<; tOU 1tpmacrtKOU nvsuunrc«;» (o, 316 K.I':.). "Eva i8laitEpa xov8poEl- 8E<; 1tapu8ElYlia «Ecpaplioyii<;» tii<; 9EmpT]tlKii<; IiE9080u tOU "EYEAOU IiU<; npocoepet 0 KapA Il>piivtplX Zsircs (Karl Friedrich Sietze) crto EPYO tOU Grundbegriff Preufiischer Staats- und Rechtsgeschichte, BEPOAiVO 1829. '0 Zsirce 1tapuYEl ti]v 1tpmaalKi] ioropin liE EYEAtavE<; EVVOlE<; Kat Kat' uvaAoyia tOU xptcrtlavu(Ou 86Yliato<;. To Ikirsp "IiOlv, " tpla8lKi] 8o~oAoyia uvacpEpEtal ati]v Aecrpic, ti]v Ilpeccic Kat roi«; rAU~OU<; (~A. xupio»; a. XVI, 430, 442, 480, 643, 650). 'H rEPliavlKi] AUtOKparopin elvoi " auvEi8T]aT] tii<; Eupro1tT]<; (a. 643, 650), " 8E Ilpeccic " autoauvEl8T]aia tT]<; (a. 671), " U1tOKUAU\jIT] (a. 698), to arolia lOU Kupiou (a. 699). To ~l~AiO EK-

90 nOAXIM PITTEP

869TllCE OtUV 6 «a~tOtlIlO~ MalCUAO~» "EYEAO~ (a. 481) alCollTl t;ouaE. Aev yvropi1~OUIlE xuuin xpion tOU "EYEAOU yta to EV AOYQ) 1tOVTlIlU' ae Iliu f:7ttatOAi'j 1tpO~ tOY ZEIres tii~ 14-12-1830 avucpEpEtUt o rnv aXEaTl tOU tEAWruiou Ile tOY XUIlUV (Hamann) xui ti'jv «XtOuIlOptatllCi'j CPAE~U» tOU ( 'En. 660). l:i: 1tUpOIlOtE~ «1tUpUyroYEQ) ernpit;EtUt lCui iJ dlCOVU scorrepucoii OEallOU IlEtU~U EYEAtUvii~ cptAoaocpiu~ lCui TIproaaiu~' lCui oev elvoi dJlCOAO, 01tro~ CPUiVEtUt, iJ icropuch uta9TlaTl v' a1tOtlVU~Et sixoVE~ 1tOU 1tUYUi>9TllCUV AOyro 1tOAttllCroV xui lCOaIlOUVtlATl'VtUlCroV EVOtUCPEpOVtroV. -

To IlEYUAO OCPEAO~ a1to ti'jv E~OXTl IlEAEtTl tOU 'E.

BEty yta ti'jv cptAoaocpiu tii~ 1toAttdu~ lOU "EYEAOU (Weil, a.n.) ouviorurut CJ1:i'jv OtE~OOtlCi'j ElC9EaTl troy A.6- yrov 1tOU lCu9tatouv a~u(JtIlTl rnv tuutlaTl tii~ Ilpcioo ior; 1tOU ~pialCEt 6 "EYEAO~ to 1818 Ile rnv 1tpuYIlUtllCa avtlOpUatllCi'j Ilpeccin tii~ OElCUEtiu~ tOU 1830 lCui tOU 1840. 01 VU1tOAEOVtEtOt 1tOAEIlOt dxuv ouvrpivst ti'jv a1tOAUtUPXtlCi'j Ilpoxrcin- iJ lCU~EpVTlaTJ tTl~ dXE lCUtUAU~Et lCUta ti'jv avuauatuaTl tOU lCpUtOU~ 1t(O~ iJ 8UvUIlTJ tOU Il1tOpOUaE va Eoputro9EI IlOVOV a1to uiu ~u9ta IlEtUppu9- IltaTl. Ilupuuspiotlrpcuv AOt1tOV ta 1tAEOV aVEAEu9EPU XUPUlCtTlPtatllCU tOU, EAw9Epro9TllCE iJ ElC1toiTlaTl tii~ Eyydou iOtOlCtTlaiu~, lCutupYTJ9TllCUV 01 CPEOUOUPXtlCE~ ayyupdE~ 01tro~ lCui to IlEYUAUtEPO IlEPO~ troy 1tpOVOuicov troy EUYEVroV, a1tEAW9Epro9TllCE 6 aypotTl~ lCui 01 1tOAEt~ a1tElCtTlaUV UUtOOtOilCTlaTl (a. 18 lC.E.). '0 BEty aUYlCEcpuAUlrovEt ti'jv 1tupouaiuaTJ tOU ElCtlllroVtU~ Otl, ae aUYlCptaTl Ile ti'jv ruUiu tii~ TIuAtVop9roaTl~, ti'jv 'AYYAiu npiv a1to ti~ IlEtUppu9lliaEt~ tOU 1832 lCui ti'jv Auctpiu tOU MEttEPVtX (Mettemich), iJ Ilpmcoin ~tUV tOtE EvU 1tPOOOWttlCO lCpUtO~ (un Etat avance," a. 19).

13 To 'YaAAl1(O KE1I-IEVO AEEl: «Eva 1tpOl1'YI-IEVO xpnro;».

o ErEAOr KAI H rAAAIKH EnANALTArH 91

'Eoro Bpioxovrm oi npoun0geaw; tlic; 9EtllClic; axeaT]C; tOU "EYEA.OU Ilf: to npcocotxo xpuroq KUt 0Xl attC; uvnOpUanKf:C; taaElC; nOD oluypaq>ovtat KUt UUtf:C; 110T], OUtE ato on iJ Ilpoxroiu oli9EV svoupxrover ti]v unoA.utT] KpunKi] f:~ouaiu nOD f:KIlT]OEvi~El ttC; VEWtEPEC; UPXEC; f:A.W9EpiuC; KUt KpatOUC; OlKUiou: «To 1830, onroc; to 1818, o "EYEA.OC; uvnllEtroni~El auvEnroc; ti]v Ilpecclc roc; to KUt' f:~oxi]v auyxpovo KpatOC; (xcn nOD q>UiVEtal icroptKa orocro) KUt ti]v 9EroPEt Etal f:7tElOi] OtamatWVEl nroc; 9EIlEA.lWVEtUl ati]v f:A.W9Epiu» (a. 22).14 Autoc; 0 npoooeorucoc XUpUKt~pUC; tlic; TIproaaiuc; f:mopa iotairepu, aUIlq>rova Ilf: tOY "EYEA.O, oro nA.uiato tOU TIavEmornuiou tOU Bspos.ivou, Kat iJ f:VapKt~pta OlllA.ia tOU attc; 22-10-1818 (BK, a. 3_21)15 OEiXVEt IlE tOY KaA.UtEpO taroc; rpono nOlec; ~aav oi napaataaElC; Kat npoaooKiEC; tOU otav ~A.9E ato BEPOA.ivo Ilf: oxono va «OlWpUVEl ti]v UKaOT]llalKi] f:7tiopaa~ tOU auti] ti]v anYIli] Kat af: roirro to aT]IlEtO». Oi «8UaKOA.Ol xmpoi» nepaaav' Yla IlEYaA.o olaatT]lla f:nt~A.~9T]Kav UVUYKaanKa ta «UVWrspu aUIlq>epOVta tlic; npaYllanKOtT]tac;» atODC; UyroVEC; «Yla ti]v unOKataataaT] Kat corrnpic tiic; nOA.ttlKlic; oA.6tT]tac; tlic; A.alKiic; ~roiic; Kat tiic; nOA.ltEiac;» Kat «smorputsoouv OA.EC; ttC; tKaVOtT]tEc; tOU YOU, ttC; ouvallElC; OA.rov troy ta~EroV». Tropu ollroC; ~A.9E 0 KatpOC; «v' uv9iost aUtOtEA.roC; Kat to f:A.EU9EPO ~aaiA.Eto tliC; aKe'VT]C;». "Ouox; iJ Ilpeoccic f:netpE'VE auti] ti]v f:A.EU9EPT] svepYEla tOU nvsuunroq Kat llaA.lata IlE iOtaitEpo rpono: «'H KaA.A.tepYEta Kat iJ av9T]aT] troy f:matT]llrov» slvoi f:oro «Ilia uno ttC; OUO"laanKOtEpEC; anYIlEC; lleXPl Kat ati]v ~roi] tlic; noA.1tEiac;». Ft' auto lmaPXEl iJ npoonnKi] va ~pd iJ q>lA.oaoq>ia ato Iluvsmcmuuo tOU BEP0A.ivou, roc;

