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Engineering Procedure

SAEP-1143 30 September, 1998


Radiographic Examination
Non-destructive Testing Standards Committee Members
Miller, S.D., Chairman
Al-Odah, F.A.
Gilmour, R.A.
Irwin, R.R.
Jones, S.B.
Keck, D.L.
Matulewicz, W.R.
Perez, J.P.
Qadeeb, F.E.
Scales, T.E.
Wescott, E.A.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards


Table of Contents

1 Scope............................................................. 2
2 References..................................................... 2
3 Precautions for Personnel Safety.................. 3
4 General Requirements................................... 4
5 Equipment and Materials............................... 5
6 Examination................................................... 7
7 Radiographic Exposure Requirements.......... 8
8 Radiographic Film Interpretation.................. 13
9 Film Viewing................................................. 14
10 Final Interpretation of Radiographs............. 14
11 Documentation............................................. 14

Figure 1 - Single Wall Radiographic


Techniques.................................................. 17
Figure 2 - Double Wall Radiographic
Techniques.................................................. 18
Figure 3 - Identification for Film Marker
Locations & Arrows...................................... 20
Appendix I - Acceptance Criteria....................... 21
Attachment 1 - Radiographic Request /
Report Forms............................................... 29

Previous Issue: 30 July 1997 Next Planned Update: 1 August 2000


Revised paragraphs are indicated in the right margin. Page 1 of 30
Primary Contact: Tom Scales on phone 874-7225
Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
Issue Date: 30 September 1998
Next Planned Update: 1 August 2000 Radiographic Examination

1 Scope

1.1 This Engineering Procedure establishes the minimum requirements for


performing radiographic examination conducted in accordance with the
requirements of the referenced codes/standards.

1.2 This Engineering Procedure applies to Saudi Aramco NDT personnel and to
contract personnel seconded to Saudi Aramco on an In-Kingdom Inspection
Contract conducting radiographic examination on behalf of Saudi Aramco.

1.3 This SAEP does not apply to radiography performed by vendors.

2 References

2.1 Saudi Aramco References

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards


SAEP-1140 Qual. and Cert. of Saudi Aramco NDT Personnel
SAEP-1141 Industrial Radiation Safety
SAEP-1142 Qual. of Non-Saudi Aramco NDT Personnel

Saudi Aramco General Instruction


GI-0150.003 Ionizing Radiation Protection

Saudi Aramco Engineering Form


SA 4719-A-ENG Radiography Request/Report Sheet

2.2 Industry Codes and Standards

American Society of Mechanical Engineers


ASME B31.1 Power Piping
ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping
ASME B31.4 Liquid Transportation System for Hydrocarbons,
Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia &
Alcohols
ASME B31.8 Gas Transmission & Distribution Piping Systems
ASME SEC I Rules for Construction of Power Boilers
ASME SEC V Nondestructive Examination
ASME SEC VIII D1 Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
ASME SEC IX Welding and Brazing Qualifications

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
Issue Date: 30 September 1998
Next Planned Update: 1 August 2000 Radiographic Examination

American Welding Society


AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code - Steel

American Petroleum Institute


API STD 620 Design and Construction of Large, Welded Low
Pressure Storage Tanks
API STD 650 Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage
API STD 1104 Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities

American Society for Testing & Materials


ASTM E94 Std. Guide for Radiographic Testing
ASTM E747 Std. Test Method for Controlling Quality of
Radiographic Exam Using Wire Penetrameters
ASTM E1079 Std. Practice for Calibration of Trans.
Densitometers

German Standard
DIN 54 109 Image Quality of Radiographs

International Organization for Standardization


ISO 1027 Radiographic Image Quality Indicators for NDT -
Principles and Identification
ISO 5580 Industrial Radiographic Illuminators - Min.
Requirements

Unless otherwise noted, the referenced codes and standards shall be the latest edition.

3 Precautions for Personnel Safety

3.1 The materials and/or equipment used during radiographic examination shall be
utilized in such a manner as to insure compliance with the SAEP-1141 and GI-
0150.003.

3.2 Protective measures shall be taken by radiographic personnel to insure that no


individual is exposed to radiation in excess of the prescribed limits as mandated
in SAEP-1141 and GI-0150.003.

3.3 All personnel performing radiography for Saudi Aramco or on Saudi Aramco
property or concessionaire areas shall have passed the Radiation Safety
examination administered by the Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
Issue Date: 30 September 1998
Next Planned Update: 1 August 2000 Radiographic Examination

and be in possession of a current Saudi Aramco Radiographer Permit issued by


the Inspection Department prior to commencement of radiography.

4 General Requirements

4.1 All radiography shall be performed in accordance with this procedure. Where
radiographic techniques, not covered by this procedure, are developed, the
technique shall be submitted to a Saudi Aramco Inspection Department
recognized NDT RT Level III for approval prior to implementation.

4.2 Personnel Qualifications

4.2.1 Saudi Aramco Personnel performing radiography shall be certified in


accordance with SAEP-1140.

4.2.2 Contractor personnel performing radiography shall be certified in


accordance with SAEP-1142.

4.2.3 All personnel performing Radiographic Film Interpretation (RTFI)


shall be certified to level II and have met the requirements of SAEP-
1140 or SAEP-1142 as applicable.

4.3 Surface Preparation

4.3.1 The weld ripples or weld surface irregularities on both the inside
(where accessible) and outside shall be removed by any suitable
process to such a degree that any such irregularities appearing on the
resulting radiographic image do not mask nor are confused with the
image of any discontinuity.

4.3.2 Welds shall be visually examined and found acceptable prior to release
for radiography.

4.3.3 If the weld is ground flush, markers, such as arrows or V's, pointing
toward the centerline of the weld shall be placed on both sides of the
weld approximately 0.6 mm (.25 inch) away from the toe of the weld.
At least two sets of arrows or V's shall appear on the film; one set near
each end of the interpreted area of the film.

