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# Physics Formulas for Final Exam (May ’96)

GM GMm
ag = U=−
Gravitational Acceleration: r2 Gravitational Potential Energy r
Circular Orbit:
U U
K= Energy = = − K
2 2
Energy in Planetary Motion
When a planet or satellite with mass m moves in a circular orbit with radius r, its potential energy U and kinetic energy K are given by
GMm GMm
U =− K=
r 2r
The total mechanical energy E = K + U is
GMm
E=−
2a
in which the radius r has been replaced with the semimajor axis a to indicate that this expression for total energy is also valid for more general elliptical orbits.
The Electric Field
 F  q

E=
qz  σ z F
G IJ
E=
c h
 p
E= E= E= 1−
H K
3/ 2
qo 4πε or 2 (point charge) 2πε o z 3 (electric dipole) 4πε o z 2 + R 2 2ε o z 2 + R2
(charged ring) (charged disk)

p = qd (dipole moment)
τ = p×E (torque dipole)
U = −p• E (dipole pot. eng.)
The Electric Field & Gauss’ Law

E= F
q
 
Φ= v⋅A (Flux) z  
E ⋅ dA = q
εo
E=
λ
2πrε o (line of charge)
q = λ⋅L
E= σ
2ε o q=σ ⋅A E= σ
εo
E= Q
4πε o r 2
(sheet of charge) (conducting surface) (spherical shell)
Electric Potential Energy

z z
f f

V f − Vi = E ⋅ ds V = − E ⋅ ds
∆U = U f − U i = −Wif U = −W∞f ∆V = V f − Vi = −
Wif
qo i i
(potential difference defined) (Finding V from E)
qρ cosθ
V= q
4πε o r
V= 4 πε o r 2 U =W = q1q2
4πε o r
(Potential Due to Point charges) (Potential Due to an Electric Dipole) (Electric Potential Energy of a system of point
charges)

∆U = qEd W = −qEd ∆V = ∆U
qo
(electric potential)

## Current and Resistance

z
t

q = idt
0
i= dq
dt z
i = J ⋅ dA
(current density J a vector)
R= V
i (resistance)
ρ (resistivity)
σ (conductivity)

ρ= 1
σ = E
J

R = ρ LA P = i 2 R = VR
2
E = ρJ P = iV (power)

Circuits
n n
1 1
Req = ∑ R j =∑
emf = dW
dq j =1 Req j =1 R j
(definition of emf which = V) (n resistance in series) (n resistance in parallel)
− t / RC
q = CV (1 − e )
(charging capacitor)

i= dq
dt = ( VR )e− t / RC (charging capacitor)
q = qoe − t / RC (discharging capacitor)
i= dq
dt = −( RC
qo
)e− t / RC
The Magnetic Field:
FB = qv × B The SI unit for B is the tesla (T): 1 T = 1 N/(A*m) = 10^4 gauss. FE = qE FB = qvB sin φ E= F
q

A Circulating Charge:
2πr 2π mv 2πm
r= T= = =
2 mv qB 2
qvB = m vr qB (radius) v v qB qB (period) f = 1
T = 2πm
(frequency) a= v
R
(circular orbit)

## The Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Wire: Torque on a Current Loop:

FB = iL × B dFB = idL × B τ =µ×B τ = µBsin θ µ = NiA
The Biot-Savart Law:

dB = ( ) µo

ids× r
r3
(Biot-Savart law) µo = 4π × 10 −7 T ⋅ m / A ≈ 126
. × 10 −6 T ⋅ m / A (Permeability Constant)
A Long Straight Wire:

µoi
B= 2π r
B=
µoi
4R
(semicircle)

## The Force Between Parallel Wires: Ampere’s Law:

µo Lia ib 
Fba = ib LBa = 2πd ∫ B ⋅ ds =µo i (need symmetry to calculate
B )

## B = µo io n (ideal solenoid) B= µoio N

2πrr
(toroid) ( )
B z = µo µ
2πrz 3
( µ being the dipole moment of the loop)

## Definition of Magnetic Flux: Faraday’s Law of Induction:

dΦ B
Φ B = ∫ B ⋅ dA
ε=− dt
= BLv ε = −N dΦ B
dt
ε = NBAω = 2πfBAN

Lenz’s Law:
Lenz’s law specifies the direction of the current induced in a closed conducting loop by a changing magnetic flux. The law states: an induced current in a closed conducting loop will appear
in such a direction that it opposes the change that produced it. Lenz’s law is a consequence of the principle of conservation of energy. Section 32-5, for example, shows that work is needed to
pull a closed conducting loop out of a magnetic field and that this energy is accounted for as thermal energy of the loop material.
Emf and the Induced Electric Field:
An induced emf is present even if the loop through which a magnetic flux is changing is not a physical conductor but an imaginary line. The changing flux induces an electric field E at every
point of such a loop, the emf being related to E by ε = ∫ E ⋅ ds
dΦ B
The integral is taken around the loop. Combining equations lets us write Faraday’s law in its most general form, ∫ E ⋅ ds = − dt
The Thermal Energy: Cyclotron:

( )
2 2πmf osc
P= R= B2 L2 v 2 RqB
BLv
R R P = Fv B= q v= m
Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales:
TC = T − 27315
. TF = 95 TC + 32
Thermal Expansion: All objects change size with changes in temperature. The change ∆L in any linear dimension L is given by ∆L = Lα∆T , in which α is the coefficient of

linear expansion. The change ∆V in volume V of a solid or liquid is ∆V = Vβ∆T . Here β = 3α is the coefficient of volume expansion of the material.
Heat: Heat Capacity and Specific Heat:
Q = C(T f − Ti ) Q = cm(T f − T )
1Cal = 103 cal = 4186J
Heat of Transformation: Q = L m
First Law of Thermodynamics: The principle of conservation of energy for a sample of material exchanging energy with its surroundings by means of work and heat is expressed in the first
law of thermodynamics, which may assume either of the forms:
∆Eint = Eint, f − Eint,i = Q − W dEint = dQ − dW
Eint represents the internal energy of the material, which depends only on its state (temperature, pressure, and volume). Q represents the heat exchanged by the system with its surroundings;
Q is positive if the system gains heat and negative if the system loses heat. W is the work done by the system; W is positive if the system expands against some external force exerted by the
surroundings, and negative if the system contracts because of some external force.
Engines: Refrigerators:
W Q H − QC QC QC
e= QH = QH K= W = Q H − QC

## The Carnot Cycle:

TH − TC TC
eCar = TH (Carnot engine) K Car = TH −TC (Carnot refrigerator)