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Executive Summary

Recently I have joined in Fresh Cement Factory as junior executive officer in HR department.
There has some problems related with employees satisfaction as I am HR manager I have to deal
with those dissatisfaction. As a HR manager I have some responsibility like Human resource
managers have strategic and functional responsibilities for all of the HR disciplines. Human
resource managers provide guidance and direction to compensation and benefits specialists.
Within this discipline, human resources managers develop strategic compensation plans, align
performance management systems with compensation structure and monitor negotiations for
group health care benefits. HR manager also responsible for organizing training and development
program for employee. Employee training and development includes new hire orientation,
leadership training and professional development seminars and workshops. Human resource
managers oversee needs assessments to determine when training is necessary and the type of
training necessary to improve performance and productivity. Human resource managers
responsible for conducting needs assessment have a hands-on role in evaluating overall employee
performance to decide if the workforce would benefit from additional training and orientation.
Although the employee relations specialist is responsible for investigating and resolving workplace
issues, the human resource manager has ultimate responsibility for preserving the employer-
employee relationship through designing an effective employee relations strategy. An effective
employee relations strategy contains specific steps for ensuring the overall well-being of
employees. It also ensures that employees have a safe working environment, free from
discrimination and harassment. Human resource managers develop strategic solutions to meet
workforce demands and labor force trends. An employment manager actually oversees the
recruitment and selection processes; however, an HR manager is primarily responsible for
decisions related to corporate branding as it relates to recruiting and retaining talented employees.

In this report I have trying to highlight History and importance of Human Resource Management,
necessity of training activities for the company, causes of employee grievances and how to address
those, motivational tools for employee and function of HRM in my office to the top HR

Chapter: 1

Human Resource Management

Human resource management is the process of hiring and developing employees so that they
become more valuable to the organization.

Human Resource Management includes conducting job analyses, planning personnel needs,
recruiting the right people for the job, orienting and training, managing wages and salaries,
providing benefits and incentives, evaluating performance, resolving disputes, and communicating
with all employees at all levels. Examples of core qualities of HR management are extensive
knowledge of the industry, leadership, and effective negotiation skills. Formerly called personnel

The goal of HRM is to maximize the productivity of an organization by optimizing the

effectiveness of its employees while simultaneously improving the work life of employees and
treating employees as valuable resources. Consequently, HRM encompasses efforts to promote
personal development, employee satisfaction, and compliance with employment-related laws.

According to Armstrong (2006) Human Resource Management (HRM) is defined as A strategic

and coherent approach to the management of an organizations most valued assets the people
working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives.
From this definition, we can deduce that HRM or simply HR is a function in organizations
designed to maximize employee performance in service of their employers strategic objectives
(Johanson, 2009). HR is primarily concerned with how people are managed within organizations,
focusing on policies and systems.

The Historical Background of Human Resource Management

Human resource management has changed in name various times throughout history. The name
change was mainly due to the change in social and economic activities throughout history.

The modern history of Human Resources as we know it starts with the British Industrial
Revolution. The foundation of large factories increased a demand for the workforce significantly.
It was in the 18th century, and it is the moment when the evolution of new people management
practices begins. It is the important landmark in the history of Human Resources. The rapid
development of new industrial approaches and new inventions to work changed the world
dramatically. The quick and cheap production became a priority for many industries.

Industrial Welfare

Industrial welfare was the first form of human resource management (HRM). In 1833 the factories
act stated that there should be male factory inspectors. In 1878 legislation was passed to regulate
the hours of work for children and women by having a 60 hour week. During this time trade unions
started to be formed. In 1868 the 1st trade union conference was held. This was the start of
collective bargaining. In 1913 the number of industrial welfare workers had grown so a conference
organized by Seebohm Rowntree was held. The welfare workers association was formed later
changed to Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Recruitment and Selection

It all started when Mary Wood was asked to start engaging girls during the 1st world war. In the
1st world war personnel development increased due to government initiatives to encourage the
best use of people. In 1916 it became compulsory to have a welfare worker in explosive factories
and was encouraged in munitions factories. A lot of work was done in this field by the army forces.
The armed forces focused on how to test abilities and IQ along with other research in human factors

at work. In 1921 the national institute of psychologists established and published results of studies
on selection tests, interviewing techniques and training methods.

Acquisition of other Personnel Activities

During the 2nd world war the focus was on recruitment and selection and later on training;
improving morale and motivation; discipline; health and safety; joint consultation and wage
policies. This meant that a personnel department had to be established with trained staff.

