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GM GMm

ag = U=−

Gravitational Acceleration: r2 Gravitational Potential Energy r

Circular Orbit:

U U

K= Energy = = − K

2 2

Energy in Planetary Motion

When a planet or satellite with mass m moves in a circular orbit with radius r, its potential energy U and kinetic energy K are given by

GMm GMm

U =− K=

r 2r

The total mechanical energy E = K + U is

GMm

E=−

2a

in which the radius r has been replaced with the semimajor axis a to indicate that this expression for total energy is also valid for more general elliptical orbits.

The Electric Field

F q

E=

qz σ z F

G IJ

E=

c h

p

E= E= E= 1−

H K

3/ 2

qo 4πε or 2 (point charge) 2πε o z 3 (electric dipole) 4πε o z 2 + R 2 2ε o z 2 + R2

(charged ring) (charged disk)

p = qd (dipole moment)

τ = p×E (torque dipole)

U = −p• E (dipole pot. eng.)

The Electric Field & Gauss’ Law

E= F

q

Φ= v⋅A (Flux) z

E ⋅ dA = q

εo

E=

λ

2πrε o (line of charge)

q = λ⋅L

E= σ

2ε o q=σ ⋅A E= σ

εo

E= Q

4πε o r 2

(sheet of charge) (conducting surface) (spherical shell)

Electric Potential Energy

z z

f f

V f − Vi = E ⋅ ds V = − E ⋅ ds

∆U = U f − U i = −Wif U = −W∞f ∆V = V f − Vi = −

Wif

qo i i

(potential difference defined) (Finding V from E)

qρ cosθ

V= q

4πε o r

V= 4 πε o r 2 U =W = q1q2

4πε o r

(Potential Due to Point charges) (Potential Due to an Electric Dipole) (Electric Potential Energy of a system of point

charges)

∆U = qEd W = −qEd ∆V = ∆U

qo

(electric potential)

z

t

q = idt

0

i= dq

dt z

i = J ⋅ dA

(current density J a vector)

R= V

i (resistance)

ρ (resistivity)

σ (conductivity)

ρ= 1

σ = E

J

R = ρ LA P = i 2 R = VR

2

E = ρJ P = iV (power)

Circuits

n n

1 1

Req = ∑ R j =∑

emf = dW

dq j =1 Req j =1 R j

(definition of emf which = V) (n resistance in series) (n resistance in parallel)

− t / RC

q = CV (1 − e )

(charging capacitor)

i= dq

dt = ( VR )e− t / RC (charging capacitor)

q = qoe − t / RC (discharging capacitor)

i= dq

dt = −( RC

qo

)e− t / RC

The Magnetic Field:

FB = qv × B The SI unit for B is the tesla (T): 1 T = 1 N/(A*m) = 10^4 gauss. FE = qE FB = qvB sin φ E= F

q

A Circulating Charge:

2πr 2π mv 2πm

r= T= = =

2 mv qB 2

qvB = m vr qB (radius) v v qB qB (period) f = 1

T = 2πm

(frequency) a= v

R

(circular orbit)

FB = iL × B dFB = idL × B τ =µ×B τ = µBsin θ µ = NiA

The Biot-Savart Law:

dB = ( ) µo

4π

ids× r

r3

(Biot-Savart law) µo = 4π × 10 −7 T ⋅ m / A ≈ 126

. × 10 −6 T ⋅ m / A (Permeability Constant)

A Long Straight Wire:

µoi

B= 2π r

B=

µoi

4R

(semicircle)

µo Lia ib

Fba = ib LBa = 2πd ∫ B ⋅ ds =µo i (need symmetry to calculate

B )

2πrr

(toroid) ( )

B z = µo µ

2πrz 3

( µ being the dipole moment of the loop)

dΦ B

Φ B = ∫ B ⋅ dA

ε=− dt

= BLv ε = −N dΦ B

dt

ε = NBAω = 2πfBAN

Lenz’s Law:

Lenz’s law specifies the direction of the current induced in a closed conducting loop by a changing magnetic flux. The law states: an induced current in a closed conducting loop will appear

in such a direction that it opposes the change that produced it. Lenz’s law is a consequence of the principle of conservation of energy. Section 32-5, for example, shows that work is needed to

pull a closed conducting loop out of a magnetic field and that this energy is accounted for as thermal energy of the loop material.

Emf and the Induced Electric Field:

An induced emf is present even if the loop through which a magnetic flux is changing is not a physical conductor but an imaginary line. The changing flux induces an electric field E at every

point of such a loop, the emf being related to E by ε = ∫ E ⋅ ds

dΦ B

The integral is taken around the loop. Combining equations lets us write Faraday’s law in its most general form, ∫ E ⋅ ds = − dt

The Thermal Energy: Cyclotron:

( )

2 2πmf osc

P= R= B2 L2 v 2 RqB

BLv

R R P = Fv B= q v= m

Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales:

TC = T − 27315

. TF = 95 TC + 32

Thermal Expansion: All objects change size with changes in temperature. The change ∆L in any linear dimension L is given by ∆L = Lα∆T , in which α is the coefficient of

linear expansion. The change ∆V in volume V of a solid or liquid is ∆V = Vβ∆T . Here β = 3α is the coefficient of volume expansion of the material.

Heat: Heat Capacity and Specific Heat:

Q = C(T f − Ti ) Q = cm(T f − T )

1Cal = 103 cal = 4186J

Heat of Transformation: Q = L m

First Law of Thermodynamics: The principle of conservation of energy for a sample of material exchanging energy with its surroundings by means of work and heat is expressed in the first

law of thermodynamics, which may assume either of the forms:

∆Eint = Eint, f − Eint,i = Q − W dEint = dQ − dW

Eint represents the internal energy of the material, which depends only on its state (temperature, pressure, and volume). Q represents the heat exchanged by the system with its surroundings;

Q is positive if the system gains heat and negative if the system loses heat. W is the work done by the system; W is positive if the system expands against some external force exerted by the

surroundings, and negative if the system contracts because of some external force.

Engines: Refrigerators:

W Q H − QC QC QC

e= QH = QH K= W = Q H − QC

TH − TC TC

eCar = TH (Carnot engine) K Car = TH −TC (Carnot refrigerator)

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