4.4 Backscatter Radiation

A lead letter "B" with minimum dimensions of 13mm (0.5 inch) in height and
1.5mm (0.0625 inch) in thickness shall be attached to the back of each film
holder during each exposure to determine if backscatter radiation is exposing the
film.

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
Issue Date: 30 September 1998
Next Planned Update: 1 August 2000 Radiographic Examination

4.5 When the time of the examination is not specifically stated in the referenced
code or project specification, final radiography for acceptance of the
weld/material shall be performed after final post weld heat treatment.

5 Equipment and Materials

5.1 Acceptable Radiation Sources


X-ray generators (up to 6 MeV)
Iridium 192 (Ir-192) (up to 200 Ci)
Cobalt 60 (Co-60) (up to 100 Ci)
Selenium 75 (Se-75) (up to 50 Ci)

5.2 Film

5.2.1 Radiography shall be conducted with industrial radiographic film.


Film shall be either Type I or Type II. Film shall be selected to
produce radiographs possessing acceptable sensitivity, density, and
contrast. Type I film shall be used for radiography of pipe diameters
of 8 inch nominal pipe size (NPS) or less.

5.2.2 Radiographic film can be processed either manually or automatically.


Processing shall be done in accordance with procedures written to the
requirements of ASTM E94, Part III, the chemical manufacturer's
recommendations, and time and temperature charts. Variation to the
film manufacturer's processing recommendations to compensate for
exposure is not permitted.

5.2.3 Unexposed film shall be stored on its side or end and protected from
the effects of light, pressure, excessive humidity, damaging fumes,
vapors, or penetrating radiation. Film of which the expiration date has
been exceeded shall not be used.

5.3 Intensifying Screens

5.3.1 Only lead intensifying screens shall be used.

5.3.2 For radiography using gamma ray sources, lead screens shall be used.
The minimum thickness of the front lead screen shall be 0.13 mm
(0.005 inch) for Ir-192 and Se-75 and 0.25 mm (0.010 inch) for Co-60
or the linear accelerator.

5.3.3 Lead screens which are an integral part of "ready pack" (i.e., Pb
contact pack) film are acceptable.

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
Issue Date: 30 September 1998
Next Planned Update: 1 August 2000 Radiographic Examination

5.3.4 Special techniques involving the use of intensifying screens of


materials other than lead may be utilized provided the technique is
qualified and the density and penetrameter requirements of this
procedure are met. Such special techniques shall require prior written
approval by a designated Saudi Aramco NDT RT Level III before
employed in production radiography.

5.4 Image Quality Indicators (IQI)

5.4.1 DIN type penetrameters described in DIN 54 109, ISO type


penetrameters described in ISO 1027, or ASTM type penetrameters
described in ASTM E747/90 shall be used. Tables 1, 2 and 3 show the
standard identification numbers found on the penetrameter packs and
the wire sizes found in the DIN type, ISO type and ASTM type typical
packs.

Table 1 - DIN Wire Type Penetrameter


DIN Pack Wire Diameter mm (inch)
Designation Corresponding Wire Number
1 FE DIN 3.20 2.50 2.00 1.60 1.25 1.00 (0.040) 0.80
(0.125) (0.098) (0.078) (0.062) (0.050) 6 (0.032)
1 2 3 4 5 7
6 FE DIN 1.00 0.80 0.63 0.50 0.40 0.32 (0.013) 0.25
(0.040) (0.032) (0.024) (0.020) (0.016) 11 (0.010)
6 7 8 9 10 12
10 FE DIN 0.40 0.32 0.25 0.20 0.16 0.125 (0.004 0.1 (0.004)
(0.016) (0.013) (0.010) (0.008) (0.006) 15 16
10 11 12 13 14

Table 2 - ISO Wire Type Penetrameter


ISO Pack Wire Diameter mm (inch)
Designation Corresponding Wire Number
1 ISO 7 3.20 2.50 2.00 1.60 1.25 1.00 (0.040) 0.80
(0.125) (0.098) (0.078) (0.062) (0.050) 6 (0.032)
1 2 3 4 5 7
6 ISO 12 1.00 0.80 0.63 0.50 0.40 0.32 (0.013) 0.25
(0.040) (0.032) (0.024) (0.020) (0.016) 11 (0.010)
6 7 8 9 10 12
10 ISO 16 0.40 0.32 0.25 0.20 0.16 0.125 0.1 (0.004)
(0.016) (0.013) (0.010) (0.008) (0.006) (0.004) 16
10 11 12 13 14 15

Table 3 - ASTM Wire Type Penetrameter


ASTM Set
Designation Wire Diameter mm (inch)
A .081 (.0032) .102 (.004) .127 (.005) .160 (.0063) .203 (.008) .254 (.010)
B .254 (.010) .330 (.013) .406 (.016) .508 (.020) .635 (.025) .813 (.032)
C .813 (.032) 1.016 (.040) 1.27 (.050) 1.6 (.063) 2.03 (.080) 2.54 (.100)
D 2.54 (.100) 3.2 (.126) 4.06 (.160) 5.08 (.200) 6.35 (.250) 8.13 (.320)

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
Issue Date: 30 September 1998
Next Planned Update: 1 August 2000 Radiographic Examination

5.4.2 Damaged IQIs shall not be used (e.g., bent wires).

5.4.3 IQIs shall be selected from either the same alloy material group or
grade as identified in ASTM E747 or from an alloy material group or
grade with less radiation absorption than the material being
radiographed.

5.5 Viewing Facilities

5.5.1 The viewing facilities should provide subdued background lighting of


an intensity that will not cause troublesome reflections, shadows, or
glare on the radiograph.