Industrial Relations

Consultation between management and the workforce spread during the war. This meant that
personnel departments became responsible for its organization and administration. Health and
safety and the need for specialists became the focus. The need for specialists to deal with industrial
relations was recognized so that the personnel manager became as spokesman for the organization
when discussions where held with trade unions/shop stewards. In the 1970's industrial relations
was very important. The heated climate during this period reinforced the importance of a specialist
role in industrial relations negotiation. The personnel manager had the authority to negotiate deals
about pay and other collective issues.


In the 1970's employment legislation increased and the personnel function took the role of the
specialist advisor ensuring that managers do not violate the law and that cases did not end up in
industrial tribunals.

Flexibility and Diversity

In the 1990's a major trend emerged where employers were seeking increasing flexible
arrangements in the hours worked by employees due to an increase in number of part-time and
temporary contracts and the invention of distance working. The workforce and patterns of work
are becoming diverse in which traditional recruitment practices are useless. In the year 2000,
growth in the use of internet meant a move to a 24/7 society. This created new jobs in e-commerce
while jobs were lost in traditional areas like shops. This meant an increased potential for employees
to work from home. Organizations need to think strategically about the issues these developments
raise. HRM managers role will change as changes occur.

Information Technology some systems where IT helps HRM are: Systems for e-recruitment; On-
line short-listing of applicants; developing training strategies on-line; Psychometric training;
Payroll systems; Employment data; Recruitment administration; References; Pre-employment
checks. IT helps HR managers offload routine tasks which will give them more time in solving
complex tasks. IT also ensures that a greater amount of information is available to make decisions.

Chapter: 2

Training and Types of Training

Training constitutes a basic concept in human resource development. It is concerned with

developing a particular skill to a desired standard by instruction and practice. Training is a highly
useful tool that can bring an employee into a position where they can do their job correctly,
effectively, and conscientiously. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an
employee for doing a particular job.

Definition of Training:

Training refers to the teaching and learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping
members of an organization acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities, and attitudes needed
by a particular job and organization.

Types of Training: Various types of training can be given to the employees such as induction
training, refresher training, on the job training, vestibule training, and training for promotions.

Some of the commonly used training programs are listed below:

1. Induction training: Also known as orientation training given for the new recruits in order
to make them familiarize with the internal environment of an organization. It helps the
employees to understand the procedures, code of conduct, policies existing in that
organization. In my organization I should organize introduction training or orientation
training for new employee. Which help them to introduce with other employee of the
organization and help them to understand their responsibilities.
2. Job instruction training: This training provides an overview about the job and
experienced trainers demonstrates the entire job. Addition training is offered to employees
after evaluating their performance if necessary.
3. Vestibule training: It is the training on actual work to be done by an employee but
conducted away from the work place.
4. Refresher training: This type of training is offered in order to incorporate the latest
development in a particular field. This training is imparted to upgrade the skills of
employees. This training can also be used for promoting an employee.
5. Apprenticeship training: Apprentice is a worker who spends a prescribed period of time
under a supervisor.

Training presents a prime opportunity to expand the knowledge base of all employees, but many
employers in the current climate find development opportunities expensive. Employees attending
training sessions also miss out on work time which may delay the completion of projects. However
despite these potential drawbacks, training and development provides both the individual and
organizations as a whole with benefits that make the cost and time a worthwhile investment. The
return on investment from training and development of employees is really a no brainer.

Necessity of training for organization

Improved employee performance the employee who receives the necessary training is more
able to perform in their job. The training will give the employee a greater understanding of their
responsibilities within their role, and in turn build their confidence. This confidence will enhance
their overall performance and this can only benefit the company. Employees who are competent
and on top of changing industry standards help your company hold a position as a leader and strong
competitor within the industry.

Improved employee satisfaction and morale the investment in training that a company makes
shows employees that they are valued. The training creates a supportive workplace. Employees
may gain access to training they wouldnt have otherwise known about or sought out themselves.
Employees who feel appreciated and challenged through training opportunities may feel more
satisfaction toward their jobs.

Addressing weaknesses Most employees will have some weaknesses in their workplace skills.
A training program allows you to strengthen those skills that each employee needs to improve. A
development program brings all employees to a higher level so they all have similar skills and
knowledge. This helps reduce any weak links within the company who rely heavily on others to
complete basic work tasks. Providing the necessary training creates an overall knowledgeable staff
with employees who can take over for one another as needed, work on teams or work
independently without constant help and supervision from others.

