4 Depiction of frequency of appearance of occupations

The second category for identifying gender stereotypes is examination of

occupations/occupational activities in which males and females are portrayed engaged. This

particular section describes the results of the depiction of occupations in which male and

female characters have been illustrated.

6.4.1: Male and female occupations/occupational activities illustrated in English


The data indicate that little representation has been given to female in the illustrated


Table 5.7 Summary of occurrence of occupations/occupational activities illustrated in English

Textbook Occupations with page numbers Freq. %
English 1 Male Vendor (p. 40), shopkeeper (garments) (p. 4 66
40), shopkeeper (toys) (p. 40), Woodcutter
(p. 95)
Female Baby-caring (p.2), teacher (p. 5), teacher 2
(p. 75)
English 2 Male Driver (p. 50), masonry (p.49), Shopkeeper 9 71
(p. 50), teacher (p. 49), teacher (p.77),
farmer (p. 81), Vendor (p.87), woodcutter
(p.115), doctor (p. 124)
Female Cooking (p. 97), teacher (p. 106), cleaning 4 29
(p. 110), Nurse (p. 124)
English 3 Male Cleaner (p. 28), cleaning 103), gardener (p. 10 63
29), Shopkeeper (p. 41) shopkeeper (p. 72),
Librarian (p. 40), boatman (p. 58), Booking-
clerk (p.72), farmer (78), cleaning (78)
Female Washing (p.103), domestic gardening, 6 37
(p.114), cooking (p. 29) cooking (p. 46),
teacher (p. 50)
English 4 Male Shopkeeper (p. 30), fire brigade (p. 32), 6 86
doctor (p. 44), farmer (p. 58), pilot (p.82),
lab-experiments (p. 102)
Female Baby-caring (p. 37) 01 14
English 5 Male Woodcutter (p. 9), Microsoft CEO (p.17), 3 60
coach (hockey) (p. 51)
Female Teacher (cover page), I.T. Engineer (p.17) 2 40
Total Males % Females % female to male ratio
32 74 11 26 1:2.91

The ratio is 2. The other most occurring female occupation is related to activities of domesticity that is. female occupations like representation of characters find little space in English textbooks. Image of a lady teachers teaching mathematics have been illustrated on the cover page of Mathematics 5 while no other occupation has been illustrated on the cover pages of the textbooks.67:3 which is very significant when calculate statistically. that is. cooking and washing etcetera. In this textbook only one image of female taking care of a baby is drawn whereas 6 images of male indicate diverse occupations like doctor. fire brigade. The number of male occupation ‘shopkeeper’ is the maximum which occurs 4 times in English textbooks. Females have been shown either performing domestic chores in the domain of house or portrayed as nurses and lady teachers when illustrated outside the house. The highest disparity in the depiction of occupation is found in English 4 where percentage is 86 and 14 for males and females respectively. Total Males % Females % female to male ratio (type) 16 80 04 20 1:4 The percentage of occupations for females is conspicuously low in all the English textbooks. farmer. pilot and a scientist. Next is the profession of woodcutter which has been drawn three times and that farming appears twice. This is the only occupation where females seem to reign as females’ illustration in teaching occupation is 71 per cent as compared with male teachers. cleaning. Total number of illustrated female occupational activities is only 11 (26%). taking care of baby. There are twenty type occupations out of which 16 (80%) are related to males. 29 per cent. . Whereas there are 40 token occupations out which 25 (62%) are male occupations and 15 (38%) are associated with females. Contrary to it females are only 4 (25%). Ratio of female depiction as female teachers to male teachers is 5:2. In fact. The disparity found in other English textbooks is also very high.

