he machine.

5
9. Turn Art Into CNC Programs & Finished Parts Easily.

Artistic CAD-CAM technology has evolved to support a wide range of custom applications. Two of
these specialized industries would be the custom woodworking and jewelry making industry. These
types applications require the ability to turn a picture into a 3D relief model that can be machined in a
variety of ways. This also includes the ability to turn a picture into 2D profiles that can be used for
engraving, pocket milling and profile milling. These industries have to then be able to create these
programs to me machined on a CNC Mill or Router in 2, 3 and 4 Axis. Some even require 5 Axis
CNC programming capabilities.
10. Seamless Integration with Popular CAD Design Products.

Some CAD-CAM providers have teamed up with highly popular CAD vendors such as SolidWorks®
to create powerful CAM machining modules that integrate into the CAD software as a plug-in. This
allows existing CAD users to create the necessary machining for the part, simulate everything and
create the NC programs for them. This is highly beneficial, as the CAD users do not have to
completely re-learn a new CAD-CAM system; they only need to learn the machining side. By going
this way, a CAD Designer can acquire more value and seek more clients for being a full service
design and programming facility. Typically CAM products that plug-in to CAD systems can be
easier to learn and use after some training.
BASIC D
ESIGN PROCESS need: When someone realizes that problem exists, for which a product can be
designed.
Define the problem: Specify the item to be designed. This includes the cost, operating performance
and characteristics functions.
Synthesis: Each subsystem of the designed is thoroughly conceptualized and analyzed, and if some
shortcomings are there, improve this with the help of software like CAD.
Analysis and optimization: The product is redesigned and analyzed again and again. This process
will go on till the designed is optimized.
Evaluation of design: Measure and test the design as specified in the problem definition phase.
Tests are to be conducted on prototype model.
Presentation: Make the final drawing of the design by mentioning its material, size and assembly
list. It means a database of the design is created for manufacturing.
CAD/CAM Database
With the advent of the CAD and CAM software there has been integration of designing and
manufacturing processes. Just like computer aided designing (CAD) we have concept ofcomputer
aided manufacturing (CAM). CAD software enables direct link between CAD and CAM.
On its part CAD enables automation of designing, while CAM enables automation of manufacturing
processes. The combination of CAD and CAM enables automated transitionfrom designing to
manufacturing.
For the product that has been designed using the CAD software on computer, all the process planning
and management of the manufacturing operations for the manufacture of the product can be done by
the computer systems. All the data from the CAD systems can be directly used for the CAM systems.
The database created by the integration of CAD/CAM is also called as manufacturing database. It
includes all the data about the product generated during design like shape and dimensions, bill of
materials and part lists, material specifications etc. It also includes additional data required for the
manufacturing purposes.
Thus in the integrated CAD/CAM system the two processes of designing and manufacturing are
combine

This ch nagement The manufacturing database and its management are major issues in CIM. 8 A major problem to be solved to implement CIM has always been that of distributing information among different computer based systems. machine-interpretable. They lack almost all the flexibilities offered by DBMS. DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR The person responsible for managing the database is often referred to as database administrator. The issues are complex but they are beginning to be addressed in a number of ways. This ch apter hence is devoted to the organization of data. The standards for product data exchange are discussed and communication protocols have been discussed elsewhere. • Print the data into formatted reports. standards for product data exchange and standards for communication protocols. This ch nagement The manufacturing database and its management are major issues in CIM. • Add new data to the database.d together. including schemes for organizing data. including schemes for organizing data. The standards for product data exchange are discussed and communication protocols have been discussed elsewhere. The issues are complex but they are beginning to be addressed in a number of ways. Database management involves: • Organize a database. Joining those islands into an effective CIM enterprise requires proper methods of processing information. standards for product data exchange and standards for communication protocols. 9 . therefore forced to be ab sorbed by user’s program. • Sort the data in some meaningful order. Information. if it is to be useful. • Search the database for types of information. • Delete the data. • Edit the data. 7 Data ba The manufacturing database and its management are major issues in CIM. Most of the indispensable facilities of DBMS of are. There is no time gap between the two processes and there is no duplication of efforts required on the parts of designer and the production personnel. FEATURES OF A DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM A database management system consists of a collection of interrelated data and a set of programs to access that data. including schemes for organizing data. and available when and where it is needed. The standards for product data exchange are discussed and communication protocols have been discussed elsewhere. The issues are complex but they are beginning to be addressed in a number of ways. must be appropriate. As indicated in earlier chapters CIM is typically integration of islands of computer aided functions running on different computers using different databases. standards for product data exchange and standards for communication protocols. His functions include: • Creating the primary database structure • Backing up and restoring data in case of crash • Modifying the structure • Transfer data to external files • Allocate and control user access rights • Monitoring performance COMPARISON OF DATABASE AND TRADITIONAL FILE SYSTEMS File system represents a tight coupling between physical data and user’s program.

