You are on page 1of 8

[Type text]`

Web 2.0 And Social Learning in a Digital


Economy
G Shravan Kumar, BE3/4 CSE-A G. Kanakaiah, BE3/4 CSE-A
gandham.shravan@gmail.com Vasavi College of engineering
Computer science & engineering, Computer science & Engineering.
Vasavi College of Engineering. kanakaiah.guntipally@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
an innovative application of them to increase
Web 2.0, the second phase in the Web’s people’s awareness of Web 2.0 technologies.
evolution, is attracting the attention of IT
professionals, businesses, and Web It is to find answers for two questions:
users.Web 2.0 is also called the wisdom (1) Is Web 2.0 technologies appropriate in

Web, people-centric Web, participative supporting social learning

Web, and read/write Web. Web 2.0


(2) how Web 2.0 supports the process of social
harnesses the Web in a more interactive and
learning Based on the four components of
collaborative manner, emphasizing peers’
Boisot’s SLC, the paper explores characteristics
social interaction and collective intelligence,
of Web 2.0 technologies and the relationship
and presents new opportunities for between social learning and Web 2.0
leveraging the Web and engaging its users technologies, which demonstrates that Web 2.0
more effectively. Within the last two to three technologies are able to support social learning.
years, Web 2.0, ignited by successful Web Elearning 2.0 is the application of Web 2.0 in
2.0- based social applications such as learning, its tenets are creating and delivering
MySpace, Flickr, and YouTube, has been personalized, social and lifelong learning

forging new applications that were


previously unimaginable.
Through web platforms utilizing Web 2.0
The paper provides background theory related to
principles and technologies.
learning and Web 2.0 technologies and describes
[Type text]`

Therefore, it analyzes blog and wiki resources its features, highlighting its potential impact on
for e-learning 2.0, ChinesePod, and social learning.
collaboration systems to demonstrate how Web
2.0 technologies are shaping social learning. 1.2. Aim and structure of the paper
While not designed specifically for educational
1. Introduction purposes, Web 2.0 applications have a number
of affordances that can make them useful in
1.1. Background
teaching and learning environments and are
With the emergence of interactive IT capabilities
rooted in strong pedagogical underpinnings of
such as the Internet and WWW, business and
constructivism [1], which are designed to bring
knowledge exchange have become very strongly
people with shared interests together [2]. The
inter related. Web 2.0 is a term used to herald
increasingly ubiquitous access, ease of use,
the second wave of the World Wide Web, one
functionality, and flexibility of emerging Web
that allows individuals to publish, collaborate
2.0 technologies have made them much more
and share experiences with other like-minded
appealing as instructional tools[3].
individuals or groups. Web 2.0 may simply
Organizational learning is studied from
represent new jargon for what the Web was
psychology and organizational development,
meant to achieve all along, a marked contrast
management science, strategy, production
with what happened during the first wave of
management, sociology and cultural
Web development, which was characterized by a
anthropology [4]. Based on Huber (1991) we
hierarchical structure (ruled by Webmasters)
offer a definition: …an entity learns if, through
offering static web sites broadcasted and
its information/knowledge exchange, the range
distributed mostly through hypertext links. Web
of its potential behavior is changed … an
2.0 is already part of our mainstream culture. A
organization learns if many of its units acquire
and use knowledge that it recognizes as
potentially useful to the organization. [5]
Google search in August 2006 of “Web 2.0”
We selected after a literature survey the social
yielded over 103 million hits. By contrast, a
learning cycle (SLC) theory of Boisot (1995) as
search of Medline with the term “web 2.0.mp”
a starting point for this paper because it assumes
failed to provide even one document. This
organizational learning is a social and dynamic
dearth of information within the biomedical
process of knowledge development and
literature motivated us to write this article, as an
utilization. The objective of our research is:
attempt to introduce the reader to Web 2.0 and
The development and exploration of a
framework based on Boisot’s SLC concept for
[Type text]`

