Chapter 8 Flow in Pipes

8-30
Solution Oil is being discharged by a horizontal pipe from a storage tank open to the atmosphere. The flow rate of oil
through the pipe is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible. 2 The entrance effects are negligible, and thus the flow is fully
developed. 3 The entrance and exit loses are negligible. 4 The flow is laminar (to be verified). 5 The pipe involves no
components such as bends, valves, and connectors. 6 The piping section involves no work devices such as pumps and
turbines.
Properties The density and kinematic viscosity of oil are given to be U = 850 kg/m3 and Q = 0.00062 m2/s, respectively.
The dynamic viscosity is calculated to be

P UQ (850 kg/m 3 )(0.00062 m 2 / s ) 0.527 kg/m ˜ s

Analysis The pressure at the bottom of the tank is
P1,gage Ugh
Oil 3m
§ 1 kN · tank 5 mm
(850 kg/m )(9.81 m/s )(3 m )¨¨
3 2 ¸
kg ˜ m/s 2 ¸
© 1000 ¹
25.02 kN/m 2
Disregarding inlet and outlet losses, the pressure drop across the pipe is

'P P1  P2 P1  Patm P1,gage 25.02 kN/m 2 25.02 kPa

The flow rate through a horizontal pipe in laminar flow is determined from

Vhoriz
'PS D 4 25.02 kN/m

S 0.005 m .

82 u 10 m /s 3 3 ¨ 128P L128 0. 2 4 § 1000 kg ˜ m/s 2 · 8 8 ¸ 1.527 kg/m ˜ s .821u 10 m /s # 1.

40 m .

www. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 8-9 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.005 m) 2 / 4 UVD (850 kg/m 3 )(9. Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. especially when the inlet is not well-rounded.821u 10 8 m 3 /s V 9. Therefore. If you are a student using this Manual.0075 P 0. the flow is laminar and the analysis above is valid. you are using it without permission.527 kg/m ˜ s which is less than 2300. © 1 kN ¹ The average fluid velocity and the Reynolds number in this case are V V 1.005 m) Re 0.27 u 10  4 m/s Ac SD 2 / 4 S (0.elsolucionario. Discussion The flow rate will be even less when the inlet and outlet losses are considered.27 u 10  4 m/s)(0.net .

7 kg/m 3 )(1.2 m/s) 2 § 1 kN ·§ 1 kPa · 'P 'PL f 0.2 m/s which is less than 2300. Then the friction factor and the pressure drop become L = 15 m 64 64 f 0.2 m/s)(2 u 10 -3 m) Re 1836 P 1. Analysis (a) First we need to determine the flow regime. 3 The pipe involves no components such as bends.307u10-3 kg/m˜s.77 u 10 6 m 3 / s)(188 kPa )¨ ¸ 0.2 m/s)[S (0.2 m/s) 2 hL f 0. respectively. The Reynolds number of the flow is UVD (999. 4 The piping section involves no work devices such as pumps and turbines. Therefore. valves. and the pumping power are to be determined. www. the flow is laminar. 2 The entrance effects are negligible. Inc.0349 19.71 W is needed to overcome the frictional losses in the flow due to viscosity.002 m 2(9.2 cm 1. Chapter 8 Flow in Pipes 8-31 Solution The average flow velocity in a pipe is given. you are using it without permission. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. The pressure drop. Properties The density and dynamic viscosity of water are given to be U = 999. Discussion If the flow were instead turbulent. power input in the amount of 0.307 u 10 -3 kg/m ˜ s Water D = 0.elsolucionario.81 m/s 2 ) (c) The volume flow rate and the pumping power requirements are V VAc V (SD 2 / 4) (1.2 m Ug D 2g 0. and thus the flow is fully developed. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible.71 W © 1 kPa ˜ m 3 /s ¹ Therefore.002 m) 2 / 4] 3.0349 Re 1836 L UV 2 15 m (999. the head loss.77 u 10 6 m 3 / s § 1000 W · W pump V'P (3. 8-10 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.net .002 m 2 2 (b) The head loss in the pipe is determined from 'PL L V2 15 m (1.0349 ¨¨ ¸¸¨ ¸ 188 kPa © 1000 kg ˜ m/s ¹© 1 kN/m ¹ D 2 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.7 kg/m3 and P = 1. and connectors.7 kg/m 3 )(1. If you are a student using this Manual. the pumping power would be much greater since the head loss in the pipe would be much greater.