Frequency of occupation which appears in each English textbook has been given in the following table which indicates that line of males are much higher than that of females. 89) Female Teacher (p. Railway 05 62 Guard (p. labourer (p. 04 80 75). 20) Female Cooking (p. hunter (p. 153). 100) 01 17 Total occupations Male 30 81% Male to female ration . 66).The results depict that females have been mostly portrayed in the occupations related to domesticity like cleaning. 102 & 140). 3). cooking 03 38 (p. Female Teacher (p. 61). 128). scientist. has been depicted. porter (p. Total token occupations are 43 in English textbooks out of which 32 (74%) are male. 02 15 Urdu 3 Male Labourer (p. Males have also been drawn in the occupation of fire brigade. porter (p. executive (p. On the other hand the occupations for males drawn in the English textbooks are varied and diverse. Female Teacher (p. sweeping. 154) Female Teacher (p. Railway- driver (p. farmer (p. Farmer (p. 3).2 Representation of male and female characters in primary textbooks of Urdu Summary of occurrences of male and female occupations illustrated in Urdu Textbook Occupations with page numbers Freq % . Shopkeeper (snack-bar) (p. 43) driver (86). 75). soldier (p. 11 85 127). 150). shopkeeper (p. 66). 103). 50). Taxi driver (p. masonry (p. 83). politician (p. King (p. However. 149). They range from vendor to farmer to shopkeeper to software CEO. 150). Urdu 1 Male Doctor (p.3. 5. Shopkeeper 05 83 (p. tailor (p. politician (p. Railway-guard (p. 128). 87) 01 20 Urdu 5 Male Farmer (p. 80) Urdu 4 Male Driver (p. the world’s youngest IT Engineer. 16). The outside occupations for women are teaching and nursing. one hero of Pakistani history Arfa Karim. doctor. policeman (p. rowing.). 150). 128). cooking 05 83 (p. 4). labourer (p. 26) 01 17 Urdu 2 Male Railway ticket checker (p. booking clerk and woodcutter etcetera. She is surrounded by two male tycoons of IT Software. Executive (p. carpenter (p. 25). 3). 79). taking care of children and domestic gardening. 81). 103).

there are seven female token occupations compared with thirty male employments. that is. Urdu 2 and Urdu 5 the ration between male and female employments is five to one which is highly significant.29:1 Total occupations Male 16 81% Male to female ration (type) Female 04 19% 4:1 An examination of Table 5. Male characters have been pegged to 17 type employments whereas female ones have been portrayed in 4 careers only. Each textbook also indicates high quantity of disparity between the pegging on occupations.66:1.66. . So token and type female occupations are in limited range. The ration between portrayal of female and male token employments is 1 to 4. And female occupations are 38 per cent of the total occupations pegged in Urdu 3. three. The gap between the pegging of male and female type employments is statistically very significant.6 reveals that males have been pegged in a wide of working field in the textbooks of Urdu. As regards token occupations. The ratio between female and male occupations is 1:4. In Urdu 4 female occupations are 20 per cent as compared with 80 per cent males. 4 and 5 have only one occupational illustration each. In Urdu 1. The least disparity has been found in Urdu 3 where ratio between male to female characters is 1.25.29 which is almost equal to that of ratio of type occupations. High imbalance and disparity gap is marked in Urdu 2 and Urdu 5 as well where percentage of male occupations is 85 and 83 respectively. Urdu 2 contains two female occupations whereas Urdu of grade 1. In this textbook there is maximum appearance of female occupations. The highest number of female occupations has been pegged in Urdu 3 with frequency 3 (38%) and female to male ratio is 1:1. Female characters seem to be eliminated from the world of Urdu language textbooks which is national language of Pakistan. (token) Female 07 19% 4. The maximum number of male occupations (11) occurs in Urdu 2 and the percentage of male to female occupations is 85 and 15 respectively.