14 '0 Pirrep napa8EtEI to yaA.A.l1(o KEi~EVO a~EtUqlpa(Jto. II WlO; 399-415.

92 nOAXIM PITTEP

«1tUVE1ttatTuJ.lO tOU ICEVtpOU», tilv OtICT] tll~ «eEall ICui djvotu» (a. 4).1.

'Iooi.l 1tro~ 6 "EYEAO~ svvooixre tilv OPUatllPtOtlltU tOU cro BEPOAivo ICui tilv aXEall tll~ IlE to npeocouco ICpUtO~. BAE1tOUIlE 1tOtU atUall ICputa il (jnAoaQ(piu tOU (l1tEVUVtt ata 1tOAtttICU. TIupuICUIl1ttEt to npooxnvio tt;c; 1tOAttlICt;~ OtUIlUXll~ tt;~ ilIlEPUC; ICui rnv tU1ttICOtlltU tllc; xui aVttAUIl~UVEtUt tilv EAEUeEPll 1tvwlluttICil opuall tOU npocomoo ICui tilv aICEputll1tpoaol1ttlCil sOOT] tOU atic; 1tOAtttICEc;-aattICEC; OOIlE~ cOC; tOY oootccruco atOXo 1tOD il1tPuYIlUtooaT] tOU EVOtU<PEPEt EV tEAEt aE uiu EAEUeEPll1tOAttEiu. 'H aUllAoypucpiu roii "EYEAOU a1to to BEpOAivo OEiXVEt 1tro~ ICui il iotu il sOOT] tOU aUYICEvtPolVErut atilv E1tUYYEAIlUttICil OPUatllptOtlltU tOU ICui tilv «OiICOYEVEtUICil eUA1toopil» (1tp~A. 'En. 355), EVUPIlOVtsOuevn Etcrt ~auxu ICui cOpuiu IlE tilv cptAOaocptICil aICE'I'll tt;~ 1tpoaoo1ttICt;C; EAWeEpiuC;.

4. '0 BEty (Weil, D.n., a. ll) f:7ttO"lllluivEt 1tro~ il aEtpa ICuArov IlEAEtllllUtooV 1tOD ollllOatEuelllCUV ta tEAWtuia rpuivru xpovta OEV ICatOpeooaE aICollll va atUIlUtT]aEt tilv aotatUpaICtll OtatT]Pllall tt;C; eixovc; tt;~ EYEAtavt;c; cptAOaocptU~ 1tOD Ila~ EXEt ICAllPOOOtT]aEt il1tOAttlICilICptttICil tOU IE)' uiolva: «'0 TIMtoov elvoi 6 ECPWPEtllC; trov iOEroV ... 6 'AptatOtEAll~ 6 (ivepoo1tOC; tt;~ tU1ttICt;~ AoytICt;~ ... 6 Kuptscto; ~pooac; tt;C; aucpT]VEtac;' 6 Kuvr auatllPO~ iletICoA6yo~, hat ICui 6 "EYEAO~ slvct EICEivoC; 1tOD Bscopsi 1tro~ to ICpUtO~ dvat to 1tav ICui to (itOllo tt- 1tOtU, 1tro~ il iletICil slvm uin ICUtoltEPll Ilopcpil tt;C; 1tVWllattICt;c; soot;C;, IlE Ilia AE~ll 6 a1toAoYlltilC; tOU npoiornICOU ICpUtOU~».17 Autil il sbcovc E1tt~E~atolvEtat cruvqroC;.

16 WlO,400.

17 '0 Pirrsp ltUPU9EtEI to YUAAIKO KEil1EVO UI1Etacppucrto.

o ErEAm: KALH rAAAIKH EnANAHAI:H 93

A.X. 0 XOUK (Hook, (ur., 0. 19, ol1fl. 1) 9EWPEt il7tEP~OAtKa E1tlEtKil tilv xpion tOU XO:Ufl: «Tu 1tpO:Yflata elvoi 1tOAU XEtpOtEpa OtOV "EYEAO U1tO tilv 1tEptypaq>il tOU E1tlKptttKOtEPOU trov ~tOypo:q>wv tOl»>.18 '0 iOWAtOflO<; tOU DEY elver 1tapa vouiuonoincn tOU KatEOtl1flEVOU XO:Pl1 otilv XPlJCJTJ Dtq>OPOUflEVWV OtatU1t(OOEWV nspi tautOtl1ta<; A.6yOU Kat 1tpaYflattKOtl1ta<; (0. 18). "Ouox EKEtvoc 1tOU ~E1tEpvii OttDlJ1tOtE EXEt 1tOtE ypaq>Et svuvnc orov «uVttDpaott.KO» "EYEAO Kat tilv 9E01toil10l1 tOU KpO:tOU<; elvui 0 KapA Ilonnso (Popper) OtO The Open Society and its Ennemies (r, II, The High Tide of Prophecy:

Hegel and Marx), Aovoivo 1945, W uva9Ewp. EKD. 1952 (II, 12, Hegel and the New Tribalism, 0. 27-80).19 '0 ouyypaq>Ea<; 9EWPEt 1t<O<; 0 YEPflaVtKo<; iDWAtOfl0<; EYKatVtO:SEt tilv btoXil tii<; UVEVttflOtl1ta<; Kat uVEU9uvOtl1ta<; crnv I'spucvic: ll7tootl1pisEt 1t<O<; 0 "EYEAO<; 1tPOOAlJq>911KE U1tO tilv UVttDpaOttKil1tpwOmKil1tapO:ta~l1, yta va ixnvoxotsi tt<; u1tattlJOEt<; tl1<; (0. 29). '0 "EYEAO<; uvta1toKpi- 911KE Eq>' OOOV uvavEwoE tilv q>tAoooq>ia trov 1tPoltWV EX9prov tii<; «uvotKtii<; xowrovicc»: tOU 'HPO:KAEttOU, tOU nA.O:twva, tOU 'AptOtOtEAl1 (0. 30). ·EKtOtE otilv I'spuuvia KUptapXEt 0 EYEAtaVtOfl0<;' «0 EYEAtaVtOfl0<;

T ", _ , _ ,

stvut 11 uvuysvvnon tl1<; voorpomuc tWV nprorovovev

q>UAroV» (O.1r.)20 Kat Etm i] q>tAoooq>ia tOU "EYEAOU OUflq>wva flE tOY Ilonnsp OEV elver 1tapa 0 OUVDEttKO<; xpiKO<; flEta~U tOU 1tAatWVtKOU Kat tOU VEoltEPOU q>aCJt0flou (0. 31). '0 ptstKO<; KOA.A.EKtt~tOflO<; tOU "EYEAOU DEV 1tPOEPXEtat flOVOV U1tO tOY nAO:tWVa, UA.A.O rooo UVtAEttat U1tO tOY <l>PEtOEpiKO rOUAtEAflO r':21 Kat 01 DUO nps-

I' '0 Pirrsp 1tUpuge'tEI 'to UyyA.I1(O 1(ti~EVO u~E'tIilppucr'to.