The roughness of stainless steel is 0. The L = 30 m relative roughness of the pipe is 2 u 10 6 m H/D 5 u 10 5 0. but to avoid the reading error.138 u 10 3 kg/m ˜ s 8 L/s which is greater than 4000. which is sufficiently close to 0. www.4 m Ug D 2g 0. we determine it from the Colebrook equation using an equation solver (or an iterative scheme).04 m) D = 4 cm Re 2. and the pumping power requirements are to be determined.366 m/s)(0. and connectors.0 log¨  o 2.1 kg/m 3 )(6. you are using it without permission. 8-11 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.366 m / s Ac SD / 4 S (0. 1 §H / D 2.net .0 log¨  ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ 2. which indicates that stainless steel pipes in this case can be assumed to be smooth with an error of about 2%. The pressure drop.04 m 2 © 1000 kg ˜ m/s ¹© 1 kN/m ¹ 'PL L V2 30 m (6. the power input determined is the mechanical power that needs to be imparted to the fluid. the friction factor corresponding to H = 0 in this case is 0.7 ¹ It gives f = 0.008 m 3 / s )(239 kPa )¨ ¸ 1.91 kW © 1 kPa ˜ m /s ¹ 3 Therefore.0155.138u10-3 kg/m˜s. Also. and thus the flow is fully developed. Therefore.0157.01573. 2 The entrance effects are negligible.1 kg/m 3 )(6. respectively. Then the pressure drop.91 kW is needed to overcome the frictional losses in the pipe.236 u 10 5 P 1. the electrical power input will be even more due to motor inefficiency.1 kg/m3 and P = 1. Inc.0153.51 · 2.008 m 3 / s V 6. It would give f = 0. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies.002 mm. Chapter 8 Flow in Pipes 8-32 Solution The flow rate through a specified water pipe is given. and the required power input become L UV 2 30 m (999. Discussion The friction factor could also be determined easily from the explicit Haaland relation. the head loss. Properties The density and dynamic viscosity of water are given to be U = 999.elsolucionario.01573 ¨¨ ¸¸¨ 2 ¸ 239 kPa D 2 0. If you are a student using this Manual.7 Re f ¹ f © 3.366 m/s) 2 hL f 0. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible. valves.04 m 2(9.04 m) 2 / 4 2 Water UVD (999. 3 The pipe involves no components such as bends. head loss. the flow is turbulent.51 ·¸ 1 § 5 u 10 5 2. Analysis First we calculate the average velocity and the Reynolds number to determine the flow regime: V V 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. 4 The piping section involves no work devices such as pumps and turbines.81 m/s 2 ) § 1 kW · W pump V'P (0.236 u 10 5 f ¸ f © 3.366 m/s) 2 § 1 kN ·§ 1 kPa · 'P 'PL f 0. The shaft power will be more than this due to pump inefficiency.01573 24.04 m The friction factor can be determined from the Moody chart. useful power input in the amount of 1. Also.

2 º 0.75 · § L · D 0.04 § LV 2 4.66 «H 1. Note that Re > 4000.6512 ft2/s = 1. P = 0. Inc. H | 0. friction factor.0 log¨  2. and the head loss relations can be expressed as (D is in ft.2 0.88 ft. V is in ft/s.04615 lbm/ft˜h.51 · ¸ L = 400 ft 2. and solving them with an equation solver gives D = 0. 2 The entrance effects are negligible. www.4 ¨¨ ¸ » ¸ « © (32. f = 0. If you are a student using this Manual.7 Re f ¹ ¸ ¨ ¸ © © Re f ¹ L V2 L V2 400 ft V2 hL f o 50 f f D 2g D 2g D 2(32. 8-12 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.2 ft/s )(50 ft) ¹ »¼ 2 ¬ 0.2 ft/s 2 ) This is a set of 4 equations in 4 unknowns. valves. Re and f are dimensionless) V V 12 ft 3 / s V Ac SD / 4 SD 2 / 4 2 Air D VD VD 12 ft3/s Re Q 1.180 u 10 3 ft 2 / s )(12 ft 3 / s ) 9. and thus the flow is fully developed. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.0 log¨ f ¨ 3 . The minimum diameter of the duct is to be determined.89 ft Discussion Note that the difference between the two results is less than 2%.4 ¨¨ ¸¸ » « © gh L ¹ © gh L ¹ » ¬ ¼ 0.51 ·¸ § 2. 6 The flow is turbulent (to be verified).66 «0  (0. V = 19.07088 lbm/ft3.04 ª § 400 ft · º 5. Reynolds number.8 ft/s.25 ¨¨ ¸ ¸  QV 9. and Q = 0.net .88 ft if the head loss is not to exceed 50 ft. 4 Air is an ideal gas.elsolucionario. 3 The duct involves no components such as bends.040 Therefore. and connectors. 5 The duct is smooth since it is made of plastic.809u10-4 ft2/s. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible. the simple Swamee-Jain relation can be used with confidence.0181. Chapter 8 Flow in Pipes 8-33E Solution The flow rate and the head loss in an air duct is given. Therefore. and Re = 96. Analysis The average velocity. and thus the turbulent flow assumption is verified. The diameter can also be determined directly from the third Swamee-Jain formula to be ª 5.809 u 10  4 ft 2 / s 1 §H / D 2. the diameter of the duct should be more than 0. dynamic viscosity. and kinematic viscosity of air at 100qF are U = 0. Properties The density. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. you are using it without permission.

