Karim Khan Zand

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Mohammad Karim Khan Zand (Persian: ‫ﮐﺮﯾﻢ ﺧﺎن زﻧﺪ‬,
translit. Mohammad Karīm Khān-e Zand), better known as Karim Khan Zand
Karim Khan Zand (‫)ﮐﺮﯾﻢ ﺧﺎن زﻧﺪ‬, was the founder of the ‫ﮐﺮﯾﻢ ﺧﺎن زﻧﺪ‬
Zand Dynasty, ruling from 1751 to 1779. He ruled all of Iran Vakil-e Ra'aya
except for Khorasan.[1] He also ruled over some Caucasian (Deputy of the People)
lands and occupied Basra for some years.

While Karim was ruler, Iran recovered from the devastation
of 40 years of war, providing the war ravaged country with a
renewed sense of tranquility, security, peace, and prosperity.
The years from 1765 to Karim Khan's death in 1779 marked
the zenith of Zand rule.[2] During his reign, relations with
Britain were restored, and he allowed the East India
Company to have a trading post in southern Iran. He made
Shiraz his capital and ordered the construction of several
architectural projects there.

Following Karim Khan's death, civil war broke out once
more, and none of his descendants were able to rule the
country as effectively as he had. The last of these
descendants, Lotf Ali Khan, was killed by Qajar ruler Agha
Mohammad Khan, who became the sole ruler of Iran.

Contents Contemporary portrait of Karim Khan Zand.

1 Background and early life Vakil-e Ra'aya of Iran
2 Rise to power
2.1 Return to western Iran
2.2 War with Ali Mardan Khan Bakhtiari over
supremacy in western Iran Reign 1751 – 1 March 1779
3 Reign Successor Mohammad Ali Khan
3.1 War with the Ottoman Empire (1774–
1779) Born c. 1705
4 Succession Pari, Malayer, Iran
5 Relations with Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar
6 Characteristics and legacy Died 1 March 1779
7 Government, policies, and society Shiraz, Fars, Iran
7.1 The bureaucracy Burial Pars Museum, Shiraz
7.2 Relations with the tribal clans of Iran
7.3 Provincial administration Consorts Khadijeh Begum
7.4 Military Shakh-e Nabat
7.5 Construction Issue Mohammad Rahim
7.6 Religious policies Abol-Fath Khan
8 In art
9 References Mohammad Ali Khan
10 Sources Ebrahim Khan
Saleh Khan
Dynasty Zand dynasty
Background and early life Father Inaq Khan Zand

and watched from concealment. but were shortly suffered a loss and were forced to withdraw from the strategic town of Golpayegan. who accepted his offer of terms. He then baited Mehdi Khan Zand and his forces out of their stronghold at Pari. and combined their forces with the latter. assuming the name of "Nader Shah". whom he forced to mass-migrate in larger numbers into Khorasan. served as a cavalryman. while the Russians had conquered many cities in northern Iran. who was at this time in his thirties. Conscience-smitten.[5] In 1732. He first defeated the Bakhtiari and Feyli Lurs. she fell on her knees. praying that he might live to own a hundred such saddles. [3][4] a branch of Lurs [3][4] who may Religion Twelver Shia Islam have been originally Kurdish. Next day he heard that the saddler had been held responsible for the loss. whom he considered bandits. calling down blessings on the unknown thief who had a change of heart.[1] Karim Beg was born in ca. and clashed with the Bakhtiari chieftain Ali Mardan Khan Bakhtiari. Nader deposed the Safavid ruler Abbas III (r. Nader Qoli Beg. where its able members.Karim Beg belonged to the Zand tribe. but were also found roaming in the central Zagros ranges and the countryside of Hamadan. Karim Khan allied with the military leader Zakariya Khan. then part of the Safavid Empire. Furthermore. In the spring of 1750. which gave the Zands under Karim Khan the opportunity to return to their former lands in western Iran. the Ottoman Empire took advantage of Iran’s decadence to conquer a large number of western frontier districts. and did not enjoy a high status in the army. he once stole a gold-embossed saddle belonging to an Afghan officer from outside a saddler's shop. He was the eldest son of a certain Inaq Khan Zand. and two half-brothers named Zaki Khan and Eskandar Khan Zand. but was defeated at Murcheh Khvort. killing the latter and 400 of his Zand kinsmen. including the Zands. which made the number of their men strengthen to 20. The saddler's wife was the first to discover. in summary. The surviving members of the tribe were forced to mass-migrate under the leadership of Inaq Khan Zand and his younger brother Budaq Khan Zand to Abivard and Dargaz. Perry. a small and little. who had restored Safavid rule in Iran and had become the de facto ruler of the country. which included Karim Khan and Zakariya Khan. 1732–1736) and ascended the throne. and was to be executed. he was also deprived of money. and had 3 sisters. He then started to dispatch messengers at Golpayegan to his regional opponents. In 1748/49. Ali Mardan attempted to capture the former Safavid capital of Isfahan. There they faced bold opposition from the local clans. 1705 in the village of Pari. whom they initially defeated. a town near the city. as a poor cavalryman in Nader's employ. Karim Beg. which made him commit theft—told by John R. [3][4] The Zands were concentrated on the villages of Pari and Kamazan in the Malayer district. thus starting the Afsharid dynasty. the Safavid Empire was on the verge of collapsing —Isfahan and most of central and east Iran had been seized by the Afghan Hotak dynasty.000. where it had been left for repair. Karim surreptitiously replaced the saddle at the shop door. as follows: "He used later to tell how. a brother named Mohammad Sadeq Khan.[5] In 1736. which Ali Mardan seized. Around the same time. In 1722.[6] . Mother Bay Agha known tribe of Laks. who under the chief Mehdi Khan Zand harassed their forces and stopped them from advancing further into Iran. he made an expedition into the Zagros ranges of western Iran in order to subdue the tribes. including Karim Beg were incorporated into Nader's army."[5] Rise to power Return to western Iran Nader Shah was later murdered in 1747 at the hands of his own men.

