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Statistics

Grade 11 Essential Mathematics

Unit 3: Statistics

1

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Unit 3: Statistics

Introduction

In this unit, you will learn to calculate the three measures of central tendency as well as understand

when one is more appropriate than another. You will also examine and create graphs for given data and

know which graph is more appropriate for the given data set. You will also create frequency tables to

raw data and then create graphs. Also examined will be how statistics are used to support a specific

point of view which manipulates that data.

Assessment Checklist:

Check off the following as you complete each:

**o Lesson 1 Assignment: Measures of Central Tendency
**

o Lesson 3 Assignment: Bar Charts and Histograms

**o Lesson 4: Assignment: Circle Graphs and Line Graphs
**

o Lesson 5 Assignment: Misuse of Statistics

o Lesson 6: Graphing on Excel

Test Unit 3: Statistics

2

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

STATISTICS

Introduction:

Statistics is generally a mathematical process involving:

1. the collection of data

2. the organization of data

a. numerically

b. graphically

3. the analysis of the data

4. making predictions and decisions based on the data

Collecting Data:

Population: used when the entire group is used

For example, the entire population of SHARP students taking grade 11 math, Census uses the entire

population of Canada

Sample: a small group of people from the population that you are interested in collecting data from

For example: a sample of 40 grade 11 students from Miles Macdonell

LESSON 1: MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

**Say that we conducted a survey of a sample of 50 random students in grade 11 and measured their heights. A
**

list of 50 heights does not tell us very much about the data. To help the data be more informative we use the

measures of central tendency.

There are three measures of central tendency of a set of numbers that best represent the distribution of the data.

1. mean

2. median

3. mode

**Each of these three measures identifies a different feature of the data set so it is important to understand when it
**

is appropriate to use each. Each has its advantages and disadvantages in its ability to describe the data.

3

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

1. Mean: is the average of the data; it is calculated by adding up all the data and then dividing by how

many data points there are.

π‘βπ π π’π ππ π‘βπ πππ‘π

πΉππππ’ππ: π₯Μ
=

ππ’ππππ ππ πππ‘π πππππ‘π

Example:

You have the following test scores on five math test: 70, 92, 84, 91, 70. What is the mean (or average) of your

scores?

Solution:

70 + 92 + 84 + 91 + 70 407

π₯Μ
= = = 81.4

5 5

2. Median: is the middle value of the data when it is arranged in increasing (or decreasing) order

Example:

You have the following test scores on five math test: 70, 92, 84, 91, 70. What is the median of your scores?

Solution:

ππ‘ππ 1: π΄ππππππ π‘βπ πππ‘π ππ πππππ ππ π ππππππ π‘ π‘π ππππππ π‘

70, 70, 84, 91, 92

ππ‘ππ 2: πΉπππ π‘βπ ππππππ π£πππ’π ππ‘ ππ π‘βπ πππ πππ

ππππππ = 84

3. Mode: is the number that occurs the most in the data set (if all values occur only once then there is no mode)

Example:

You have the following test scores on five math test: 70, 92, 84, 91, 70. What is the mode of your scores?

Solution:

π‘βπ πππ π‘ ππππππ πππ‘π πππππ‘ (π‘βπ πππ π‘βππ‘ π βππ€π π’π π‘βπ πππ π‘ ππ π‘βπ πππ π‘ ππ πππ‘π)

ππππ = 70

When is it appropriate?

- It is most appropriate to use mean when there are no extreme values (outliers β values that are either

really small or really big and donβt fit with the rest of the data) within the data set.

- It is most appropriate to use the median when there are a few extreme values because the median is not

influenced by outliers

- It is most appropriate to use mode when you are interested in the βmost commonβ

4

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Example:

Sara is taking a flying course and had to write six tests. Her results were: 65, 66, 100, 63, 64, 63.

a. find the mean, median and mode for this data

b. which measure best represents Saraβs knowledge of flying? Why?

