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Chapter V: Family Planning Availability of the Contraceptive studies show that

contraceptives that are easily accessible are most likely to be


Family Planning most Filipinos consider family planning as used.
synonymous to birth control and can also denote abortion.
Medical Effects of the Contraceptive Methods - those who
Reproductive Health it can mean that people can have are hypersensitive and are easily irritated by side effects
responsible, satisfying and safe sex life, freedom to decide, could use less efficient but more acceptable contraceptive
when and how often to engage in sexual contact; access to methods.
appropriate health care services to enable women to have
safe pregnancy and childbirth; and the best chance for Effectiveness of the Methods the most effective
couples to have health infants. contraceptives when used correctly and consistently, or as
commonly used.
FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE ACCEPTANCE OR REJECTION OF
FAMILY PLANNING IN THE PHILIPPINES Cost of the Contraceptive Methods there are two classes of
couples; the upper class and the lower class. Upper class
Religious Factor studies show that different religious groups couples choose contraceptive methods that are effective
tend to support family planning; however, the methods to regardless of cost, while lower class couples are less likely to
attain this objective vary. Protestants support all forms of choose expensive but very effective contraceptive methods.
contraceptive methods, while the Catholics reject all forms of This is one of the reasons why poor couples tend to have
artificial methods but accept only the natural family larger families than the middle and upper classes couples.
planning (rhythm method) and value education.
Contraceptive Methods
Institutional Patterns and Community Framework - studies
show that Philippine society encourages big family size and Contraceptive Methods the couples who desire to plan
indirectly discourages family planning. their families can select from these varieties of contraceptive
methods.
Family and Kinship Structures the typical nuclear Filipino
family is still large and has an extended kinship structure that Traditional Methods are folks methods of avoiding
considers children as signs of Gods blessing, symbols of mans pregnancy by using postcoital douche and prolonged
virility (in the rural and blighted areas) and assets that will lactation.
provide insurance in old age and continuity of the family.
Postcoital Douche the flushing out and the immobilization
Mass Media the acceptance or rejection of family planning of the sperm from the vagina by using water, vinegar or other
depends upon the mass media (radio and television) exposure commercial products.
to the target acceptors. Studies shows that the mass media
can facilitate transfer of knowledge, change of attitudes and Prolonged Lactation (Lactation Amenorrhea Method or LAM)
acceptance or rejection of contraceptive methods. - it can delay ovulation for six months and probably for as long
as 9 to 12 months after childbirth. This method is very
Rational Family Planning Program the acceptance and effective if the baby is less than six months old, gets 85% of
rejection of family planning depend on a strong government his feeding from breast milk and is breast feed by the mother
sponsored family planning program that provides women both day and night, and if the mothers menstrual period has
with the services and information needed to make not yet returned.
childbearing decisions. The Philippine government, like India,
pursues reproductive health that will rationalize the use and Behavioral Contraceptive Methods these methods prevent
distribution of contraceptives. pregnancy by altering he natural process of sexual relations,
thereby preventing the union of the egg and the sperm.
Acceptability of the Contraceptive people who used
contraceptives (traditional or modern) show higher odds of Withdrawal (Coitus Interruptus) this method requires the
experiencing abortion than those who never use withdrawal of the penis before ejaculation to prevent the
contraceptives. sperm from entering the womb but may not even prevent
pregnancy because studies show that sperms are
Couples Motivation the motivation of the couple to use released even prior to ejaculation.
contraceptive methods depends on whether they desire to
space or limit the number of their children because of health Rhythm Method the most approved contraceptive methods
and financial reasons. among the Catholics. It is the method that prevents sexual
contact at the time when it is unsafe during the
Sexual Attitudes the studies showed that sex education can ovulation period. To determine the safe and unsafe days, the
actually delay early initiation of sexual intercourse and can calendar, the temperature and the ovulation methods can be
lead to more consistent contraceptive use and safer sex used simultaneously.
practices.
Calendar Method the women should keep record of her
menstruation for at least six months to a year to determine
her long and short menstrual cycle. To know the safe and
unsafe periods, subtract 18 from the shortest cycle and Sterilization this surgical operation does not require the
subtract 11 from the longest cycle. removal of sexual glands and does not affect sexual desire or
the sexual act.
Temperature Method (Basal Body Temperature Method) -
indicates the time of fertility and ovulation. Vasectomy a simple surgical tying or cutting of vas deferens
to prevent the mixing of sperms and semen permanently.
Ovulation Method (Cervical Mucus Method) - this technique
requires monitoring of the vaginal discharge to determine Tubal Ligation the surgical cutting, tying or searing of the
the safe and unsafe period. When the mucous is discharged, fallopian tube to block the eggs from reaching the uterus,
it is unsafe to have sexual intercourse because the ripe egg is preventing pregnancy.
released. Peak period or the unsafe days will be marked by
the presence of watery mucous discharge. Medical studies showed that, the most effective contraceptive
methods are the pills, implants, injectables and sterilization
Mechanical Contraceptives mechanical devices like (tubal ligation and vasectomy), but none of those enumerated
condom, diaphragm, cervical caps, sponge, and IUD that block can be chosen as the best contraceptive method. The best
the sperms from entering the womb of the woman, thus contraceptive is one method that is physically, economically
preventing pregnancy. and aesthetically acceptable to the users. Studies show that
the best contraceptive is the method that is mutually
Condom a rubber or thin latex sheath used on erect penis to acceptable, consistently and correctly used by couples to
prevent the sperm from entering the womb to prevent attain quality life for the family and society.
pregnancy and at the same time provide protection against
venereal diseases. It is used with spermicides for additional
protection against pregnancy because it can break or get torn
during sexual intercourse.

Chemical Contraceptives substances that prevent


pregnancy by killing sperms before they enter the uterus,
preventing the ovary from releasing eggs and changing the
uterine wall lining and mucus to make the uterus hostile to
egg implantation.

Spermicides chemical substances (cream, gel, foam or


vaginal film) deposited into the vagina an hour or less but
more than 10 minutes before sex. It kill or inactivate the
sperms before they enter the uterine cavity.

Pills combinations of estrogen and progesterone that


prevent the maturation and release of the egg from the ovary.

Implants match-sized six capsules or silicone rods containing


progesterone implanted under the skin of a womans upper
arm. Implant 99% to 100% effective in preventing pregnancy
within 24 hours to 5 years of implantation.

Injectables chemical contraceptives that contain synthetic


hormone administered intravenously to females monthly,
every two months, or every three months. It stops ovulation
thickens cervical mucus, making it difficult for sperms to move
freely.

Diaphragm a dome-shaped rubber disk with flexible rim


worn by women one hour before intercourse. It is inserted
into the birth canal to cover the entrance of the uterus and
block the sperms from entering the womb.

Intrauterine Device (IUD) mechanical plastic or stainless


steel or copper device. It interferes with sperm movement or
implantation of the egg into the linings of the uterus and thus
prevents pregnancy. There are three types of IUD; Mirena,
Copper T, and Multiload.