successful integrating Web 2.0 applications in • The user as contributor—some


general, in organisations during an ongoing examples of this include the ability of
process of learning and changing. The ultimate the user to write reviews on
aim of this framework is to give direction to the amazon.com or rank the reputation of
social and dynamic process of knowledge sellers on eBay.
development Authorized licensed use limited to: • Participation not publishing—blogs are
KnowledgeGate from IBM Market Insights. a good example of this.
Downloaded on February 26,2010 at 02:40:08 • Lightweight programming models—
EST from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. loosely coupled systems, services that
and utilization for improving organizational can be bundled together rather than
(learning) effectiveness.This paper is structured heavyweight applications, syndicating
in five sections. The introduction–section 1- data outward not controlling what
presents the background and aim of the paper. In happens to it when it gets to the other
section 2 is developed a SLC framework for end of the connection.
especially knowledge-based companies what • Trust and collaboration—services such
will be explored in section 3 for analyzing cases as Wikipedia, which is built upon the
of Web2.0 shaping learning. The findings are idea that any user can add an entry and
summarized and discussed in section 4. And any other user can edit it, or Flickr
section 5 gives recommendations for future which has collaborative categorization
research. of sites.
• Software above the level of any single
device—a good example of this is
iTunes where the applications
2. Theoretical background seamlessly reach from a handheld
device to the backend server with the PC
acting as a local cache and control
2.1. Characteristics of Web 2.0
station.
Web 2.0 is a term invented by O’Reilly Media in
• A rich user experience—some examples
2004 and defined as follows: Web 2.0 is the
of this might be a word processor that
business revolution in the computer industry
supports wiki-style collaborative editing
caused by the move to the internet as platform,
not just standalone documents or an e-
and an attempt to understand the rules for
mail application.
success on that new platform [6].
Some of the design principles that characterize
Web 2.0 are the following [7]: 2.2Boisot’s SLC and the components
[Type text]`

Boisot is considering social learning as moving labeled as adoption and diffusion is extensively
through an Information (I) space along two discussed in innovation theory.
parallel paths of how meaning are constructed
and are shared. By examining how codification, (4)Absorption and impact
abstraction and diffusion interact to move Absorption and impact –a downward movement
information/knowledge through the data field, in the I space by means of which the newly
we can see how new knowledge gradually builds created knowledge is internalized through
up in a social system. It consists of four repeated use and becomes therefore largely
components: implicit. It becomes embedded in concrete
scanning, problem solving, diffusion and practices and physical or IT artifacts. An
absorption organization is facing the familiar question of
(1) Scanning: whether old knowledge will compete or
Scanning-a left movement in the I space through collaborate. Will there be an integration or
which data which is generally available and collision. It depends on the characteristics of the
diffused crystallizes into singular and innovation and their related new knowledge.
idiosyncratic patterns that then become the
possession of individuals and small groups. This
stage requires establishing shared vision and
meeting the different needs of each stakeholder.

(2) Problem solving


Problem solving by codification and abstraction
is an upward movement in the I space through
which new patterns gain a definite form and
contour. It gives structure and coherence to
insights that resulted from scanning and
transforms tacit knowledge in more explicit
knowledge. Figure 1 Boisot’s Social Learning Cycle

(3) Diffusion 3. Research model, methodology


Diffusion –a rightward movement in the I space
and case study analysis
that makes the newly created knowledge
available to a larger population. This topic
3.1. Research model
[Type text]`

