DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL

ENGINEERING
BACHELOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

BEC303 / CIVE3807
STRUCTURE, HYDRAULIC AND
TRAFFIC LABORATORY

GROUP REPORT - STRUCTURE
REPORT TITLE
THREE HINGED ARCH

GIVEN DATE

SUBMISSION
DATE
LECTURER’S Haslina Mohamed
NAME
1. Noor Affendi Bin Dikkir 152015122

2. Muhamed Hafiz Bin Ibrahim 151014220

3. Nabil Zaed Bin Shaiful Nizam 153015510
NAME & MATRIC
4. Muhamad Haziq Harahap B Mohd Azili 153015818

5. Hidayat Ahmad Faiz 151914674

Marks

................................................................. 6 2................................................................................................................................................................ 7 3..................................................... 2 1... 9 4........................................................................... 5 2...........................................................1 Discussion .......................3 Purpose of Work...............1 Data Collection and Recording ........................................................................................... Chapter 2 ..................................................................2 Procedure ................................................................... 12 7.4 Objective .. 9 3....................................................2 Theory ................................................................................................2 Conclusion ........................................... 9 4.................. Chapter 5 ............................................................................................................................................................. Chapter 7 ............ 6 2........................................... 9 5........... Chapter 4 .................................................................1 Introduction ........................................... 3 1..................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Apparatus.. 11 6................................................................................................................... 11 5....Table of Contents 1........ 2 1................1 References .............................. Chapter 6 ...............................1 Data Analysis ...................................................................................................................................1 Appendices ............... 12 7.... 12 1 ...... 11 5............................................................................ 5 1.................................... 12 6................................................ Chapter 3 ............ Chapter 1 .

It is observed in the last lesson that. (Kharagpur. 2015) Now the bending moment below the load is 3PL/16 . which in turn reduce the design bending moment. Chapter 1 1. in the case of a simply supported beam shown in Fig. 2015) For example. the bending moment below the load is 3PL/16. the maximum bending moment increases with the square of the span and hence they become uneconomical for long span structures. (Kharagpur.1 Introduction In case of beams supporting uniformly distributed load.Hy. It is clear that the bending moment below the load is reduced in the case of an arch as compared to a simply supported beam. (Kharagpur.1. In such situations arches could be advantageously employed. the cable takes the shape of the loading and this shape is termed as funicular shape. The horizontal reaction is determined by the method of least work. Now consider a two hinged symmetrical arch of the same span and subjected to similar loading as that of simply supported beam. The vertical reaction could be calculated by equations of statics. If an arch were constructed in an inverted funicular shape then it would be subjected to only compression for those loadings for which its shape is inverted funicular. 2015) 2 . as they would develop horizontal reactions. 1.

two-hinged arch and fixed-fixed arch. (Kharagpur. the actual shape of the arch differs from the inverted funicular shape or the loading differs from the one for which the arch is an inverted funicular. In earlier days arches were constructed using stones and bricks. but are weak when tensile stress is applied to them (Reid. a) Cable in Tension b) Arch in Compression FIGURE 1: Cable and Arch Structure Since in practice. since it is a pure compression form. arches are mainly used in bridge construction and doorways. In modern times they are being constructed of reinforced concrete and steel. including stone and unreinforced concrete can resist compression. arches are also subjected to bending moment in addition to compression. Two- hinged arch and fixed-fixed arch are statically indeterminate structures. 2012) 3 . Now. it must be designed to resist buckling. the arch is useful because many building materials. As arches are subjected to compression. (Ambrose. 1984).2 Theory There are mainly three types of arches that are commonly used in practice: three hinged arch. (Kharagpur. Three-hinged arch is statically determinate structure and its reactions / internal forces are evaluated by static equations of equilibrium. 2015) Until the beginning of the 20th century. 2015) 1.

a) Three-hinged arch b) Two-hinged Arch c) Fixed hinged Arch FIGURE 2: Types of Arches In this experiment. Three-hinged arch is used. span of 1000 mm. thickness of arch 8 mm. distance of the load from pin support 125 mm(distance between hanger) x 4 = 500 mm. The indeterminate reactions are determined by the method of least work or by the flexibility matrix method. In this experiment three hinged arch is discussed. and width of arch 40 mm . The apparatus is set up with height of 200 mm. 4 .

After that. % between experimental and theoretical horizontal thrust value. 1. h is height. To compare the value of theoretical and experimental value of horizontal thrust.3 Purpose of Work The purpose is to find the experimental horizontal thrust with increment of load and compare it with theoretical values of horizontal thrust.4 Objective 1. and kL is the distance of the load from the pinned support. To draw and plot graph of horizontal thrust versus load for both experimental and theoretical value. FIGURE 3: Typical Three Hinged Arch To Find the theoretical values. use the formula HA = WkL/(2h). 1. 5 . To find the percentage of error. whereas W is load. a graph is plotted to compare them and to find the margin of error from theoretical and experimental values. 2. To determine the relationship between applied load and the horizontal thrust at the support of a three hinge parabolic arch. 3. 4.