0 4u R / 2 . Analysis The velocity profile in fully developed laminar flow in a circular pipe is given by § r2 · u (r ) u max ¨¨1  2 ¸¸ © R ¹ u(r) = umax(1-r2/R2) where umax is the maximum velocity which occurs at pipe center. Chapter 8 Flow in Pipes 8-34 Solution In fully developed laminar flow in a circular pipe. laminar. r = 0. The velocity at the center of the pipe (r = 0) is to be determined. § ( R / 2) 2 · R ¸ u max §¨1  ·¸ 1 3u max u ( R / 2) u max ¨¨1  ¸ © R 2 ¹ © 4¹ 4 r Solving for umax and substituting. At r =R/2. the velocity at r = R/2 is measured. Assumptions The flow is steady. and fully developed.

4 6 m/s .

02 m) 2 ] 0.elsolucionario. Inc. If you are a student using this Manual. The result would be much different if the flow were turbulent. umax umax 8.00 m/s 2 2 V V avg Ac V avg (SR 2 ) (2 m/s)[S (0.net . 8-35 Solution The velocity profile in fully developed laminar flow in a circular pipe is given. 8-13 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Assumptions The flow is steady. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.00251 m 3 /s Discussion A unique feature of fully developed laminar pipe flow is that the maximum velocity is exactly twice the average velocity. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. The average and maximum velocities as well as the flow rate are to be determined. Then the average velocity and volume flow rate umax become umax 4 m/s Vavg 2.00 m/s 3 3 which is the velocity at the pipe center. since the velocity profile is much fuller. you are using it without permission. laminar. www. Analysis The velocity profile in fully developed laminar flow in a circular pipe is given by § r2 · u (r ) u max ¨¨1  2 ¸¸ © R ¹ u(r) = umax(1-r2/R2) The velocity profile in this case is given by R u (r ) 4(1  r 2 / R 2 ) r Comparing the two relations above gives the maximum velocity to be 0 umax = 4. This is not the case for turbulent pipe flow. Discussion The relationship used here is valid only for fully developed laminar flow. and fully developed.00 m/s.

0271 32. www.0 log¨ 0  ¨ ¸ ¨ 16. and the Reynolds number are m UV (1. The friction factor corresponding to this Reynolds number for a smooth flow section (H/D = 0) can be obtained from the Moody chart.1665 kg/s Air 0.03 m 2 Glass cover 4 Ac 4(0. laminar.net .0308 m 3 /s avg c avg Discussion Compared to the previous problem. but the volume flow rate increases as the diameter increases.05825 m 2 ¨ 1 kg ˜ m/s 2 © ¹ Discussion The friction factor could also be determined easily from the explicit Haaland relation.750u10-5 m2/s. and thus the flow is fully developed.15 m 3 /s ) 0. But to avoid reading error.03 m) 0. It would give f = 0. 4 Air is an ideal gas.0271.15 m3/s Ac aub (1 m)(0.3 Pa D 2 0. Then the average velocity and volume flow rate become umax umax 4 m/s Vavg 2. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. and Q = 1. If you are a student using this Manual.11 kg/m 3 )(5 m/s) 2 § 1N ·§ 1 Pa · 'P 'PL ¨ ¸¨ ¸© 1 N/m 2 ¸¹ f 0. 8-37 Solution Air enters the constant spacing between the glass cover and the plate of a solar collector. Analysis Mass flow rate.00 m/s 2 2 V V A V (SR 2 ) (2 m/s)[S (0. Inc. 5 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm. Analysis The velocity profile in fully developed laminar flow in a circular pipe is given by § r2 · u (r ) u max ¨¨1  2 ¸¸ u(r) = umax(1-r2/R2) © R ¹ The velocity profile in this case is given by R u (r ) 4(1  r / R ) 2 2 r Comparing the two relations above gives the maximum velocity to be umax 0 = 4.0 log¨  ¸ o 2.51 ·¸ 2. and fully developed.664 u 10 4 X 1. hydraulic diameter.51 · 1 § 2. the flow is turbulent. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. you are using it without permission. 8-14 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Then the pressure drop becomes L UV 2 5m (1.00 m/s. The pressure drop of air in the collector is to be determined.15 m 3 / s V 5m/ s Ac 0.elsolucionario. and thus the inner surfaces are considered to be smooth. §H / D 1 2. The average and maximum velocities as well as the flow rate are to be determined. cross-sectional area.750 u 10 m /s2 Since Re is greater than 4000. we use the Colebrook equation. H | 0. average velocity. which is sufficiently close to 0. Chapter 8 Flow in Pipes 8-36 Solution The velocity profile in fully developed laminar flow in a circular pipe is given.0270. Assumptions The flow is steady.07 m) 2 ] 0.05825 m) Insulation Re 5 1.03 m 2 ) 5m Dh 0.11 kg/m 3 )(0.109 kg/m3.03) m V 0.941u10-5 kg/m˜s. 2 The entrance effects are negligible. 3 The roughness effects are negligible. Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and 45q are U = 1.05825 m p 2(1  0.7 Re f ¹ f © which gives f = 0. the average velocity remains the same since the maximum velocity (at the centerline) remains the same.640 f ¸¹ f © 3. P = 1.03 m 2 Collector plate VD h (5 m/s)(0.0271. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible.