While many traditional web applications focus home in learning (both in school and university),
on the delivery of content, Web 2.0 applications, as not only does the software remove the
such as blogs, wikis, social networks, and social technical barriers to writing and publishing
bookmarks, focus more on social connectivity. online - but the “journal” format encourages
These Web 2.0 applications provide venues for students to keep a record of their thinking
collaboration and sharing of information to Over time. Blogs also of course facilitate critical
support the networks necessary for social feedback, by letting readers add comments -
and active learning. which could be from teachers, peers or a wider
Authorized licensed use limited to: Knowledge audience. On the stage of diffusion, Web 2.0
Gate from IBM Market Insights. Downloaded on applications provide numerous opportunities for
February 26,2010 at 02:40:08 EST from IEEE learners to publish their work globally, which
Xplore. Restrictions apply. provide for a number of pedagogical benefits.
Based on these four components of SLC, we Learning environment that include
analyze those four components to demonstrate learner’s publication afford opportunities for
how Web 2.0 technologies influence social learners to examine problems in different ways,
learning. On the Scanning stage, Web 2.0 has establish new connections, and ultimately
many tools to facilitate this process by providing develop a new entity that can be shared globally
real time monitoring of users and stakeholders’ [8]. Podcasting has become a popular
behavior to see just what their new needs are, technology in learning, in part because it
and how to meet their new needs. Through provides a way of pushing educational content to
Providing the platform of participation, it helps learners. For example, Stanford University has
people establish shared visions. The photo- teamed up with Apple to create the Stanford
sharing site Flickr is also finding use within iTunes University - which provides a range
learning - as it provides a valuable Resource for of digital content (some closed and some
learners and educators looking for images for publicly accessible) that students can subscribe
use in presentations, learning materials or to using Apple's iTunes software. And for
coursework. absorption and impact, using Web 2.0
On the problem solving stage, Web 2.0 would technologies such as wikis and social networks
enable well-defined work groups to share results could create an interactive, collaborative
that continue to build on successes and to learn learning experience for learners in a media they
from failures. They also have the capability to are familiar with, which is benefit for learners’
provide space for discussion aimed at problem absorption.
solving. Blogging is increasingly finding a
3.2 Research methodology
[Type text]`

In this study was chosen for an explorative case taking app called stu.dicio.us and the
study approach in order to collect a rich picture ReadWriteThink Printing Press -which enables
of the reality, asking for how and why. In a case users to create a newspaper, brochure, etc. For
study a contemporary phenomenon is an in-depth look at one of the leaders in this
investigated within its real life context Because space, Steve profiled Elgg -a social network for
the boundaries between the phenomenon and the education. This is an excellent example of how
context are not clear. A major strength of the web 2.0 is shaping learning. Another great
case study strategy is that it allows for the use of example of an e-learning 2.0 app is Chinese Pod.
multiple sources like documentation, archival It uses podcasting, RSS, blogging and other
records, interviews, direct observations, Web 2 technologies to teach Mandarin Chinese.
participants observations and physical artifacts. This complements the free offerings - basically,
This research could be a starting point for a the Mandarin podcasts - very nicely. For
further more quantitative survey in order to example, if you want to dive into learning
determine the exact relationships that are Mandarin straight away: select one of the
identified. episodes, plus you can participate in the
§ Is Web 2.0 technologies appropriate in discussions. The first level subscription is called
supporting social learning? 'Basic' and gets you a PDF transcript of the
§ How Web 2.0 supports the process of social podcast. If you want get really serious about
learning? learning Mandarin, sign up to the premium
subscription service and receive learning

3.3 Case study description-learning resources such as Review Materials and Lesson
Plans. The community aspect of Chinese Pod
2.0
shows what can be done with web 2.0
E-learning 2.0 is the application of Web 2.0 in
technologies in e-learning. The other example is
learning, its tenets are creating and delivering
collaborative E-learning Systems. As well as
personalized, social and lifelong learning
blogs and wikis, there is a class of Web 2.0
through web platforms utilizing Web 2.0
software that is more of a platform product.
principles and technology.Edublogs.org and
These are referred to as collaboration systems
wikispaces.com are two examples of blog and
and examples are Elgg, Nuuvo and Digication.
wiki resources for e-learning 2.0. Steve's post
Elgg is social networking software designed
includes many other examples of edu-blogging,
especially for education - built from the ground
podcasting, media sharing and social networks.
up to support learning.
There are some interesting web apps for students
popping up, for example a collaborative note
[Type text]`