Consistency A robust training and development program ensures that employees have a
consistent experience and background knowledge. The consistency is particularly relevant for the
companys basic policies and procedures. All employees need to be aware of the expectations and
procedures within the company. Increased efficiencies in processes results in financial gain for the

Increased productivity and adherence to quality standards Productivity usually increases

when a company implements training courses. Increased efficiency in processes will ensure project
success which in turn will improve the company turnover and potential market share.

Increased innovation in new strategies and products Ongoing training and up skilling of the
workforce can encourage creativity. New ideas can be formed as a direct result of training and

Reduced employee turnover staff are more likely to feel valued if they are invested in and
therefore, less likely to change employers. Training and development is seen as an additional
company benefit. Recruitment costs therefore go down due to staff retention.

Less supervision- A well trained employee will be well acquainted with the job and will need less
of supervision. Thus, there will be less wastage of time and efforts.

Fewer accidents- Errors are likely to occur if the employees lack knowledge and skills required
for doing a particular job. The more trained an employee is, the less are the chances of committing
accidents in job and the more proficient the employee becomes.

Chances of promotion- Employees acquire skills and efficiency during training. They become
more eligible for promotion. They become an asset for the organization.

Enhances company reputation and profile Having a strong and successful training strategy
helps to develop your employer brand and make your company a prime consideration for graduates
and mid-career changes. Training also makes a company more attractive to potential new recruits
who seek to improve their skills and the opportunities associated with those new skills.

Training can be of any kind relevant to the work or responsibilities of the individual, and can be
delivered by any appropriate method. For example, it could include:

On-the-job learning
Mentoring schemes
In-house training
Individual study

Chapter: 3

Causes of Employee Grievance in any organization

Grievances generally arise from the day-do-day working relations in the undertaking, usually an
employee or trade union protest against an act or omission or management that is considered to
violate workers rights. There are certainly some of the causes that can lead to grievance. Some of
them are listed below:

Poor Communication

Poor communication is one of the main causes of conflict between employees in the workplace.
This can result in a difference in communication styles or a failure to communicate. For example,
a manager reassigned an employees task to the employees co-worker but failed to communicate
the reassignment to the employee. This may cause the employee to feel slighted, which can
transform into animosity among the two employees and the manager. Failing to communicate in
the workplace may cause employees to make incorrect assumptions and believe workplace gossip.
Poor communication in the workplace not only causes conflict but decreases productivity and
employee morale.

Difference in Personalities

A difference in personalities among employees is another cause of workplace conflict. Employees

come from different backgrounds and experiences, which play a role in shaping their personalities.
When employees fail to understand or accept the differences in each other's personalities, problems
arise in the workplace. For example, an employee may possess a straightforward personality that
results in him speaking whatever is on his mind, even if the timing is inappropriate. The employee
with the straightforward personality may offend a co-worker that does not possess the same type
of personality. The co-worker may feel as if the employee is rude or lacks the authority to deal
with her in such a straightforward manner.

Different Values

Similar to personalities, the values of employees differ within the workplace. A difference in
values is seen clearly when a generational gap is present. Young workers may possess different
workplace values than older workers. The difference in values is not necessarily the cause of
employee conflict in the workplace, but the failure to accept the differences is. When employees
fail to accept the differences, co-workers may insult each other's character and experiences. When
insults occur, the conflict intensifies until the right solution is offered and accepted.


Unhealthy workplace competition is a cause of employee conflict. Some industries foster

competitive environments more than others. When salary is linked to employee production, a
workplace may experience strong competition between employees. Competition that is not
properly managed can result in employees sabotaging or insulting one another, which creates a
hostile work environment. Unhealthy workplace competition discourages teamwork and promotes

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Methods of Identifying Grievances

The following methods can help the employer to identify the grievances:

1. Directive observation: Knowledge of human behavior is requisite quality of every good

manager. From the changed behavior of employees, he should be able to snuff the causes of
grievances. This he can do without its knowledge to the employee. This method will give general
pattern of grievances. In addition to normal routine, periodic interviews with the employees, group
meetings and collective bargaining are the specific occasions where direct observation can help in
unfolding the grievances.