when Karim Khan returned to Isfahan in January 1751 and restored order in the city. The forces of Karim Khan shortly attacked their encampment. together with Ali Mardan and Karim Khan. who had been announced as Sultan Husayn II. but Tahmasp II's son. together with the governor of Luristan. An illustration of Isfahan from the south. deserted Ali Mardan and joined Karim Khan. Abu Turab was declared shah. and was given the task of conquering the rest of Iran. where he went to the Ottoman city of Baghdad.[8] War with Ali Mardan Khan Bak htiari over supremacy in western Iran The situation worsened further for Ali Mardan. Ali Mardan together with a former Afsharid diplomat and a son of the former Safavid shah Tahmasp II (r. marched to Kermanshah. However. by having Abu'l-Fath deposed and killed. Ali Mardan left for Isfahan. which resulted in a battle with Karim Khan near Nahavand. formed an alliance in western Iran under the cover of restoring the Safavid dynasty. but was ambushed at the dangerous passage of Kutal-e Dokhtar by regional guerrillas under Muzari Ali Khishti. which forced the latter to withdraw to a more difficult passage to reach Isfahan. By winter. who was the chieftain of the neighbouring Khisht village.[8] There Ali Mardan made an alliance with Landscape of western Iran. as a puppet ruler—on June 29. who reinforced him with soldiers. A battle shortly occurred between them in Luristan—during the battle. Ali Mardan then went further into domains of the Zands.[8] After having plundered Kazerun. Ismail III and Zakariya Khan (who was now his vizier). Some months later. and Karim Khan was appointed commander (sardar) of the army.[6] Abu'l-Fath. which New Julfa suffered the most from. began revealing himself as an unfit candidate as Safavid shah—this hindered their march. and forced to withdraw into the mountains.[10] . who eventually emerged victorious. in early 1753. they stormed the gates of Isfahan—its governor Abu'l-Fath Khan Bakhtiari and other prominent residents assembled to protect the fortress of the city. but were repelled. Ali Mardan began breaking the terms which they had promised the inhabitants of Isfahan—he greatly increased his shakedown on the city. He then further broke the terms he had made with the two chieftains. to retreat to Khuzestan. appointing a 17 year old Safavid prince. but agreed to surrender and collaborate with them after Ali Mardan's reasonable proposals. the forces of Ali Mardan had decreased even more due to abandonment from some of his men. while Abu'l-Fath maintained his post as governor of Isfahan. Ali Mardan. marched towards Shiraz and began pillaging the province of Fars. they marched into the domains of Karim Khan. and assumed the dynastic name of Ismail III.[6] Ali Mardan then took the title of Vakil-e daulat ("deputy of the state")[7] as the head of the administration. Shaykh Sa'd. together with several prominent officers. He then appointed his uncle as the new governor of the city. Ali Mardan. and received the support of the Pashtun military leader Azad Khan Afghan. however. forcing Ali Mardan and the remains of his men. together with Ismail Khan Feyli.On May 1750. the governor of Khuzestan. and resulted in the desertion of many of their men. 1729–1732) had returned to Iran and began assembling an army in Luristan.[9] A year later. was once again defeated. In the late spring of 1752. a few months later. Abu Turab. and without conference. while Karim Khan was on an expedition in Kurdistan. Ismail Khan Feyli. They managed to seize the plunder of Ali Mardan and kill 300 of his men.