Support Frame 2. Three Hinge Arch assembly 3. A simple support 4. A roller support FIGURE 4: Support Frame and Three Hinge Arch Assembly with a Roller and a Simple Support 5. Set of Weights FIGURE 5: Set of Weights with 5 N each 6 . Chapter 2 2.2.1 Apparatus 1.

The load hanger is placed (where the load is) 500 mm from the distance of the load from the pinned support. 4.2. the tare button is pressed to make it zero. The initial reading on the indicator is noted. The indicator is switched on 10 minutes earlier before taking a reading for the purpose of the stability of the reading. 7 .2 Procedure 1. If the initial value is not zero. The indicator is switched on. Digital indicator is connected to the load cell 2. 3.

Step 7 is repeated for another four load increments. The load on the load hanger is increased the horizontal reaction is recorded.5. The result is then tabulated. The experiment is repeated for another set of readings. 8. This represents the horizontal reaction of the pinned support. 7. The indicator reading is then recorded. 9. 10. 6. 8 . The load is placed on the load hanger.

1 Data Collection and Recording Load (N) Horizontal Thrust (N) Experimental Theoretical 5 5. Chapter 4 4.1 6.25 N (2 π‘₯ 200) (10 𝑁)(125 π‘₯ 4) For Load 10 N.8 31. HA= = 25. π‘Šπ‘˜πΏ HA = 2β„Ž (5 𝑁)(125 π‘₯ 4) For Load 5 N . Chapter 3 3.75 20 21. HA= = 18.3.25 10 10.5 15 15.25 TABLE 1: Tabulated Result from Experiment and Theoretical Value 4. HA= = 31.5 25 25 26.0 N (2 π‘₯ 200) (25 𝑁)(125 π‘₯ 4) For Load 25 N. HA= = 12.75 N (2 π‘₯ 200) (20 𝑁)(125 π‘₯ 4) For Load 20 N.1 Data Analysis Calculation of the Theoretical value of Horizontal Thrust By using the Formula of Horizontal Force.9 18. HA= = 6.5 N (2 π‘₯ 200) (15 𝑁)(125 π‘₯ 4) For Load 15 N.3 12.25 N (2 π‘₯ 200) 9 .

25 Percentage error.5 = 1. Then.25 (values obtain from graph slope) 20βˆ’10 1.0769 (values obtain from graph slope) 25βˆ’12.5βˆ’9.0769βˆ’1.848 % of error 1. % 𝐸π‘₯π‘π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘–π‘šπ‘’π‘›π‘‘π‘Žπ‘™ π‘‰π‘Žπ‘™π‘’π‘’βˆ’π‘‡β„Žπ‘’π‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘’π‘‘π‘–π‘π‘Žπ‘™ π‘‰π‘Žπ‘™π‘’π‘’ =| | x 100% π‘‡β„Žπ‘’π‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘’π‘‘π‘–π‘π‘Žπ‘™ π‘‰π‘Žπ‘™π‘’π‘’ 24βˆ’10 Experimental Value = 22.25 10 . a graph of Horizontal thrust of experimental versus theoretical value is produced. HORIZONTAL THRUST OF EXPERIMENTAL VERSUS THEORETICAL VALUE 35 30 25 HORIZONTAL THRUST 20 Experimental Theoretical 15 Linear (Experimental) 10 Linear (Theoretical) 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 LOAD (N) GRAPH 1: Horizontal thrust of experimental versus theoretical value To calculate the percentage error.5 Theoretical value = = 1. % = | | x 100% = 13.

the higher the load the higher the horizontal thrust at the support. the bending moment is nonzero as it resists rotation of the connected structure. the moment is zero as it does not resists rotation. Furthermore.1 Discussion Based on the result.5. such as the digital indicator cannot detect the remaining load that acted on that arch due to placement of the digital indicator is not correct enough. Therefore. There are many causes of that. the set of weights used may not identical in size even though the weight is the same could contribute some margin error. The probable source of error in this experiment is the human error. Chapter 5 5. Whereas in fixed supports. 11 . the rotation of the connected structure is not prevented.2 Conclusion We can conclude that the relationship between horizontal thrust at the support and the applied load is directly proportional. the person who take reading may read the value wrongly or another group member accidently touch the three hinge arch during reading the value. the digital indicator is not reset to zero may make the reading wrong to a minor scale. Moreover. the experimental value is lower than the theoretical value. At hinge at the crown. The type of arch material may also affect the distribution of load on its body. 5.

Building Structures. (2015).1 Appendices APPENDIX I: Support Frame And Three APPENDIX II: Set of Weights Hinge Arch APPENDIX III: Digital Indicator 12 . Three Hinge Arch.pdf 2) Reid. 7. 32. (1984). J.in/courses/105105109/pdf/m5l32. (2012). Understanding Buildings. Retrieved from Online Course NPTEL: http://nptel. 3) Ambrose. Chapter 7 7. 6. Hoboken. A Multidisciplinary Approach.ac. E. Chapter 6 6.1 References 1) Kharagpur. 12.