2. Grip boxes: The boxes (like suggestion boxes) are placed at easily accessible spots to most
employees in the organization. The employees can file anonymous complaints about their
dissatisfaction in these boxes. Due to anonymity, the fear of managerial action is avoided.
Moreover managements interest is also limited to the free and fair views of employees.

3. Open door policy: Most democratic by nature, the policy is preached most but practiced very
rarely in Indian organizations. But this method will be more useful in absence of an effective
grievance procedure, otherwise the organization will do well to have a grievance procedure. Open
door policy demands that the employees, even at the lowest rank, should have easy access to the
chief executive to get his grievances redressed.

4. Exit interview: Higher employee turnover is a problem of every organization. Employees leave
the organization either due to dissatisfaction or for better prospects. Exit interviews may be
conducted to know the reasons for leaving the job. Properly conducted exit interviews can provide
significant information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization and can pave way
for further improving the management policies for its labor force.

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Principles or Guidelines for Grievance Handling

In handling grievances, a considerable amount of time must be spent in talking to employees;

gathering data from them and passing on various types of information. Such talks to be most
effective, should conform to definite patterns and adhere to well tested rules.

The manager must seek to develop an attitude towards employees that should be helpful in
gaining their confidence. The management should also display a sincere interest in the
problems of employees and their constructive willingness to be to help to them with a view
to gain not only their confidence but also their utmost loyal by and genuine cooperation.

The procedure adopt by the management in handling the grievances must be apparent.

Grievances should be handled in terms of their total effect on the organization and not
solely their immediate or individual effect.

Chapter: 4

Motivating Tools for Employee

Most employers today would like to have their employees motivated and ready to work, but do
not understand what truly motivates a person. Companies could be more efficient if the employees
had an invested interest in the future of the company. There are essential needs to be met for a
person, specifically an employee, to succeed in the workplace. I will examine different theories of
motivations, how they are relevant to the workplace, and how employers can implement the
theories to ensure happy and motivated employees. The most important theories include: Maslows
hierarchy of needs, each theory is related in the fact that there are needs for all people to meet.
Every employee is at a different stage in their lives, which requires different management
techniques. It is shown that motivation must come from within the employee. The theories
investigated will help describe how managers can influence their employees to self-motivate and
produce the best work possible. In this day in time, there is not always a plentiful amount of money

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to spend on motivation, so it is important to understand how managers can make their employees
feel important without breaking the bank. Lastly, I will focus on how managers are able to

Theories of Motivation

There are many different theories that try and help explain motivation. Managers who understand
what motivates each employee can tailor incentives accordingly. But your motivational toolbox
should go beyond rewarding excellent work. Just as important to keeping workers engaged is a
plan for encouraging, consoling and embracing them when they invariably slip off track.

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Physiological needs: These are the basic needs that are to be met in order to survive,
including food, water, clothing, sleep, and shelter.

Security: The persons surroundings are not threatening to them or their family. If the
environment seems to be safe, then it means that there is a since of predictability or stability
in the surroundings. Security could also include financial security so that there is no

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financial uncertainty in the future. This could be achieved by creating a retirement package,
securing job position, and insurance.

Affiliation: The need to feel a since of belonging or to be loved. In the workplace, this
means to feel as though they are a part of the group and included in the work. People have
the urge to be accepted by others, especially the people they are around the most.

Esteem: This is the view that one has of them. In order to fully understand this level, the
person must have a high image of them self and encompass self-respect. This level has two
components: feelings of self-worth, and the need for respect from others.

Self-actualization: This level is defined as someone being all they can be and they have
met each of the previous stages. In this particular level, the persons talents are being
completely utilized. Maslow believes that no one is ever completely self-actualized. People
are always striving to be better and use their talents inner ways. This is important to
motivation because a person must be motivated to fulfill their needs and strive for the next
level until they reach self-actualization.

Motivational Tools

But how do you find the right balance between supporting employees and pushing them to meet
high standards? Motivational pros offer some insights.

Provide Feedback, both Positive and Corrective

Most people want feedback and will use it to improve. "Give them room to stretch, grow, make
mistakes and excel. But be sure to reward the behaviors you want repeated. When talented people
seem motivated to you, notice it and thank them. They'll repeat those actions and attitudes."

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Create a Positive Atmosphere
A positive corporate culture also motivates employees to do their best. Professionals will work
harder for managers who show they care about employees as individuals and want to help them

Coach through the Ups and Downs

When an Employee Makes a Mistake: Help him determine why it happened and
understand the consequences. Then show confidence that the employee can do a better job.