1 UgD 2 UgD 2 © UgD 2 ¸¹ Discussion The conclusion above is also valid for laminar flow in channels of different cross-sections.46(2V ) 2¨¨ 28. and thus the flow is fully developed. 2 The entrance effects are negligible.9 kPa )¨ ¸ 4.46V D 2g Re D 2 g UVD D 2 g UgD 2 which shows that the head loss is proportional to the average velocity. and thus the inner surfaces are considered to be smooth.39 kW © 1 kPa ˜ m /s ¹ 3 Discussion The power input determined is the mechanical power that needs to be imparted to the fluid.834 ¨¨ ¸¸¨ ¸ 69. 8-39 Solution Laminar flow through a square channel is considered.4 m UVD (894 kg/m 3 )(0. the electrical power input will be even more due to motor inefficiency.92P L V 2 PL h L . and the friction factor is 64 64 f 0.2 28.5 m/s) 0. Assumptions The flow is steady and incompressible. Therefore. the head loss doubles when the average velocity is doubled. 2 The flow section considered is away from the entrance. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.5 m/s)(0. 0qC) Analysis The volume flow rate and the Reynolds number in this case are SD 2 S (0. 8-15 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Properties The properties of oil are given to be U = 894 kg/m3 and P = 2.46V2 28. Assumptions 1 The flow remains laminar at all times. If you are a student using this Manual.834 Re 76.46V ¸ 2hL . the flow is laminar. Analysis The friction factor for fully developed laminar flow in a square channel is 56. Chapter 8 Flow in Pipes 8-38 Solution Oil flows through a pipeline that passes through icy waters of a lake. Inc.elsolucionario. The pumping power needed to overcome pressure losses is to be determined.0628 m 3 /s)(69. The shaft power will be much more than this due to pump inefficiency.0628 m 3 /s Oil 4 4 10qC 0. The change in the head loss is to be determined when the average velocity is doubled.7 P 2.4 m) Re 76.9 kPa D 2 0. H | 0. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies.4 m) 2 V VAc V (0.7 Then the pressure drop in the pipe and the required pumping power become L UV 2 300 m (894 kg/m 3 )(0.5 m/s D = 0. Therefore. and thus the flow is fully developed. This can also be shown as PL §PL PL · hL . you are using it without permission.33 kg/m ˜ s L = 300 m which is less than 2300. 3 The roughness effects are negligible. www.92 L V 2 56. (Icy lake.1 f 28.92 UVD f where Re Re P Then the head loss for laminar flow can be expressed as V L V2 56.5 m/s) 2 § 1 kN ·§ 1 kPa · 'P 'PL f 0.net .4 m 2 © 1000 kg ˜ m/s ¹© 1 kN/m ¹ 2 § 1 kW · W pump V'P (0.33 kg/m˜s.