Solution:

65+66+100+63+64+63 421

a. ππππ: π₯Μ
= = = 70.17

6 6

ππππππ: 63, 63, 64, 65, 66, 100

π‘βπππ ππ ππ ππ₯πππ‘ ππππππ ππ’ππππ π π βπππ π€π βππ£π π‘π average π‘βπ π‘π€π ππ’πππππ π‘βππ‘ πππ ππππ ππ π‘ π‘π π‘βπ ππππππ

64 + 65

ππππππ = = 64.5

2

ππππ = 63

b. π‘βπ ππππππ ππ π‘βπ πππ π‘ ππππππππππ‘π π‘π π’π π πππππ’π π π‘βπ πππ‘π βππ ππ ππ’π‘ππππ, π‘βπ π ππππ ππ 100

ππππ πππ‘ πππ‘ ππ π€ππ‘β π‘βπ πππ π‘ ππ βππ π‘ππ π‘ π πππππ , ππ‘ ππ ππ’πβ βππβππ π€βππβ π€πππ πππ’π π π‘βπ ππππ π‘π ππ π‘π βππβ.

πβπ ππππ ππ π‘π πππ€ πππ ππππ πππ‘ πππππππ‘ π‘βππ‘ π βπ βππ π‘ππ π‘ π πππππ π‘βππ‘ πππ βππβππ π‘βππ 63.

Example:

A recent newspaper article stated the average income for people living on Sine Street was $99,500. A letter was

written to the editor of the newspaper claiming that the average income for people living on Sine Street was

$30,000. What is the truth: the information in the newspaper article or the information in the letter to the editor?

Name Income

Baker $500,000

Smith $220,000

Simpson $70,000

Ford $60,000

Campbell $40,000

Wyatt $30,000

Grant $30,000

Bender $20,000

Burns $15,000

Milhouse $10,000

a. Using measures of central tendency, determine the position each person took on this issue.

b. Which measure of central tendency do you think gives the best picture of the βaverageβ income on

Sine Street?

Solution:

500 000+220 000+70 000+60 000+40 000+30 000+30 000+20 000+15 000+10 000 995 000

a. ππππ = π₯Μ
= = 10 = $99 500

10

40 000 + 30 000

ππππππ = = $35 000

2

ππππ = $30 000

b. πβπ ππππ ππ πππ π ππππ πβππππ πππππ’π π π‘βπππ πππ ππ’π‘πππππ . πβπππ πππ π‘π€π βππ’π π ππππππ

π‘βππ‘ πππ ππ΄π βππβππ π‘βππ π€βπππ π‘βπ πππ π‘ ππ π‘βπ βππ’π π ππππππ ππππ. πβππ π

π€πππ ππππ π‘βπ ππππ βππβππ π‘βππ π‘βπ ππ£πππππ π βππ’ππ ππ. ππ π€π π βππ’ππ π’π π π‘βπ ππππππ.

5

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Example:

In some Olympic events such as gymnastics, the final mark is determined by dropping the lowest and highest

scores that a contestant receives from the panel of judges. Use the scores given below to answer the following

questions.

Gymnast #1 Scores Gymnast #2 Scores

8.8 9.4

8.7 9.6

8.6 6.0

8.8 8.0

6.5 9.2

9.7 9.2

9.9 9.1

a. Without dropping the high and low score, calculate the three measures of central tendency for each

gymnast.

b. Which gymnast would win the gold if the mean was used? The median? The mode?

c. Drop the high and low scores, recalculate the mean, median and mode for each gymnast.

d. In real Olympic competition, the mean is used to decide the medal winners. Which gymnast would

win?

e. Why do you think the high and low scores are dropped?

