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**Lots of countries have developed their own standards in the past. Nowadays, when companies work
**

around the whole world, they have to work with lots of standards. In Europe they are busy to create

European standards which are based on the national standards. In this report seven different

construction standards are compared to each other by using an example case. The standards

compared to each other are: EN 13001, NEN 2018/2019, FEM (Federation Europeenne de la

Manutention), BS 5400, LRFD (Load Resistance Factor Design), Lloyds and the DNV (Det Norske

Veritas). Most of the standards handle cranes, but BS 5400 handles bridges (bridges are mainly

loaded with their own weight, and cranes are mainly loaded with the hoisted load). The LRFD handles

steel structures, but also structures in which overhead cranes are traveling. EN 13001 and BS 5400

have two methods for the proof of competence. For the example case a leg of a container gantry

crane is used. It is loaded with axial loads and a bending moment.

The standards EN13001, NEN 2018/2019 and the FEM have a classification in types of cranes, loads

and frequencies of loads. The other standards haven’t got a classification; only in BS 5400 the type of

live load is classified. The “live HA load” is chosen because there the highest safety factors are

present.

**To compare the standards, the proof of competence is done by using the worst load combination. In
**

most cases this is load combination 1, and in the LRFD it is load combination 2. The proofs are done

as follows:

The minimum wall thickness will be calculated first according to the yield stress. The maximum

applied stress due to the load combination must not be higher than the maximum applicable stress

obtained by the yield stress and the appropriate safety factor. The DNV uses another additional

formula for a minimum wall thickness of primary and secondary elements. The leg is assumed to be a

primary element.

Then it will be checked if the wall thickness is enough for the column to withstand buckling. If not,

then the wall thickness will be increased until it is high enough.

After buckling it will be checked if the column withstands fatigue. For fatigue there are two main

methods: in the EN 13001, NEN 2018/2019, FEM, LRFD the maximum stress range is used, in

combination with a stress spectrum factor. The proof of Lloyds is done in accordance with a national

standard, the NEN 2018/2019 is chosen. BS 5400 and the DNV the fatigue damage is calculated by

using two mean stress cycles. When the stress spectrum factor was obtained, the same mean stress

cycles were used. Fatigue was in most cases not the critical condition (ie the wall thickness was big

enough). Only in EN 13001, limit state method, fatigue was critical.

The last check was the check for local plate buckling. When a large unstiffened plate is compressed at

the edges, the plate is going to buckle. To avoid that, stiffeners must be added. The number of

stiffeners depends on the wall thickness (the thinner the wall, the more stiffeners are needed) and the

type and magnitude of load. In most cases a reference stress σe is calculated, and factored with

factors depending on the type of load and appropriate safety factors to get the maximum applicable

stress. EN 13001 and NEN 2018/2019 refer to DIN 18800. The other standards have their own proof

of plate buckling. For plate buckling every wall thickness could be enough, but to avoid that very

many stiffeners are needed, in most cases the wall thickness is chosen higher. Also may longitudinal

stiffeners assumed to be supporting (provided they are properly installed over the whole length), they

are not taken into account, because the stiffeners must be dimensioned first. The total effective area

is assumed to be the whole cross sectional area of wall plates of the column.

It must be noted that the wall thicknesses obtained in the proofs are not rounded to standard steel

plate thicknesses, because it handles a comparison.

The limit state method of EN 13001 requires the smallest wall thickness and the fewest stiffeners,

where NEN 2018/2019 and the FEM require the highest wall thickness. The DNV requires not a very

large wall thickness, but requires more stiffeners.

10

In most of the cases in the proof of buckling the wall thickness had to be increased. which are taken into account. DIN 18800 uses also its own safety factors. Conclusions Critical conditions In none of the cases fatigue is the critical condition. it also requires a small wall thickness.2 Percentages of maximum wall thickness 11 .1 the values are given for the minimum wall thicknesses and the needed number of stiffeners. First was checked how many stiffeners were needed. In table 10. in which the part field has a lower safety factor of 1. The FEM has its own proof of buckling which is lots easier.7 and the NEN distincts part fields and the total field. The minimum wall thicknesses are the same for almost all cases but the methods differ a little bit.1 the values for the minimum wall thickness are stated. but to reduce the number of needed stiffeners. Wall thickness according to plate buckling In the proof of plate buckling every wall thickness can theoretically be enough. In table 10. The reason why buckling is not a critical condition in the DNV is that the DNV has a minimum wall thickness depending on the type of structure. The number of element groups in the fatigue calculation differs and in load combination 1 the slant rope pulling is not taken into account in the FEM. The NEN and the FEM are almost the same. The proof of plate buckling oft the NEN should be done according to DIN 4114. The number of stiffeners in the wide part lies between 3 and 5. Most of the cases have 4 stiffeners in the wide part and one or two in the side part.2 the percentages are given of the wall thicknesses compared to the maximum wall thickness. limit state method requires the smallest values of the wall thickness and BS 5400 requires the smallest number of stiffeners. The proofs are done as follows: First the minimum wall thickness according to the yield stress is obtained. In the side part there are 1 or 2 stiffeners. Table 10. but this standard has been replaced by DIN 18800. In table 10. it was done.0 mm. The maximum wall thickness is 7. it was increased until it was big enough. the wall thickness is increased in most of the cases. Ultimate limit state.1 Minimum wall thicknesses and required number of stiffeners Table 10. If the wall thickness was not big enough. Stress method and BS 5400. Then the other proofs are carried out one by one. This is because the FEM is developed by crane manufacturers who want such things to be easy. Also the safety factor for plate buckling differs: the FEM uses for all cases 1. when the number of stiffeners could be lowered one by adding a little extra wall thickness.5. EN13001. in the EN 13001 all. In all cases except the DNV buckling is a critical condition. Only the DNV has 5 stiffeners in the wide part and the Serviceability limit state of BS 5400 requires 3 stiffeners.

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