and D are constant. the head loss increases by a factor of 21. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.net .8 º 0 .1 «¬ © P ¹ D 2g » ¼ For fully rough flow in a rough pipe.8 § UD · L (2V )1. The change in the head loss is to be determined when the average velocity is doubled. Discussion Most flows in practice are in the fully rough regime.2 § UD · L V21. the head loss increases by a factor of 4 in this case since L V2 h L .48hL . and thus the flow is fully developed.1 f 0. so this is a valid approximation. Therefore.2 0.20. Therefore.184¨¨ ¸¸ © P ¹ D 2g © P ¹ D 2g ª  L V 1.8 hL . Inc. Chapter 8 Flow in Pipes 8-40 Solution Turbulent flow through a smooth pipe is considered.184¨¨ ¸¸ » 21.8 «0. it turns out that Dh = D.8 h L .184¨¨ ¸¸ 0.184¨¨ ¸¸ D 2g © P ¹ D 2g D 2g © P ¹ D 2g th which shows that the head loss is proportional to the 1. you are using it without permission. 2 The entrance effects are negligible. For a square duct.2 L V2 § UVD · L V2 L V2 § UD · L V 1.2 where Re P Then the head loss of the fluid for turbulent flow can be expressed as 0.8 = 3. 3 The inner surface of the pipe is smooth.2 0. Assumptions 1 The flow remains turbulent at all times. the friction factor is independent of the Reynolds V number and thus the flow velocity. www.184 Re  0. L.184 Re 0.48 when the average velocity is doubled. Note that we use diameter D here in place of hydraulic diameter Dh.2 0.8 power of the average velocity.184¨¨ ¸¸ 0.2 § UD · 21.1 3. This can also be shown as 0. Analysis The friction factor for the turbulent flow in smooth pipes is given as UVD f 0.elsolucionario. If you are a student using this Manual.1 f D 2g and thus the head loss is proportional to the square of the average velocity when f. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. and thus the head loss is generally assumed to be proportional to the square of the average velocity for all kinds of turbulent flow. 8-16 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.8 hL .

Therefore.20 m) Dh 0.21 m /s . the volume flow rate. and the Reynolds number in this case are 4 Ac 4ab 4(0. and thus the flow is fully developed.51 ·¸ 2. The relative Air roughness of the pipe is 7 m/s 20 cm 4.0 log¨  o 2. 2 The entrance effects are negligible.145 kg/m 3 )(7 m/s) 2 § 1N ·§ 1 Pa · 'P 'PL ¨ ¸¨ f D 2 0.0 log¨  ¨ ¸ ¨ 72.1714 m) 15 cm Re 5 72. we determine it from the Colebrook equation using an equation solver (or an iterative scheme).490 f ¸¹ f © 3. 3 Air is an ideal gas. Chapter 8 Flow in Pipes 8-41 Solution Air enters a rectangular duct.5 u 10 5 m H / Dh 2.15 u 0.3 Pa © ¹ Wpump V 'P 0. but to avoid the reading error.000045 m.1714 m The friction factor can be determined from the Moody chart.51 ·¸ 1 § 2.20 m 2 ) 0.1714 m 2 ¨ 1 kg ˜ m/s 2 ¸© 1 N/m 2 ¸¹ 23.490 P 1.1714 m p 2(a  b) 2(0. 2 Analysis The hydraulic diameter.145 kg/m 3 )(7 m/s)(0.21 m 3 /s UVD h (1. P = 1. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible. The fan power needed to overcome the pressure losses is to be determined. Then the pressure drop in the duct and the required pumping power become L UV 2 7m (1. and Q = 1.655u10-5 m /s.7 It gives f = 0.15 m)(0.7 Re f ¹ f © 3. the flow is turbulent.625 u 10  4 0.145 kg/m3. 4 The duct involves no components such as bends.625 u 10 4 2.895u10-5 kg/m˜s. 1 § H / Dh 2. 5 The flow section involves no work devices such as fans or turbines Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and 35qC are U = 1. and connectors.02034 0.02034.895 u 10 kg/m ˜ s which is greater than 4000. valves.15  0.20) m 7m V VAc V (a u b) (7 m/s)(0. The roughness of commercial steel surfaces is H = 0.

3 Pa . 23.

www. the electrical power input will be even more due to motor inefficiency. Also.02005. The shaft power will be much more than this due to fan inefficiency.90 W Discussion The friction factor could also be determined easily from the explicit Haaland relation. §¨© 1 Pa1 ˜Wm /s ·¸¹ 3 3 4. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies.net .02034. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. It would give f = 0.elsolucionario. you are using it without permission. Inc. If you are a student using this Manual. which is sufficiently close to 0. 8-17 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. the power input determined is the mechanical power that needs to be imparted to the fluid.