Solution:

8.8+8.7+8.6+8.8+6.5+9.7+9.9 61

a. πΊπ¦ππππ π‘ 1: ππππ = π₯Μ
= = = 8.7

7 7

ππππππ: 6. 5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.8 9.7 9.9 π π ππππππ ππ 8.8

ππππ = 8.8

9.4 + 9.6 + 6.0 + 8.8 + 9.2 + 9.2 + 9.1 60.5

πΊπ¦ππππ π‘ 2: ππππ = π₯Μ
= = = 8.6

7 7

ππππππ: 6.0 8.0 9.1 9.2 9.2 9.4 9.6 ππππππ ππ 9.2

ππππ = 9.2

**b. Gymnast ο£1 would win is Mean was used. Gymnast #2 would win if Median or Mode were used.
**

8.8+8.7+8.6+8.8+9.7 44.6

c. πΊπ¦ππππ π‘ 1: ππππ = π₯Μ
= = = 8.92

5 5

ππππππ: 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.8 9.7 π π ππππππ ππ 8.8

ππππ = 8.8

9.4 + 8.8 + 9.2 + 9.2 + 9.1 44.9

πΊπ¦ππππ π‘ 2: ππππ = π₯Μ
= = = 8.98

5 5

ππππππ: 8.0 9.1 9.2 9.2 9.4 ππππππ ππ 9.2

ππππ = 9.2

d. Gymnast #2 would win

e. The high and low scores are dropped to get rid of outliers that affect the mean.

6

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Example:

Greenwood Manufacturing is trying to recruit new employees so they can expand their company. In the

advertisement they claim that the average salary of an employee is $44,000 a year. Below is a chart showing the

payroll information for Greenwood.

a. Determine the mean, median and mode.

b. Is the company falsely advertising when they said that the average salary is $44,000?

c. What measure (mean, median, mode) is most appropriate to show what a typical salary is for an

employee? Why?

**Job Title Number of Employees Salary
**

President 1 $250,000

Vice β President 1 $130,000

Plant Manager 2 $75,000

Supervisor 10 $50,000

Labourer 30 $37,000

Sales Clerk 10 $24,000

Solution:
πππ‘πππ

π‘βππ‘ π‘βππ π ππ‘ ππ πππ‘π βππ ππππ π‘βππ‘ πππ ππππ ππ πππππππ πππβ ππ π‘βπ π πππππππ .
πΉππ

π‘βπ π πππππππ π‘βππ‘ βππ£π ππ’ππ‘ππππ ππππππ πππππππ π‘βππ ππ‘ ππ πππ πππ π‘ π‘π ππ’ππ‘ππππ¦ ππ¦ βππ€ ππππ¦ ππππππ
ππππ

π‘βππ‘ π πππππ¦ π‘π πππ‘ π‘βπ πππ‘ππ ππππ’ππ‘.
πΉπππππππ

ππππ ππ πππ ππππππππππ ππππππππ ππ πππππππ ππππ
ππππ ππ ππππ ππππππ
π πππ πππ π
πππ πππ
ππ

πππππ πππ πππππππ.

**Job Title Number of Employees Salary Total
**

President 1 $250,000 $250 000

Vice β President 1 $130,000 $130 000

Plant Manager 2 $75,000 $150 000

Supervisor 10 $50,000 $500 000

Labourer 30 $37,000 $1 110 000

Sales Clerk 10 $24,000 $240 000

Total Employees 54 $2 380 000

$2 380 000

a. ππππ = π₯Μ
= = $44 074.07

54

ππππππ = $37 000

ππππ = $37 000

b. π‘βπ πππππππ¦ π’π ππ π‘βπ ππππ

c. πβπ ππππ ππ π‘βπ πππ π‘ ππππ’πππ‘π ππ π‘βπ π‘βπππ ππππ π’πππ ππ ππππ‘πππ π‘πππππππ¦. πβπ ππππ ππ ππππππ‘ππ

ππ¦ π‘βπ ππ’π‘πππππ πππ ππ π‘π βππβ

7

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Curriculum Outcomes:

11E3.S.1 Develop statistical reasoning

Lesson 1 Assignment: Measures of Central Tendency

See your teacher for Lesson 1 Assignment

8

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

LESSON 2: ORGANIZING DATA GRAPHICALLY

There are many different graphs that can be created. But, depending on the type of data you have collected,

some graphs are better than others to display the data.