[11] Reign Some time later. surrendered and were spared by Karim Khan. Karim Khan did not adopt the title of Shah for himself. when the East India Company dropped the city for Basra. gave Karim Khan the casus belli to declare war against the Ottomans.[1] He was buried three days later in the "Nazar Garden". besieged Basra in April 1775.[1] While Karim was ruler. Court of Karim Khan preferring the title. the grandson of Nader Shah. This made Omar Pasha dismiss the Baban ruler Muhammad Pasha. was not under Zand control. relations with Britain were restored. which had surpassed the competing city of Bushehr in Fars in 1769. providing the war ravaged country with a renewed sense of tranquility. after two years of besiegement by the Zand forces. Karim Khan later died on 1 March 1779. due to being more heavy weight than of use to him. whilst Sadeq Khan. He made Shiraz his capital and ordered the construction of several architectural projects there. The last of these descendants. where the holy Imam Reza shrine was situated. security. where they kept them at bay. which thus meant that free entry to the sanctuaries of Iraq was of more significance to Karim Khan than it had been to the Safavid and Afsharid shahs.[14] The Zand forces under Ali-Morad Khan Zand and Nazar Ali Khan Zand shortly clashed with the Pasha's forces in Kurdistan. Lotf Ali Khan. Omar Pasha began meddling in the affairs of his vassal principality of Baban. Karim Khan killed Ali Mardan Khan and gained control over all of Iran except Khorasan. and none of his descendants were able to rule the country as effectively as he had. Following Karim Khan's death. Ali Mardan Khan and another Bakhtiari chieftain named Abulfath Khan Bakhtiari reached an agreement to divide the country among themselves and give the throne to the Safavid prince Ismail III. civil war broke out once more. and Omar Pasha's seizure of the remnants of Iranian pilgrims who had died during the plague that ravaged Iraq in 1773—and his exaction of payment from Iranian pilgrims to visit the holy Shia places of Najaf and Karbala. Nevertheless.000. who became the sole ruler of Iran. and sought to restore their reputation after Zaki Khans humiliating blunders on the Hormuz Island.[2] During his reign. the cooperation ended after Ali Mardan Khan invaded Isfahan and killed Abulfath Khan. Karim Khan. having been ill for six months. defeating the latter and capturing Mustafa Khan.Ali Mardan's men in Kirmanshah. which was allied with the governor of Basra.[1] He was buried three days later in the "Nazar Garden". War with the Ottoman Empir e (1774–1779) In 1774. Most importantly. The years from 1765 to Karim Khan's death in 1779 marked the zenith of Zand rule. Basra was a prominent trading port. This. most likely due to tuberculosis. most likely due to tuberculosis. The Arab tribe al-Muntafiq. Vakil e-Ra'aayaa (Representative of the People). Khosrow Khan Bozorg. Subsequently. which since the death of his predecessor Sulayman Abu Layla Pasha in 1762.[12][13] There were also other reasons for Karim Khan to declare war—Mashhad. had fallen more and more under the influence of the Zand governor of Ardalan. and he allowed the East India Company to have a trading post in southern Iran. peace. who shortly clashed with Ali Mardan once again. which was ruled by Shahrukh. the Mamluk governor of the Ottoman province of Iraq. Persia recovered from the devastation of 40 years of war. Ali Mardan managed to flee with Sultan Husayn II.[14] The Zand army was discontent. and prosperity. now known as the Pars Museum. was killed by Qajar ruler Agha Mohammad Khan. but not after long had him blinded and sent to Iraq. quickly withdrew without any . Karim Khan later died on 1 March 1779. having been ill for six months. However. now known as the Pars Museum. and appoint Abdolla Pasha as its new ruler. with an army of 30.