19 ·EA.A.. ~'tlp. 'H avolxrry 1(0lv(J)via I(ai oi exOpoi r1]~, L\(J)licilvll, 'A9ijvu-ruivvIVU 1986, 2 'to

zo '0 Ptrrsp 1tUpuge'tEI 'to UyyA.I1(O 1(ti~EVO U~E'talppucr'tO. 21 BUO'lA.IU~ tii~ np(J)crcriu~, 1797-1840.

94 nOAXIM PITTEP

cr~EUOUV ouoqxovu 7tOl<; to xprrrot; dVUl to 7tav Kat to iitoJlo oEv elver rlnoru (cr. 31). '0 "EyEA.o<; oEv ~tav KaV 7tPOtKtcrJlEVO<; crlOxacrtil<; (cr. 32) Kat crUVE7t(O<; iJ q>tAOcroq>ia tOU uupropei «nooo El)KOAa Eva<; YEArot07tOto<; Jl7tOpei va "ypa'l'Et icrtopia"»22 (cr. 32). 'H tlPxil tf]<; ruurornlaC; AOytKOU Kat 7tpaYJlanKOU OOT]YEt, Kata tOY Jlomrep nrivru, oro ouunepuoun (mOl<; iJ ouvaJlT] dVUl OtKatO»2) (cr. 41), uiu OtOacrKaAta yta XapT] tf]<; onoiuq 0 "EyEA.oC; OtacrtpE~ArocrE tt<; iOEEC; lOU 1789 ~asovta<; crtilv OEcrT] tf]<; tlvOpro7t6tT]ta<; tOY OAOKAT]PO)tlKO EOVtKtcrJlO (cr. 49) Kat to autapXtKO crucrtT]Jla tf]<; nprocrcria<; (co. 56, 58 K.ii.) K.O.K ... 'A7tEVaVn .cr' auto to 7tEptEPYO ~t~Aio 1tOU EKtO<; tf]<; KptttKf]<; tOU Xriuu tlvacrtaiVEt 1taVT]'YUptKa Kat to. tlVnqEAtaVa iicrJlata Jlicrou<; lOU ~61tEVxaOUEp (Schopenhauer) t07tOOEt~OT]KE tropa 0 B. Knoixpunv, w. Kaufmann, «Hegel, Legende und Wirklichkeit» (u' &KO. tlYYAtKa cro The Philosophical Review, IX, "X. 4, 'OKt. 1951, YEpJlaVtKa rrro Zeitschrift fiir Philosophische Forschung, X, 2, 1956, cr. 191-226)' auto to KEtJlEVO otatU7trovEt lmOOEtYJlanKa OAE<; tt<; OEoucrEC; crUYKEKptJlEVE<; tlvnpp~crEt<;. «'ECj)' ocrov tEAEtrocrav 0 EYEAtaVtcrJl0<; Kat 0 tlvnqEAtavtcrJl6<;», 0 Kuouounv KataA~YEt ST]troVlaC; «va q>aVOUJlE tEAtKa Sixmoi tl1tEVaVn orov "EYEAO» (cr. 226). ·HOT] JlEta tOY A' 7taYK6crJlto 7tOAEJlO 0 B. M1taC; (Y. Basch, Les doctrines politiques des philosophes classiques de l'Allemagne, Ilupiot 1927) dXE tlVaM~Et tilv lmEpacr7ttcrT] tOU "EYEAOU tl1tEVaVn crE optcusvs«; EpJlT]VEUnKE<; tacrEtC; 1tOU OEropoucrav tilv q>tAocroq>ia tOU EOVtKtcrnxo-xputucurnxi] Kat svnvnu crtilv KatT]yopia tOU «7tayYEpJlaVtcrJlou». '0 x. XatJlSEt (H. Heimsoeth) crtO iipOpo lOU «Politik und Moral in Hegels Rechtsphilosophie» (Blatt

" '0 Ptrrep ltapa9EtEl to UyyA.lKO KEiJlEVO UJlEta<ppacrto. 23 '0 Pirrsp 1tapa9EtEl to UyyA.lKO KEiJlEVO UJlEta<ppacrto.

o ErEAm: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAI:TAI:H 95

for deutsche Philosophie, VIII, 1934, cr. 127 K.E.) bncrT]f.laiVEt i8tain:pa rnv 9EttK'll cnuno iu tii~ EAEU9Epia~ tOU atof.lOU Kat Kat' auto tOY tP01£O 8top9rovEt t'llv uovousp'llEPf.lT]vEia tii~ «apxii~ tii~ icrxuo~» (~A. cr. 143 K.E.). Kovrn erov Bity 1£pi1£Et c' aut'll t'llv cruvacpEta va f.lvT]f.l0VEU9d Kat 6 MapKousE. Kuru t'llv 8tK~ tOU yvrof.ll], f.lEta t'llv Ef.lcpaVtcrT] tOU cpa<rtcrf.lou EytVE avaYKaia uiu via spunveiu tii~ EYEAtavii~ CPtAocrocpia~. Ka9icrtatat oovepo (<1tffi~ oi ~acrt1cf:~ EVVOtE~ tOU "EYEAOU slvut EX9ptKE~ 1£pO~ tt~ tacrEt~ 1£OU KatiAT]~aV crt'llv ecournK'll 9Ecopia Kat 1£pa~T]» (Mareuse, D.1L, npOAOyO~, cr. VII).24 Kuru tOY MapKouSE, to 1£pO~AT]f.la yta tOY "EYEAO dvUt" c'ivapXT] crttyf.l'll crt'llv xorvcovrcn Kat OiKOV0f.ltK'll ava1ttU~T] tii~ acrttKii~ xowrovicc (cr. 60). 'AcrcpalJj)~" cptAocrocpia tOU 1£EptiXEt It<rt uicv EYYEv'll KptttK'll tii~ CPtAEAEU9EPT]~ xotvmviuq, crK01£O~ tT]~ elvm Of.lCO~ v' a1£oouonvtosi t'llv r)1tap~T] f.licra c' aut'll t'llv xorvorviu tacrECOV 1£OU 68T]youv Kat' avaYKT]V crtO autapXtKO KpatO~ (cr. 59, ~A. cr. 178 x.s.). 'H cptAocrocpia tOU "EYEAOU Ef.lcpOpeirrn a1£o t'llv 1£P09EcrT] v' a1£OKpoucrEt auto tOY Kiv8uYO. Tnv 1£apoucria<rT] tou Bov (Vaughan, D.n., cr. 143-183) E1£icrTl~ xapaKtTlpisEt " aVE~aptT]cria EVant tOW cruvT]9tousvrov 1£p0'l8EacrEcov. 'EPf.lT]VEUEt t'llv cptAocrocpia tOU "EYEAOU crE ouvdprnon f.lE t'llv irrtopiu tii~ 8taf.laptupia~ Kata tOU «acpT]pT]f.livou XEtptcrf.lOU» 1£OU xapaKtT]pisEt t'llv 1£oAtttK'll cptAocrocpia toii IH' uirovc. 'Idinirepn 1£pOcrcpopa tOU "EYEAOU 9ECOPEi t'llv crUSEU~T] tOU «ioropucoii aicr9~f.lato~ EVO~ BiKO (Vieo) Kat tii~ CPtAOcrocptKii~ i8tocputa~ trov Kuvr Kat cDiXtE» (cr. 143). 'H cptAocrocpia tOU Katop9cocrE v' a1£OtU1£rocrEt t'llv EcrcotEptK'll EVOtT]ta AOyou Kat irrropiuq Kat Etcrt Katippt\jlE to acpT]pT]f.livo cppaYf.la 1£OU XroptSE f.liXPt rots t'llv ,,9tK'll t)1tap~T] tau