**Bar Chart: A bar chart is a way of summarizing a set
**

of categorical data.

**Other names: Column Categorical data is data that consist of only small
**

number of values, each corresponding to a specific

60 category value or label. Data that is usually better as

labels than numbers. The label may describe a

classification, category, or group of the item of

50

interest.

**For example, for data on reasons people were absent
**

40 from work, the classifications might include

categories such as illness, vacation, holiday, or

funeral leave.

30

A Bar Chart displays the data using a number of

rectangles, of the same width, each of which

20 represents a particular category. The length of each

rectangle is the number of cases in the category it

represents.

10

Notice the difference between bar charts where the

bars are drawn with a gap between them and a

Apples

Oranges

**histogram where the bars are drawn immediately
**

Star Fruit

Mango

Papaya

next to each other.

Variations:

Clustered bar, zero-line

9

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

**Line Graph: A graph of ordered pairs, (x,y), where the
**

points are connected, in order, by a line segment.

**Other names: Time series Good for comparing one set of values to another.
**

Also good for displaying trends.

**A line graph is a way to summarize how two pieces
**

of information are related and how they vary

depending on one another. The numbers along a side

of the line graph are called the scale.

**Line graphs show interpolated points and slopes
**

well.

Variations:

**In finance, high/low/close (in commodities field,
**

also called "bar"); candle charts.

**Histogram: A histogram is a way of summarising data
**

that are measured on an interval scale.

Other names: Step Good for comparing counts.

**Shows frequency distributions as steps or bars.
**

Test Scores

Good when values fall into discrete sets and not

10 good when they don't.

Number of Students

**8 Note: Histogram bars always touch. Bars (or sets of
**

bars) on bar charts do not touch.

6

The histogram is only appropriate for variables

4 whose values are numerical and measured on an

interval scale.

2

Variations: Pyramid histogram

0

0 - 49%

50 - 59%

60 - 69%

70 - 79%

80 - 89%

90 - 100%

Score

10

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

**Scatterplot: provide a visual representation of data and
**

allow us to look for any trends or patterns in the data

and are used for to graphically represent numerical

data

Other names: Scattergram, XY scatter Good for spotting clusters or out-of-range points.

**Each data point is the intersection of two variables
**

plotted against the two axes.

Variations:

Bubble chart

**Pie Graph: A circle graph (or pie chart) is a way of
**

summarising a set of categorical data. It is a circle

which is divided into segments and each segment size

represents how much that category makes up the whole.

**Other names: Circle, cake, sector Good for showing snapshots of proportional
**

relationships, one snapshot per period of time. One

pie is one whole (100 percent).

**Bad for comparing two or more relationships. Most
**

people find it hard to compare wedge-shaped areas

from one pie chart to the next.

11

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

LESSON 3: BAR CHARTS AND HISTOGRAMS:

Bar Charts and Histograms are useful to display data that falls into specific categories.

**Bar Charts: the bars in the graph do NOT touch
**

Histograms: the bars in the graph do touch

**Each is constructed in a similar manner. When constructing graphs it is important that we first identify the
**

independent and the dependent variables. The Independent variable it ALWAYS on the X-Axis (the horizontal

axis along the bottom of our graph) and the Dependant variable is on the Y-axis (the vertical axis along the side

of the graph).

Example:

The table below represents the number of incidence of various types of crimes for the town of Thompson.

Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

Number

1109 1200 1287 1350 1443

of Crimes

Construct a histogram to represent the above data.

Solution:

The Independent variable is the Year and the Dependent variable it the Number of Crimes.

Number of Crimes

1500

1450

1400

1350

1300

Number of Crimes

1250

1200

1150

1100

1050

1000

950

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

Year

12

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Example:

The following data was collected about which introductory courses first year university students take. Draw a

bar graph to represent the data.