5.5.2 Radiographic viewers shall meet the minimum requirements set forth
in ISO 5580 - 85 and shall provide a variable light source for the
essential designated wire to be visible for the specified density range.

5.5.3 Light coming from the outer edges of the radiograph or through low
density portions of the radiograph shall not interfere with
interpretation.

5.5.4 Densitometers shall be used to measure the density of the film. The
densitometer shall be calibrated annually in accordance with ASTM
E1079. Performance shall be verified before each use with a density
film strip traceable to a national standard.

6 Examination

6.1 A single wall exposure technique shall be used for radiography whenever
practical. When it is not practical to use a single wall technique, a double wall
technique shall be used. (See Table 4 for Technique and Exposure
Requirements)

Table 4 - Technique & Exposure Requirements


Nominal Type of Exposure Location
Pipe Size Technique and Viewing Min. Num. of Exposures Figure
Dbl. Wall Exp. 2
Elliptical 2F
3-½" Dbl. Wall Viewing (0,90)
Elliptical Dbl. Wall Exp. 4 2E or F
Or Sgl. Wall Viewing (0,90,180,270)
Dbl. Wall Exp. 3
Superimpose 3G
Less d Dbl. Wall Viewing (0,60,l20)
Dbl. Wall Exp. 3
Contact 2D or E
Above Sgl. Wall Viewing (0,120, 240)
Panoramic Sgl. Wall Exp. 1 1A
3-½" Sgl. Wall Viewing

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
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Nominal Type of Exposure Location


Pipe Size Technique and Viewing Min. Num. of Exposures Figure
Sgl. Wall Exp. 4 1B or 1C
Sgl. Wall Viewing (0,90,180,270)
Sgl. Wall Exp.
4 1A, B, C
Sgl. Wall Viewing

Notes:
1. Techniques other than those described in Table 7 may be used with the approval of the Saudi Aramco
Inspection Department, NDT Unit, Dhahran.
2. If the minimum number of exposures, shown above, are not adequate to demonstrate the required
coverage, additional exposures shall be made as specified by the certified Saudi Aramco film interpreter.

6.2 Single Wall Exposure - Single Wall Viewing (SWE/SWV) Technique - the
radiation passes through only one wall of the weld (material), which is viewed
on the radiograph for acceptance. (Figure 1)

6.3 Double Wall Exposure - Single Wall Viewing (DWE/SWV) Technique-


Radiation passes through two walls and only the weld (material) on the film side
wall is viewed for acceptance on the radiograph. For full weld coverage of
circumferential welds at least 3 exposures taken 120? apart shall be taken.
(Figure 2)

6.4 Double Wall Exposure - Double Wall Viewing (DWE/DWV) Technique -


radiation passes through two walls and both walls are viewed for acceptance on
the radiograph. These techniques shall only be used for materials and welds in
piping 3.5 inch NPS or less. (Figure 2)

6.4.1 Only a source side penetrameter shall be used for the double wall
viewing technique.

6.4.2 For the elliptical DWE/DWV technique the radiation beam shall be
offset from the plane of the weld at an angle sufficient to separate the
images of the source side and film side portions of the weld so that
there is no overlap of the areas to be interpreted. The elliptical
technique requires at least 2 exposures 90? to each other for each weld
to be radiographed to achieve complete coverage.

6.4.3 In the superimposed DWE/DWV technique, the source shall be at right


angles to the weld and the image of both walls are superimposed. The
superimposed technique, as a minimum, requires three (3) exposures
taken either 60? or 120? to each other for each weld to be radiographed
to achieve complete coverage.

7 Radiographic Exposure Requirements

7.1 Selection of Radiation Energy

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
Issue Date: 30 September 1998
Next Planned Update: 1 August 2000 Radiographic Examination

7.1.1 The voltage for examinations with x-ray tubes shall be selected to
insure that the required wire is visible on the radiograph.

7.1.2 Gamma Radiation of Ir-192, Se-75 and Co-60 may be used for any
material thickness provided the radiographic technique used
demonstrates that the required radiographic sensitivity has been
obtained. Use of Co-60 is only permitted when the thickness of the
material exceeds the practical limits of Ir-192 or Se-75.

7.2 Geometric Unsharpness

7.2.1 Geometrical unsharpness, "Ug", equals source size times thickness


divided by the object-to-source distance.

Ug = Ft/D (1)

Ug = Geometrical Unsharpness

F = Source size, the maximum projected dimension of the radiating


source (or effective focal spot) in the plane perpendicular to the
distance (D) from the weld or object being radiographed.

D = Distance from source of radiation to weld or other object being


radiographed.

t = Distance from source side of the object being radiographed to


the film.

7.2.2 The minimum source to object distance, D, shall be great enough to


insure that geometric unsharpness, Ug, of the radiograph does not
exceed the values listed in Table 5.

Table 5 - Geometrical Unsharpness


Material Ug
Thickness, mm (Inches) Maximum mm (Inch)
Under 50.8 (2 in.) 0.500 (0.020 in.)
50.8 - 76.2 (2 in. through 3 in.) 0.760 (0.030 in.)
Over 76.2 - 101.6 (> 3 in. through 4 in.) 0.101 (0.040 in.)
Greater than 101.6 mm (> 4 in.) 1.780 (0.070 in.)

7.2.3 The following formula should be used to determine the minimum


source to object distance, D, necessary to insure that the Ug does not
exceed the values listed in Table 5.

D = (Ft/Ug) + t (2)

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
Issue Date: 30 September 1998
Next Planned Update: 1 August 2000 Radiographic Examination

7.3 Location Markers

7.3.1 Each radiograph shall exhibit location markers which appear as


radiographic images on the film. The markers shall be placed on the
part being examined and not on the exposure holder/cassette. Location
markers shall be placed on the specimen being radiographed. Figures
1, 2, and 3 indicate the recommended placement of location markers.
Location markers shall not intrude into the area of interest.