24 '0 Pirrsp 1tapagettl to aYYAl1(O xsiusvo a~ttacppacrto.

96 nOAXIM PITTEP

UVOpcb1tOD U1tO tilv 1tOA.ltllC'; tOD ropiIlUV(HI. 'H crtuOEp6- rnru IlE rnv onoiu Surrqpsirm UlCOIlU ~ EllCOVU tOD "EYEA.OD, 1tOU E1tA.UcrUV oi uvti1tuA.oi tOD crta. IlEcrU tOD 10' uicbvu, E~l1YEitul crE IlEYaA.O ~UOIlO U1tO to YEYOVO~ Ott IlEta. tilv A.EYOIlEVll «xurdppsoon tOD YEPlluVllCOD i8EaA.lcrIlOD» lCui IlEXPl cr,;IlEPU ~ ulCu811IlUllCil qHA.ocroq>iu lCui ~ 8llC'; tll~ f:lC80xil tii~ ioropiuc tii~ q>lA.ocroq>iu~ EXODV xacrEl crXE80v lCaOE E1tUq>ilIlE ta. 1tPO~A.';IlUtU tii~ ucrttlCii~ xotvmviuq 1tOA.lt(ov. 'H i:vucrXOA.llcrll Il' uutilv EXEt yiVEl U1tOOEcrll tii~ lCOtvrovtoA.oyiu~ ro~ El8llCii~ E1tlcrt,;Illl~ lCui <>1trocr8,;1tOtE tii~ irrropiuc tOD 1tOA.ttlcrIlOD, Ill::

U1tOtEA.EcrIlU ~ 1toA.ltllCil OEropiu tOD "EYEA.OD va. Ilil OiYEtat 8l0A.OD ii IlOVO 1tEPlOroPlUlCa. UlCOlllllCui oro EPYO tOD NtiA.tui.i (Dilthey), Die Jugendgeschichte Hegels (1905), 1tOU crtaOlllCE rooo CJflIlUVttlCO Yla. tilv uVUVEroCJfl nov EYEA.tav&v IlEA.Et&V crtilv I'spucvic.

To U1tOtEA.EcrIlU ~tUV Ott crtO 8EUtEPO 111llCJU tOD 10' uicbvu, IlE tilv E~uipECJll tOD AOPEVt~ q>ov r.talV (Lorenz von Stein, ~A.. Il. <lIOYlCEA., P. Vogel, Hegels Gesellschaftsbegriff und seine geschichtliche Fortbildung durch L. v. Stein, Marx, Engels und Lassalle, Bepoxivo 1925, cr. 125- 207), oi IlOVOl1tOU E1XUV E1tiyvrocrll tii~ icrtOPllCii~ crllllucriu~ tii~ EYEA.lUvii~ q>lA.ocroq>iu~ Yla. tilv E1tOX'; Ilu~ xui 8EV U1tOlC01tlllCUV U1tO uutilv ~cruv <> Ma.p~ lCui <> 'EvvlCEA.~ (Engels). 'H q>lA.ocroq>iu tOD "EYEA.OD E1Vat lCUta. tilv ElCtillllcr,; tOD~ «uVtt8PUcrttlCil» lCui U1tOtEA.El «ElCq>pucrll tOD 1tUA.UtoD xoouou» (Map~: «Autil ~ IlEtUq>DCJllCil dVUl ~ IlEtUq>DCJllCil ElCq>pucrll tOD 1tUA.UtoD xoouoo 0)(; UA.';OElU tii~ VEU~ lCocrIlOUvtiA.ll'V119>, 1tUpaOEllu roo Rjazanov U1tO to Marx-Engels Gesamtausgabe, I, 1, o. XXXV) 0Xl ollro~ E1tEl8il U1tllPEtEl 8iiOEV tilv npeoomlCil uvti8pucrll, una. Yluti U1tOtEA.El U1t01tElPU 1tVEUIlUttlCii~ xui OEropllttlCii~ l)1tEP~ucrll~ uutii~ tii~ f:1tuvacr'Wcrll~ 1tOU E1tltEA.EltUlIlE tilv EA.EUcrll tii~ ucrttlCii~ xorvco-

o ErEAm: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAI:TAI:H 97

viue; KUt btElOTJ, (inroO'tE, t::lVUl YEVlKa i] 1l0VUOlKT] qnAooocpiu 1tOU 'Ku'tuAu~E Ull'tT] 'tT]V f:1tuvuo'tuoT) roe; 1tpOe; 'tT]v ouoin 'tT)e; KUt 'tT]V OlKOUIlEVlKT] OT)lluoiu 'tT)e;. I'i' uu'to 'tOY AOYo aV'tl1tUAE'I'UV KUt oi OUO IlE 1tu{)oe; 'tT]V CPlAEAEu{)EPT) KPl'tlKT] 'tOU "EYEAou KUt 'tT]V 'tUU'tloTJ 'tOU IlE 'tT]V Ilpeoociu, OT)AUOT] 'tT]V «avuloxuv'tiu 'tOU va ()EAEl Kuvde; va ~EIl1tEPOEUElll' £VUV 'tU1tO oav 'tOY "EYEA.O ~YU~OV'tue; 'tOY TIpcOOOO» (~A. 'ta f:1tlo'tOAOYPuCPlKa 1tUPU9Ellu'tU orov BElY, Weil, o.n., 0. 15 K.E. Cl1tO 'tOY MUlO 'tOU 1860).25 To 1888, OT)AUOT] 'tT]V f:1t0XT] KU'ta 'tT]V onoiu 6 uEYEAoe; ~'tuv 0XEOOV ~EXUOIlEVOe; KUt i] CPlAooocpiu 'tOU OEV t::lXE 1tAEOV 'tT]V 1tUPUlllKPT] f:1tlPPOTJ, 6 "EVYKEAe; (Engels, Ludwig Feuerbach und der Ausgang der klassischen Philosophie, VEU EKOOOT), Bspoxivo 1946) UVUCPEPEl UKO- 1lT) 'tOY "EYEAo roe; «OT)lllOUPYlKT] 10lOcpuiu» KUt tJ1tEpU01ti~E'tUl 'to «f:1tl~AT)'tlKO OlKOOOIlT)IlU 'tOU OUO'tTJIlU'toe;» 'tOU IlE roix; «unpoouarprrrouq 9T)ouupoUe;» 'tOU KU'ta 'tcOV «vuvrov 1tOU 'tOU f:1tl'tieEV'tUl» KUt 'tcOV «ui- 0XPcOV KPUUYcOV» roo; (0. 10). l:'tte; 29 Mnprioo 1865 6 "EVYKEA.e; ypUcpEl nupouoiox; crov <l>PTJV'tPlX "AA.Il1tEp't AUYKE (Lange): «<I>UcrtKa EXro 1tU'I'El va t::lIlUl EYEAlUvoe;, roo'tooo Vl(o{)ro aKOIlT) IlEYUAT) 1tpOcrTJAroOT) KUt uYU1tT) Yl' uu'to 'tOY KOAOOcrtuio 'tU1tO» (a1tO 'tT]V Neue Zeit, 'to 28, I (1910), 0. 183-186, 1tUPU{)EIlU a1tO 'tOY KaPA <l>opAuiv'tEP, Karl Vorlander, Kant, Fichte, Hegel und der Sozialismus, BEpOAivo 1920, 0. 96-97). -

