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Communication and Applications

(ERCICA-14)

M.S. Abiramia, *, Dr. T. Sheelab

a

Department of Computer Science,Research Scholar,Bharathiar University,Coimbatore,641 046,India

b

Department of IT,Professor & Head,Sai Ram Engg College,Chennai,600 044,India

Abstract

Image segmentation is an image processing technique that divides an image into contiguous regions or segments and typically used to

locate objects and boundaries such as lines, curves, etc. in images. Regions are disjoint with some property for each region such as pixel

intensity, grey level texture, or colour, etc., because a single point cannot be contained in two different regions. Image Segmentation techniques

enable the design of automated segmentation techniques. Several such algorithms are proposed in the literature to simplify and/or change the

representation of an image into something that is more meaningful and easier to analyse. In the proposed system, segmentation of images using

Region Growing algorithm (based on seed pixels) is done in more than one processor. This paper explores several such algorithms which have

been proved to perform on multi-categories of images specifically in medical images. This review paper also suggests interesting directions for

further research.

Keywords: Automated Image Segmentation; Pixels; Thresholding; Region Growing; Edges; Clustering; K-means; FCM; Deformable models.

1. Introduction

Image Segmentation [2] is the division of an image into regions or categories, which correspond to different objects or

parts of objects. Segmentation techniques are based on one of two basic properties of intensity values discontinuity and similarity.

First category is to partition an image based on abrupt changes in intensity, such as edges in an image. Second category is based

on partitioning an image into regions that are similar according to predefined criteria.

Image Segmentation is one of the most important issues in computer aided medical imaging. It is used in the analysis and

diagnosis of numerous applications such as the study of anatomical structure, localization of pathology, treatment planning, and

computer-integrated surgery. Segmentation is a vital role in medical image processing, particularly for abdomen organs

abnormalities detection in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and computed Tomography (CT). In medical image processing, an

image is captured, digitized and processed i.e., filtered for segmentation and extracting required information Image segmentation

is still a challenging task for researchers and developers to develop a universal technique for image segmentation. Image

segmentation is also used to differentiate different objects in the image, since our image is divided into foreground and

background, where foreground of image is the region of interest, and background is the rest of the image. Manual segmentation

methods generate errors. These methods are time consuming. Segmentation by expert is variable. Therefore, there is a strong

need to have efficient computer based system that accurately examines the boundaries of abdomen organs with minimum

interaction of user interface.

In this paper a brief study of various automated segmentation techniques [5] are reviewed and discuss advantages and

disadvantages about those techniques. These algorithms differ from each other in aspects like nature of inputs such medical

images, human faces, natural images etc., types of images such as MRI, CT or black and white or colour images etc., and required

accuracy for those images, for example, medical images require more accuracy than natural images.

E-mail address: abirami.srm@gmail.com.

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M.S. Abirami .et.al.

The rest of the paper is divided into four sections. Section 2 discusses various Image Segmentation techniques,

advantages & disadvantages, Section 3 highlights on methodology for abdominal image segmentation techniques and Section 5

deals with topics for further research.

Most of the image segmentation techniques are often tailored for specific body regions (brain, abdomen, etc.) and

different image modalities (CT, MRI, etc.). The image segmentation techniques can be classified into four general categories:

pixel-based, region-based, edge-based and model-based techniques. Actually, the basic behaviour of these techniques can be

divided into three concepts. The first concept is the similarity concept like edge-based techniques. Alternatively, the second

concept is based on the discontinuity of pixel values like pixel-based and region-based techniques. Finally, a complete different

approach is the third concept which is based on a statistical approach like Model-based techniques.

Using pixel-based techniques each pixel is segmented based on grey-level values, no contextual information, only histogram.

Thresholding [9] is one of the simplest and widely methods of image segmentation. This method is based on a threshold value to

turn a grey-scale image into a binary image (Shapiro, et al., 2001). The most common way to convert a grey level image to a

binary image is to select a single threshold value (T). Then all the grey level values below this T will be classified as black (0),

and those above T will be white (1). The binary image should contain all of the essential information about the position and shape

of the objects of interest (foreground). Threshold technique can be expressed as: T=T[x, y, p(x, y), f(x, y], Where T is the

threshold value. x, y are the coordinates of the threshold value point and p(x,y) ,f(x,y) are points the grey level image pixels.

Threshold image g(x,y) can be defined as: g(x,y) = 1, if f(x,y) > T

0, if f(x,y) T

Threshold segmentation techniques can be grouped into two different classes: global threshold and local (adaptive)

threshold. In the global threshold, a single threshold value is used in the whole image. In the local threshold, a threshold value is

assigned to each pixel to determine whether it belongs to the foreground or the background pixel using local information around

the pixel.