7.3.1.1 The starting point and the direction of numbering shall be


identified adjacent to the weld.

7.3.1.2 Number belt spacing around the circumference of the


piping shall not exceed the requirements of Table 6.
Number belts shall be in "inch" units of measure unless
specifically noted on the report.

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
Issue Date: 30 September 1998
Next Planned Update: 1 August 2000 Radiographic Examination

Table - 6

NUMBER SPACING
Nominal Pipe Size Spacing
Over 3½ inches through 8 inches 1 inch (2.5 cm) apart
Over 8 inch through 20 inches 4 inches (10 cm) apart

7.3.2 When using a DWE/DWV technique for pipe or tube welds 3.5 inch
NPS or less in diameter, the first exposure shall be identified with a
lead letter "A" and the second exposure shall be identified with a lead
letter "B" (and "C" for third exposure, superimposed). Location
markers shall not intrude into the area of interest.

7.3.3 Location markers shall be identified on the surface of the specimen


being radiographed. Regardless of the technique used, the area of
interest of the radiograph shall be accurately traceable to its location on
the part until acceptance.

7.3.4 Station or location markers (i.e., numbers) shall be spaced in inches or


centimeters, with the unit of measure clearly identified on the RT
report.

7.3.5 For pipe or tube welds greater than 3.5 inch NPS, a number belt shall
be used. The number belt shall consist of lead numbers between 6 mm
(0.25 inch) and 12 mm (0.5 inch) in height.

7.4 Film Identification

7.4.1 Each radiograph shall be permanently identified using lead numbers


and/or letters. The radiographic identification shall include the
following information:
? JO number or BI number
? Component, vessel, or piping identification
? Seam or weld identification
? R1 for Repair, if necessary; R2, etc., if more than one repair.
Cutouts shall be identified as a new weld e.g., NW1, etc
? Date of radiography

7.4.2 Radiographs misidentified may be re-identified, with correction tape or


equivalent, only when the Saudi Aramco film interpreter or field

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
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Next Planned Update: 1 August 2000 Radiographic Examination

supervisor has determined that it is impractical to re-radiograph. Re-


identification of radiographs shall be noted on the inspection report.

7.5 Penetrameter (IQI) Selection

7.5.1 Penetrameters shall be wire type penetrameters and shall be selected to


insure that the designated wire required by Table 7 shall be included in
the penetrameter pack used. When possible the penetrameter shall be
selected to insure that there exists wires both above and below the
designated wire.

7.5.2 Welds with Reinforcement - Selection of the penetrameter shall be


based on the nominal thickness of the base material plus the estimated
weld reinforcement not to exceed the maximum permitted by the
referencing code section. Internal protrusion of single bevel welds,
backing rings or strips shall not be considered as part of the thickness
in penetrameter selection. In general, the following applies:

7.5.2.1 SWE/SWV or DWE/SWV techniques - the required wire


size is based on the wall thickness plus one reinforcement
where such reinforcement is not ground off.

7.5.2.2 DWE/DWV elliptical technique - the required wire size is


based on two wall thickness plus one reinforcement where
such reinforcement is not ground off.

7.5.2.3 DWE/DWV superimposed technique - the required wire


size is based on two wall thickness plus two reinforcements
were such reinforcement is not ground off.

7.5.3 Welds without Reinforcement - the thickness on which the


penetrameter is based is the nominal single wall thickness for
SWE/SWV and the nominal double wall thickness for DWE/DWV
technique.

Table 7 - IQI Selection


Unless otherwise stated in the Scope of Work, penetrameters shall be
selected as shown in the following columns.
Nominal Material Thickness Source Side Film Side
inch mm Wire Number Wire Number
Up to 0.25, incl. Up to 6, incl 13 14
Over 0.25 through 0.375 6 through 10 12 13
Over 0.375 through 0.50 10 through l2 11 12
Over 0.50 through 0.75 l2 through 18 10 11
Over 0.75 through 1.00 18 through 25 9 10
Over 1.00 through 1.50 25 through 40 8 9

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Over 1.50 through 2.00 40 through 50 7 8


Over 2.00 through 2.50 50 through 60 6 7
Over 2.50 through 4.00 60 through 100 5 6
Over 4.00 through 6.00 100 through 150 4 5
Over 6.00 through 8.00 150 through 200 2 4
Over 8.00 through 10.00 200 through 250 1 2

7.6 Penetrameter (IQI) Placement

7.6.1 Source side penetrameter(s) shall be used at all times unless placement
of the penetrameter(s) on the source side of the object is not possible.

7.6.2 When film side penetrameters are used, the penetrameters shall be in
contact with the part being examined. A lead letter "F", as least as high
as the penetrameter identification numbers, shall be placed adjacent to
or on each penetrameter and shall not interfere with the penetrameter
or be in an area of interest.

7.6.3 When configuration or size prevents placing the penetrameter(s) on the


part or weld, the penetrameter(s) may be placed on a separate block of
radiographically similar material. The block shall be placed as close as
possible to the item being examined, and the resulting radiographic
density of the block image shall be within the prescribed
penetrameter/area of interest density variation tolerances as stated in
paragraph 8.4. Refer to an Inspection Department recognized NDT RT
Level III for evaluation of radiographically similar material.

7.6.4 The penetrameters shall be placed perpendicular across the weld. ID


numbers and, when used, the lead letter "F", shall not be in the area of
interest. Where placement of the penetrameter across the weld or area
of interest is not possible refer to the paragraphs above and/or refer to
an Inspection Department recognized NDT RT Level III for
clarification.