"Etrn Ku'tUATJYOUIlE O'tT]V -1tUpUOO~T)- KU'tUO'tUOT) i] VEU 1tPOOE'Y'YlOT) 'tlie; IlEYUAU'tEpT)e; 1tOAl'tlKlie; CPlAOOOcp~Ue; nou 1tUpTJYUYE 1tO'tE i] VEc.ll'tEPT) UO'tlKT] xowroviu 1tOAl'tcOV 1tpOe; OcpEAOe; 'tT)e; va EXEl OTJIlEPU EiOTJ'YT)'tEe;, KUt IlUAlO'tU KU't' UVUYKT), oooue; EXOUV KU'tUO'tEl KOOIlOlO'tOPlKOt aV'ti1tUAOi 'tT)e;.

2S 'En. 8 Kat 10 Maiou 1860, Marx-Engels Werke, t. 32, cr. 503.

98 nOAXIM PITIEP

5. 1:XEttKIl J.lE: t~V J\oYlIdl ro~ J.lEtaq>uO"tlC~ tOU "EYEA.OU OE:~ N. Xupruuv, N. Hartmann, Hegel, 1929, a. 143 lC.E. BA.. btiaTJ~ at~v J\OYIICry tOU "EYEA.OU (r. 4, a. 64 lC.E.):26 «'H aVttlCEtJ.lEVtlC~ A.OYtlC~ EPXEtat aUVE1t&~ at~v (MaTJ

-, - , ,tl " T

tTJ~ 1tpoYEvEatEPTJ~ J.lEtacpuatlCTJt; Ecp ocov ElCEtVTJ nruv

to J.lOVO E1ttatTJJ.l0VtlCO OllCOOOJ.lTJJ.la crov lCOaJ.lO 1tOD OCPEtA.E vii lCtisEtat J.lOVO J.lE: alC£\1' eic»: ~A.. lCai at~V 'EYK:vK:Ao1CaiOEla (J.lEyaA.TJ27 1827-1830' t. 8, a. 83):28 «1:uvE1t(Ot; il A.OYtlC~ aUJ.l1ti1ttEt J.lE: t~V J.lEtacpuatlCTJ».

6. BA.. aXEttlCa u' auto to STJtTJJ.la A.E1ttOJ.lEpEatEpa Ft. Pirrep, Die Lehre yom Ursprung und Sinn der Theorie bei Aristoteles (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Forschung des Landes Nordrhein-Westphalen, tX. 1, Koxorviu-Opladen 1952, a. 32 lC.E.).

7. ,11arpopa "t"mv ouattuuuxov toii lPiX"t"e xai toi) 1:'CAA1YK:,29 r. 1, a. 41:30 «"A v ... to a1toA.utO, lCaSro~ xui to qxnVOJ.lEVO tOU 6 A.oYOt;, slvm alrovta Eva lCai to auto (01tCOt; elver), ton: 6 lCaSE A.6yo~ 1tOD atpacpTJlCE 1tPOt; tOV Eauto tOU lCai yvroptaE tOV EaUtO tOU OTJJ.ltoUPYTJaE uiuv aA.TJStv~ cptA.oaocpia lCai EA.UaE yta tOV EaUtO tOU to STJtTJJ.la 1tOD elvoi aE: OA.Et; ti~ btoXE:~ to ioto, 01tCOt; lCai il A.uaTJ roo ... a1tO t~V U1tO'l'TJ tli~ EaCOtEptlClit; ouaiat; tlit; cptA.oaocpia~ OE:V u1tapxouv OUtE 1tpOOPOJ.lOt OUtE btiyovoi». BA.. nupouotox; at~v 'EYK:VK:A01Caiolila (181.:7) § 7, § 8 (r. 6, a. 25).31 'H EV A.6YQ> EVOtTJta lCaSE cptA.oaocpiat; a\tayOpEUEt va J.ltA.aJ.lE yta «cptA.OaocpiE~» orov 1tA.TJSUVnlCO

26 W5,61.

" l\TJAaoil W £11:0. (~ cruVt0l10tEPTJ a' £1(0. ~taV tOU 1817). 18 W8, 81' § 24.

19 I:uVtol1oypacpia: L111>.E. 30 W2,17.

JJ BA. crtilv W £1(0. tOU 1827-1830 tilv § 13' W8, 58.

o ErEAO~ KAI H rAAAIKH EnANALTAI:H 99

KUt 9EI.U;AtcOVE'tUt a'tT]V 'tUU'tO'tTJ'tU 'tOU UVttKEtJ.l.EVOU 'tTJ<;, 'tOU U1tOAU'tOU ~ 'tOU QV'tO<;, 'tOU «J.l.T] YTJPUaKOV'tO<; 1tUpOVtoe ~WV'tO<;» (Tatopia rry; qJlA.Oaorpia;,32 'to 17, a. 69).33 "OW0<; yta rov "EYEAO iJ «uio» qltAoao<piu m<; OAOV Of:V 1tUUEt va dvat iJ qltAoao<piu a' OATJ 'tTJ<; 'tT]V ioropic. EIVUt «6 Ku90AtKO<; voix; 1tOD f:K'ti9E'tUt J.l.f: rov 1tAOU'tO 'tOU aXTJJ.l.uttaJ.l.OU 'tOU a'tT]V 1tuYKOaJ.l.tU irrropin» (a. 62).34

8. 'H (/J1A.oaorpia rry; iatopiai;" 'to 11, a. 557,36 OdXVEt KUAa noco UOlUPPTJK'tU UUTJAEVOE'tE<; elver iJ 1tOAl'tlKT] 9ECOpiu 'tOU "EYEAOU KUt iJ qltAoao<piu 'tOU. 'Eow aXE'ti~El UJ.l.EaU 'tT]V «uPXT] 'til<; aKE'I'TJ<;» 1tOD f:VU1tUPXEl a'tT]v fUUlKT] 'E1tuvua'tuaTJ J.l.f: 'tT]V UPXT] 'tOU AOYOU 01tCO<; f:J.1- <pUvi~Etat a'tT]v upxuiu <plAoao<piu: «'0 'Avu~uyopu<;