who made him convince his kinsmen to lay down their arms. where their paternal aunt Khadijeh Begum. and while the Zagros front was temporarily peaceful. in an alliance with Ali-Morad Khan Zand. made Suleiman Agha surrender on 16 April 1776.[17] Relations with Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar During his stay Agha Mohammad Khan was treated kindly and honorably by Karim Khan. which was repelled by the Khaza'il. most likely due to tuberculosis. Abol-Fath Khan Zand. along with other notables. lived. while Shaykh Ali Khan and Nazar Ali Khan. where they were treated honorably. who was the commander of the fort of Basra. the invasion never took place due to Karim Khan's death on 1 March 1779. which they did.effort to reject Sadeq Khan from passing through the Shatt al-Arab. Henry Moore. tried to block the Shatt al-Arab.[19] . In the spring of 1776. assaulted some of Sadeq Khan's stockpile boats. supported Karim Khan's elder son. His remaining brothers were sent to Qazvin. resisted Sadeq Khan's forces with resolve. who belonged to the East India company. Vehbi Efendi. before the announcement of the siege of Basra had approached Istanbul. whilst the rumours of a possible uprising.[18][19] Agha Mohammad Khan's half-brothers Morteza Qoli Khan and Mostafa Qoli Khan were granted permission to live in Astarabad. 1774–1789)."[15] Karim Khan Zand with the Ottoman envoy Vehbi Efendi. Succession Following Karim Khan's death. Karim Khan had made a compromise with the Russians for a cooperative offensive into eastern Anatolia. However.[14] Suleiman Agha. and then departed to Bombay. the Ottoman ambassador. the narrow encirclement by Sadeq Khan had resulted in the defenders being on the fringe of famine—a considerable portion of the Basra forces had deserted Suleiman Agha. Zaki Khan baited Shaykh Ali Khan and Nazar Ali Khan out of the fortress of Shiraz. He reached Shiraz around the same time Sadeq Khan besieged Basra. in order to avoid further losses. and slaughtered them. civil war broke out—Zaki Khan.[1] He was buried three days later in the "Nazar Garden". a Shia Arab tribe which was allied with the Zand forces. In 1778. due to their mother being the sister of the governor of the city. the Ottoman response to the Ottoman–Iranian war was unusually slow. In February 1775. 1757–1774) had died and was succeeded by his incompetent brother Abdul Hamid I (r. who was part of Karim Khan's harem. which considerably lifted the morale of its forces. Agha Mohammad Khan and Hosayn Qoli Khan were sent to the Zand capital. A few months later. Shiraz. a group of ships from Oman gave supplies and military aid to Basra.[16] after having been ill for six months. in October. which would last over a year. "but was not empowered to negotiate over this new crisis. However. However. which made the latter establish an encirclement.[15] Even though the able Ottoman Sultan Mustafa III (r. was sent to Shiraz. now known as the Pars Museum. Karim Khan then settled them in Damghan.[14] Reinforcements from Baghdad arrived shortly afterwards. whilst the Banu Ka'b and the Arabs of Bushehr supplied him with boats and supplies. In 1763. shortly afterwards. declared Karim Khan's incapable and youngest son Mohammad Ali Khan Zand as the new Zand ruler. their combined attack the next day occurred to be wavering—the Omani ships eventually chose to withdraw back to Muscat during winter. and the recent Ottoman defeat to the Russians.

