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College of Teacher Education

Bukidnon State University

Secondary Laboratory School
Fortich Street, Malaybalay City

Chapter 2 Summary

Elements at Risk and Exposure

Elements at risk are the people, properties, economic activities and

private and public services potentially threatened by a harmful event.
Risk assessment involves the identification and mapping of the elements
at risk and the assessment of vulnerability.
Hazard refers to the probability of occurrence at a given magnitude.
PhExp= Hazard x Exposure
PhExp= physical exposure for the affected area
Hazard= Probability of occurrence of an event at a given magnitude
Exposure= Total population living in the affected area for each event
Social, Environmental, and Economic Dimensions of Exposure and

When a disaster strikes, casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured

people) and property losses and damages are to be reported in the



Economical Social

Social, the social exposure and vulnerability covers a wide range of

concerns including:
Social groups
Health and well being
Governance aspect
Environmental- the physical aspects of exposure and vulnerability refers
to the location and built structure.
Essential Facilities
Educational facilities
Medical and healthcare facilities (hospital and clinics)
Emergency responses facilities( fire station, police station, and shelters)
Government offices
Recreational or tourist office( hotels, resort, parks)
Places of worship (Church or mosques)
Industrial and High Potential Loss Facilities and Facilities Containing
Hazardous Materials

Dams and ponds

Fuel reservoirs
Power generating power plants and lines
Multipurpose hydropower plants, water tanks and lines
Food processing facilities
Transport Lifelines
Highways, bridges, railway, and tunnels
Bus facilities
Port and harbor facilities
Airport facilities and runways
Utility Lifelines
Portable water facilities, waste water facilities, pipelines and distribution
Oil and natural gas system facilities, pipelines and distribution lines
Communication facilities(stations) and distribution lines (cable and
Economic- hazardous events includes business interruptions due to
accessibility problems, loss of jobs and access to work.
Social, Environmental, and Economic Factors of Vulnerability
Social- Certain population groups may be more vulnerable than others
People with disabilities
Medication-dependent individuals (diabetics and schizophrenics)
Women Esp, the single, single parents, or unemployed.
Ethnic minorities, aboriginal or indigenous people
Incarcerated individuals
Marginalized groups (society or community)
Environmental- Developing nations face more exposure and vulnerability
because of their relative inability to adapt to changes and to create wealth that
may enhance reliance
Economic- Economic vulnerability is the suspectability of individuals,
communities, businesses, and governments to absorb or cushion the effects of
a hazard event.
Quantifying Vulnerability
Quantifying the tangible aspects of vulnerability and loss is useful
in estimating more precisely how much mitigation and
preparedness measures shall be applied
Vulnerability can be expressed simply as a quantity between
0(lowest degree if vulnerability and 1(highest degree of
vulnerability), for people vulnerability can be measured as a ratio
of casualties or injured to the total population
For buildings it can also be expressed as a repair cost or as a
degree of physical damaged.
In this chapter, I have learned the critical facilities if a disaster strikes
and also learned that these facilities has an important and vital role on our
society if a disaster might strike. Not only are they critical they are the ones
that keeps the city and society moving. And I have learned the most affected if
a disaster will strike and that is population groups especially that old, children,
and the people with disabilities. I have also learned the United Nations
The UN created the UNDP to make the world a better place and raise
awareness when a hazard event that can cause a disaster. And I also learned a
lot in this chapter about the meaning of exposure and vulnerability and willing
to know more.
Prepared by: Submitted to: Date:
Amiel L. Melendez Razel C. Ledres July 7, 2017
Document Code Document Issue Date
College of Teacher Education
Bukidnon State University
Secondary Laboratory School
Fortich Street, Malaybalay City

Disaster Readiness
& Risk Reduction
Student Portfolio

Submitted by:
Amiel L. Melendez
Student of STEM 3-Capricorn

Submitted to:
Razel C. Ledres
DRR Instructor