In other words besides the logic of the application the user has to provide logic for constructing .

shearing and zooming. Data duplication vi. coded. debugged. isometric. • The mathematical representation reduces creation of views like orthographic. 10 • Thou rotation. Inefficiency ix. The sketches have to be made only in two dimensions. Rigidity iii.the logical view of data. 3D in 1970s) Wireframe Entities s and Bezier curves) . axon ometric or perspective projections into simple viewing transformations. Inability to handle ado requests. Static nature iv. The tight coupling and interdependence of between a user’s application and the physical data would not allow sharing of the same data by other applications that may need to view and manipulate them differently. Use of computer graphics has opened up tremendous possibilities for the designer. Y and Z). Data dependence ii. reflection. Inconsistency vii. GEOMETRIC MODELING Types of Curves and Their Mathematical Representation Types of Surfaces and Their Mathematical Representation Types of Solids and Their Mathematical Representation CAD/CAM Data Exchange TYPES OF CURVES AND THEIR MATHEMATICAL REPRESENTATIONS Wireframe Model ( 2D in 1960s for drafting. This has several limitations. the projections have to be necessarily reduced to two dimensions. PRINCIPLES OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS Traditionally drawings are prepared on plane drawing sheets. Lack of integration v. Difficulty in sharing information viii. i. File systems lack dynamism in the sense that the application programs are designed. Though the depth can be represented by pictorial projections like isometric and perspective projections. has to interpret the operations on the logical view and translate them in to the primitive file operations. Some of them are listed below: Use of computer graphics has opened up tremendous possibilities for the designer. Some of them are listed below: • The object is represented by its geometric model in three dimensions (X. and catalogued ahead of time for the preconceived requests and applications. This then forces the data to be duplicated among various applications. and has to be responsible for maintaining the files that store the physical data. The following list summarizes the problems of file systems that can be overcome by DBMS.

center point. intersection of two entities. a radius and tangent to a line passing through a point. four points. end points of existing entity. two conjugate diameters). parabola (vertex and foc .…. tangent to entity point. or perpendicular to a line. ter and axes lengths.

a point can be expressed with respect to a parameter as Non-parametric representation is the conventional representation as Ex. In parametric representation all variables (i. PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION OF ANALYTIC CURVES The following list shows most of the analytic curve that are used in CAD/CAM system for part design and modeling.lopes).. Non-parametric form of a circle: x^2+y^2=r^2. PARABOLA A parabola in the local coordinate system that is parallel to the global coordinate system with the vertex and the focal distance A from the vertex in a plane is given by An ellipse with a center and major and minor axes of 2A and 2B can be expressed as. Ac ircle for a center and the radius can be written as 22 EL An ellipse with a center and major and minor axes of 2A and 2B can be expressed as. Bezier curves (a set of data points). PARABOLA A parabola in the local coordinate system that is parallel to the global coordinate system with the vertex and the focal distance A from the vertex in a plane is given by An ellipse with a center and major and minor axes of 2A and 2B can be expressed as. This form can be used to find slopes at a certain angle for example. PARABOLA A parabola in the local coordinate system that is parallel to the global coordinate system with the vertex and the focal distance A from the vertex in a plane is given by . Curve Representation: Two types of representation are parametric and non- parametric representation. B-spline curves (interpolate a set of data points with local control possible). es LINE AND CIRCLE A line between two points P1 and P2 can be expressed with respect to a parameter. coordinates) are expressed in terms of common parameters.e. parametric form: 1. For example.

When the parabola is inclined at an angle θ relative to global x-axis. and P2(12. The solutions and the graph are √. p1(5.√. and p3(12. The parabola is inclines at an angle of 30orelative to global x-axis. the equation for the parabola is given by Problem 1: Determine the equation above for given three points. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -5 to 5. Pπ(5.1).10). p2(3. the equations to solve become 24 23 . Pπ is the vertex of the parabola. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from *5 to 5.4). P1(3. This is a set of nonlinear equations. Solution: Applying the six conditions (two for each point).4).1).10).√ Problem 2: Determine the parabola for given three points .