The advantage of obtaining first a binary image is that it reduces the complexity of the data and simplifies the process of

recognition and classification. The main disadvantages are that, in the simplest form only two classes are generated and it cannot

be applied to multichannel images. In thresholding technique, image having only two values either black or white. MR image

contains 0 to 255 grey values.

Region Growing technique involves selecting initial seed points and adding neighbouring pixels to the region depending

on the homogeneity criteria. This process is continued until all pixels belong to some region. Thus, region-based segmentation

algorithms [11] operate iteratively by grouping together pixels which are neighbours and have similar values and splitting groups

of pixels which are dissimilar in value.

Algorithm

2. In the next steps pixels in the region of seeds are examined and added to the region accordance with the homogeneity

criteria. This process is continued until all pixels belong to some region.

3. In the last step the object illustration is done by growing regions of pixels.

The main disadvantage of this method is, it require user interface for selection of seed points for each region and it is a

time consuming process.

Clustering [1] is the process of organizing objects which are similar and dissimilar objects belonging to other clusters.

Clustering is an unsupervised learning problem. It deals with finding a structure in a collection of unlabelled data i.e., to identify a

finite set of classes known as clusters to classify each pixel. Pixels may belong together on the basis of some specific criterion

such as same colour and/or the same texture and/or distance. Clustering algorithm is classified as Exclusive clustering and

Overlapping clustering. In exclusive clustering, one data (pixel) is belonging to only one cluster then it could not belong to

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M.S. Abirami .et.al.

another cluster. K-mean is an example of exclusive clustering algorithm. In overlapping clustering, one data (pixel) is belonging

to two or more clusters. Fuzzy C-mean is example of overlapping clustering algorithm.

K-means Clustering [4] MacQueen, 1967 is one of the simplest unsupervised learning algorithms. The procedure is

simple and easy to classify a given data set through a certain number of clusters (assume k clusters) fixed a priori. This algorithm

groups together the objects with similar characteristics to form clusters. The purpose of K-mean clustering is to classify the data.

Also this algorithm aims at minimizing an objective function, in this case a squared error function. The objective function

where is a chosen distance measure between a data point and the cluster centre , is an indicator of the

distance of the n data points from their respective cluster centres.

Algorithm

1. Initially k centroid points are chosen and place them in the space represented by the objects that are being clustered.

2. Assign each object to the group that has the closest centroid.

3. When all objects have been assigned, recalculate the positions of the K centroids.

4. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 until the centroids no longer move. This produces a separation of the objects into groups from

which the metric to be minimized can be calculated.

Fuzzy C-Means Clustering (FCM) [6] In hard clustering (K-means), data is divided into distinct clusters, where each data

element belongs to exactly one cluster. In fuzzy clustering (soft clustering), data elements can belong to more than one cluster,

and associated with each element is a set of membership levels. Fuzzy clustering is a process of assigning these membership

levels, and then using them to assign data elements to one or more clusters. This method (developed by Dunn in 1973 and

improved by Bezdek in 1981) is frequently used in pattern recognition. It is based on minimization of the following objective

function:

where m is any real number greater than 1, uij is the degree of membership of xi in the cluster j, xi is the ith of d-dimensional

measured data, cj is the d-dimension centre of the cluster, and ||*|| is any norm expressing the similarity between any measured

data and the centre. Fuzzy partitioning is carried out through an iterative optimization of the objective function shown above, with

the update of membership uij and the cluster centres cj by:

This iteration will stop when , where is a termination criterion between 0 and 1, whereas k is the

iteration steps. This procedure converges to a local minimum or a saddle point of J m.

Algorithm

3

M.S. Abirami .et.al.

The main disadvantage is that it only considers image intensity thereby producing unsatisfactory results in noisy images.

Edge based methods [7] attempt to solve the image segmentation by detecting the edge between different regions. This

technique determines the presence of an edge or line in an image and outlines them in an appropriate way. The main purpose of

edge detection is to simplify the image data in order to minimize the amount of data to be processed. Generally, an edge is defined

as the boundary pixels that connect two separate regions. The detection operation begins with the examination of the local

discontinuity at each pixel element in an image. Based on some essential characteristics such as amplitude, orientation, and

location of a particular subarea in the image, the detector has to decide whether each of the examined pixels is an edge or not.

The edge based method has the advantage that it analysis the images by drastically reducing the amount of data to be

processed, and also preserving useful structural information about object boundaries. With only edge detector algorithms high

quality cannot be achieved for ultrasound images which have inherent speckle noise and texture characteristics. Due to this

drawback edge based method rarely used alone.