37 W is needed per ft of tube length to overcome the frictional losses in the pipe.36 lbm/ft 3 )[S (0. you are using it without permission. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. which is sufficiently close to 0.02328. 4 The piping section involves no work devices such as pumps and turbines.36 lbm/ft 3 )(6.440 P 7. 3 The pipe involves no components such as bends. The pumping power required per ft length to maintain flow is to be determined. 1 §H / D 2.51 · 1 § 8 u 10 5 2.536u10 lbm/ft˜s. Then the pressure drop and the required power input become L UV 2 1 ft (62. The shaft power will be more than this due to pump inefficiency. 8-18 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. we determine it from the Colebrook equation using an equation solver (or an iterative scheme). If you are a student using this Manual.75 / 12 ft The friction factor can be determined from the Moody chart. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible.36 lbm/ft 3 © 0. The roughness of copper tubing is 5u10-6 ft.elsolucionario. which indicates that copper pipes can be assumed to be smooth with a negligible error.75/12 ft 2 © 32. valves.536 u 10  4 lbm/ft ˜ s which is greater than 4000. Also.75/12 ft) Re 32.2 lbf/ft 2 'P 'PL f 0.272 ft/s) 2 § 1 lbf · 14. It would give f = 0.02328. Chapter 8 Flow in Pipes 8-42E Solution Water passes through copper tubes at a specified rate.0 log¨  ¸ o 2. but to avoid the reading error.2 lbm/s 5 u 10 6 ft H/D 8 u 10 5 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. The relative Water roughness of the pipe is D = 0. the electrical power input will be even more due to motor inefficiency. Properties The density and dynamic viscosity of water at 60qF are U = 62.440 f ¸¹ © ¹ © It gives f = 0.net .36 lbm/ft 3 )(6.2 lbm / s V 6. Inc. Therefore.02306. and connectors. and thus the flow is fully developed.272 ft/s)(0. the flow is turbulent.36 lbm/ft3 and P = 2. -4 Analysis First we calculate the average velocity and the Reynolds number to determine the flow regime: m m 1. Discussion The friction factor could also be determined easily from the explicit Haaland relation.0 log¨  f ¨ 3.7 Re f ¸ f ¨ 3. Also.02328 ¨ ¸ D 2 0. the friction factor corresponding to H = 0 in this case is 0. www.75/12 ft) 2 / 4] 2 UVD (62.2 lbf/ft 2 ) § 1W · W pump V'P ¨ ¸ 0. useful power input in the amount of 0.2 lbm/s)(14.737 lbf ˜ ft/s ¹ Therefore.2 lbm ˜ ft/s ¹ m 'P (1. the power input determined is the mechanical power that needs to be imparted to the fluid.75 in 1.02305.272 ft/s UAc U (SD / 4 ) (62.51 ·¸ 2.37 W (per ft length) U 62. 2 The entrance effects are negligible.713 lbm/ft˜h = 7.7 32.

5 The piping section involves no work devices such as pumps and turbines. 2 The entrance effects are negligible.24 kg/m ˜ s)(15 m) ¨ 1 Pa ˜ m 2 ¸ © ¹ 1.767 u 10  4 m 2 2 135 kPa L = 15 m (a) The flow rate for all three cases can be determined from. Inc.24 kg/m ˜ s)(15 m) ¨ 1 Pa ˜ m 2 ¸ © ¹ 2.015 m) 4 § 1 kg ˜ m/s 2 · ¨ ¸ 128(0. As can be seen from the calculated rates above.elsolucionario. For the horizontal case.015 m) Re 7. Therefore.00 u 10 5 m 3 /s (c) For downhill flow with an inclination of 8q.net .24 kg/m˜s.000 Pa  (876 kg/m 3 )(9. 3 The flow is laminar (to be verified). and ('P  UgL sin T )SD 4 Vuphill 128PL [(47. Properties The density and dynamic viscosity of oil are given to be U = 876 kg/m3 and P = 0.015 m) 4 § 1 kg ˜ m/s 2 · ¨ ¸ 128(0. T = 0 and thus sin T = 0. and thus the flow is fully developed.767 u 10 . If you are a student using this Manual.62 u 10 5 m 3 /s 128PL 128(0.015 m) 4 §¨ 1 kg ˜ m/s 2 ·§ 1000 N/m 2 · Vhoriz ¸¨ ¸ 1.m 3 /s V 0.5 cm 128PL where T is the angle the pipe makes with the horizontal. the flow is laminar for all three cases. 'PSD 4 (47 kPa)S (0. The average fluid velocity and the Reynolds number in this case are V 2. as expected. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. gravity opposes uphill flow.24 kg/m ˜ s)(15 m) ¨© 1 N ¸¨ 1 kPa ¸ ¹© ¹ (b) For uphill flow with an inclination of 8q. valves.24 kg/m ˜ s which is less than 2300. but helps downhill flow. Chapter 8 Flow in Pipes 8-43 Solution The pressure of oil in a pipe which discharges into the atmosphere is measured at a certain location. The flow rates are to be determined for 3 different orientations.81 m/s 2 )(15 m) sin( 8q)]S (0. Gravity has no effect on the flow rate in the horizontal case.4 m 2 UVD (876 kg/m 3 )(0.127 m/s)(0. and the analysis above is valid.127 m/s Ac 1. Analysis The pressure drop across the pipe and the cross-sectional area are 'P P1  P2 135  88 47 kPa Ac SD / 4 S (0. 4 The pipe involves no components such as bends. and connectors. ('P  UgL sin T )SD 4 V Oil D = 1. and ('P  UgL sin T )SD 4 Vdownhill 128PL [(47. you are using it without permission.000 Pa  (876 kg/m 3 )(9. www.81 m/s 2 )(15 m) sin 8q]S (0.0 P 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible.24 u 10 5 m 3 /s The flow rate is the highest for downhill flow case. we have T = -8q. 8-19 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Discussion Note that the flow is driven by the combined effect of pressure difference and gravity.015 m) 2 / 4 1. Therefore.24 u 10 5 . we have T = +8q.