**Course Chemistry Physics Math Psychology Economics
**

Number

155 120 200 300 250

of Students

Solution:

The Dependent variable is the Number of Students and the Independent variable is the Course

320

300

280

260

240

220

Number of Students

200

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Chemistry Physics Math Psychology Economics

Course

13

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Example:

Councils in two BC towns conducted a survey to determine how people feel about the different options for

protecting the bears that live in the area but still keep the communities safe. The results are shown below; create

a bar graph to represent this data.

**Bear Smart Program
**

Suggestions Votes: Town 1 Votes: Town 2

Use safe electric fences around the landfill 1020 711

Remove brush in town 294 47

Use bear-proof garbage bins 701 710

Move problem bears to the wild 773 479

Put out garbage on pickup day only 948 518

Lock commercial garbage bins 60 76

Solution:

**Bear Smart Program
**

1100

1000

900

800

700

# of Votes

600

500

Town 1

400

Town 2

300

200

100

0

Use safe Remove brush Use bear- Move Put out Lock

electric fences in town proof garbage problem bears garbage on commercial

around the bins to the wild pickup day garbage bins

landfill only

Suggestions

14

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Example:

The data below shows the number of acres on 32 beet farms. Quinnβs family wants to grow beets on their farm

this year. How can Quinn use this data to help them decide how many acres they should dedicate to growing

sugar beets?

**139 61 358 169
**

126 350 62 159

502 290 150 74

61 462 59 122

187 72 76 66

123 66 150 191

130 145 150 231

398 800 208 420

Solution:

Step 1: Determine the range of the data. This is the highest value subtract the lowest value

πππππ = 800 β 59 = 741

If the range is Large then we must create larger intervals for our data to be grouped into.

If the range is small then we can create smaller intervals.

Since 741 is a fairly large range we will use larger intervals to organize our data.

Step 2: Determine how many intervals you would need for the size you choose:

πππππ ππ πππ‘π

# ππ πππ‘πππ£πππ =

π ππ§π π¦ππ’ πβπππ π

**Let us choose intervals of 50. How many intervals would we need?
**

741

# ππ πππ‘πππ£πππ = = 15 π‘ππ ππππ¦ π‘π ππππ€

50

**If we choose intervals of 100:
**

741

# ππ πππ‘πππ£πππ = = 7.4 π π ππππ’π‘ 8 πππ‘πππ£πππ

100

Step 3: Organize the data into intervals to create a Frequency Table. For each interval count the number of

farms that fall into that category size.

# of Acres 0 β 100 101 β 200 201 β 300 301 β 400 401 β 500 501 β 600 601 β 700 701 β 800

# of Farms 9 13 3 3 2 1 0 1

Step 4: Draw the graph using the Frequency Table

15

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

**Number of Sugar Beet Farms
**

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

# of Farms

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

0 β 100 101 β 200 201 β 300 301 β 400 401 β 500 501 β 600 601 β 700 701 β 800

Size of Farm (acres)

16

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Curriculum Outcomes:

11E3.S.1 Solve problems that involve creating and interpreting graphs, including: bar graphs, histograms, line graphs, and circle

graphs

Lesson 3 Assignment: Bar Charts and Histograms

See your teacher for Lesson 3 Assignment

17

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

LESSON 4: CIRCLE GRAPHS:

Circle graphs are useful to display data that are in percentages.

Example:

Complete the chart and then create a circle graph that represents the data.

Pet Survey

Pet Number Percentage (%) Part of the Circle

No Pets 420 %

Dog 240 %

Cat 200 %

Bird 50 %

Other 90 %

Solution:

To draw a circle graph we first need to convert the data into a part of a circle. Recall that circles have 360Β° so

we need to convert our data to degrees.

To do this we first need to know the percent that each category is out of the total.