This is a set of nonlinear equations.4). Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -5 to 5.1). the equation for the parabola is given by Problem 1: Determine the equation above for given three points. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from *5 to 5. and p3(12. and P2(12.1).√. p2(3. the equations to solve become 24 . Pπ is the vertex of the parabola. The parabola is inclines at an angle of 30orelative to global x-axis.4). The solutions and the graph are √.10). P1(3.When the parabola is inclined at an angle θ relative to global x-axis. Solution: Applying the six conditions (two for each point).√ Problem 2: Determine the parabola for given three points . p1(5.10). Pπ(5.

u1. and u2 yields the solutions as A = 0. xy) and the distance A and B in a plane z = zy in the figure below can be expressed as x = xy + A coshu y = yy + B sinhu.Solving these equations for A.372. θ = -4. u1 = -4.543.835 A hyperbola with the center (xy. and u2 = 3. - z = zy 25 .372. θ.

is the vertex of the hyperbola.503. and A=1.1). and u2 = -2. θ = 0.464. The graph of the curve is shown as 26 . Solution: Applying the seven conditions (two for each point). the equations to solve become A cosh( ) cos θ – B sinh( sin θ – x1 – xy A cosh( ) sin θ + B sinh( cos θ – y1 – yy A cosh( ) cos θ – B sinh( sin θ – x2 – xy A cosh( ) sin θ + B sinh( cos θ – y2 – yy The solution is B = 0. u1 = 2881. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -2 to 2.881.A hyperbola and its asymptotes Problem 3: Determine the hyperbola for given three points (2.

464. Solution: Applying the seven conditions (two for each point). Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -2 to 2. The graph of the curve is shown as 26 . the equations to solve become A cosh( ) cos θ – B sinh( sin θ – x1 – xy A cosh( ) sin θ + B sinh( cos θ – y1 – yy A cosh( ) cos θ – B sinh( sin θ – x2 – xy A cosh( ) sin θ + B sinh( cos θ – y2 – yy The solution is B = 0. and u2 = -2. u1 = 2881.503. is the vertex of the hyperbola.881.1). θ = 0. and A=1.A hyperbola and its asymptotes Problem 3: Determine the hyperbola for given three points (2.

which includes the process of creating a technical drawing with the use of computer software. The general implicit nonparametric quadratic equation that describes the planar conic curve has five coefficients and naturally needs five conditions to complete it.The most general form of planar quadratic curves is conic curves or conic sections that include the previously covered curves. aptly called CAD/CAM systems. For starters. advantageous tool changes and the management of complex processes. sizeable CAD models.adaptive control. Its use in designing electronic systems is known as electronic design automation. L1 = 0. and running process details through geometric conditions. and share programming data with other shop-floor machines. analysis. create and confirm toolpaths. In contrast. A COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING system uses CAD-generated data to create the code needed to operate a CNC machine. The conic parametric equation can be described if five conditions are specified appropriately. One case is specifying five points on the curve. Computer-aided design is used in many fields. or other manufacturing operations. L2 = 0. L4 = 0 L1L2 = 0. which includes the effective use of tooling and machining operations. on-line search strategies.principles of computer graphics. Product cycle Computer Aided Design. It lets users define part geometry and set machining strategies. These CAD/CAM packages deliver many advantages. CAD/CAM data base development and data base management systems. Process-oriented CAM systems are geared toward the process part of manufacturing engineering. modification. or optimization of a design. machining. improve the quality of design. Basic concepts of CAD . ellipses. geometry-oriented CAM systems lean toward the geometric aspects of manufacturing engineering. In mechanical design it is known as mechanical design automation (MDA) or computer-aided design (CAD). CAM software facilitates the programming of machine tools. L3 = 0.CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print. CAD/CAM Many CAD vendors market fully integrated CAM systems.CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer. L3L4 = 0 L1L2 + a L3L4 = 0 1 UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO CAD/CAM The design process Morphology of design. Moreover. parabolas. they feature a common user interface that allows CAD operators to quickly learn the software. and hyperbolas. improve communications through documentation. or EDA. Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation. The two basic types of CAM system s are process-oriented and geometry-oriented. lines. circles. and to create a database for manufacturing. users can easily transfer CAD . including complex part geometries. Programming and interface hardware – computer aided process monitoring . Benefits of CAD.

data to the CAM system without worrying about translation errors or other difficulties. And finally. which means 2 . some integrated systems provide full associativity.

