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ISBN 0948617012
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I 1/1' (,111 dition
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I 11 I I-LlJf..NT ISBN O 94861712 8
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I" I N D I1 - A L TH ISBN0948617160

ISBN O 94861700 4
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)111 I /WJI EREALS ISBN 094861721 7 cn
)II~II" / ( R ~'IILK ANDMEAT ISBN 0948617071
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I IINArJ ( ':' EVALUATIONAND UTILlSATION ISBN 0948617/87

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I 1I JlIN(i - RUMINANTS: Principlesand Practice ISBN O 94861709 8

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'lJlllllllvf V iluc for Rurninants
UK Tables of Feed Composition
ISBN 0948617055
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, It ",.., Ruw Materiais for Animal Feed
ISBN 0948617 152 Second
1"'j'"1I1I1I1 r II1(J arrners
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Adr iana Guim
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P: McDONALD A.R. 'HENDERS,0f'J S.J.E. HERON-

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I..'ilry. li ! Senior Si/age Spedalisi'jorihé Scottish Agricultural Coltege. )(: ( Research Microbiologist. j) .. Penicuik.driana (}uim Zootecnista CRMV 777/Z Ji' J:-rr l~'I:~ CHALCOMBE PUBLICATIONS . ICl Bia/ogical Products. Nancy Henderson . i? Bush Estate.. Head of lhe Department of Agricultura! Biochemi. ..: The Biochemistry of Silage Second Edition hy -:. 'I" University of Edinburgh t and (~ ! t. 1. cff. Cleveland.\ c I : ShirIey Heron p. . Bi/lingham. ~ }\ -' Peter McDonald I Formerly Reader in Agricultura/ Biochemistrv. tOÚ Edillburgh School of Agriculture.

McDonald..Ó~~ 1991 SubjecQindex ... . . . .. ~8J .. .. Chapterjé : Water . ' . . .'.. . .. . Marlow Bcttorn.. . : .. . 1'1 IlIr'c1 ln reat Britain by Cambrian Printers Lrd: Aberystwyth -. . ' . .. . ..'. . . . " . . . ... . .. Chapter 2 Crops for silage . r : ' . . . ."-'" 3 \ Plant enzymes . . . ... ' .. \ Lesses during ensílage . . No pan of rhfs publication ma)' be reproduced. .l Highwoods Chapteri7! ~dditi".' .. . . . 184 Ilr v . .. . . . . ..""rI edition 1991 ~uthOí lndex . . .--'" I Chapter!4 : Microorganisms . stored in a I I1 system. ~. ..0 ... 306 P. photocopying. .. . . .'. : . Bucks SL7 3PU' ' . . . . Ü6" L_~__ I und edition published byChalcombei Publieatíons.. ..".. . . ' . . . ... . '.:". ' .1.. . .. . . . . . . . . . . ". ' . Marlow.Copvrigh: owners. . .. . . . . . . .. . . 2. 8 .' .. . . . ' .. .t dltion 1981 Chapter 9 Nutritive value of silages . . ' " . . ..:'. . .. . recording 01' otherwise... 7 Chapter 1 lntroductíon ". .. .48617 22 5 . . . .'. . . . . t". . ' .' . . .... .E. .. .es. . . by any means electronic. . . . .. . AR. . .~ Chaptez r.. .... . or transmitted in any form or . .. . . "--1 l . . . . .. .. ... .' .

reserved. without lhe prior permis- \ '1/1 ({'he .. . . . . Chapter :~.. .... 1152 . ' .'" . . .. . . . .. ..:. Wiley and-Sons ltd. ... . ' . . ._" -~ Chapterê ] Oxygen . Henderson and S. I ) I I Contents Page Preface ' _ _ . J. . . '. .. . .... . .... . .-._" -. . H~. . : ./ 11 IIlln/ll.. . . . 321 I N O 9. . .-. . .. .. ' . '. ." '" .. . 19 ... 1111/ 1/1 r/lIl/lf 'aI. " . ... I r t dition published by J.