7.6.5 Penetrameter Location for Materials other than Welds - The


penetrameter(s) with the penetrameter identification number(s), and,
when used, the lead letter "F", may be placed in the area of interest.

7.6.6 For pip ing 3.5 inch NPS and less, when using the DWE/SWV
technique, only that portion of the weld adjacent to the film, when the
penetrameter is placed on the film side of the object, may be viewed
for acceptance for the radiographic technique.

7.7 Number of Penetrameters

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
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Next Planned Update: 1 August 2000 Radiographic Examination

7.7.1 For DWE/SWV or SWE/SWV techniques requiring multiple exposures


for complete inspection of the weld, and where the length of the film to
be interpreted is greater than 127 mm (5 inches), two penetrameters
placed across the weld and perpendicular to the weld length shall be
used. One shall be within 25.4 mm (1 inch) of the end of the film
length to be interpreted and the other shall be at the center of the film
length to be interpreted. When the film length to be interpreted is 127
mm (5 inches) or less, one penetrameter shall be placed across the weld
and perpendicular to the weld length at the center of the length to be
interpreted.

7.7.2 If more than two penetrameters are used because of density


requirements, one shall be placed in the lightest area of interest and the
other in the darkest area of interest. The intervening densities on the
radiograph shall be considered as having acceptable density.

7.7.3 When a complete circumferential weld is radiographed in a single


exposure using a source inside the piping, i.e., panoramic radiography,
at least four (4) penetrameters shall be used and placed perpendicular
to the weld and spaced equally around the circumference.

7.7.4 When an array of objects in a circle is radiographed, at least one


penetrameter shall show on each radiograph.

7.7.5 Where portions of longitudinal welds adjoining the circumferential


weld are being examined simultaneously with the circumferential weld,
additional penetrameters shall be placed on the longitudinal weld at the
ends of the welds being radiographed.

8 Radiographic Film Interpretation

8.1 All radiographs shall be free from mechanical, chemical, or other blemishes to
the extent that they do not mask and are not confused with the image of any
discontinuity in the area of interest. Such blemishes include, but are not limited
to; fogging, processing defects such as streaks, watermarks, or chemical stains,
scratches, finger marks, crimps, dirt, static marks, smudges, or false indications
due to defective screens.

8.2 One sheet of film shall be used for each exposure. If an area of interest contains
an artifact a second exposure shall be made.

8.3 Radiographic Film Density - For Gamma radiography the minimum density
shall be 2.0. For X-radiography, the minimum density shall be no less than 1.8.
Radiographic film density through the area of interest or adjacent to the

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
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designated wire type penetrameter shall be no greater than 4.0 for radiographs
produced by Gamma Rays or X-rays.

8.4 Density Variation

8.4.1 Radiographic density anywhere through the area of interest shall not
vary more than -15% and +30% from the measured density next to the
designation wire of the penetrameter. If density variation exceeds the
permissible -15% and +30% range, additional penetrameters shall be
used for each exceptional area or areas and the area of interest re-
radiographed.

8.4.2 The maximum permissible +30% may be exceeded for penetrameters


with shims provided penetrameter sensitivity meets the requirements of
this SAEP.

8.5 IQI Sensitivity - Acceptance of the radiograph for sensitivity is based on ability
of the radiograph to display the required wire on the penetrameter, viewed
across the weld, and the penetrameter identifying numbers and letters.
Radiographs not meeting this requirement shall be re-radiographed.

8.6 Back Scatter Radiation - Radiographic film displaying a light image of the letter
"B" on a darker background shall be cause for rejection of the radiograph. A
dark image of the letter "B" on a lighter background shall be considered
acceptable.

9 Film Viewing

9.1 Film shall be viewed in an area with subdued lighting as required by paragraph
5.5.1.

9.2 Personnel interpreting radiographs shall allow 3 minutes in any darkened area
for their eyes to adjust if coming into the darkened area from normal room light
and at least 5 minutes if coming in from full sunlight.

9.2 Radiographs shall be interpreted only in those areas in which the


penetrameter(s) have established that a suitable radiographic technique has been
used.

9.3 Composite viewing of double film exposure is not permitted unless approved in
writing by an Inspection Department approved NDT RT Level III.

9.4 Each exposed film shall be properly stored to prevent damage to the film.

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
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10 Final Interpretation of Radiographs

10.1 The radiographs shall be examined and interpreted for film quality and for
discontinuities by personnel certified to perform RTFI by Saudi ARAMCO.

10.2 The film interpreter shall record on a review form (Attachment 1) accompanying
the radiographs, the type of defects present on each radiograph and the area(s)
rejected.

11 Documentation

11.1 Radiography reports shall be issued using Saudi Aramco form 4719-A-ENG
"Radiography Request & Report Sheet" (Attachment 1). As a minimum, the
report shall include:

11.1.1 Report number, date, BI or JO number, names and Saudi Aramco


badge numbers of the radiographers, and the governing acceptance
criteria.

11.1.2 Weld Identification number and orientation of individual films which


clearly shows the sequence of exposures, location of weld and
component designation.

11.1.3 Radiation source, type, strength, and size.

11.1.4 The radiographic interpreter's full name and Saudi Aramco badge
number.

(Note: Any individual interpreting or reviewing the film shall insure


that their identification, meeting the requirement of this paragraph, is
recorded on the form. Initials, either on Saudi Aramco Form 4719-A-
ENG or on the film envelope, are not acceptable.)

11.1.5 Film brand, type, and processing method,

11.1.6 IQI and designated wire.

11.1.7 Legible signature of all personnel interpreting or reviewing the film.

11.2 The following information shall either be provided on each film jacket or on the
final report noted above.

11.2.l Shooting sketch showing the geometric arrangement of source, weld,


film, penetrameters, shims, and location markers, or technique
shooting sketch may be listed from this document.