Hybrid image segmentation is a combination of edge based and region based techniques. In this image is firstly

partitioned into regions and then merged using split and merge technique and after that it detects the contours using edge-based

technique.

Deformable models are curves or surfaces, for segmentation in the image domain, or hyper-surfaces, for the segmentation of

higher dimensional image data, such as stacks of images, which deform under the influence of internal and external forces to

delineate object boundary. The internal forces are defined such that they preserve the shape smoothness of the model, while the

external forces are defined by the image features to drive the model toward the desired position i.e., to the desired region

boundaries. It is difficult for parametric deformable models to adapt the model topology during deformation. However geometric

deformable models are designed to handle topological changes.

Two general classes of deformable models are the parametric deformable models and the geometric deformable models.

Parametric deformable models referred as snakes or active contour models [10] are represented explicitly as parameterized curves

in a Lagrangian formulation. Geometric deformable models are represented implicitly as level sets of two-dimensional distance

functions that evolve according to an Eulerian formulation. The deformable model that has attracted the most attention to date is

popularly known as snakes (Kass et al., 1988). Deformable curve, surface and solid models gained popularity after they were

proposed for use in computer vision (Terzopoulos et al., 1988) and computer graphics (Terzopoulos and Fleischer, 1988).

A classic snake model is described by x(s) = (x(s), y(s)), where s is the arc length, and x(s) and y(s) are x and y coordinates

along the contour, and the energy of the model is given by E snake=snake E(x(s))ds = snake Eint(x(s) + Eext(x(s))ds, where Eext is the

external energy, and Eint is the internal energy, given by

Eint = ((t) x(s)/ s2 + (t) x(s)/ s2 ),

4

M.S. Abirami .et.al.

where and are the coefficients that control the snakes tension and rigidity, respectively. The goal is to find a snake, x(s), that

minimizes Esnake. The external energy is in accord with the image features, and for a given image f(x, y),

Eext = - {G(x,y) * f(x,y)},

where G(x,y) is the two-dimensional Gaussian kernel with as the standard deviation.

The classical active contour models have several limitations. One limitation is that the initial contour must be close to

the true boundary or it will likely converge to a wrong result. To address this problem, increase the capture range of the external

force fields and guide the contour toward the desired boundary. Another limitation is the poor convergence of classical snakes to

boundary concavities. The GVF snake is an effective model that can be employed to solve this problem.

The second class of deformable models, namely the geometric models, use a distance transformation to define the shape

from the n-dimensional to an n + 1-dimensional domain, where n 1 for curves, n 2 for surfaces on the image plane, etc. Thus,

it uses the level-set based shape representation, transforming the curves into higher dimensional scalar functions.

geometric deformable models were introduced independently by Malladi et al. and Caselles et al..

The level set method views a moving curve as the zero level set of a higher dimensional function (x, t). Generally, the

level set function satisfies,

(x,t) < 0 in (t),

(x,t) = 0 in C(t),

(x,t) > 0 in Rn\ (t),

where the artificial time t denotes the evolution process, C(t) is the moving curve, and (t) represents the region possibly multi-

connected) that C(t) encloses. An evolution equation for the curve C moving with speed F in its normal direction is

given by

t = F(x)

Here, the surface = 0 corresponding to the propagating hyper surface may change topology, as well as form sharp

corners. A particular case is motion by mean curvature, when F = div((x)/| (x)|) is the curvature of the level curve of

passing through x. The above equation becomes

/t = . Div ( / ), with (0, x) = 0(x) and t (0,).

The main advantage of parametric models is that they are robust and usually very fast in their convergence, depending

on the predetermined number of control points. However, an obvious weakness of these models is that they are topology

dependent: a model can only capture a single ROI, and therefore, in images with multiple ROIs, multiple models have to be

initialized, one for each ROI.

3. Proposed Methodology

The proposed methodology is to develop an automated hybrid segmentation technique for segmenting abdominal medical

images and implement it in parallel, and then calculating the different features of those segmented regions. Thus the objective of

the proposed methodology is to improve the performance in the execution time (segmentation and feature extraction) of the

images.

4. Conclusion

Image Segmentation algorithms offer an attractive approach to automated design of segmentation for medical applications.

They eliminate the problems in manual segmentation, and provide a mean for constructing even hybrid segmentation techniques.

In this paper, we have focused on a family of such algorithms that construct automated image segmentation methods that deal

with multi-categories especially in medical images.

The potential areas for further research would be

Developing a hybrid segmentation scheme that performs segmentation of medical images to yield superior performance.

Optimization of algorithms by parallel segmentation to reduce its segmentation time.

5

M.S. Abirami .et.al.

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