When an Employee Becomes Complacent: Meet with him to discuss his slip in
performance. Is it due to a specific problem? Offer ideas to help the employee improve,
and clearly define expectations.

When an Employee Has a New Project -- and More Work: Show your enthusiasm for
the project, and ask everyone involved to commit to it. Offer an incentive when it's

Turner stresses the importance of positive reinforcement as a motivational tool:

Celebrate Accomplishments: A simple thank-you note or public praise will increase an

employee's confidence, while a staff lunch at the conclusion of a major project can help
build team spirit. The impact of showing appreciation for a job well done is tremendous.

Criticize Carefully: When you must criticize, do it privately, and keep the discussion
performance-based, not personal. Be consistent, and hold all employees to the same
Set Clear Expectations: Conduct regular performance appraisals so employees
understand what's expected of them. Instill confidence and enthusiasm by noting an
employee's strengths and special skills, not just perceived weaknesses.

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Staff Strategically to Prevent Burnout: Bringing in extra help during peak workloads
enables full-time employees to concentrate on special projects while temporary workers
focus on day-to-day matters or vice versa.

Chapter: 5

Functions of Human Resource Management

Human resource management is all about increasing employee performance to their highest level
corresponding to their role in the organization. Since every organization is made of people, HRM
is all about acquiring services of people, developing their skills, motivating them to the foremost
level and making sure that they continue to maintain their commitment towards the organization.

In short, HRM is concerned with the management of employees from recruitment to

retirement. Although there are many functions of human resource management, following is the
list of five major functions.

1. Recruitment and selection: Recruitment is the process of captivating, screening, and selecting
potential and qualified candidates based on objective criteria for a particular job. The goal of this
process is to attract the qualified applicants and to encourage the unqualified applicants to opt
themselves out.

Before starting the process of recruitment, the companies must execute proper staffing plans and
should grade the number of employees they are going to need. Forecasting of the employees should
depend upon the annual budget of the organization and short-term and long-term goals of the

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Recruitment and selection process is very important to every organization because it reduces the
costs of mistakes such as engaging incompetent, unmotivated, and under qualified employees.
Firing the unqualified candidate and hiring the new employee is again an expensive process.

2. Orientation: Many organizations do not provide a thorough orientation to the new employees.
This is the fundamental step to help a new employee to adjust himself with the employer and with
his new job. Employee orientation program should include the objectives and goals of the
organization and how the employee can help to achieve the long-term and short-term goals of the

Giving intensive orientation to the employee is one of the major functions of human resource
management. The program should help the employee to know his assigned duties and his exact
job description, job role, and the relationship of position to other positions in the organization. It
gives clarification to the employee to take an active role in the organization.

3. Maintaining good working conditions: It is the responsibility of the human resource

management to provide good working conditions to the employee so that they may like the
workplace and the work environment. It is the fundamental duty of the HR department to motivate
the employees. The study has been found that employees dont contribute to the goals of the
organization as much as they can. This is because of the lack of motivation.

Human resource management should come up with a system to provide financial and non-financial
benefits to the employee from the various departments. Employee welfare is another concept
which should be managed by HR team. Employee welfare promotes job satisfaction.

4. Managing Employee relations: Employees are the pillars of any organization. Employee
relationship is a very broad concept and it is one of the crucial functions of human resource

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management. It also helps to foster good employee relations. They have the ability to influence
behaviors and work outputs.

Management should organize activities which will help to know an employee at the personal and
professional level. Well-planned employee relations will promote a healthy and balanced relation
between the employee and the employer. It is the key for the organization to be successful.

5. Training and development: Training and development are the indispensable functions of
human resource management. It is the attempt to improve the current or future performance of an
employee by increasing the ability of an employee through educating and increasing ones skills
or knowledge in the particular subject.


After analyzing this report we can say that each of the functions of Human Resource Management
(HRM) really plays a vital role in the effectiveness of any organization. It is true that firms need
to constantly innovate and be ahead of the curve in terms of business practices and strategies. It
is from this motivation to be at the top of the pack that HRM becomes a valuable tool for
management to ensure success. There is always a need to align organizational goals with that of
the HR strategy to ensure that there is alignment of the people policies with that of the management
objectives. This means that the HR department can no longer be viewed as an appendage of the
firm but instead is a vital organ in ensuring organizational success.

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