[22] Bust of Karim Khan Zand in Shiraz. "captivity". Although his integrity is considerably enlarged due to the cruelty and authoritarianism of Nader Shah and Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar. 1777 near Findarisk by some Turks from the Yamut tribe with whom he had clashed. killed ca. He was not embarrassed of his modest descent. however. even in present-day Iran he is remembered by his probably 19th century. he immediately began a fierce conflict with the Develu and other tribes to avenge his father's death. oil on canvas. which a . where Agha Mohammad Khan's brothers who were at Qazvin were also Mohammad Khan spent most of his time during his sent to Shiraz during this period. compatriots as a respectable man who rose to become a ruler and continued his virtuous behaviour. referring to an intelligent counselor of the Picture of the Arg of Karim Khan.[21] Karim Khan had modest preferences in clothes and furniture. Karim Khan appointed Hosayn Qoli Khan as the governor of Damghan. modesty and fairness more than other Iranian rulers—he surpasses Khosrow I Anushirvan and Shah Abbas I the Great in terms of being a benevolent monarch with a sincere interest in his subjects. affords the historian of Persia that kind of mixed pleasure and repose. while Agha Mohammad Khan was hunting. having the tall yellow cashmere Zand turban on the top of his head.[21] During his reign. as contrasted with those who preceded and followed him. his unusual mixture of vitality and ambition with rationality and goodwill created. He had presents of jewels crushed into pieces and sold to keep the state treasury stable. a wastefulness which even astonished his kinsmen. for a short extent of time in a notably fierce and anarchic century.[18][1][20] Characteristics and legacy Karim Khan is often praised for his generosity. a balanced and virtuous state. He was. "The happy reign of this excellent prince. the royal legendary Iranian king Afrasiab. He called Agha Mohammad Khan his "Piran-e Viseh". sometimes attributed to Mohammad Sadeq.[21] A wealth of tales and anecdotes portray Karim Khan as a compassionate ruler. and never desired to attempt to pursue a more distinguished lineage than that of the leader of a formerly little-known tribe that roamed in the Zagros ranges of western Iran. whereas these and other monarchs outperform him in terms of military fame and global reputation.[20] On 1 March 1779. Indeed. Karim Khan achieved in reviving an unexpected rate of considerable good fortune and harmony to a country that had suffered from impair and turmoil by his predecessors. In the words of John Malcolm.[1] He washed himself and changed clothes once a month. whilst sitting on an inexpensive carpet rather than a throne.Agha Mohammad was looked upon more as a respected guest in Karim Khan's court than a captive. Karim Khan Zand amidst his close circle.[19] In February 1769.[18] Two of Agha residence of the Zand dynasty. Karim Khan also acknowledged Agha Mohammad Khan's political knowledge and asked his advice on interests of the state. Furthermore. he was informed by Khadijeh Begum that Karim Khan had died after six months of illness. genuinely concerned with the welfare of his subjects. When Hosayn Qoli Khan reached Damghan.

"[23] Government. however.. he also had a new city wall. and had many new buildings erected. etc. Lak and Kurd (Feyli. Governorship of provinces went for the most part to tribal chieftains from Fars and its surroundings—a minister who was experienced in the administration and the income of tax regularly escorted the governor.[24] Karim Khan also created two new posts regarding the tribes: He appointed an ilkhani Flag of Iran during the reign of Karim as the leader of all the Lur tribes and an ilbegi as the leader of all the Khan. was as singular as his humanity and justice. but ultimately the majority of the segments changed their allegiance to the Qajar ruler Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar.traveler enjoys on arriving in a beautiful and fertile valley during an arduous journey over barren and rugged wastes. the Zand army disintegrated into several segments. and a bazaar built. either during Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar's . a caravanserai. A city was under the rule of a kalantar and darugha. Kalhor. of Karim Khan's standing army of Fars during the period 1765-1775 personnel Lur. No. however. due slightly to the ruler’s own desires and slightly to the earlier clutters and subsequent bureaucratic collapse that had occurred. have. Zanganeh. had minimal influence and authority. obtained power without crime. which joined the several the Zand princes that fought for the throne. for the times in which he lived. Qashqai tribes that roamed Fars.[24] Military During the dynastic wars and the conflict with the Qajars that took place after the death of Karim Khan. and several gardens and mosques Furthermore. He was backed by a vizier and a chief revenue officer (mustaufī). beglerbegis were appointed to govern provinces. from Persian Iraq (Persian tofangchi infantry) 12 000 Fars (including Khuzestan and Dashtestan: Persian tofangchi infantry. and society The bureaucracy The bureaucracy remained small during the reign of Karim Khan.[25] Relations with the tribal clans of Iran Provincial administration During Karim Khan's reign. policies.e. such as his famous castle. though born of an inferior rank. due to Karim Khan's practice of rigidly handling the political affairs by himself. while its quarters was under the rule of the kadkhuda. Arab and Iranian 6 000 cavalry) Total 45 000 Construction Karim Khan rebuilt much of Shiraz. provincial administration followed the same model of the Safavid one. several baths. Zand. Many of these.[24] who. cavalry) 24 000 Bakhtiari (cavalry and tofangchi infantry) 3 000 Iraqi. It is pleasing to recount the actions of a chief who. and who exercised it with a moderation that. i. been destroyed.