ox & donkey) (p. % General Male Lab-experiment (p. farmers. 10 91 Knowledge 1 butcher (p. blacksmith (p. plumber (p. 80) Female Labour (garments-factory) (p. 38). 40) Female Teacher (p. 01 09 Knowledge 2 Male Driver (car) (p. first aid. 40). 32). pulling 6 25 fodder machine (p. 6. For examples. soldiers. These are highly stereotypical “feminine” occupations. 35). Miner (oil) (p. What can be noted also is the stereotyping of pegging of the occupations. 80) miner (coal) (p. shopkeeper (fruit-stall) (p. Shopkeeper (toys) (p. 35). porter (p. 36). carpenters and masons are males. 50).3. 50). Driver (bus) (p. 45). baker (p.36) shopkeeper (general store) (p. 32). 34). Females are again invisible from the world of Urdu with respect to occupation as is the case in English textbooks.36). judge (p. In addition the pegging of occupations to males relates mostly to use of newer technology in a given field. The careers that relate to service provision of nursing. 50). 36). shopkeeper (cloths) (p. shopkeeper (medical store) (p. Electrician (p.As a whole. All characters depicted as drivers. Leadership positions such as kingship are given to males only. . Baker (p. 27) driver (Rickshaw) (p. 50). 50). Results of male and female occupations illustrated in General Knowledge This section contains results of appearance of occupations associated with female and male characters. counselling and teaching have in most cases been pegged to females. 50). Table 5. Office-employees (p. Urdu textbooks for grade one to five are dominated by male occupations with eighty one per cent compared with nineteen per cent female employment representation. cart- driver (horse. painter (p. 32) water from tap (p. 35). mason (p.8 Summary of male and female occupations illustrated in General Knowledge Textbooks Type of Occupation Freq. carpenter (p. 18 75 34). police-Sargent (p. 30). 50). farmer (p. 32). 29). the depicted male farmers use insecticides and plough unlike the female gardener who uses an ordinary pipe to water flowers and plants in a garden near the home.

driver (p. cooking (p. motor-mechanic (p. 35). 30). doctor (p. 29). Male occupations far surpass the females in General Knowledge with ratio 1:10 of female to male occupations. So it is noticeable that in the three General Knowledge textbooks male occupations are in excess. 30). Social Studies 4 contains 6 occupations out of 2 are female and 4 are male one. 29). 14 82 Knowledge 3 masonry (p.4 Results of male and female occupations illustrated n the textbooks of Social Studies The results given in table 5. Eighty two per cent male and eighteen per cent female occupations have been identified in GK 3.2:1. farmer (p. The imbalance in the depiction of occupations is in favour of males with a ratio of male to female occupations is 4. washing pots (p. Over all percentage of female and male occupations is 33 per cent and 66 per cent respectively. nurse (p. 29). labourer (51). 29). 76). Female are badly ignored in the domain of general knowledge. ratio of male to female occupations is 2:1 in Social Studies 5. 6. 37). labourer (44). labourer (p. 30) driver (37). 46) Female Teacher (p. soldier (p.76).14 indicates females being underrepresented in occupations illustrated in General Knowledge (GK) textbooks. Total token Male % Female % Female to male ratio occupations 42 81 10 19 1:4.8 Summary of male and female occupations illustrated in Social Sciences Textbooks Type of Occupation Freq. 76) General Male Farmer (p. In GK 2 ration of occupations of males (18) to that of females (6) is 4:1. Table 5.3. cobbler (p.9 suggest that double male occupations have been embedded in the general knowledge textbooks of grade one to three.2 Total type Male % Female % Female to male ratio occupations 25 83 05 17 1:5 Data in Table 5. 30). fetching water (from filter) (p. hunting (p. labourer (46). % . 29). washing clothes (p. 32) washing clothes (39). Similarly. Total 42 male (81%) and 10 female (19%) occupations have been identified. 3 18 32).