5 The piping section involves no work devices such as pumps and turbines. www.3q downwards from the horizontal to maintain flow in the pipe at the same rate. If you are a student using this Manual. and the analysis above is valid.net . Analysis (a) The flow rate for horizontal or inclined pipe can be determined from ('P  UgL sin T )SD 4 V (1) 128PL Glycerin where T is the angle the pipe makes with the horizontal. but it governs the flow alone when there is no pressure difference across the pipe.27 kg/m ˜ s)(25 m)(0.111 m/s Ac SD 2 / 4 S (0.035 L/s 'PSD 4 Vhoriz (2) L = 25 m 128PL Solving for 'P and substituting.3 P 0. 3 The flow is laminar (to be verified). T is determined to be Ug sin TSD 4 Vdownhill 128P  (1252 kg/m 3 )(9.27 kg/m˜s. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 160. Setting 'P = P1 – P2 = 0 in Eq.27 kg/m ˜ s) Therefore. Inc. Verification: The average fluid velocity and the Reynolds number in this case are V V 0.27 kg/m ˜ s which is less than 2300.035 u 10 -3 m 3 /s) §¨ 1 kN · 'P ¸ SD S (0. 128PLVhoriz 128(0. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible. you are using it without permission. the flow is laminar. Gravity has no effect on the flow rate in the horizontal case. valves.2 kPa Then the pressure 25 m before the pipe exit becomes 'P P1  P2 o P1 P2  'P 100  60. as assumed. The absolute pressure at a specified location in the pipe. For the D = 2 cm horizontal case.02 m) 2 / 4 UVD (1252 kg/m 3 )(0. Therefore.02 m) Re 10. Therefore.81 m/s 2 ) sin TS (0. the hydrostatic pressure rise with depth is equal to pressure drop along the pipe due to frictional effects.2 kPa (b) When the flow is gravity driven downhill with an inclination T.02 m) ¨ ¸ © 1000 kg ˜ m/s 4 4 2 ¹ 60.035 u 10 3 m 3 /s V 0. Discussion Note that the flow is driven by the combined effect of pressure difference and gravity. (1) and substituting.elsolucionario. Properties The density and dynamic viscosity of glycerin at 40°C are given to be U = 1252 kg/m3 and P = 0. 8-20 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Chapter 8 Flow in Pipes 8-44 Solution Glycerin is flowing through a horizontal pipe which discharges into the atmosphere at a specified flow rate. the pipe must be inclined 11. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. 0.035 u 10 3 m 3 /s o T 11. and connectors. T = 0 and thus sin T = 0. and the angle T that the pipe must be inclined downwards for the pressure in the entire pipe to be atmospheric pressure are to be determined.2 kN/m 2 60.02 m) 4 0. and thus the flow is fully developed.3q 128(0. 2 The entrance effects are negligible. 4 The pipe involves no components such as bends.111 m/s)(0. and the pressure in the entire pipe is constant at the atmospheric pressure.