you can open up possibilities for your business that may not have been there before. Everything you learn about manual drawing technique applies to CAD/CAM drawing development. 3 . An example of this is gaining the ability to take on harder. By adding CAD-CAM software to your CNC toolkit. Computer Aided Design (CAD) has completely changed the drafting business and made the storage and retrieval of projects much easier. manual drawing is still very important and provides the basics of learning to draw. All drawing is done full size. can be put on paper using printers or plotters. Production details can be extracted directly from the drawing. Parts of drawings can be saved and used in other drawings. Eliminates the need for full size set outs. Dimensioning is almost automatic. The screen drawing area can be set to any size with the click of a button work is copied and stored off the computer for security – you may never lose your work again! All of the tools needed are supplied by the program. CAD-CAM can help a shop manage and create toolpath and NC programs for complex machining projects such as mold work. The images are displayed on the PC screen and. However. Absolute accuracy can be maintained. top advantages to adding CAD-CAM software 1. These types of jobs are next to impossible to calculate by hand or even through using machine canned cycles. Drawings are stored on disk rather than in a bulky folder. more complex 3 Axis machining jobs. Increase Programming Potential. A CAD-CAM system completely automates the process. Some of the advantages of CAD over manual drawing are: No need for scaling.that any modification to the CAD model will prompt the associated toolpath to be automatically updated. with the click of a button. Both two and three dimensional drawings can be produced.

The software allows users to design faster. selecting tools. Makes You More Accessible by Clients.2. The rounded more circular cutting motions at higher speeds allo w a constant tool engagement with the material. 3. test and simulate as well as machine faster than ever. Manufacturing can deliver products to market faster and more affordable than ever before. less tool wear and a reduction in machine wear and tear over the long term. High-speed toolpaths allow you to improve the quality of cutting by eliminating the stop and go actions that traditional offset toolpath creates. Modern CAD-CAM functionality includes a CAM Tree Manager that allows you to track the job from beginning to end. CAD-CAM software provides high-speed machine toolpaths that deliver a host of benefits that all equal up to reduced cycle times. stock. Improved Control Over Job Programming. you can receive CAD models from clients faster and easier than ever before. This has a lot to do with technological advancements in CNC machining and in CAD-CAM software. setup the toolpath for machining and perform simulations that provide valuable information for you in the quoting process such as the calculation of cycle times. all of the toolpaths are updated and much more. CAD-CAM provides the automation required to maximize programming efficiency. Getting The Most Out of Your CNC Machine Tool. copying and pasting machining operations. reordering how the job is sequenced. material and tooling as well as access to machining operations that determine how the part will be machined as well as the output of the NC Program. work coordinates. Machining Wizards Remove The Guesswork. managing cutter lead-ins and lead- outs. 5. choosing toolpath styles. Higher control capabilities lead to perfectly finished parts being completed faster. 4 . The CAM Tree has many built in benefits such as saving and loading machining templates. By having a CAD-CAM software product in your shop. manage projects. toolpath associativity so that if a CAD edit is made to the part. 4. choosing compensation settings as well as many other important parameters that have to do with creating machine toolpath. Wizards allow new programmers to be successful faster while still providing advanced programmers with the utilities and confidence to program error free parts regardless of their complexity. You have full control over post processing. Machining wizards remove the guesswork from programming as they step the operator through the process of setting cutting depths. You will be able to open CAD files easily.

Simultaneous 4 and 5 Axis CNC machining can be the most difficult to create NC programs for. 6. High speed machining can improve CNC machine productivity by as much as 50%. Without a CAD-CAM system this level of CNC programming is nearly impossible. 8. the ability to create simulation presentations and much more. In addition. Posting can even be customized by the operator with a little training for a wide variety of 4 and 5 Axis machines. cycle times. SWARF and undercutting type toolpath strategies as well as 3+2 programming. This alone makes adding a CAD-CAM product to the shop a good decision. semi-finishing and then multiple finishing toolpath strategies. Without CAD-CAM. Simulation also provides detailed information about the toolpath. This starts with 4th Axis indexing and rotary machining jobs that require toolpath and special post processing that only a CAM system can offer. Work holding can also be modeled and added to simulation to complete the visual inspection of the part being mach ined as well as everything else involved. programming complex parts is practically impossible as often time there are multiple toolpaths required from advanced roughing. Higher levels of simulation will allow you to use your machines kinematics to simulate machining with the actual machine tool visually. part deviation analysis. CAM systems can also provide full 4 & 5 Axis simulation. catch costly tool gouges and collisions before they reach the CNC machine. Full 5 axis toolpaths include surface-based machining operations that accommodate port milling. 7. Simulation allows you to visually inspect the machining process. CAD-CAM software provides powerful simulation features. which is critical when programming these types of parts to visually inspect the machining process before an r reaches t . Powerful 3 Axis CNC Programming Operations. CAD-CAM software provides the ability create complex 3 Axis machine toolpath quickly and efficiently.deeper cuts and the ability to use more of the cutting tool itself. Multiaxis CAM Technology Makes Complex Machining Simple and Cost Effective. CAD-CAM software provides the solutions to make these types of CNC jobs much easier than ever before. Eliminate Costly Mistakes & Waste. the latest releases of BobCAD-CAM provide Dynamic Machining Strategies™ allowing the programmer to apply multiple roughing and finishing operations to a single CAD feature.