Karim Khan did not seek the approval of the ulama. Perry 1991. p. Perry 2012. 462-466. 7. Gavin Hambly. 66. and even foreign traders from Europe and India. entitled L'assedio di Sciraz (The siege of Shiraz) was first performed at La Scala theatre in Milan during Carnival 1840.. which eventually resulted in the city having a larger population (ca. 9. Perry 1991. 19. 20. 64. . The work. 22. p. 12. The History of Persia. Garthwaite 2005.[1] Karim Khan had the burial places of the prominent Muzaffarid ruler Shah Shoja (r. which drew the attention of many poets. Perry 1991. Perry 1991. 18. 93. or during the 20th-century metropolitan restructuring. 14. 21.[26] In art Karim Khan is the main character of a melodrama composed by the Italian musician Nicolò Gabrielli di Quercita. 103. 1829) 24. (John Malcolm. Many of the pastoral Lur and Lak families were given homes in Shiraz. 311. 6. p. pp. Perry 2010. Fisher et al. p.capture of the city in 1792. 16. 3. p. 98. p. Perry 1991. who may originally have been immigrants of Kurdish origin. 90-91.google. 4.ISBN 978-0- 521-20095-0.000) than Isfahan. 13. Perry 2011. Perry 1991. 23. 68. 2. 10. 40. pp. 97. p.the bulk of the evidence points to their being one of the northern Lur or Lak tribes. p. and the celebrated Persian poets Hafez and Saadi renovated. p. Perry 1991. 69.). p. p. Perry 2011. p. Bakhash 1983. who were warmly Early 18th-century illustration of the Tomb of received. pp. p. p. 112-113. 26. 561-564. Shaw 1991. p. Hambly 1991. 96.com/books?id=H20Xt157iYUC&pg=P A64) 5. pp. Cambridge University Press. Perry 1984. 102. who were "formerly the bulwarks of the shah's authority as viceroy of God and the Imams". William Bayne Fisher. 184. p. Perry 1991. Religious policies Unlike the Safavids. Perry 1991. 1991. 1991. 602–605.The Cambridge History of Iran: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. 15.000-50. 92. Perry 1991. p. pp. Perry 1991. (https://books. p. Charles Melville (ed. 17. 18. craftsmens.. 91.[1] Hafez. 112.. 25. 67. Hambly 1991. 1358–1384). References 1. 11. Perry 1991. . Peter Avery. 561–564. pp. 72. 8. Perry 1991.

6. ISBN 0521200954. Hambly. The history of Persia. (1991). Fasc.wikipedia. ISBN 978-1- 4021-5134-7. "Zand dynasty". ISBN 9780521200950. pp. John. "Agha Muhammad Khan and the establishment of the Qajar dynasty". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Hambly. Shaw. ISBN 978-0-226-66098-1 and One World Publications. usages. and Qajar periods ". 5. The Cambridge History of Iran.org/w/index. I. P. (1983). 1–311. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fasc. Vol. 2006 ISBN 978-1-85168-435-9. XV. pp. R. Encyclopaedia Iranica. G. R. Vol.php?title=Karim_Khan_Zand&oldid=786445704" Categories: Zand monarchs People from Malayer 1705 births 1779 deaths Lur people 18th-century Iranian people 18th-century deaths from tuberculosis This page was last edited on 19 June 2017. 7: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. vol. (2010). S.. Perry.Sources Fisher. Vol. I. Safavid. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 63–104. pp. The Cambridge History of Iran. Fasc. "ADMINISTRATION in Iran vi. Stanford (1991). John R. Gavin R. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. pp. Wiley.. ISBN 9780521200950. Vol. 7. 561–564. The Cambridge History of Iran. G. Karīm Khān Zand: a history of Iran. Encyclopaedia Iranica. 6. John R. By using this site. J. John (1991). Malcolm. additional terms may apply. 297–314. 1815. Perry. 1747–1779 University of Chicago Press. Inc. Perry. Bakhash. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. William Bayne. The Persians. .. and character of the inhabitants of that kingdom in 2 volumes. ISBN 9781557868602. pp. 462–466. C. (2005). John R. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Vol. at 14:43.G (1991). Gene R. re-published by Adamant Media Corporation 2004 vol 1. Perry. 602–605. 6. External link in |article= (help) Garthwaite. from the most early period to the present time containing an account of the religion. XV. ĀḠĀ MOḤAMMAD KHAN QĀJĀR. (1984).. (2011). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 7: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. Vol. "Iranian relations with the Ottoman Empire in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries". ISBN 9780521200950. a non-profit organization. Perry. 2 ISBN 978-1-4021-5205-4. Sir. pp. Encyclopaedia Iranica. London : Murray. Melville. "The Zand dynasty". Karim Khan Zand Zand dynasty Born: 1705 Died: 1779 Regnal titles Succeeded by Preceded by Vakil-e Ra'aya Mohammad Ali Dynasty founded 1751–1779 Khan Retrieved from "https://en. 7: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. 104–144. Fasc. 1979. Avery. Zand. "Karim Khan Zand". government. pp.

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