_ T ,! ~f _" v ,. ~. ,

1tpco'tO<; El1tE 1tco<; 0 voce UPXEl orov xoouo: ouo»; uovo

'tcOpu (OTJAUOT] J.1f: 'tT]v fUUlKT] 'Ennvno-mcn) KU'tUAU~E 6 uv9pco1t0<; 1tCo<; iJ aKE'I'TJ o<pdAEt vi: UPXEl a'tT]v 1tVWJ.1UttKT] f:vEPYO 1tPUYJ.1UttKO'tTJ'tU». '0 "EYEAO<; 9ECOpEl' 'tOV op90 AOYO 'til<; f:1tUvua'tuaTJ<; rcoroonuo J.1f: 'tOV AOYO 'til<; 1tUPUOEOOJ.1EVTJ<; <plAoao<piu<;' uu'tO<; 1tpuyJ.1u'tcOVEtUt 1tOAt'ttKa U1tO 'tT]V fUAAtKT] 'E1tuvua'tuaTJ. ~Av AOl- 1tOV U1tOKOmOUJ.1E 'tT]V 1tOAt'ttKT] 9ECOpiu 'tOU "EYEAOU U1tO 'tT]V <plAoao<piu KUt Of:V i)1tOAOyi~OUJ.1E 'tT]V J.1E'tu<puatKT] 1tpOEAWaTJ KUt aTJJ.1uaiu 'tWV KUPlCOV f:VVOlWV 'tTJ<; elver uoipuio va 'tT]V 1tUPEpJ.1TJVEUOUJ.l.E· 'tT]V UUOlcOVOUJ.1E KUt 'tT]V Ku'tua'tpE<poUJ.1E, 01tco<; uv'tia'tpo<pu f:KKEVcOVOUJ.1E 'tT]V <plAoao<piu 'tOU KUt 'til<; U<pUlPOUJ.1E 'tT]V ouoia 'tTJ<; O'tUV 'tT]V U1tOK01t'tOUJ.1E U1tO 'tT]V uvu<popu 'tTJ<; 1tpo<; 'tT]V ioropiu KUt 'ta 1tOAlttKa KUt xoivmvuce 1tpO~AitJ.1U'tU 'tOU

3l l:uvlolloYPu<pill: lIP. " 81... WIS, 46-47.

34 81... WIS, 69 !C.£.

" l:uvlOIlOYPIl<Pill: IPI. 36 WI2,529.

100 nOAXIM PITTEP

lCU1POU, oc» Va. 1tPOlCEltUl Yla. EVu aUanulU 1tOU iJ cr1CE"'111tpO~aA.AEl E~ i8irov ati]v lCu9upi] v011a11.

9. 'H UVtlEYEA1UVi] lCpltllCi] ~Eta. to 1830 AEltOUPEl YEVllCa. ~ XElpUq>Et11crTJ U1tO ti]v ~EtUq>UallCi] lCui ti]v 1tUpa80ai) t11~. Auto 8i:v iaxuEl uovo Yla. rnv 'EYEAluvi] 'AplcrtEpa. '0 o.r, lta.A (F.J. Stahl, Die Philosophie des Rechts. 1 Geschichte der Rechtsphilosophie, 21847) 811AroVEl xui uutO~ «~u9Utatu 1tE1tEla~EVO~» Yla. to «UVUA11- 9i:~» tii~ EYEAluvii~ q>lAoaoq>iu~ (a. XVI). Kuta. ti]v yvro~11 tOU elver ",w8i]~ iJ q>lAoaoq>iu lCui iJ 8lUAElCtllCi] ~E- 9086~ t11~' opovei 1t(O~ 0811yEi ~i: UVUYlCU10t11tU oro (<1tUV9E'iatllCO mxrrnuu», 1t(O~ q>EPVEl tOY "EYEAO ai: uvti- 9Ea11 ~i: tOY xplatlUVla~O lCui tOY npoommxo 9EO tOU xui 1t(O~ ElC~118EVi1;;El lCa9E «npootomxorntu lCui EAW9Epic» (a. 453) lCu9cO~ lCui ti]v «UA119lVi] 1tpuY~UtllCOtlltU» (a. 450). Auto elvoi xur' upxi]v to i810 E1tlXEip11~U ~i; tOU Xuuu: 'H q>lAoaoq>iu 6811YE1 1tEPUV tii~ 1tPUY~UtllCOt11tU~ lCui rnv uvtllCu91ata u' EVuv «OVE1PllCO lCOa~O» E1tE18i] UlCP1~~ etVUl q>lAoaoq>iu. lUVE1t(O~ ~tUV u1tupuit11tO 6 "EYEAO~ va. «lmOlCAE1ttW) 1tPOltU uiu 1tpuY~UtllCOt11tU (a. 445) lCui Etal va. 81UPPllYVUEllCa9E 8Ea~0 ~i; ti]v icropucn 1tpuY~UtllCOt11tU (a. 467) lCui ~f; ti~ UPXf;~ 1tOU ti]v 81E1tOUV. To a11~UVtl1(O etVU1, AOl1tOV, u~' EVO~ va. lCUtU1tOAE~i)aou~E to «q>lAoaoq>llCo oucrnuu cO~ U1tOAUtO lCui ~AU~EPO A6.90~» (a. 472), uq>' hEPOU o~ro~ vi: 81Ut11pi)aou~E oau 9EtllCa. npocospet 1tUpa. tuiitu, ti]v 818ualCuAiu tOU Yla. rnv 8uvU~11 tOU xoouou tOU ii90u~, rnv l)1tEp~ua11 tii~ 9Eropiu~ i81rotllCOU 81lCUiou tOu q>ov XaA.AEp (von Haller, a. 467' 8f;~ aXEtllCa. tOY P01;;EVta~allC, Rosenzweig," r. II, a. 191 lC.E.), ti~ yOV1~E~ rtpolCEi~EVE~ Yla. uin iatOpllCi] 1tpOaEYYla11, lC.A1t., matE vi:

37 Hegel und der Staat, M6vaxo-BEpOAivo 1920.

o ErEAOI: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAI:TAI:H 101

KatacrtijcroUll1: ti]v 91:<opia tOU «EvtI:Aro~ UVI:~UptT]tT] U1tO to crUcrtT]IlU tOU» (cr. 465). 'H U1tOK01ti] t1i~ 1tOAttlKOlcrtOptK1i~ EPIlT]vda~ tOU "EYI:AOU U1tO ti]v qltAOcrOq>ia tOU E1ttq>EPl:t yt!l tOY l:taA ti]v UAAoi<ocrT] Kat xutacrtpoq>ij tT]~, 01t<O~ UKPt~ro~ yta ti]v «upicreph» 1taPI:PIlT]vda tT]~ ro~ uvttOpacrttK1i~ iOwAoyia~. AutOU roii doou~ Tj KpttlKi] !:Ivat UKOIlT] s<ovtavij. '0 nAEYYI: (Plenge, Marx und Hegel, Tu~iyyT] 1911, a. 45) 91:<opl:i 1tro~ «oi KataaKWf:~ t1i~ EydLUV1i~ Ill:taq>uatK1i~ E1ttKaAU1ttOUV auv 9all1tO ~I:PViKt ta q><Otl:tVa xprollata tOu IlquAou 1tivuxu»: alll:aT] ouvenstu t1i~ Ill:taq>ucrtK1i~ U1t1iP~1: Kat' autov to yqovo~ Ott 6 "EYI:AO~ Elll:tVI: «tUq>AO~» U1tEvavn att~ «OT]lltoUpytKf:~ ouvatotT]tl:~ tOU IE)' uirovn» (a. 52). na tOY l:1tEYKAI:P (0. Spengler, Preuj3entum und Sozialismus, 1920, a. 79) «fLv ~UAOUIlI: Kata IlEPO~ ti]v uetaq>ucrtKi] roii "EYI:AOU» 6 tOto~ !:Ivat Eva~ «1tOAtttKO~ otavoT]ti]~ Ilf: roco iaxupi] ata9T]aT] t1i~ 1tpaYllattKOtT]ta~, matI: Of:v lmUPXl:t OI:UtI:PO~ Eq>UlltAAO~ ati]v vsoirspn q>tAoaoq>ia» (~A. ti]v KpttlKij tOU U1tO tOY Giese, Hegels Staatsidee und der Begriff der Staatserziehung; 1926, a. 9 Kat a. 9 onu. 3). 'AvUAoYT] zopsin uKoAou9d Tj U1tOppt'l'T] t1i~ icropucfp; f:1ttatijllT]~ tOu "EYI:AOU. nUAt Tj q>tAoaoq>ia UVttlll:t<01tisl:tat ro~ 'l'tAi] Bsmpiu af: aXEon Ilf: ti]v irrropiu Kat Etcrt Tj Otallopq><oaT] t1i~ irrtopiK1i~ 1l1:90oou ouuninret Ilf: ti]v Kataatpoq>i] t1i~ q>tAOaoq>ia~. rta tOY TaEAAl:p (Zeller, Die Philosophie der Griechen in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung dargestellt, 1859-1868, Tu~iYYT]-Al:t'l'ia 71923, t. I, Eiaay<oyij, a. 10 K.E.) Tj EYI:Atavi] ioropin t1i~ «tOEa~» Ill:ta~UAAl:tat af: ioropin troy tOl:rov 1tAaallEv<ov U1tO tOU~ uv9pro1tou~' apa Tj «tOEa» 1taUl:t va u1totl:Ad upxi] t1i~ ioropinq Kat Tj icropin t1i~ q>tAoaoq>ia~ U1tOK01ttl:tat U1tO ti]v 1tPOU1tO- 91:aT] t1i~ tOta~ t1i~ q>tAoaoq>ia~. 'H uovouepsic t1i~ q>tAoaoq>tK1i~ uvaipl:aT]~ tOU 1tOAttlKOU 1tl:ptQOIlEVOU t1i~

102 nOAXIM PITfEP

qnAocroq>iw; cruYKAtVEt IlE tilV IlOVOIlEPEtU tTie; 1tOAtttKTiC; UVUiPEcrT]C; tTie; q>tAocroq>iue;. Tov Ie' uirovu oi Mo IlOPq>Ee; uvaipEcrT]e; KUtaATnOllV crE uiu U1tAWe; ioropioypuq>tKil Uv'ttIlEtc.OmcrT] lOU "EYEAOll.

10. To Evc>taq>Epov yta tilv KaST]IlEptvil ioropiu U1tT]XEi Tj SEcrT] tTie; q>tAocroq>iae; we; q>tAocroq>iac; tOU KUtPOi) tT]e; crtilv «q>tAocroq>ia tOU Sucaiou», Eq>' ocrov to KaST]IlEpivo crllll~av dvat Tj 1toAt'ttKil1tpaYllamcotT]ta IlEcra crtilv onoto Tj q>tAocroq>ia aq>E\AEt vii crllna~Et tilv nopouoin tou nnpovroc A6YOll. ~llVE1t&c; oi 1tOAttUCEe; EpyacriEe; 8T]llocrtOypaq>tKOU xapmct,;pa tOU "EYEAOll lmayovtat ullEcra crtilv q>tAocroq>ia rou, 01t(Oe; uvttcrlOixroe; Tj Eq>T]IlEpi8a Kat Tj uvayvrocr,; tT]e; ~tav mivrore onuovttKEe; yta tOY i8tO: «'H 1tprotVil uvayvrocrT] tTie; Eq>T]IlEpi8ae; slvci Eva d8oe; PEUA.tcrttKTie; 1tprotvTie; npocsuxTie;. npocravalOAi~Ecrat YUl tilv crtacrT] 1tOD Sa Kpat,;osu; U1tEVaVtt crov xoouo, ouuqxovn IlE tOY SEO ~ ouuq>rova IlE O,tt elver a xoouoq. 'H uvayvrocrT] 1tapEXEt tilv i8ta ucrq>aAEta IlE tilv 1tpocrElJX';, ~EpEte; 1tOU ~picrKEom» (i\ffJoP10"f.loi ano ,r,v nepiooo ,ij~ 'Ievac, up. 31, D, cr. 360).38 '0 B.P. M1taytEp (W.R. Beyer, Zwischen Phanomenologie und Logik. Hegel als Redakteur der Bamberger Zeitung, <l>paYKq>ouptT] 1955) E1ttcrT]llaivEt tilv uovum «EmSllllia 1tEpt08tKWV» tOU "EYEAOll Kat tilv E~TJYEi SEropc.Ovtae; 1tWe; Ev8taq>EpEtUt va «IlEtaIlOPq>c.OcrEt ta cruyxpova YEYovota crE SEropia 8ta tOu tU1tOll» (cr. 39). '0 MmiytEP smxptvet AOt1tOV tilv crllVT]StcrIlEVT] u1tomc.01tT]crT] tTie; crllVtaKttKTie; 8pacrtT]ptOtT]tUe; tOU "EydOll crtilv Ball~EpyT]39 we; YEYOVOtOe; f:7tEtcro8taKOu, ucr';llaVtOll, acrXEtOll IlE tilv q>tAocroq>ia rou (~A. crXE'ttKa tilv E1tOIlE-

38 W2,547.

" 'n~ ou:u9uvtii i;q)TlJ.lt;pioa~.