# ππ π‘βππ‘ πππ‘πππππ¦

πππππππ‘ = π₯100%

π‘ππ‘ππ ππ’ππππ

420 50

πππππππ‘ ππ πππ‘π = π₯100% = 42% πππππππ‘ π΅πππ = π₯100% = 5%

1000 1000

240 90

πππππππ‘ π·ππ = π₯100% = 24% πππππππ‘ ππ‘βππ = π₯100% = 9%

1000 1000

200

πππππππ‘ πΆππ‘ = π₯100% = 20%

1000

Next we have to change the percent to the number of degrees it is out of the whole circle.

ππππ‘ ππ πΆπππππ = (πππππππ‘ ππ π πππππππ)(360Β°)

**πππππππ‘ ππ πππ‘π = (0.42)(360Β°) = 151Β° πππππππ‘ π΅πππ = (0.05)(360Β°) = 18Β°
**

πππππππ‘ π·ππ = (0.24)(360Β°) = 86Β° πππππππ‘ ππ‘βππ = (0.09)(360Β°) = 32Β°

πππππππ‘ πΆππ‘ = (0.20)(360Β°) = 72Β°

18

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Pet Survey

Pet Number Percentage (%) Part of the Circle

No Pets 420 42% 151Β°

Dog 240 24% 86Β°

Cat 200 20% 72Β°

Bird 50 5% 18Β°

Other 90 9% 32Β°

Total 1000 100% 359Β°

Notice that the Part of the Circle does not add up to 360Β° but only to 359Β°. This is because we didnβt carry any

decimal places and therefore we have rounding errors. As long as it adds up to be close to 360Β° it is fine.

Now we use the degrees and a compass to draw the circle graph.

Pet Survey

Other

Bird

No Pets

Cat

Dog

19

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Example:

The following data was collected from a telephone poll of 1000 Canadians. Each person was asked to name

their favourite sport to watch. Draw a circle graph that represents the data.

Sport Number

Hockey 450

Football 240

Baseball 120

Basketball 89

Soccer 58

Volleyball 24

Other 19

Solution:

**Sport Number Percent Degrees
**

Hockey 450

Football 240

Baseball 120

Basketball 89

Soccer 58

Volleyball 24

Other 19

Total

20

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Line Graphs

A line graph is a way to summarize how two pieces of information are related and how they vary depending on

one another. They are also used to show trends in data.

Example:

The table below shows daily temperatures for New York City, recorded fro 6 days. Draw a line graph to

represent the data.

Temperature in NY City

Day Temperature

1 43Β°F

2 53Β°F

3 50Β°F

4 57Β°F

5 59Β°F

6 67Β°F

Solution:

**Temperature in New York
**

80

70

60

Temperature Β°F

50

40

30

20

10

0

1 2 3 4 5 6

Day

21

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Example:

Sarah bought a new car in 2001 for $24,000. The dollar value of her car changed each year as shown in the table

below. Construct a line graph to represent the data. Explain any trend that the graph shows. In 2009 what would

you predict the value of her car to be?

Value of Sarah's Car

Year Value

2001 $24,000

2002 $22,500

2003 $19,700

2004 $17,500

2005 $14,500

2006 $10,000

2007 $ 5,800

Solution:

**Value of Sarah's Car Value
**

$26,000

$24,000

$22,000

$20,000

$18,000

$16,000

Value in $

$14,000

$12,000

$10,000

$8,000

$6,000

$4,000

$2,000

$0

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Year

22

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Example:

A tourist resort in Jasper, Alberta, has made a graph of the nationalities of their visitors over the past year, to

help them direct their marketing campaign for next year.

**Visitors to Jasper Resort,
**

by Nationality

Canadian 29%

American 21%

M exican 13%

British 17%

Other European 5%

Australian 15%

a. After Canadians, visitors of what nationality are most common?

American, 21%

b. What percentage of visitors are Canadian?

Canadians, 29%

c. If there were 1500 British visitors, how many Americans visited the resort?