1 and Figure lU).for ruminanl animais and in many countries cnsilagc is JlOW lhe major mctbod oflorugc conscrvution. .15). Bioehemical Journal (Figure 3.9). silage has beeome even (: more importam as a winter f'eed . I Ieron October 1l}90 .. McDonald A.J. Longman. The British Grassland Society (Tables 5.1 and 9. . Figure 8. particularly Dr J. Hendcrson S. but have found it more convenient 10 :: discuss lhe microbiology of süage in a single chapter . We .E. and the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (Figures 6.R. London (Figure 2.8).M. P.7) .3. In particular we are grateful to Dr Anne McDonald for her invaluable help and advice in the preparation'nnd editing of lhe rnanuscript. we have atternpted to take into account lhe main findings of these studies. London (Figure 3. 'Preface Sinee the first edition 01 this book was published in 1981. Carnbridge University Press(Table 2.4 andR. In lhe second edition we have followed a similar formal to that of lhe ürst . Wilkinson (Table 1. Acadernic Press. r We are grateful to those who gave perrnission to reproduce copyright data. Springer-Verlag (Figure 3. As a conscqucncc.4).. Oxford University Press (Figure 3. We "'ipuld like toexpress our thanks to the many individuais on whose help we have diàwn. ' are grateful to Dr Mike Wilkinson and Dr Barbara Stark for their helpful suggestions.2 and 6. Blackvell Scientifie Publications (Tables 5.]).28) ~.1). thc levelof research in this field during lhe past 10 years has increased considerably ~' ando in this new edition of lhe Biochernistryof Silage .10). Our thanks are also due to lhe staff of lhe Nutrition Departrnent of lhe Edinburgh School of Agrículture.

:' l) • .\ . This fact coupled with the vagaries of the weather. ~. Table Ll . and often. .f ~ optirnum stage of growth for use during those .U 58. if .practice·for mariy centuries. and in many other regions of lhe world. )~.7 7.6 9.-=----=--=---=-=-----.'-.seasons when the crop is unavailabíe.. 76.: -realisaton that this process was less deperdent on both the weather and lhe need to harvest crops at an advanced stage of growth.hay .1 IJ4. Taday. 1975 19!!5 Silage Hay Tolal .3 . l' .. ln Western Europe . either ~I$ grain or as a green crop.Weslern Europe.1).. Haymaking has long been lhe traditional technique of preserving forage. the quantity 'of forage preserved as silage now exceeds that preserved as hay!:' (Table 1.2 4. but •.9 45. Chapter 1 lntroduction ~ ~:. Early interest by farmers "'.growing season.matter (DM) content was reached meant that lhe crop was of low digestibility '.l .9 70. although haymaking methods have been improved considerably by lhe' r e: introduction of .Ç.:.:new drying techniques.6 51U 102.8 116.in. g r.r. . --- .4 IIIU . ln countries such as lhe United Kingdom. which r G frequentíy resulted in high lesses during lhe drying processo led to a product of variable composition.3 11. . r~' !' \! -r ..3 1.i the need to delay harvesting until a mature stage of growth of relatively high dry '1 -~. i) ~~~~--~~~-------.of low nutritional value. has been common .. Siluge Hay. HISTOR'ICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SILAGE .9 7.' • 11 ~lL Silage is lhe material produced by lhe controlled Iermentation of a crop of high moisture contento Ensilage is the narne giyen to lhe process and the container.7 5. ~t The main objective in the conservation of any crop is to preserve it at lhe ~1 "·. The storage of material in silos. conserved forage has forrnany-centuries played a major role in helpiog to rneet lhe nutritional needs of ruminants for survival during lhe winter period. . Total European Cornmunity 12 44.O 7.!! 7..i. ç before it was dried.1 Tplal 47.5 3. ·Austria + Switzerland 1.9 Scandinavia l. ' i. 71.~. 1975 and 1?85 (million tonnes UM)I .. is called lhe silo. (. in conserving crops by natural fermentation as silage stemmed frorn lhe Y 1. where there is a restricted s: ..i' . . Estimaled production of sila~e and .~ used. many farmers find these to be toa specialised and time-consuming and prefer to preserve their crops instead as silage.