o ErEAOI: KAI H rAAAIKH EnANAHAI:H 103

VTI O"TlI·u;i<OO"TI)· nUpOUO"Ui~El 'ttC; O"UV9TiKEC; 1tOD E1tlKPUWUV O"'t11V BUI1~EpYTI KUt 't11V EKEi OPUO"'tTlPlO'tTl'tU WU "EYEA.OU (1tP~A.. I1E'tU~D clU<oV Eouq>i<ov 0". 11 K.E., 0". 42 K.E.), 1tP0O"q>EPEl YEO UA.lKO O"TlI1UV'tlKO Yla 't11v KU'tUVOTlO"TI 'tTic; 1tOA.l'tlKTiC; q>lA.oO"oq>iuC; wu "EYEA.OU KUt nov 1tOA.l'tlKroV rou iOEroV YEVlKO'tEpU. '0 Mmryiep op9roC; WVi~El KUT Utl'tO 'tOY 'tP01tO 't11v q>lA.oO"oq>lK11 O"TJl1uO"iu 'tTic; OTlI10- O"lOypuq>iuC; Yla 'tOY "EYEA.O, 1tEPUV UUWU, OI1<OC;, npooypUq>El O"'t11v Ku'ta "EYEA.O OTll1oO"lOypuq>iu l1iu O"Tll1uO"iu Yla 't11v q>lA.oO"oq>iu O"av uU't11v 1tOD 9' (l1tOK'tiJO"El 110VO O"'tODC; E1tlKPl'tEC; WU. npro'tOC; 6 "EYEA.OC; -'tOUA.UXlO"'tOV O"'t11v Fspucviu- KU'tUA.U~E moc; ~ 1tOA.l'tlK11 KUt KOlV<OVlK11 E1tuvuO"'tUO"TJ O"'t11v ruUiu KUt 't11v 'AyyA.iu 1tUPEcruPE 0"'t0 PEUI1U 'tTic; aUuyTic; 'to crUVOA.O 'tOU av9pw1tlvou slvci 11f: OA.U 'ta 1tEoiu 'tOU, KUt Yl' UU'tO 'tOY A.0Yo clViJYUYE rnv q>lA.oO"oq>iu O"E Beropin roii KUlPOU KUt O"UVEO"'tTlO"E 't11v olElO"OU'tlK11 KU'tUVOTlO"TI 'trov 1tOA.l'tlKroV YEYovo't<Ov KUt 't11v KPl'tlK11 O"UVOEO"TI 11f: 'ttC; clv'tiO"WlXEC; iOEOA.OyiEC;. 'Erot E~TlYEi'tUl YlU'tt O"'t11v cruvEXElU 't00"0 ~ q>lA.EA.EU9EPTI 00"0 KUt ~ E1tuvuO"'tU'tlK11 clv'tlKu9EO"'t<O'tlK11 clV'tl1toA.i'tEUO"TI U\)'tOKU'tUVOOUV'tUl roC; «npujuuronoinon 'tTic; q>lA.oO"oq>iuC;» ev clv'tl9EO"El1tpOC; 'tOY "EYEA.O (yul 'to 9EI1U Of:C; rcopu 'tOY 1:'tOUKE, Horst Stuke, August Cieszkowski und Bruno Bauer. Studie zum Poblem der «Verwirklichung der Philosophie» bei den Junghegelianer, q>lA.oO"oq>lK11 OlU'tPl~iJ, MUVO"'tEP 1957' clvu9E<OPTlI1EVO: Philosophie der Tat, 1:wu'tyupOTl 1963, ioi<oC; O"XE'tlKa 11f: 't11v O"Tll1uO"iu uU'tTic; 'tTic; clv'tl1tupu9EO"TlC; Ylcl 't11v E~EA.l~TI 'tTic; 1tOA.l'tlKTiC; 9E<OpiuC; rob Map~) KUtlhO"l f:~TIYEi'tUl E1tiO"TlC; ~ ouvcomcn 'tTic; 1tpuYl1u'to1toiTlO"TlC; 'tTic; q>lA.oO"oq>iuC; 11f: 't11v ustutpo- 1t11 'tTic; 'tEA.EU'tuiuC; O"f: 1tOA.l'tlK11 OTll1oO"lOypuq>iu KUt 'trov q>lA.OO"Oq><ov O"f: OTlI100"lOypUq>OUC; (1tP~A.. O"XE'tlKa M1tuYlEP, Beyer, D.n., 0". 39 KUt clUOU). 'H 9EO"TI WU M1tUYlEP moc; ~ q>lA.oO"oq>iu EXEl clVUYKTI 'tOY 'tU1tO Yla va EXEl E1ti-

104 nOAXIM PITIEP

opacrll Kai va 1tpaYJlat01tOl1l6Et (cr. 71 K.E. EK<PpU~El aKpl~We; tilv crX&~ <plA.ocro<piae; Kai tlJ1tOU 1tOU xapaKtllpi~El tilv 1toA.tttKil aVtt1tOA.ltwcrll Kai iOiroe; roix; Nsouc 'EYEA.laVOUe; Jl&XPl to 1848. Alltil i1 crX&crll cruVE1tuYEtal OJlroe; Kat' autOUe; tilv Katacrtpo<pil tlie; <ptA.ocro<piae;, tOUt&crttV tlie; EYEA.tavlie;, Kai Etcrt avttcrtp&<pouv tilv crX&crll <plA.ocro<piae; Kai 0llJlocrtoypa<piae; 1tOU ~picrKOUJlE crov "EYEA.O. 1:UJl<prova JlE tOY tdwtato i1 <ptA.ocro<pia crUA.A.aJl~UVEt tilv aA.~6Eta tlie; i:1toxlie;, f:vW crUJl<prova JlE roix; Neooc 'EYEA.taVOUe; i1 E1toXil a1tattEt tilv avaipEcrll tlie; aA.~6Etae; tlie; <ptA.ocro<piae;. Toorn i1 a1to<pacrtcrttKil ota<popa OEV U1tOA.Oyi~Etat apKEta crtilv nnpoooiucn tlie; 0llJlocrtoypa<ptKlie; OpacrtllPtOtlltae; tOU "EYEA.OU a1to tOY M1tUytEp. 'E1tEtoil Kata tilv YV<OJlll tOU i1 6Eropia tOU Map~ a1totEA.d oucrtacrttKa cruV&Xtcrll Kai nspurrepro aVU1ttU~ll EYEA.taVWv crK&IjIEroV (1tP~A.. cr. 230), 6 M1tUytEP 6Eropd moe; to 6EttKO venue tlie; 1toA.tttKlie; 6Eropiae; tOU "EYEA.OU EJl<Pavi~Etat aJlEcrotEpa xui cra<p&crtEpa crtilv 0llJlocrtoypa<ptKil OpacrtllPtOtlltU tOU, 1tOU 1tapa1t&Jl1tEl crtilv «1tpaYJlato1toill~ tlie; <ptA.ocro<piae;», 1tapa crtilv qnA.ocro<pia tOU, i1 onoic Jliinov E1ttKaA.U1ttEl uiu t&tOW crlll1acria Kai a1to<pEuYEt tie; E1tt1tt<ocrEte; rnc. 'H 6EroPllttKil Epyacria a1totEA.d yta tOY Mup~, roe; <ptA.ocro<pia, «npo-epjuciu yta JlEt&1tEtta 1tPU~ll Kai JlUA.lcrta yta tilv 1tPU~ll a.nrov, tWV Jla~wv» (cr. 75), ana i1 iota cruvtcrtii Yla tOY "EYEA.O to «1tpuYJla auto», JlE tilv EvvOtU Ott crtilv 6EroPllttKil Epyacria ~picrKEtat i1 EvvOta ocrrov atruov cruyx.povrov crUJl~UVtrov OEV yivovtat <pavEpa outs a1to Kai yta tilv 1tA.wpa tlie; 1taA.tVOp6rocrlle; OUtE a1tO Kat yta tilv 1tA.wpa tlie; i:1tavucrtacrlle;. 'H JlEtu~acrll a1to tOY "EYEA.O orov Map~ 1tEPtKA.&lEt cruVE1tWe;, roe; JlEtU~acrT]. Kai tilv Katacrtpo<pil tlie; <ptA.ocro<piae;, a.pa cruVE1tUYEtUl E1ticrlle; t.ilv P~~ll JlE tOY "EYEA.O. To avttA.aJl~UVEtat Kat o M1tuytEP (~A.. tie; KptttKEe; 1tapatllP~crEte; tOU Kata telW