# ππ π£ππ ππ‘πππ = (% ππ π£ππ ππ‘πππ ππ π πππππππ)(π‘ππ‘ππ # ππ π£ππ ππ‘πππ ) πππ‘ππ

ππ’ππππ ππ π£ππ ππ‘πππ :

ππ π€πππ π’π π π‘βπ ππππππππ‘πππ ππππ’π‘ π‘βπ π΅πππ‘ππ β π‘π πππππ’πππ‘π π‘βπ π‘ππ‘ππ ππ’ππππ ππ π£ππ ππ‘πππ .

1500 = (0.17)(πππ‘ππ)

1500

πππ‘ππ = = 8824

0.17

So,

# ππ π΄πππππππ π£ππ ππ‘πππ = (0.21)(8824) = 1853

23

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Curriculum Outcomes:

11E3.S.1 Solve problems that involve creating and interpreting graphs, including: bar graphs, histograms, line graphs, and circle

graphs

Lesson 4: Assignment: Circle Graphs and Line Graphs

See your teacher for Lesson 4 Assignment

24

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

LESSON 5: MANIPULATION OF DATA

The manipulation of data was introduced in the lesson for the measures of central tendency.

Recall that the mean is influenced by outliers in the data and therefore may not be the best representation for the

data when the data contains outliers. If an individual wanted to use the data to mislead others they may choose

the mean over the median or mode.

Manipulating data can also be done using graphs. One method of manipulating the graph is changing the y-axis.

By changing the y-axis the graph can be made to appear different and therefore be used to support a specific

point of view or opinion. Thus, it is important to be aware of how the graph is created to be able to understand

the data.

Example:

The following chart lists the annual sales at a local company.

**Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
**

Sales (in Thousands) 136 140 144 148 155

**a. Draw a bar graph to represent this data accurately.
**

b. The president of the company would like the increase in sales to appear a large as possible in the graph.

Draw a graph to represent the data so that the increase appears much greater than it actually is.

c. A competing company wants to make sales over the past five years appear as small as possible. Draw a

graph that would represent the data so that the increase in sales appears much smaller.

25

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Solution:

a. Choose a graph with a vertical axis beginning at 0; to create the most accurate graph the vertical axis

should begin at zero (although, this sometimes is difficult depending on the range of the data)

160

140

120

Sales (in thousands)

100

80

60

40

20

0

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Year

b. To make the sales increase over the past five years to appear larger choose a vertical scale that begins at

130 and a smaller interval of increase for the vertical axis.

Note: by truncating the vertical axis the difference between the bars height in the graph is exaggerated

creating the impression that the sales increases were larger. By paying close attention to the scale on the axis

you would know that the increase over the past five years has only been about 5 thousand each year.

160

155

Sales (in thousands)

150

145

140

135

130

125

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Year

26

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

c. To make the sales increase appear much smaller choose a larger scale and a large maximum value so

the difference in heights of the bars is reduced and the appearance of a sales increase is minimized.

500

400

Sales (in thousands)

300

200

100

0

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Year

27

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Example:

An advertisment for the Widget Company claims that the price of widgets has dropped dramatically over the

last six months. The company supports its claim with the following graph.

a. Explain how the graph distorts the data.

b. Construct a more accurate graph of the data.

Price of Widgets

79

78

77

76

75

74

Price

73

72

71

70

69

68

Apr May Jun Jul Aug

Month

Solution:

a. The graph distorts the data because the y-axis does not start at 0. Because it does not start at 0 the

decrease in price appears to the larger from month to month. Also, the scale on the y-axis is small (only

increases by 1) which exaggerates the difference between months.

b. A more accurate graph illustrating the decrease in price would have a y-axis beginning at 0 and a scale

of 10.

Price of Widgets

90

80

70

60

50

Price

40

30

20

10

0

Apr May Jun Jul Aug

Month

28

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Manipulation of bar graphs and histograms can also be achieved by changing the width of the bars. To draw an

accurate bar graph or histogram the bars must be the same size. If one bar is larger than another, the impression

is that there is more data collected for that category. Thus, changing the x-axis also changes the appearance of

the graph and may be used to support a specific point of view.