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
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11.2.2 Exposure time.

11.2.3 Source to weld or object distance.

11.2.4 Effective focal spot of the radiation source.

11.2.5 Calculated geometric unsharpness when required.

11.2.6 Weld thickness.

11.3 Final disposition of the radiographs and records shall be in accordance with the
following.

11.3.1 Radiographs shall be turned over to the proponent upon completion of


the work.

11.3.2 The radiographs may be retained at the proponent's facilities or turned


over to Saudi Aramco's Management Records Group, Refer to
"Records Management Manual, Part II, Section 2.

Revision Summary
30 July, 1997 New SAEP.
30 September, 1998 Minor revision to delete Section 10 and renumbered previous Sections 11 & 12 to
Sections 10 & 11 respectively.
Incorporate Appendix I to the main document.

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
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Figure 1 - Single Wall Radiographic Techniques


Pipe Exposure Radiographic IQI Location
OD Technique Viewing End View Side View Placement Marker
Side Placement
? 12" Single Single Wall Source side Either
Wall if accessible, Side
film side if
not

? 12" Single Single Wall Source Side Source


Wall Side

Any Single Single Wall Source Side Source


Wall Side

Note:
The above sketches are standard techniques. Other exposure arrangements may be made provide the Saudi Aramco
Inspection Department, NDT Unit, approves them.

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
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Figure 2 - Double Wall Radiographic Techniques


Pipe Exposure Radio- IQI Location
OD Technique graphic End View Side View Placement Marker
Viewing Side Placement
Any Double Single Wall Either Side Film Side
Wall, at
least 4
exposures
90° to
each other
for
complete
coverage

Any Double Single Wall Either Side Film Side


Wall, at
least 4
exposures
90° to
each other
for
complete
coverage

3-½" Double Double Wall: Source Side Either


or Wall, at (Ellipse) Side
less least 2 Read offset
exposures source side
at 90° to and film side
each other images
for
complete
coverage

Note:
The above sketches are standard techniques. Other exposure arrangements may be made with documented Saudi Aramco
Inspection Department NDT RT Level III approval.

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
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Figure 2 (Con't) - Double Wall Radiographic Techniques

Pipe Exposure Radio- IQI Location


OD Technique graphic End View Side View Placement Marker
Viewing Side Placement
3-½" Double Double Wall: Source Side Either
or Wall, at Read Super- Side
less least 3 imposed
exposures source and
at 60° or film side
120° to images
each other
for
complete
coverage

Note:
The above sketches are standard techniques. Other exposure arrangements may be made with documented Saudi Aramco
Inspection Department NDT RT Level III approval.

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
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Figure 3 - Identification for Film Marker Locations & Arrows

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The following tables are provided as a guide only. Code or contract governs.

Appendix I - Acceptance Criteria

1. ASME SEC I, Paragraph PW-51, ASME SEC VIII D1, ASME B31.1, Paragraph
136.4.5, API STD 650

TABLE 1-1 - Maximum Discontinuity Size Allowed


ASME SEC I; ASME SEC VIII, D1, ASME SEC VIII D1,
Defect
ASME B31.1 Para. UW-51; API STD Paragraph UW-52
650
Crack None None None
Lack of Fusion None None None
Incomplete None None None
Penetration
Elongated 6.0 mm (¼") for t up to 6.0 mm (¼") for t up to 2/3 t where t is the thickness
Indications 19.0 mm (¾") inclusive; 19.0 mm (¾"); of the weld excluding
1/3t for t from 19.0 mm (¾") 1/3t for t from 19.0 mm (¾") allowed reinforcement
to 57.0 mm (2¼") inclusive; to 57.0 mm (2¼") inclusive;
19 mm (¾") for t over 19 mm (¾") for t over
57 mm (2¼") 57 mm (2¼")
Group of aggregate length greater aggregate length greater the sum of the longest
Aligned than t in a length of 12t, than t in a length of 12t, dimensions of all such
Indications except when the distance except when the distance indications is < t in a length
between successive between successive of 6t & the longest
indications exceeds 6L indications exceeds 6L indications are separated by
where L is the longest where L is the longest 3L where L is the length of
indication in the group indication in the group the longest indication. The
maximum length of
acceptable indication shall
be ¾". Any such indication
shorter than ¼" shall be
acceptable for any plate
thickness.
Porosity & Refer to section 5.2 of this Refer to section 5.2 of this Round indications are not a
Rounded SAEP SAEP factor unless 100%
Indications examination is required.
Tungsten Refer to section 5.2 of this Refer to section 5.2 of this Rounded tungsten inclusions
SAEP. SAEP. are to be evaluated as
rounded indications per UW-
51. Elongated and aligned
tungsten inclusions are
unacceptable.
Root Concavity Unacceptable if the density
is greater than that of the
parent material.
Rounded Indications shall be judged against the standards set forth in ASME Section VIII - Division 1,
Appendix 4.

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
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2. ASME B31.3

2.1 The type of weld joints and service conditions shall be considered to
determine the method of NDE required. Table 2-1 is to be used with all
notes and is included with this SAEP for radiographic film
interpretation..