painting (p. labourer (picking cotton) 02 33 (p. Female Nurturing baby(p. lab-biologist (p.2:1.5 Results of male and female occupations illustrated in General Scien Table 5. 50) Total token Male % Female % Male to female ratio occupations 11 69 05 31 2. 37 & 78). 26) . farmer (p. Female Domesticity (spinning thread. drum beating (p. cleaning 3 75 Science 5 (p. lab-technician (p. 51) Social Male Porter. Tonga-driver (p. With regard to token occupations the ration for male to female is 2. 84) General Male Doctor (p. 05 56 Science 4 vendor (p.48). 51) Female Teacher (p. 72). musician (p. Social Male Doctor (p. fetching water) (p.8 Summary of male and female occupations illustrated in General Sciences Textbooks Type of Occupation Freq. politician (p. 46). drum beater (p. Social Studies of grade 4 contains (4) 67 per cent and grade 5 (7) 73 per cent male while 33 and 27 per cent female occupations in grade 4 (2) and 5 (3) respectively. 4 67 Studies 4 51). 73).3. 1). There are total 9 (75%) type occupations males have been drawn whereas females have been drawn in in 3 (25%) which are one third of male occupations. 25). Labourer (p. % General Male Doctor (p. Token occupations drawn are 11and 5 for males and females respectively. Engrossing. 48). churning 03 27 milk. 46). 6.2:1 Total type Male % Female % occupations 9 75 3 25 3:1 Social study subject is taught in grade 4 and 5 in primary schools in the Punjab after three years’ study of General Knowledge. 46). farmer (all on the 7 73 Studies 5 inside of cover page). 72). 1& 30). 48). domestic chores 04 44 (fetching & drawing water from well (p. 87).

Summary of occurrences of male and female occupations illustrated in Urdu Type of Occupation Freq % .6:1 in type and token occupations respectively. 92). 70) 02 67 Female Teacher (p.6:1 Total type Male % Female % 5 71 2 29 2. In this textbook gap in depiction of gender is not much big. 126) Female Teacher (p. Ratio of appearance of male and female is 2.113) 01 33 .48). big gap in occurrence of male and female occupations have been identified in General Science 5 where ration is 3:1. Total eight token and 5 type male occupations have been recognized in the two science textbooks.37 & 133). Shopkeeper (p. farm owner (p.5:1 and 1. 02 40 Mathematics 3 Male Vendor (p.5:1 The number of occupations shown in the General Science like Social Studies is low but the gap in the occurrence of male and female ones not much different. Female Domestic Chore (Cleaning) (p. 39) 1 25 Total token Male % Female % Ratio 8 62 05 38 1. 3 60 vendor(p.125). However. General Science 5 includes 9 occupations divided into 5 (56%) and 4 (44%) for males and females respectively. Mathematics 1 Male 0 0 0 Female 0 0 0 Mathematics 2 Male Gardener (p.

Mathematics 4 contains a man making experiments in the lab on the cover page whereas Mathematics has an illustration of a lady teacher on the cover page. So the ratio of male female type occupations is 5:1 and 1. Male Freq. Overall male occupations occupy 60 per and female one get 40 per cent representation in five mathematics textbooks. Occupations office clerk 2 Domestic Activities 18 driver 14 hockey coach 1 teacher 15 shopkeeper 13 cobbler 1 nurse 2 Farmer 10 electrician 1 Mothering 2 doctor 8 engrossing 1 labourer 4 labourer 8 fire brigade 1 gardening 1 mason 4 gardener 2 sweeper 1 . Female Occupations Freq. Frequency of male occurrence is 3 and 2 in mathematics for grade 2 and 3 respectively while the female occupation appearance frequency is 2 and 1 in the foresaid mathematics textbooks. 5.4 Over summary of frequency of appearance of male and female occupations (type & token) Male Occupations Freq. So there ten token and six type occupations illustrated in the mathematics textbooks.5:1 for token occupations. 2 and 3. Mathematics 4 Male Lab experiments (cover page) 01 100 Female 0 0 0 Mathematics 5 Male Teacher (cover page) 01 100 Female Teacher (cover page) 01 100 Total occupations (token) Male % Female % Total 06 60 4 40% 10 Total occupations (type) Male % Female % 05 83 1 17 6 In mathematics textbooks visuals have been identified in Mathematics 1. Teaching is the only occupation drawn four times in mathematics textbooks.

porter 4 hunter 1 1 Railway employee 4 judge 1 vendor 5 king 1 lab experiment 5 librarian 1 executive 3 mechanic 1 politician 3 CEO 2 sweeper 3 miner 1 woodcutter 3 musician 1 baker 2 painter 1 carpenter 2 pilot 1 cooking 2 plumber 1 drum beater 2 policeman 2 soldier 2 rower 1 teacher 2 tailor 1 blacksmith 1 technician 1 butcher 1 Total gender type % Male 44 86 Female 7 14 .