Example:

a) Draw an accurate double bar graph for the data below.

b) Draw a second double bar graph so that it appears that mothers buy more books than fathers.

c) Draw a third graph so that it appears that very few mothers buy sporting equipment as gifts.

**Item Video Games Art Supplies Books Sport
**

Equipment

Mothers 12 29 21 15

Fathers 25 16 22 26

Solution:

a.

Gifts

32

30

28

26

24

22

20

18

# of Gifts

16

Mothers

14

Fathers

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

Video Games Art Supplies Books Sport Equipment

Type of Gift

29

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

b. If we want it to look like Fathers bought significantly more books than Mothers than we make that bar

wider and the bar representing Mothers purchases thinner.

Gifts

32

30

28

26

24

22

20

18

# of Gifts

16

Mothers

14

Fathers

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

Video Games Art Supplies Books Sport Equipment

Type of Gift

30

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

Curriculum Outcomes:

E-3 manipulate the presentation of data to represent a point of view

Lesson 5 Assignment: Misuse of Statistics

See your teacher for Lesson 5 Assignment

31

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

LESSON 6: GRAPHING ON EXCEL:

Using Excel create graphs for the following data.

1. The following data was collected from a poll of 100 Canadians. Each person was asked to name their

favourite sport to watch. Draw

a. a bar chart and

b. a circle graph for the following data.

Sport Number (out of 1000)

Hockey 450

Football 240

Baseball 120

Basketball 89

Soccer 58

Volleyball 24

Other 19

**2. Create a Line Graph for the following data:
**

Year Johnβs Weight (kg)

1991 68

1992 70

1993 74

1994 74

1995 73

**3. Create a line graph to represent the depreciation of a Carβs Value versus the mileage of the car.
**

Carβs Value ($) Kilometers on Odometer

$14,000 0

$12,000 20,000

$8,000 40,000

$5,000 60,000

$4,000 80,000

$3,000 120,000

4. Create a circle graph to represent the toppings that people like on their pizza. The data below was collected

from 1000 people.

Topping Number of People Part of the Circle

Sausage 75

Cheese 250

Tomato 125

Mushroom 50

Pepperoni 250

Meatlovers 250

32

Grade 11 Essentials Math

Statistics

5. Bob is a store manager and wants to create a bar graph to track the number of hours each of his employeeβs

works. Below is the schedule for the week. Create a bar graph showing each employeeβs hours for each day.

**Employee Sun Mon Tues Wed Thrus Fri Sat Total
**

Chantel 7 8 0 0 7 8 4

Chris 0 6 4 4 4 4 0

John 0 4 8 7 0 0 8

Dawn 4 4 4 0 4 4 0

Total hours /day

6. Larry researched the number of people working in the different industries in Winnipeg and recorded the data

in the following table.

1. Create a spreadsheet and graph for this data.

2. Why did you choose the type of graph that you have in part a?

Number of People Working in Industries in Winnipeg

Agriculture Construction Manufacturing Wholesale Retail Finance Health Education Business Other

services

47 595 32 310 62 580 23 040 65 475 31 505 75 915 47 365 95 353 121 030

**7. Go to the following website (http://www.vancouver2010.com/) to collect data from the 2010 Winter
**

Olympic Games.

a. Create a Bar Chart to show the top 12 winning countries for TOTAL medal count.

b. Create separate Bar Charts to show the top 5 countries for

ο· Gold,

ο· Silver and

ο· Bronze Medals.

c. Recreate the following graph BUT be sure to include the titles for each axis as well as a legend.

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

d. Create two Line Graphs to show 1) the total medal count and 2) the total Gold medals won for Canada

from the 1998 Nagano, 2002 Salt Lake City, 2006 Torino, and the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic

Games.

e. What can you say about the total number of medals won and the total number of Gold medals won by

Canada from the 1998 to the 2010 Winter Olympics?

33

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