2.2 Porosity - Refer to Table 1.1 of this appendix.

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
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Table 2-2 - Acceptance Criteria for Table 2-1


Symbol Measure Acceptable Value Limits (Note 6)
A Extent of imperfection Zero (no evident imperfection)
B Depth of incomplete penetration ? 0.8 mm (1/32 in.) and ? 0.2Tw
Cumulative length of incomplete penetration ? 38 mm (1.5 in.) in any 150 mm (6 in.) weld length
C Depth of lack of fusion and incomplete ? 0.2Tw
penetration
Cumulative length of lack of fusion and ? 38 mm (1.5 in.) in any 150 mm (6 in.) weld length
incomplete penetration [Note (7)]
D Size and distribution of internal porosity See BPV Code, Section VIII, Division I, Appendix 4
E Size and distribution of internal porosity For Tw ? 6.4 mm (¼ in.), limit is same as D
For Tw > 6.4 mm (¼ in.), limit is 1.5 X D
F Slag inclusion or elongated indication
Individual length ? Tw/3
Individual width ? 2.4 mm (3/32 in.) and ? Tw/3
Cumulative length ? Tw in any 12Tw weld length
G Slag inclusion or elongated indication
Individual length ? 2Tw
Individual width ? 3.2 mm (1/8 in.) and ? Tw/2
Cumulative length ? 4Tw in any 150 mm (6 in.) weld length
H Depth of undercut ? 0.8 mm (1/32 in.) and ? Tw/4
I Depth of undercut ? 1.6 mm (1/16 in.) and ? Tw/4 or 0.8 mm (1/32 in.)
J Surface roughness < 500 min. Ra per ASME B46.1
K Depth of root surface concavity Total joint thickness, incl. weld reinf., ? Tw
L Height of reinforcement or internal protrusion For Tw mm (in.) Height, mm (in.)
[Note (8)] in any plane through the weld shall ? 6.4 (¼) ? 1.6 (1/16)
be within limits of the applicable height value in > 6.4 (¼), ? 12.7 (½) ? 3.2 (1/8)
the tabulation at right. Weld metal shall merge > 12.7 (½), ? 25.4 (1) ? 4.0 (5/32)
smoothly into the component surfaces. > 25.4 (1) ? 4.8 (3/16)
M Height of reinforcement or internal protrusion Limit is 2L
[Note (8)] as describe in L
** Tungsten Inclusions To be evaluated as rounded indications. Elongated
or aligned tungsten inclusions are unacceptable.
Tw = Nominal wall thickness of the thinner of two components joined by a butt weld.

Notes:
(1) Criteria given are for required examination. More stringent criteria may be specified in the engineering design. See also
paragraphs. 341.5 and 341.5.3 of ASME/ANSI B31.3
(2) Longitudinal groove weld includes straight and spiral seam. Criteria are not intended to apply to welds made in accordance
with a standard listed in Table A-I or Table 326.1 of ASME B31.1.
(3) Fillet weld includes socket and seal welds, and attachment for slip-on flanges and branch reinforcement.
(4) Branch connection weld includes pressure containing welds in branches and fabricated laps.
(5) These imperfections are evaluated only for welds 5 mm (3/16 in.) in nominal thickness.
(6) Where two limiting values are separated by "and", the lesser of the values determines acceptance. Where two sets of
values are separated by "or", the larger value is acceptable.
(7) Tightly butted unfused root faces are unacceptable.
(8) For groove welds, height is the lesser of the measurements made from the surfaces of the adjacent components. For fillet
welds, height is measured from the theoretical throat, Fig. 328.5.2A, of ASME/ANSI B31.3 internal protrusion does not
apply.

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
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3. API STD 1104, ASME/ANSI B31.4, ASME/ANSI B31.8

Table 3-1 is applicable in determining the size and type of discontinuities when
viewing radiographs for final acceptance in accordance with API STD 1104,
ASME/ANSI B31.4, Paragraph 434.8.5, and ASME/ANSI B31.8.

Table 3-1 - Acceptance Criteria for API STD 1104

Indication/Defect Unacceptable if any of the following conditions exist:


Inadequate Penetration (IP) 1. Length of an individual indication of IP exceeds 25.4 mm (1.0").
(without high-low) 2. The aggregate length of indications of IP in any continuous 304.8 mm (12")
length of weld exceeds 25.4 mm (1.0").
3. The aggregate length of indications of IP exceeds 8% of the weld length in any
weld less than 304.8 mm (12") in length.
Inadequate Penetration due to 1. Length of an individual indication of IPD exceeds 50.8 mm (2.0").
High-Low (IPD) 2. The aggregate length of indications of IP in any continuous 304.8 mm (12")
length of weld exceeds 76.2 mm (3.0").
Incomplete Fusion (IF) 1. Length of an individual indication of IF exceeds 25.4 mm (1.0").
2. The aggregate length of indications of IF in any continuous 304.8 mm (12")
length of weld exceeds 25.4 mm (1.0").
3. The aggregate length of indications of IF exceeds 8% of the weld length in any
weld less than 304.8 mm (12") in length.
Incomplete Fusion due to Cold 1. Length of an individual indication of IFD exceeds 50.8 mm (2.0").
Lap (IFD) 2. The aggregate length of indications of IFD in any continuous 304.8 mm (12")
length of weld exceeds 50.8 mm (2.0").
3. The aggregate length of indications of IFD exceeds 8% of the weld length.
Internal Concavity (IC) Any length of IC is acceptable provided the density of the radiographic image of the
IC does not exceed that of the thinnest adjacent base metal. For areas that exceed
the density of the thinnest adjacent base metal, the criteria for burn through are
applicable.
Burn-Through (BT) Pipe OD ? 2-3/8" Pipe OD < 2-3/8"
1. Maximum dimension exceeds 6.35 1. Maximum dimension exceeds 6.35
mm (¼") and the density of the BT's mm (¼") and the density of the BT's
image exceeds that of the thinnest image exceeds that of the thinnest
adjacent base metal adjacent base metal
2. Maximum dimension exceeds the 2. Maximum dimension exceeds the
thinner of nominal wall thicknesses thinner of nominal wall thicknesses
joined, and the density of the BT's joined, and the density of the BT's
image exceeds that of the thinnest image exceeds that of the thinnest
adjacent base metal adjacent base metal
3. Sum of maximum dimensions of 3. More than one BT of any size is
separate BTs whose image density present and the density of more than
exceeds that of the thinnest adjacent one of the images exceeds that of
base metal exceeds 12.7 mm (½") in the thinnest adjacent base metal.
304.8 mm (12") of weld or the total
weld length, whichever is less.