4. Conclusions in terms of connections between these user


accounts and the associated content.
We separate case study conclusions from
general conclusions.
4.2. General conclusions
4.1. Case study conclusions Continuing the case conclusions we now
Authorized licensed use limited to: generalize our findings by answering the two
KnowledgeGate from IBM Market Insights. main research questions of this paper:
Downloaded on February 26,2010 at 02:40:08 (i) Is Web 2.0 technologies appropriate in
EST from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. supporting social learning?
As this article shows, there is a lot of web 2.0 (ii) (ii) How Web 2.0 supports the process
activity n the e-learning space - including from of social learning?
the big Internet companies like Google and • For the first question, this study finds
Apple. that the use of Web 2.0 technologies has
The Web is increasingly becoming a social significant potential to support and
place: there has been a shift from just existing on enhance learning. The development of
the Web to participating on the Web. social collaborative technologies, such
Community applications such as collaborative as blogs, Wiki, and social networking
wikis, blogging, photo and bookmark sharing, sites (SNS), results in an extraordinarily
and online social networks have become very fast growing online virtual community,
popular recently, both in personal/social and in which people communicate, share
professional/organizational domains [9]. As information, and keep in touch with
examples of this, there has been huge growth in each other.
taxonomy and folksonomy usage[10]on sites
like the Wikipedia, del.icio.us, CiteULike and
Flickr and within some application areas • For the second question, the results of
interconnections between people as well as this study provide evidence that
content have been formed through social integrating Web 2.0 technologies such
networks, trackbacks, blogrolls and interwiki as blogs and wikis into the learning
links. However, these applications are hitting environment can be effective at
boundaries in terms of information integration. increasing learners' satisfaction with the
For example, many people have multiple user course, improve their learning and their
accounts through which they will create new or writing ability, and increase learner
replicated content across sites, and there is little interaction with other learners and
[Type text]`

providers; thus changing the learners' Journal of the American Dietetic Association,
role from passive to active learners, Vol. 107, No. 4, pp. 553_555.
allowing them to better create and retain [4] Easterby- Smith, M. (1997). “Disciplines’ of
knowledge. Organizational Learning: Contributions and
Critiques”. Human relations, Vol. 50 , No. 9, pp.

5. Recommendations for future 1085- 1113


[5] Huber, G. (1991). “Organizational learning:
research The contributing processes and the Literature”,
The goal of this study was to increase people's Organizational Science ,Vol. 2, No.1, pp. 88-
awareness of the benefits of Web 2.0 to 115.
supplement learning and encourage people's [6] Tim O’Reilly, “Web 2.0 Compact
decisions to adopt these tools using the Definition: Trying Again,” O’Reilly Radar,
decomposed theory of planned behavior.In this http://radar.oreilly.com/archives/2006/12/web_2
study the relationship between social learning 0_compact
and Web 2.0 were explored. Future research is [7] Mark Needleman, Column Editor (2007).
still necessary in order to identify the most “Web 2.0/Lib 2.0—What Is It? (If It’s Anything
effective methods of utilizing Web 2.0 at All).” Serials Review,Vol.33, pp. 202–203.
technologies to improve teaching and learning [8] Snyder, J., Lippincott, A., & Bower, D.
productivity; and to better support active, social, (1998). “The inherent tensions in the multiple
and engaging learning environments. uses of portfolios in teacher education”. Teacher
Education Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp.45_60.
[9] Kolbitsch, J., Maurer, H. (2006). “The
References transformation of the web: how emerging
communities shape the information we
[1] Ferdig, R. (2007). “Examining social
consume”, Journal of Universal Computer
software in teacher education”. Journal of
Science, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 187-213
Technology and Teacher Education, Vol. 15,
[10] Hotho, A., Jaschke, R., Schmitz, C.,
No. 1, pp.5_10.
Stumme, G. (2006). Information retrieval in
[2] Alexander, B. (2006). “A new way of
folksonomies: search and ranking, in:
innovation for teaching and learning”. Educause
Proceedings of the 3rd European Semantic Web
Review, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp.32_44.
Conference, Budva, Montenegro.
[3] Boulos, M., Maramba, I., & Wheeler, S.
(2006). “Wikis, blogs and podcasts: A new
generation of web-based tools for virtual
collaborative clinical practice and education”.