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Philosophy,

(from Greek, by
way of Latin,
philosophia,
love of
wisdom) the
rational,
abstract, and
methodical
consideration of
reality as a
whole or of
fundamental
dimensions of
human
existence and experience.

Speculative Philosophy

Ethics is also called moral philosophy, the discipline concerned with what is morally good
and bad, right and wrong.
Logic is the study of correct reasoning, especially as it involves the drawing of inferences.
Metaphysics is the fundamental issues on reality.\
Anthropology is the discipline within philosophy that seeks to unify the several empirical
investigations of human nature in an effort to understand individuals as both creatures of
their environment and creators of their own values.
Rational Philosophy is a form of philosophy which emphasizes the role of significance of
reason.
Theodicy is the reasonable justification of the nature, structure and goal of evil in an order of
things considered to be created by God.
Cosmology is a discipline directed to the philosophical contemplation of the universe as a
totality.

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Practical Philosophy

Epistemology is the study of nature, origin and limits of human knowledge.


Ontology provides techniques to deal the concept of reality and how truth may be either doxa
(informed opinion) or techa (demonstrable fact).
Axiology provides directions in determining what is socially correct opinion and behavior.

Aesthetics is the philosophical study of beauty and taste.

Ideology is a form of social or political philosophy in which practical elements are as prominent as
theoretical ones.

Philosophy of Education is a philosophical reflection on the nature, aims and problems of


education.

Social Philosophy is the study of question about social behavior.

HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY

Pre-Socratic Philosophy

Western Philosophy by which we usually mean everything apart from the Eastern Philosophy of
China, India, Japan, Persia, etc. Began in Ancient Greece in about the 6th Century B.C.

First proper philosopher Study the first electricity Father of Western


Philosophy

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Thales of
Miletus

Different forms of water Air


(Anaximenes)

Universe
composed of:

infinite or boundless
Fire (Anaximander)
(Heraclitus)

Materialists believed that all things are composed of material and nothing else.

Monism was mainly concerned with trying to establish the single underlying substance the world is
made up of.

Unity of Opposites Everything is Famous Paradoxes of Father of


Permanent Motion Numbers

Heraclitus Parmenides Zeno of Elea Pythagoras

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CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHY

First Major Philosopher of


Ethics

SOCRATES

SOCRATIC METHOD

Platonic Realism Essentialism Idealism

PLATO

System of Deductive Logic

ARISTOTLE

Eudaimonism

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ANCIENT PHILOSOPHICAL SCHOOLS

Protagoras

SOPHISM

Gorgias

CYNICISM Diogenes

SKEPTICISM Prryho

EPICUREANISM Epicurus

HEDONISM

Epictetus

STOICISM Zeno of Citium

Marcus Aurelius

NEO-PLATONISM Plotinus