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Table 3-1 - Acceptance Criteria for API STD 1104 (Cont'd)

Indication/Defect Unacceptable if any of the following conditions exist:


Slag Inclusions Pipe OD ? 2-3/8" Pipe OD < 2-3/8"
Elongated (ESI) Unacceptable if: Unacceptable if:
Isolated (ISI) 1. ESI length > 2" 1. ESI > 3 X nominal WT of the
Note: ESI indications separated by 2. ESI width > 1/16" thinner thickness joined.
approx. width of root bead (wagon 3. Sum of the lengths of ISI > ½" in 2. ESI width > 1/16"
tracks) to be considered as a single 12" of weld. 3. Sum of ISI lengths > 2 X nominal
indication unless the width of either 4. Width of ISI > 1/8" WT of thinner thickness joined and
> 1/32". In that event, they shall be 5. > 4 ISI with maximum width of 1/8" ISI width > ½ nominal WT of
considered as separate indications. in any 12" of weld. thinner thickness joined.
6. Sum of the lengths of ESI & ISI > 4. Aggregate length of ESI & ISI >
8% of weld length. 8% of weld length.
Porosity - individual / Scattered (P) Unacceptable if:
Note: Size based on maximum 1. Size of individual pore > 1/8"
dimensions 2. Size of individual pore > 25% of thinner WT joined
3. Distribution of Porosity exceeds API STD 1104 Porosity Charts.
Porosity - Cluster (CP) Unacceptable if:
1. CP dia. > ½"
2. Aggregate length of CP > ½" in any continuous 12" of weld
3. An individual pore within a cluster > 1/16" in size.
Porosity - Hollow-Bead (HB) Unacceptable if:
1. Length of individual HB > ½"
2. Sum of HB lengths > 2" in any continuous 12" of weld
3. Individual HB > ¼" separated by < 2 "
4. Sum of HB lengths > 8% weld length.
Cracks (C) Any size or location of cracks are unacceptable except for shallow crater or star
cracks. Shallow crater or star crack length > 5/32" is unacceptable.
Undercutting Unacceptable if:
Adjacent to cover pass (EU) 1. Any combination EU & IU length > 2" in any continuous 12" of weld.
Adjacent to root pass (IU) 2. Sum of EU & IU lengths in any combination > 1/6 of weld length.
Tungsten Inclusions Individual tungsten inclusions are be evaluated as rounded indications (Porosity).
Elongated or aligned tungsten inclusions are unacceptable.
Accumulation of Discontinuities Unacceptable if:
Excluding IPD, EU & IU 1. Sum lengths of indications > 2" in any continuous 12" of weld.
2. Sum lengths of indication > 8% of weld length.
Pipe / Fitting Discontinuities Arc burns, long seam discontinuities and other discontinuities in the pipe or
fittings detected by RT shall be recordable.

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4. AWS D1.1

Radiographic acceptance criteria for AWS D1.1 is different for Statically


Loaded and Dynamically Loaded structures. This SAEP covers only statically
loaded structures. For Dynamically loaded structures, refer to the appropriate
sections of AWS D1.1. If there is doubt as to the designation of statically or
dynamically loaded, refer to the project engineer for determination. The
radiographic film interpreter should confirm the loading classification prior to
proceeding the interpretation of film. Rejection criteria for Statically loaded
structures are provided below. Note that to determine the allowable and
rejectable size of discontinuities, the use of both the tables and charts are
required.

4.1 Statically Loaded Structures

Table 4-1 (AWS D1.1 Paragraph 8.15.3.2) and figure 4-1 together
establish the rejection criteria for radiographic indications of statically
loaded structures. Discontinuities exceeding the following limitations
shall be unacceptable. (E = weld size; T = material thickness)

Table 4-1 - Rejection Criteria for Statically Loaded Structures, AWS D1.1 Para 8.15.3.2

Indication Rejection Criteria


Cracks None permitted
Elongated Discontinuities > maximum size of chart 4-1
Clearance between discontinuities < minimum clearance allowance of fig 4-1
Rounded Discontinuities > E/3 or > 1/4" for T ? 2"
> E/3 or > 3/8" for T > 2"
Minimum clearance between a rounded discontinuity > 3/32" to an
acceptable rounded or elongated discontinuity or to an edge or end of
an intersection shall be three (3) times the larger discontinuity.
Isolated Discontinuity, i.e., a cluster Sum of greatest dimension > maximum size of a single discontinuity
of rounded indications permitted in Fig. 4-1
Minimum clearance to another cluster or elongated discontinuity or to
an edge or end of an intersecting shall be three (3) times the larger
discontinuity.
Sum of Individual Discontinuities shall not exceed 2E/3 or 3/8" which ever is less in 1" of weld.
each being < 3/32 "
In-Line Discontinuities Sum > E in any length of 6E. Where length of weld is < 6E,
permissible sum shall be proportionately less.
Tungsten Inclusions Individual tungsten inclusions are be evaluated as rounded
indications (Porosity). Elongated or aligned tungsten inclusions are
unacceptable.

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
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Figure 4-1 Weld Quality Requirements for Elongated Discontinuities as


Determined by Radiography for Statically Loaded Structures
(see AWS D1.1 Paragraph 6.15.3.2)

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Document Responsibility: Non-destructive Testing SAEP-1143
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Attachment 1 - Radiographic Request / Report Forms

Saudi Aramco Form 4719-A-ENG (09/98)

Saudi Aramco Form 4719-A1-ENG (09/98)

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