." The sweet ensilage procex-.' silo~ wcre Iound in the ruil1~ of Carthauc. lcil

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t'S \'LT~ 'cnsilcd in Northern Gcrrrum v at lhe hccinning 01' the ninctecnth \VilS thercforc delaycd until thc herbagc rc achcd !h.Ilpl'II·lyre ~il".í.curs ." . . who pubHs:hed .ings in the l\leditt:rranean rczion it secrns tllat air-tizht rapid lillinl! fo"ll<lwctl hy seuling of lhe mass 11)'Il. . \'here OX

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!!éll is' ill Illld In lhal an1azing grass. dliciency witlt \'hich anaerobi(1~is ciln he ebl..IlCriill dCl'iI~'s 10 a usekss. ~"all lilkL' I'liI<:L'as illuepelldel1l uf the \'L·all1er. our native Indian cofll. upplicd cqu ully to sealing. dcpcnded upon lhe dcvc lopn rc nt i" 11<11)'. I procedure publisht:d in lhe Wumelllhcrg \V()('h(.~ Ahoul a yeilr laIa. corn in trenches. II (jric~\'i\ld recolllmenueu lhat the pilS lIseu sh@l!1t~eli." .ló the~íI().iss'lr.I Frcnch farmer \'ho. 111the l:rK. the conlents sholllt. 10). hut il wns rculised that the procedur es o~ullined hy Goffart. III11ILT~~~ar.il

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I... in IHK5.~ This was lr<lnslated int(l French and in lhe )oltrlwl d'Awicl/llllre Prmiquc in IR7().. hut within thc n e xt few )'eaiS intcrest ill·Li<·.'ft1ur farms are capabl.Til tu re .jJ.:tIdramut ical lv. -..'.l!!c i.::11hil'.li!· io :tllo\' uir to pc nct rnt c lhe provinccs sincc lhe be ginning 01' thc cighrccnth centurv: while bect rops and mass und it \VilS usual to cut thc crup lute anil to witt bclorc lillillg the silo. Sé.rnd freljul'lIlly lnxic produ. bll.\ iI ril or hole sunk in the scuxon of lhe ye. Sll!!)!r:. Il1cilllin!. resul. 13. .1>0.()()(l ionncs xi. : our bcc v l·s can bc kcpt gro\'ing lhe year roun d .. Fr(llJ' ilncient.Wicomtc ue' Chczellcs.Wke it airtight .:' Pliny.u ropc. in Cappndocia und Thrace. Unfor tun arely the principies outlined by Golf art conxcrvution. silagc crop. Th~ IJwil1 aim (lf se<t1illf is .'t'f'~~.: Euripidcv.i"L'd Irorn lhe Grcck siros. Thcophrastus.C.IIlU therí covercd it with dung. rece ive d iI sct-buck in this country o n the publicauon. or \'hieh \ViII I:lwhk us to kecp rapidly rrnl\l

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cd by n:spirillor~ Cll/y/lle'S in the plilllt..tti. where Jehoiada is rcprcscntcd as g.ll1d qllllLlrlll'ling their pl<ldllctions: the bcst ilnd s\retesl plbuttcr can he maue in thc Ihl:' 1lI.lled with fresh grilsS as .111 I tló2.:'iSILA(.'!.WRilt'illll'leehniljlle in man y loss<:s arising lrum oxid.: af conlact with hernage for an!. Rcihleu oí Stllttgarl puhlished ali acC'ount 01' his cnsiling nf silagelllaking are followed. .1us.'/. nn which should he rlaced a 1:lyer . This inxtrumcn: wus abo uscd as a urdem stlpro. Toua)' it is generally acccpted coupled wíth' lhe hig. Slllith 01' Verll1(1nt sUlllmarised the feeling of nUlII

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filrm~r~ thus:' Tlle 1II. OI1l: or lhe mo~H illlpn11'L'r )!()ous' wcrc ' sccrctcd in thcm. and it was not unt il IX:L Hcsychius and Stlitlils~" The Grcck word siromastcs rderr~d 10 .. ad

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ílncc 01' silagc lI1aking in Ihis cuuntry. til wht11ll cnnsoliualipll .~c WIlI'I(f of I. and for a Icss pricc. Naturu! Historv. of lhe soil. which includcd lhe filling of thc 'Iargcst siln in '.\meric<ill farmcr. (1\. collcentlates.ilage.'t. wiih ensilinu as a means (Ir Sll Ihal hv the veur IXK(l thcre cxis tc d 1. meutions lhe prcservation of lhe bcst price in lhe i'l'.1': a li"clier der! 01' gratilude ll1ilO 1(1any lother living mall. 111a nd I S\lun as l. 111111<.-. for probing the silosro. Ai lhe rifth Ensilage Cpngr\!ss helu ín Ncl

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