24 m The friction factor can be determined from the Moody chart. we determine it from the Colebrook equation using an equation solver (or an iterative scheme). the flow is turbulent. www.333 m/s) 2 hL f 0. The dynamic viscosity of air at 40qC is P = 1.7 Re f ¸ f ¨ 3 . 2 The entrance effects are negligible.24 m 2(9.5 m3/s Ac aub (0.875 u 10 4 2.51 ·¸ 1 § 1.169 kg/m 3 RT (0.918 u 10 5 kg/m ˜ s which is greater than 4000.0183. but to avoid the reading error.20) m Air L = 40 V V 0.3 m Reynolds number are 4 Ac 4ab 4(0.81 m/s 2 ) Discussion The required pumping power in this case is § 1W · W pump V'P (0. If you are a student using this Manual.m 3 /s 43qC V 8. and connectors.24 m 2 ¨ 1 kg ˜ m/s 2 ¸ © ¹ 'PL L V2 40 m (8.5. 62 W of mechanical power needs to be imparted to the fluid. 1 § H / Dh 2.K)(40  273 K) Air duct Analysis The hydraulic diameter.169 kg/m 3 )(8.01833.900 P 1.5 u 10 5 m H / Dh 1. Therefore. the friction factor could be determined easily from the explicit Haaland relation. Then the pressure drop in the duct and the head loss become L UV 2 40 m (1. Properties The roughness of commercial steel surfaces is H = 0.3 m)(0.333 m/s) 2 § 1N · 'P 'PL f 0. average velocity.24 m) Re 121.24 m p 2(a  b) 2(0.287 kPa ˜ m 3 /kg.net .51 · 2. Also.elsolucionario. The density of air listed in that table is for 1 atm. 8-21 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Inc. The pressure drop and head loss through a section of the duct are to be determined.875 u 10  4 0.2 m u 0. The density at 105 kPa and 315 K can be determined from the ideal gas relation to be P 105 kPa U 1.3 m)(0. the electrical power input will be even more due to motor inefficiency. 5 The flow section involves no work devices such as fans or turbines. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.169 kg/m 3 )(8. 4 The duct involves no components such as bends.0 log¨  o 2.5 m 3 /s)(124 Pa )¨ ¸ 62 W © 1 Pa ˜ m 3 /s ¹ Therefore.3  0.333 m/s)(0. The shaft power will be more than this due to fan inefficiency.01833 ¨ ¸ 124 N/m 2 124 Pa D 2 0. which is sufficiently close to 0. and 0. Chapter 8 Flow in Pipes 8-45 Solution Air in a heating system is distributed through a rectangular duct made of commercial steel at a specified rate. you are using it without permission.900 f ¸ © ¹ © ¹ It gives f = 0.000045 m. and thus the flow is fully developed.2 m) UVDh (1.918u10-5 kg/m˜s. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies.8 m Ug D 2g 0.0 log¨  ¸ f ¨ 3. The relative roughness of the duct is 4. 3 Air is an ideal gas.7 121.0181. It would give f = 0.333 m/s 0. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible. valves.01833 10. and it is independent of pressure.20 m) Dh 0.

2 The entrance effects are negligible. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.5 Then the pressure drop in the pipe becomes L UV 2 10 m (1252 kg/m 3 )(3. 3 The pipe involves no components such as bends. Therefore. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 D = 5 cm P 0. valves. respectively.27 kg/m ˜ s 3.05 m 2 © 1000 kg ˜ m/s ¹© 1 kN/m ¹ 2 Discussion The required pumping power in this case is § 1 kW · W pump V'P (0. and thus the flow is fully developed. you are using it without permission.83 kW © 1 kPa ˜ m 3 /s ¹ Therefore.07887 Re 811. 8-22 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.05 m) 2 / 4] 0. the electrical power input will be even more due to motor inefficiency. 0. The pressure drop per 10 m of the pipe is to be determined. Inc.net .07887 ¨¨ ¸¸¨ ¸ 121 kPa D 2 0.83 kW of mechanical power needs to be imparted to the fluid. the flow is laminar. and connectors.5 m/s which is less than 2300. www. The shaft power will be more than this due to pump inefficiency.05 m) Glycerin Re 811.27 kg/m˜s.5 m/s)(0. Analysis The volume flow rate and the Reynolds number are V VAc V (SD 2 / 4) (3.5 m/s)[S (0. Properties The density and dynamic viscosity of glycerin at 40°C are given to be U = 1252 kg/m3 and P = 0.006872 m 3 /s UVD h (1252 kg/m 3 )(3.006872 m 3 /s )(121 kPa )¨ ¸ 0.5 m/s) 2 § 1 kN ·§ 1 kPa · 'P 'PL f 0. Chapter 8 Flow in Pipes 8-46 Solution Glycerin is flowing through a smooth pipe with a specified average velocity. 4 The piping section involves no work devices such as pumps and turbines. If you are a student using this Manual. and the friction factor for this circular pipe is L = 10 m 64 64 f 0.elsolucionario. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible.