Praise for Simon Critchley's

THE BOOK OF
DEAD PHILOSOPHERS

" A provocative and engrossing invitation to think about the
human condition and what philosophy can and can't do to
illuminate it." —Financial Times

"Concise, witty and oddly heartening."
—New Statesman (A 2008 Book of the Year)

" F u l l of wonderful a b s u r d i t i e s . . . . Extremely enjoyable."
—The Independent (London)

" S i m o n C r i t c h l e y is probably the sharpest a n d most
lucid philosopher writing i n English today."
— T o m M c C a r t h y , author of Remainder

"Ingenious. . . . Packed with great stories."
—Time Out London

" A tremendous addition to an all too sparse literature. . . .
Brilliant, entertaining, informative."
—New Humanist ( U K )

" A fabulous concept. . . . [Critchley writes] with dash,
h u m o u r and an eye for scandalous detail."
—The Vancouver Sun

" [ C r i t c h l e y is] a m o n g the hippest of (living) British
philosophers." — T h e Book B e n c h , newyorker.com

"Surprisingly good fun. . . . Worthy of the prose writings
of Woody A l l e n . . . . N o t the least of the pleasures of this
odd book, lighthearted and occasionally facetious as it
is, is that i n surveying a chronological history of philoso-
phers it provides a sweep through the entire history of
philosophy itself." —The Irish Times

" C r i t c h l e y has a lightness of t o u c h , a nimbleness of
thought, and a m o c k i n g graveyard h u m o u r that puts
you i n m i n d of Hamlet with a skull."
—The Independent on Sunday (London)
Simon Critchley
"The Book of Dead Philosophers is something of a magic
trick: on the surface an amusing and bemused series of
blackout sketches of philosophers' often rather h u m b l e T H E B O O K OF
and/or brutal deaths, it actually is an utterly serious,
deeply moving, cant-free attempt to return us to the gor-
DEAD PHILOSOPHERS
geousness of material existence, to our creatureliness, to
our clownish bodies, to the only immortality available
to us (immersion i n the moment). I absolutely love this
book." — D a v i d Shields, author of S i m o n Critchley is Professor and C h a i r of Philosophy at

The Thing About Life Is That One Day You'll Be Dead the N e w School for Social Research i n N e w York. H e is
the author of many books, most recently, On Heideg-
ger's Being and T i m e and Infinitely Demanding: Ethics
"[Critchley] brings the deaths of his predecessors to life
of Commitment, Politics of Resistance. The Book of Dead
in 190 or so energetic bursts."
Philosophers was written on a h i l l overlooking Los
-The Sunday Herald ( U K )
Angeles, where he was a scholar at the Getty Research
Institute. H e lives in Brooklyn.
" C r i t c h l e y gives the nonspecialist, the reader for plea-
sure, a point of access into complex material."
—The Sydney Morning Herald (Australia)

" S i m o n Critchley's book looks death i n the face and
draws from the encounter the breath of life. N o philoso-
pher can pull a more welcome rabbit out of a more for-
bidding hat and M r . C r i t c h l e y does so i n a prose style
that is as deft as his intelligence."
—Lewis L a p h a m , editor of Lapham's Quarterly

Politics of Resistance On the Human Condition with D o m i n i q u e Janicaud Things Merely Are: Philosophy in the Poetry of Wallace Stevens On Humor Continental Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction Ethics-Politics-Subjectivity Very Little. THE BOOK OF A L S O BY S I M O N CRITCHLEY DEAD PHILOSOPHERS On Heidegger's Being and T i m e with Reiner Schürmann and Steven Levine Infinitely Demanding: Ethics of Commitment. Almost Nothing The Ethics of Deconstruction .

Mew York . The BOOK of DEAD PHILOSOPHERS Simon Critchley VINTAGE BOOKS A Division of Random House. Inc.

Includes bibliographical references. Philosophers — D e a t h . Vintage and colophon are registered trademarks of Random House. with comments. 2. Published i n the United States MONTAIGNE. F I R S T V I N T A G E B O O K S E D I T I O N . ISBN 978-O-307-39043-I 1.C68 2009 I9O — D C 2 2 [B] 2008047719 Author photograph © John Simmons Book design by Rebecca Aidlin www. and in Canada by Random House of Canada Limited.vintagebooks. cm. Title. in 2008.. L o n d o n . Originally published in hardcover i n Great Britain by Granta Books. "That to Philosophize Is to Learn How to D i e " New York. Inc. A l l rights reserved. of various deaths. B72. Simon. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Critchley. Illustration credits appear on page 266. Toronto. I would make a register. He who would Copyright © 2008 by Simon Critchley teach men to die would teach them to live. 1960- T h e book of dead philosophers / Simon Critchley. Philosophers—Anecdotes. I. p. F E B R U A R Y 2OO9 If I were a maker of books. Inc. a division of Random House.com Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 . by Vintage Books.

Aristotelians and Cynics Plato 19 • Speusippus 21 • Xenocrates 21 • Arcesilaus 21 • Carneades 21 • Hegesias 22 • Aristotle 22 • Theophrastus 24 • Strato 25 • Lyco 2 Demetrius 25 • Antisthenes 25 • Diogenes 26 • Crates of Thebes 28 • Hipparchia 28 • Metrocles 29 • M e n i p p u s 30 xi . CONTENTS INTRODUCTION xv Learning H o w to D i e . Cyrenaics.Socrates xx To D i e L a u g h i n g xxv W r i t i n g about D e a d Philosophers xxxi 190 O R S O D E A D P H I L O S O P H E R S 1 Pre-Socratics. Physiologists. Sages and Sophists Thales 4 • Solon 4 • C h i l o n 5 • Periander 5 • Epimenides 5 • Anaximander 6 • Pythagoras 7 • T i m y c h a 9 • Heracleitus 10 • Aeschylus 11 • Anaxagoras 12 • Parmenides 12 • Z e n o of Elea 12 Empedocles 13 • Archelaus 15 • Protagoras 15 • Democritus 17 • Prodicus 18 Platonists.

Anselm 88 • Solomon Ibn G a b i r o l 89 • Abelard 89 • Averroes (Ibn Rushd) 91 • Moses Maimonides 93 • Many Germans and Some Non-Germans Shahab al-din Suhrawardi 94 W i n c k e l m a n n 159 • Kant 160 • Burke 162 • Wollstonecraft 163 • Condorcet 164 • Bentham 164 • Philosophy in the Latin Middle Ages Goethe 166 • Schiller 167 • Fichte 167 • Hegel 168 Hölderlin 170 • Schelling 171 • Novalis 172 • Albert the Great 95 • St. Stoics and Epicureans Renaissance. Thomas M o r e 107 Luther 108 • Copernicus 109 • Tycho Brahe 110 • Petrus Ramus 111 • Montaigne 111 • Giordano Bruno 114 Classical Chinese Philosophers G a l i l e o 115 • Bacon 116 • Campanella 117 Kongzi (Confucius) 43 • L a o z i (Lao T z u ) 45 • M o z i 46 • M e n g z i (Mencius) 47 • Z h u a n g z i (Chuang T z u ) 47 • H a n Feizi 51 • Z e n and the Art of D y i n g 52 Rationalists (Material and Immaterial). Gregory of Nyssa 75 • St. John Duns Scotus 100 • W i l l i a m of O c k h a m 101 .XU CONTENTS CONTENTS Xlll Sceptics. Islamic and Judaic Radicati di Passerano 148 • M a d a m e du Chätelet 150 • L a Mettrie 151 • H u m e 153 • Rousseau 155 • T h e Venerable Bede 83 • John Scottus Eriugena 84 • Diderot 157 Al-Farabi 85 • Avicenna (Ibn Sina) 86 • St. Antony 73 • St. Thomas Aquinas 95 • Kleist 173 • Schopenhauer 174 • Heine 176 • St. Reformation and Anaxarchus 31 • Pyrrho 32 • Z e n o of C i t i u m 33 • Scientific Revolution Ariston 34 • Dionysius 35 • Cleanfhes 35 • Marsilio F i c i n o 103 • Pico della M i r a n d o l a 104 • Chrysippus 36 • Epicurus 37 • Lucretius 40 Machiavelli 105 • Erasmus 106 • St. Bonaventure 98 • Ramon L l u l l 98 • Feuerbach 176 • Stirner 177 Siger of Brabant 99 • St. Augustine 76 • Boethius 79 Philosophes. Empiricists and Religious Dissenters Romans (Serious and Ridiculous) and Neoplatonists Grotius 119 • Hobbes 119 • Descartes 121 • Princess Elizabeth of Bohemia 124 • Gassendi 125 • C i c e r o 55 • Seneca 56 • Petronius 59 • Epictetus 60 • L a Rochefoucauld 126 • Pascal 127 • G e u l i n c x 129 • Polemo of Laodicea 62 • Peregrinus Proteus 62 • A n n e Conway 130 • Locke 131 • Damaris Cudworth 134 Marcus Aurelius 63 • Plotinus 64 • Hypatia 66 Spinoza 135 • Malebranche 138 • Leibniz 139 • V i c o 140 • Shaftesbury 141 • Toland 142 • The Deaths of Christian Saints Berkeley 143 St. Paul 69 • Origen 71 • St. Materialists and Sentimentalists Montesquieu 145 • Voltaire 146 • Medieval Philosophers: Christian.

As C i c e r o writes. the cultivation of an attitude towards our finitude that faces—and faces down—the terror xv ." T h e m a i n task of philosophy. and the horror of what lies in the grave other than our Gadamer 211 • Lacan 212 • Adorno 214 • body nailed into a box and lowered into the earth to become Levinas 216 • Sartre 218 • Beauvoir 220 • Arendt 221 •• wormfood. This is a terror both of the inevitability of our demise The Long Twentieth Century II: Analytics. Creatureliness It is i n stark contrast to our drunken desire for evasion and escape that the ideal of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l death has such GEOGRAPHICAL DETAILS A N D T H A N K S 251 sobering power. i n this view. and this sentiment was axiomatic for most ancient philosophy and echoes down the BIBLIOGRAPHY 253 ages. the terror of a n n i h i l a t i o n Foucault 238 • Baudrillard 240 • Derrida 240 • leads us blindly into a belief in the magical forms of salva- Debord 243 • D o m i n i q u e Janicaud 244 • tion and promises of immortality offered by certain varieties S i m o n Critchley 245 of traditional religion and many N e w Age (and some rather older age) sophistries. to deny the fact of death and Ayer 226 • Camus 229 • Ricoeur 230 • Barthes 230 • to r u n headlong into the watery pleasures of forgetfulness. with its future prospect of pain and possibly meaningless suf- a Few Moribunds and a Near-death Experience fering. is to prepare us for death. O n the other h a n d . W h a t we seem to seek is either the transitory consolation of momentary oblivion or a m i r a c u - ' LAST WORDS 247 lous redemption i n the afterlife. "To philosophize is to learn how to die. to pro- vide a k i n d of training for death.X ! V CONTENTS The Masters of Suspicion and Some Unsuspicious Americans Emerson 179 • Thoreau 180 • M i l l 181 • Darwin 181 • Kierkegaard 182 • Marx 184 • W i l l i a m James 185 • Nietzsche 187 • Freud 189 • Bergson 191 • Dewey 192 INTRODUCTION The Long Twentieth Century I: Philosophy in Wartime Husserl 193 • Santayana 194 • Croce 195 • Gentile 196 • Gramsci 196 • Russell 197 • Schlick 198 • Lukäcs 199 • Rosenzweig 200 • Wittgenstein 202 • Heidegger 204 • Carnap 206 • Edith Stein 207 • T h i s book begins from a simple assumption: what defines Benjamin 208 h u m a n life in our corner of the planet at the present time is not just a fear of death. Davidson 230 • Althusser 232 • Rawls 233 • intoxication and the mindless accumulation of money and Lyotard 234 • Fanon 235 • Deleuze 237 • possessions. on the one hand. Continentals. Merleau-Ponty 223 • Q u i n e 224 • Weil 225 • We are led. but an overwhelming terror of anni- hilation.

the an unquestioned good. says that "true philosophers make dying their profession. appropriate attitude to death and dying. prophetically. then." namely A l l o w me a caveat and a word on the form of The Book of Dead a tranquillity and calm in the face of death. In the Phaedo he insists that the philosopher should be sound. dur. money or medical science and where longevity is prized as vides the wisdom necessary to confront death. for when you are dead you will be like this. It is i n this way that we might begin to in a night." M y wager is that i n learning that " H e will live badly who does not know how to die w e l l . " how to die we might also be taught how to live. I want dom." me. then the fact of our have died and what we can learn from philosophy about the demise can be faced with self-control. Seeking to escape death. Often has the crash of a falling building echoed beside To philosophize. H e writes. this is a book about how philosophers one has learnt to die philosophically. for it is. a readiness for death without w h i c h any conception of con- sophical death is Socrates. of Seneca's botched suicide will be described below. finally. let alone happiness. serenity and courage. Eventually. is illusory. for h i m . sometimes very short. it is my belief that philosophy can teach say that it is nothing. i n the words you speak. to echo T h i s Socratic wisdom finds even more radical expression the epigraph from M o n t a i g n e . he was forced to commit suicide by N e r o i n Montaigne derives the following moral from his Egyptian 65. although the actual manner of philosophers' deaths be a slave. the fear of friendship. In a world run away from ourselves. ." T h i s is an astonishing conclusion: the premedi. is to learn to have death i n your me. but i n my I did know in what riotous company Nature had enclosed mouth. T h e denial of death is self-hatred. having been all but con- Montaigne writes of the custom of the Egyptians who. T h e philosopher. Yet. is not always as noble as Socrates. where the only metaphysics i n w h i c h people believe is either It was a c o m m o n p l a c e i n antiquity that philosophy pro. d e m n e d to death by C a l i g u l a i n A D 39 and banished by ing their elaborate feasts. " D r i n k figure i n the R o m a n world and one of its most powerful and be merry. As M o n t a i g n e writes. not merely i n my imagination. which has severed the hands once joined in confront the terror of annihilation. T h a t is. anecdote: "So I have formed the habit of having death con- tinually present.XV! INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION XVII of a n n i h i l a t i o n without offering promises of an afterlife. with several centuries later i n the Stoicism of Seneca. Indeed. and the vile circumstances tation of death is nothing less than the forethinking of free. my constant c o n c e r n i n these seemingly m o r b i d cheerful i n the face of death. T h e original exemplar for such a philo. to w h o m I w i l l return i n detail tentment. is "to make a register." If Very simply stated. of various deaths. " H e who has learned how to die has unlearned how to N o w . Strange as it might below. I do not deny that this is a difficult philosopher looks death i n the face and has the strength to ideal to defend. Seneca knew whereof he spoke. who writes comments. is to remain unfree and to defend the ideal of the philosophical death. caused a great image of death — Claudius on a charge of adultery with the emperor's niece i n often a h u m a n skeleton —to be brought into the banquet 41. the food you eat a n d the the senate and everyday conversation have been carried off drink that you imbibe. Should it surprise me if the perils which have death that enslaves us and leads us towards either temporary always roamed around me should some day reach me? o b l i v i o n or the l o n g i n g for immortality. Many who were linked to me through the forum and m o u t h . he goes further and pages is the meaning and possibility of happiness. then. when he was the most important intellectual hall accompanied by a m a n who called out to them." administrators. T h e book comprises short. Philosophers. W h a t Stoicism tries to teach is "something great and supreme and nearly divine. M y hope. enjoys a l o n g life because he doesn't worry over its shortness.

Lucretius. but my hope is that. Rousseau. However. entries run from a sentence or two up to a short essay i n the Matisse was once asked if he believed i n G o d . cataloguing the manner of add up to a specific argument about how philosophy might their demise and often linking this to their central ideas. L o c k e . " Let's just say that this larly value. the major epochs i n the history of philosophy. a cumulative series of themes will emerge that .XVÜi INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION XIX entries on various philosophers. Spinoza. H u m e . involved marshalling a vast array of literary sources. T h e teach one how to die and. T h e learned eye will see some gaps and will doubtless disagree with many of my choices. I have no objection to the book being used as a miscellany. the reader will find more extensive book has been a lot of work. the reader w i l l find a smattering of saints. T h e reader will M o n t a i g n e . Schopenhauer and Nietzsche. classical Chinese philosophers and medieval Islamic and Jewish philosophers. around 190. But that's already quite a few. Simply stated. T h e entries are listed a few more signposts on the history of philosophy and chronologically from Thales in the sixth century BC up to the philosophers are encouraged to look at the final pages of this present. L . how to live. Diogenes. my chronology will not be exact and the philosophers will not be treated i n a strict temporal succession. They are divided into a series of chapters that reflect introduction. Those seeking a little more context and Heidegger. i n c l u d i n g a hopefully surprising number of w o m e n philosophers. as I was finishing this book. Foucault and Derrida. Some philoso- phers have been omitted either because I could find nothing particularly interesting to say about their deaths —such as Frege. particularly when it suits my putposes to do otherwise. As well as trying to cover many major and m i n o r figures in the history of Western philosophy. Z h u a n g z i . Aquinas. H e case of philosophers of great importance or w h o m I particu. I have not attempted to describe how every significant philosopher died. I have Epicurus. decided not to clutter the text with footnotes. I have focused on the philosophers who appeal to me. Descartes. T h e entries can be read either from beginning to end or by dipping in and out. I have also given a lot and discover more for themselves can use the annotated bib- of attention to twentieth-century thinkers like Wittgenstein. "I do when I'm w o r k i n g . Austin—or because their deaths felt too close—such as Richard Rorty. by implication. For example. liography at the end. Gilbert Ryle or J. have to trust me. Augustine. A l t h o u g h my research has and recurring discussions of figures like Socrates. Those who want to follow up my sources Hegel. if read from begin- ning to end. Seneca. some of w h o m held fascinating views on death (and a few of whom died spec- tacularly). who died on 8 June. Ayer. 2007. answered.

regardless of w h i c h of these pos- stop i n his tracks. the There is another story told of Socrates." but an external sign or c o m m a n d that would suddenly cause h i m to But Socrates insists that. Socrates. should also be remembered that. Whatever the truth of the latter accusa- tion. or. migration of the soul from this place to another. " A n d nature t h e m . Socrates' death is a tragedy i n many acts. then it is a long. but on the contrary a good thing. Socrates says that death is not at all an Athens and failing to revere the city's gods. namely Hades. charismatic and should face death with c o n f i d e n c e . " T h e T h i r t y Tyrants have c o n d e m n e d you to politics. is hardly a fan of democracy. then that is also something to be Socrates c o u n t e d s o m e pretty r e a c t i o n a r y characters wished as we will meet old friends and Greek heroes and be a m o n g his followers. However. as we are told. Plato devotes no fewer than four dialogues to the events surrounding Socrates' trial and death {Euthypho. becoming the tragedy of the decay and collapse of Athens itself. Socrates' daimon was not some "inner voice. B u t the earlier Apology gives a rather different were two charges levelled against h i m : corrupting the youth of view of the matter. H a v i n g been c o n - dissolute aristocrat who bursts drunk into Plato's Symposium. Anytus and Lycon. Indeed. ness of anything. If it Socrates' death is sometimes seen as the p o l i t i c a l show is annihilation. " Socrates likewise the T h i r t y Tyrants who died on the battlefield alongside turns the table on his accusers and jury. and the dead have no conscious- C i c e r o called a "divine something": a personal god or spirit. Crito and Phaedo). another of death. dreamless sleep. w h i c h is c o m m o n l y seen Philosophy is conventionally considered to begin with the as the latest of Plato's four dialogues. Hegel writes that Socrates' trial is the moment when tragedy leaves Learning How to Die—Socrates the stage and fully enters political life. In Plato's account. However. sibilities is true. what Either it is annihilation. Socrates' words become trial and death of Socrates. It immortal company. and what trial and execution of an innocent dissident at the hands of a could be more pleasant than that? If it is a passage to another tyrannical state. that when a m a n only time that Socrates advised one of his disciples to enter told h i m . L E A R N I N G HOW T O DIE — S O C R A T E S XXi the Spartans and once again to the Persians. it s h o u l d not be forgotten that place. and his teaching could justifiably be seen as foment- ing disillusion with democracy among right-wing aristocrats. Alcibiades. Socrates always claimed to follow his own daimon. according to X e n o p h o n . There of the soul. it is really a change: a what we might be i n c l i n e d to think of as conscience. death is not something to be feared. Socrates concludes his speech with the defected from Athens to the enemy on two occasions: once to following extraordinary words: . death is one there is also a third charge. In the Phaedo. Socrates' pupil Critias was leader of the able to converse with H o m e r . That said. asserting that they Critias. d e m n e d to death. especially in the version given by Plato in The Republic. who was condemned to death on suffused with Plato's Pythagorean belief i n the immortality the trumped-up charges of Meletus. H e s i o d and the rest of the Thirty Tyrants' anti-democratic reign of terror i n 404-3 BC. the recipient was a reluctant Charmides. evil. the handsome. namely that Socrates introduced of two possibilities: his own "new" gods. Finally." he r e p l i e d . and i n addition we have the Memorabilia and Apology of X e n o p h o n . Apology.

T h a t is. W h a t philosophy teaches is not some quantifiable s u m of knowledge that can be bought or sold like a commodity i n There has never been a more important time to emphasize the marketplace. wisdom. first. w h i c h is learnt is not knowledge. philosophy is learning how to die. we are given a for life. who travelled from city to city. Hippias and the rest—whose rounded by countless new sophistries. the poorly I think it is fair to say that Western societies. not Sophists were masters of eloquence. Protagoras. indicate to us indirectly the matter at hand. dismissed. Instead. dismantled and trary. we do not know w h i c h one the c u l t i v a t i o n of a love of w i s d o m . I am writ- p u b l i c displays of eloquence i n return for a fee. are experiencing a deep meaning gap that weak paradox. For example. T h e path to jus- ment w o u l d offer before sleep i n the hope of w a k i n g up tice. i n other words. towards the G o o d . dressed Sophists who come promising knowledge. S u c h is the business of the Sophists — this distinction between philosophy and sophistry. conventional views of justice are discussed. T h i s gap is being filled by wisest m a n i n Greece by the Oracle at D e l p h i . Socrates is declared the risks broadening into an abyss. it is completely . therefore can the wisest m a n i n the world know nothing? second. death is a curative slumber. Socrates always insists that he knows nothing. Los Angeles. tice. But i n the central books of The Republic. and not just attired and rather ugly Socrates only seems to embody a Western societies. H o w belief that. w h i c h is precisely not a matter of k n o w l - W h a t must be emphasized i n Socrates' attitude towards edge but a work of love. but that not just epistemic. a lake shrine. the object of inquiry is jus- These words encapsulate the classical philosophical atti. then. is right. T h i s seeming paradox evaporates w h e n we learn to dis- but which of us has the happier prospect is unknown to tinguish w i s d o m f r o m knowledge and b e c o m e lovers of anyone but G o d . philosophers. it comes with a price tag. Televangelists offer views Socrates relentlessly dismantles i n Plato's dialogues. and third. O n the other various forms of obscurantism that conspire to promote the h a n d . " W h a t is justice?" asks Socrates and various more or less tude towards death: it is nothing to be feared.XXÜ INTRODUCTION L E A R N I N G HOW T O DIE — S O C R A T E S XXÜl Now it is time that we were going. T h i s is an essential point. offering lavish gardens. brightly coloured wrappings. Socrates Socrates' enigmatic last w o r d s — " C r i t o . Asclepius was the god of healing. expensive programmes for improving spiritual self-knowledge In opposition to the charismatic and often c o l o u r f u l l y and c o m m u n i o n with G o d . A n entire N e w Age industry has arisen where class of professional educators that appeared i n the fifth cen. The ing these lines on West Sunset Boulevard. we ought to offer a does not give his interlocutors an answer to the question of cock to Asclepius"—articulate the view that death is the cure justice or some theory of justice. "honey-tongued. is only to be followed by orienting the soul cured. Philosophy begins. the Sophists were a the cause. T h u s . with the death i n the Apology is that although death might be either questioning of certainties i n the realm of knowledge and of the two possibilities discussed. I to die and you to live. O n the con. P h i l o s o p h y is erotic. and the offering of series of stories —most famously the myth of the cave —that a sacrifice was something that people suffering from an ail. H i n d u kitsch architecture and knowledge i n exchange for money. authoritative knowledge of the true word of G o d and perform A l t h o u g h Socrates is himself described as a Sophist by the miraculous cures i n exchange for appropriate donations to lampooning Aristophanes i n The Clouds. Prodicus. i n The Republic. Knowledge (capital K) of something called Self (capital S) is tury B C and w h o offered i n s t r u c t i o n to y o u n g m e n a n d traded in expensive." complete with Philostratus writes. such a thing as self-knowledge is attainable. it is that i n relation to w h i c h life must be lived." as far from the palatial "Self-Realization Center. We are sur- Gorgias. O n the one h a n d . we are told.

tells a fascinat. True. Indeed. crucially." as a slightly more antique trans. ences spawned by Raymond Moody's Life after Life. usually considered the first philosopher. death is an illusion. "do you not die?" "Because. pleasure and personal salvation. never accepted a fee. Socrates never c l a i m e d to k n o w . Existence is a cycle of rebirth that is only broken by a final passage to Enlightenment. through T i m o t h y Leary's psychedelic 1960s version of The Tibetan Book of the To be a philosopher. He held there was no difference between life and death." said one. it is one of "the noblest functions of rea. "there is no difference. the Enlightenment (capital E ) that allegedly comes with the realization of Nirvana." Society i n the late nineteenth century. b u t also raises the question of w h i c h is preferable: life or death." although there is a good deal of American Buddhism around as well. it is to begin Dead achieved with the help of L S D . It is thus a question of gaining access to the right Knowledge (capital K . T h e i n f l u e n c e of such approaches is vast. if To Die Laughing eternal life has an admission price. obsession with "near-death" or "out-of-the-body" experi- cus Aurelius writes. even with regard to whether life or death is the better carefully describe the rituals necessary to prepare with cer- state. to the contemporary to cultivate the appropriate attitude towards death. author of the hugely i n f l u e n t i a l Lives of afterlife. This approach to death is encapsulated in the words of the . 189 spells to ensure that the soul passes to an astral or solar genes Laertius. but who expresses a radical doubt with regard to all whether Egyptian or Tibetan. The Egyptian Book of the Dead comprises lation of Socrates' final words at his trial runs. once again) that will strip away what Schopenhauer saw as the illusory veils of Maya and allow the soul to free itself. D i o . " know. W h a t this desire for certainty betrays is a profound terror of death and an overwhelming anxiety to be quite sure that death is not the end. These exquisite ancient writings things. but the passage to the afterlife. necessary to break the illusory cycles of existence and achieve ing story of Thales. H e does not simply give voice to an uncertainty with regard to life after death. B y contrast. the philosopher walks. tainty for the afterlife." U n k n o w i n g and uncertain. The Tibetan Book of the Dead describes the death rituals Eminent Philosophers from the third century A D . As M a r . never promised knowledge to others a n d . from 1976. dhism. then who w o u l d n ' t be prepared to pay it? By way of contrast. it is striking to go back to Socrates and his scepticism. T h e philosopher is the lover of wisdom who does not c l a i m to The Book of Dead Philosophers is not a " B o o k of the D e a d .xx iv INTRODUCTION consistent with the pursuit of wealth. then. T h e crucial point is that i n both the Egyptian and T i b e t a n Books of the D e a d a n d their contemporary epigones." said "Secret D o c t r i n e " o f M a d a m e Blavatsky's T h e o s o p h i c a l he. is to learn how to die. " O n l y G o d knoweth. f r o m the " W h y then. son to know whether it is time to walk out of the world or Such is the position that Nietzsche called "European B u d - not.

depression and Zeno of Elea died heroically by biting a tyrant's ear until acceptance) which has been extremely influential in palliative he was stabbed to death. but one of his bronze slippers was proaches to death and dying i n the still extremely widely read spat out by the flames in confirmation of his mortality. I would go further and allegedly stabbed to death by his English students. Giordano Bruno was gagged and burnt alive at the stake by the Inquisition. pike on London Bridge. the great Irish philosopher. bathos and some dark humour. marks that might begin to enable us to face the reality of our Thomas More was beheaded and his head was stuck on a death." O n e can detect the influence of such ap. "Death is not Aristotle is reported to have killed himself with aconite. Siger of death or memento m o r i . a series of reminders Pico della Mirandola was poisoned by his secretary. discussed at greater leisure below: Descartes died of pneumonia as a consequence of giving early-morning tutorials in the Stockholm winter to the Pythagoras allowed himself to be slaughtered rather than prodigious and cross-dressing Queen Christina of cross a field of beans. extinguishing the light. Diogenes died by holding his breath. You will die Bacon died after stuffing a chicken with snow in the laughing. bargaining. In On Death and Dying (1969). Possibly the most pernicious too vigorously in sexual activity. . each chapter begins with a Lucretius is alleged to have killed himself after being citation from Tagore. bad luck. logical approach to dying patients based on the famous five So did the great radical Zeno of C i t i u m . I promise. it is putting out the lamp because the Empedocles plunged into M o u n t Etna in the hope of dawn has come. Spinoza died in his rented rooms at The Hague while Plato allegedly died of a lice infestation. anger. pathos. feature of contemporary society is the unwillingness to Aquinas died twenty-five miles from his birthplace after accept this reality and willingness to flee the fact of death. argue that it is i n relation to the reality of death that one's Avicenna died of an opium overdose after engaging much existence should be structured. writings of Elisabeth Kübler-Ross. Rather than being the clarion of Brabant was stabbed by his. but got away with deaths is also a tale of weirdness. to death on the orders of the Ostrogoth king vate the belief that death is an illusion to be overcome with Theodoric. murder. Sweden. it is not an illusion. Stage of Growth (1974) pays a rather hyperbolic tribute to The Hypatia was killed by a mob of angry Christians and her Tibetan Book of the Dead. becoming a god. suicide. M y worry is that they culti. The Book of Dead Philosophers is. banging his head against the bough of a tree. However. the right spiritual preparations. Boethius was cruelly tortured before being bludgeoned peutic effects of such approaches. madness. skin was peeled off with oyster shells. John Scottus Eriugena. life imprisonment. call of a new esoteric dogma. care. everyone else was at church. stages of dying (denial. was it is a reality that has to be accepted. For the history of philosophers' Galileo narrowly escaped the same fate. I do not want to deny the undoubtedly beneficial thera. So m u c h for the good news. Heracleitus suffocated in cow dung. Let me enumerate some examples to be streets of London to assess the effects of refrigeration. rather. She fostered a deep psycho. it is a book of 190 or so question W i l l i a m of Ockham died of the Black Death. and the revealingly entitled Death: The Final driven mad by taking a love potion.xxvi INTRODUCTION TO DIE L A U G H I N G XXVll influential Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore.

. Kant's last word was "Sufficit" "it is enough". It has no place The atheist. H e writes i n the final of the four extant letters went on to join the Nazi Party. outside Nice in France after suffering a heart attack Bentham had himself stuffed and sits on public view in a while swimming. possibly caused by a violent collision with a Great Roland Barthes was hit by a dry cleaning van after a Dane on the streets of Paris two years earlier. Bevan gave h i m an electric blanket saying one friend in attendance. and he didn't M y teacher Dominique Janicaud died alone on a beach understand me" (presumably he was referring to in August 2002 close to the foot of le chemin Nietzsche himself). . 50. presumably to show Freddie Ayer had a near-death experience where he that pleasure could be had until the very last breath. Merleau-Ponty was allegedly discovered dead in his office Rousseau died of massive cerebral bleeding which was with his face in a book by Descartes. soft-brained and dribbling . isn't it? Max Stirner was stung on the neck by a flying insect and died of the resulting fever. . Giovanni Gentile was executed by anti-Fascist Italian Montesquieu died in the arms of his lover. glass box at University College London in order to maximize the utility of his person. for which his figure. "Death? I don't think about it. discredited as an atheist and forgotten as a public Wittgenstein died the day after his birthday. Death is close and getting closer all the time. "freethinkers. about death. reportedly met the masters of the universe after Condorcet was murdered by the Jacobins during the choking on a piece of salmon. "Many happy returns". attributed to h i m . Oxford while his wife read h i m a sermon. is k n o w n as the four-part cure: don't fear G o d .xxv Hi INTRODUCTION TO DIE L A U G H I N G XXIX Leibniz. dire poverty in London that no marker was placed at Simone Weil starved herself to death for the sake of his burial spot. caused by eating a huge amount of truffle päte. unfinished an essay on taste. Wittgenstein replied. don't worry descent into oblivion after kissing a horse in Turin. Kierkegaard's gravestone rests against that of his father." died one Sunday evening on a visit to Edith Stein died in Auschwitz. emphysema. M y own view of death is closer to that of Epicurus and what Nietzsche made a long. who died of the same disease. solidarity with occupied France in the Second World Berkeley. leaving partisans. meeting with the future French minister for culture. Funny. materialist La Mettrie died of indigestion in my life". a fervent critic of Toland and other so-called War. Gilles Deleuze defenestrated himself from his Paris Hume died peacefully in his bed after fending off the apartment in order to escape the sufferings of inquiries of Boswell as to the atheist's attitude to death. Sartre said. staring at The handsome and brilliant John Toland died in such her. "There will be no returns". Derrida died of pancreatic cancer at the same age as his Hegel died in a cholera epidemic and his last words were father. bloodiest years of the French Revolution. Diderot choked to death on an apricot.000 people attended his funeral. died alone and was buried at night with only friend Mrs. "Only one man ever understood me . what is good is easy to get and what is terrible is Moritz Schlick was murdered by a disturbed student who easy to endure.

it is use. I am not. that is hardest to endure: not our own death. W r i t i n g a book about how philosophers die is admittedly an less to worry about death and the only way to attain tranquil. Aristotle dispatches and integrates both the materialist and idealist approaches before introducing his own notion of substance. Plato.XXX INTRODUCTION Get used to believing that death is nothing to us. as can be seen i n Lucretius. it does raise a couple of searching ques- H i g h l y tempting as it is. In become most truly ourselves. Aristotle bril- the acknowledgement of that part of ourselves that we have liantly reviews the doctrines of the pre-Socratic physical irretrievably lost. the philosophers develop their own views i n rela- self does not consist i n some delusory self-knowledge. O n the other hand. In a way that becomes a stan- dard pattern of philosophical argument. like T h a l e s . O n the one hand. but i n tion to previous doctrines. Therefore. the obvious p r o b l e m with this tions about how the history of philosophy is to be written and position is that it fails to provide a cure for the aspect of death how the activity of philosophy is to be understood. when I am. perhaps. odd as it may s o u n d . even odder. but the deaths T h e initial and finally intractable difficulty with writing of those we love. it is only i n grief that we of Aristotle's Metaphysics and Theophrastus' On Sensation. and the views of the Pythagoreans developed i n various of the entries below. Writing about Dead Philosophers T h e E p i c u r e a n view of death was hugely influential i n antiquity." T h e case of Theophrastus gives a particularly poignant example of the poverty of our situation with regard to philosophical antiquity. w h i c h is the core of what a later tradition called "metaphysics. In ophy still extant are by a teacher and his student: Book A l p h a m y view. but the reader w i l l find it taken up and eye to his teacher. Reading such a book is. odd way to spend one's time. lity of soul is by removing the anxious longing for an afterlife. sort of contentment or tranquillity might be possible i n rela. Theophrastus' " O n the O p i n i o n s of the Physical Philosophers" ran to eighteen books and was xxxi . he then turns a critical resolve this issue. That is. It represents a distinct and powerful sub-tradition i n Western thought to w h i c h insufficient attention has been given: when death is. and was rediscovered by philosophers like Pierre Gassendi i n the seventeenth century. T h e earliest versions of the history of philos- the self. what it means to be a both texts. on the ideal cause of nature. and death is the privation of sense-experience. I cannot promise to cause of nature. The entire difficulty here is imagining what philosophers w h o m he calls the physiologi. that unmake whatever meaning we have made. not by adding a limitless time to life but by removing the longing for immortality. Anaxagoras and Empedocles. that unstitch our carefully tailored suit of where to begin. For all good and bad consists in sense-experience. However. death is not. and their views on the material tion to the deaths of those we love. Hence a correct knowl- edge of the fact of death makes the mortality of life a mat- ter for contentment. It is the deaths of those we are b o u n d to i n about the history of philosophy consists i n knowing exactly love that undo us.

As we will see. graphical" approach to the history of philosophy. but by the way i n unsurpassed stories about philosophers' deaths. Anaxagoras. the concept of doxography is a especially the literary history.. Kant's fondness for English cheese and horror of tus and Plato. for entirely opinions and tenets of philosophers." with regard to philosophers' deaths. of Greek philosophy. but it can also mean "reputation." and Understood i n this expanded sense — w h i c h I confess is Jonathan Barnes and Julia Annas describe his Lives as "chatty somewhat idiosyncratic —doxography c a n be seen as an and unintelligent. H e also has some phers are exemplary not by their holiness. i n the stories recounted after one's death. it c a n hardly be described as of "great reputation" or even "glory. A l l we are left with are of the death of philosophers humanizes t h e m a n d shows fragments of a rich totality the scale of w h i c h we can barely that. they have to imagine. T h e c r u c i a l difference is that philoso. and with the most awful verses. His translator. w h i c h gives but a details of philosophers' lives that they become accessible to t a n t a l i z i n g taste of the whole through discussions of the us: Hobbes's predilection for playing tennis and singing i n nature of the senses i n Empedocles. T h e word " d o x a " can mean " o p i n i o n " i n the c o m . and sometimes their contingent historical reasons. an account of the lives. "doxa" develops the meaning Lives of Eminent Philosophers." that is. it is interesting to see how the way i n w h i c h he collates facts uncritically. it is terrific fun. Diogenes Laertius begins by considering the possibility T h e lives of philosophers are often rather less than saintly that philosophy first arose amongst the "barbarians. Because of from the third century. However. As we know. but sometimes base and comical.XXXll INTRODUCTION WRITING ABOUT DEAD PHILOSOPHERS xxxiii the major source i n antiquity for pre-Socratic thought." I find kissing cousin of hagiography. However. tended towards the scandalous i n places. the archive of ancient texts was ophy can be approached as a history of philosophers that pro- largely lost. The Greek Doxographers. his bedroom. the manner dria at the end of the third century A D ." It is also true that he peppered his book account of the glorious reputations of philosophers. Richards doxographers were those who wrote the biographies of these goes on to say "the book is of extreme value for the history. M y point i n this book is to show that the history of philos- tiquity is tragic. M y approach has also those of the saints. particularly closely the accounts of the lives of the philosophers resemble u n r e l i a b l e a n d scandalous ones. D e m o c r i . H e r m a n n D i e l s ." such as . exemplary figures. perspiration. as we will see. complete or philosophically acute. Doxographi Graeci. for example when an angry m o b of Christians ceeds by examples remembered. is Diogenes Laertius i. A l l and this is often what attracts us to t h e m . the huge importance of reputation. i n Greek culture. anecdotal and h i g h l y syncretic ramble one's immortality consisted i n the glory of one's reputation. particularly m o n sense of the word. w h i c h they show their weaknesses as well as their strengths. On Sensation." T h e latter is a key con- accurate. It is i n the o d d that remains is a fragment. the opinion entertained about one by others. F r o m Socrates to Spinoza and Diogenes Laertius very amenable company and I rather like from H u m e to Wittgenstein. bert Richards. despite the lofty reach of their intellect. rightly says "the man was foolish enough. It is like trying to guess at the holdings of the British cope with the hand life deals them like the rest of us. our major guide to the "doxo- deaths. whose m o n u m e n t a l synthesis of G r e e k M y concern i n this book is with what scholars of ancient philosophical biography was published i n L a t i n i n 1879 as philosophy call "doxography. and Marx's carbuncles. Diogenes gives cept for the Greeks and there was a widespread belief that us a rather chatty. often noble and virtuous. however likeable and readable one may find his reputation. O u r situation with regard to the literary remains of an. Library with a h u n d r e d or so P e n g u i n Classics i n one's " D o x o g r a p h y " is the neologism of the G e r m a n scholar hands. destroyed the greatest library of the classical world at Alexan. At times. As such. through antiquity. especially posthumous Sadly. Her- that is.e.

and later R o m a n teenth century. w h i c h was the figures like Hermes Trismegistus. " T h e L e a r n e d Gassendus was my precedent. the Stoics. but principal authority on the history of philosophy i n the eigh- also on Euripides. containing the lives. name refuses to be translated into foreign or barbaric As Stanley makes clear i n the dedicatory epistle of his speech. plus various from the Greeks that philosophy took its rise and "its very remarks on Persian and Sabean philosophers. Stanley's Italy or southern France i n the 1340s and remained the stan. Thomas Stanley i n 1687 i n the impressively printed three. Indians and Egyptians. n o n . there is no doubt that Stanley's Passmore rightly describes Burley's account of the history of work is totally eclipsed by the publication of Jakob Brucker's philosophy as "free and unreliable. B u r l e y aforementioned E n f i e l d i n 1791. actions Thracians. with ("Hermes. p e l l i n g and extended (it comprises eight books) defence of b a r i c " sources to so-called " w i s d o m traditions. "bar. Brucker writes. egipcius" treatment of the diversity of p h i l o s o p h i c a l traditions. (Inci- and discourses of the philosophers of every sect. and Opinions or Habits of Epicurus. Etrurians. W h a t is astonishing about this compendious work is its phers —" Thaies. the "effigies" are particularly hand. A l s o . some curiosities. the Gymnosophists of Diogenes Laertius—he only deals with antiquity—there is India. S u c h is what refers to Pierre Gassendi's De Vita et Moribus Epicuri{The Lives has become the standard account of the history of philoso. C h a l d e a n s ." although it does include Historia Critica Philosophiae {The Critical History of Philosophy).") engravings of the dead ancients. complete with text and Egyptians. In particular. death. "Hermes. one finds entries not only on published i n L e i p z i g between 1742 and 1767.X X X ZV INTRODUCTION WRITING ABOUT DEAD PHILOSOPHERS XXXV the Chaldeans of Babylon and Assyria. the Zoroastrians i n Persia and the ter on the " C h a l d a i c k " philosophy. the great virtue of the Celts was their dismissal of divers of them. compare Greek philosophy." itinerant E n g l i s h m a n Walter Burley or G u a l t e r i Burlaei i n w h i c h is indistinguishable from the question " h o w does a his Liber de vita et moribusphilosophorum {The Book of Philosophers' philosopher die?" Lives and Opinions or Habits). he quickly moves on to assert that it was c o m m e n t a r y on the Oracles of Zoroaster. then. w h i c h is a c o m - phy w h i c h reduces the n o n . A l t h o u g h Stanley's model T h e idea that philosophy has a u n i q u e l y G r e e k source for the history of philosophy is still very m u c h based on and that everything prior to the Greeks is simply not philos- . the m u c h that is new. but also the T h e writing of the history of philosophy is continued by Hebrews." T h i s begins with Greece and therefore with Europe. O n this view." but not E p i c u r e a n philosophy against the infamies and distortions philosophy proper. Asian").G r e e k . opinions. 1647). History is written i n "an uncouth and obscure style. and the Celts (even i n c l u d i n g the Britons). T h e latter was possibly written i n According to one W i l l i a m E n f i e l d of N o r w i c h . John ever the truth of the matter. Egyptians. Aesop and Zoroaster. P h o e n i c i a n s . "We find no people superior to them some and the volumes are littered with large and heroic in the magnanimous contempt of death. E t h i o p i a n s . the " n o r t h e r n nations" like the Scythians and volume History of Philosophy. Arabians. philosophy is a non-starter. However. rather curiously notes the ethnic o r i g i n of most philoso. there is a long closing chap- Thracians like Orpheus." What- dard history of philosophy for the next few centuries. T h e question for Gassendi w h i c h I would like to echo is not Diogenes Laertius' approach is entirely emulated by the so m u c h "what is philosophy?" as "what is a philosopher?. Hippocrates. V i r g i l and even O v i d . Indeed. the idea of comparative to w h i c h it had been submitted since Z e n o . Persians. Plutarch and right through to the C h u r c h Fathers. For example." P h i l o s o p h y speaks G r e e k . asianus" ("Thales. the Druids who lived among the Celts and Gauls. Sophocles. and its history History. Egyptian")—and w h i c h Hebrew king was on the extensive initial discussions of the philosophy of not only the throne during their lifetime.E u r o p e a n . as there is nothing with w h i c h to C i c e r o . illustrated with effigies of dentally. It was freely adapted into E n g l i s h by the writers like Plautus.

as his tions. ever. ception of philosophy. L e t me say that I a m highly dubious as to and therefore i n Africa. but somehow even smarter. whether with dignity or d e l i r i u m . with nobil- nature of his opinions." and he judges these is also a "bestering. possessing intellectual jewels ical i n the strict sense. where the sole function of history is to . approach is that the doxographical elements i n the history of P h i l o s o p h y doesn't begin with a ragbag of m u l t i p l e tradi- philosophy are m i n i m i z e d a n d emphasis is placed. W h a t also happens i n Tiedemann's like self-consciousness.xxxv i INTRODUCTION WRITING ABOUT DEAD PHILOSOPHERS XXXV H ophy finds its most powerful modern expression i n D i e t r i c h Although Hegel's conception of history has been the fre- Tiedemann's six-volume Geist der spekulativen Philosophie {The quent recipient of attacks. habits or reputation. traditions to be either poetic or religious. sion of ideas from east to west. " w h i c h c u l m i - of the Greeks. where philosophy is the passage of the scientific in Persia. L e t me say. a truth that finds complete expression—surprise. material. from the Greeks to "us E u r o - tory of philosophy i n the m o d e r n manner." What is with that of Hegel. o n nates i n showing that it has its destiny i n the Western philos- Hegel's account. Persians and Indians. Indeed. be expressed systematically. that I a m sceptical of both Eurocentric approaches to cal development. M y approach is therefore deeply at odds defined as "its own time comprehended i n thought. geographically spread-out affair. or at least that the various philosophies c a n do want to enter into directly i n this book. nothing could be less philosophically significant long line of mortal. Philosophy is ity or night-sweats. plural and that philosophy makes progress of a scientific k i n d . how- be expressed i n a scientific form where they exhibit logi. tified and continues to justify forms of Eurocentrism is an T h i s disregard for individual life goes together with the understatement. and John Passmore describes it as "the first his. from M a r x a n d Kierkegaard Spirit of Speculative Philosophy. rather than the individual flesh To say that this version of the history of philosophy has jus- and bones of a philosopher's life. but with a pristine and unique G r e e k — a n d therefore title suggests. W e are akin to the Greeks. both T i e d e m a n n and Tenneman deeply influ. Philosophy has no true source and to whether the spirit of philosophy can be separated from the a great extent the virtue of focusing o n philosophers' lives body of the philosopher and deeply sceptical about the belief and deaths consists i n realizing that it is a messy. T h i s is a work that onwards. but not philosoph. India or C h i n a . spirit towards truth. T h i s idea finds expression i n G o t t l i e b philosophy and of attempts to criticize the privilege of Greek Tenneman's Geschichte der Philosophie {History of Philosophy. limited creatures faced their than k n o w i n g how a philosopher lived a n d died a n d the last moments. philosophy by saying that the true source of philosophy lies 1789-1819). It is a history of how a For Hegel. Crucially. To what extent such a Eurocentrism is or is belief that the history of philosophy makes progress of a sci. o n the speculative spirit of philosophy that can European — source. the Medievals or whoever. This is "westering" as "bestering. Furthermore. The Book of Dead Philosophers is a history of philosophers enced Hegel i n his Lectures on the History of Philosophy (1833-6)." T h i s is what Geoffrey H a r t m a n makes crystal clear i n his Preface that he is not going to deal famously called "the westering of spirit. 1791-7). it is still the way i n w h i c h the history of philosophy deeply influenced m u c h subsequent writing of the history of continues to be written." T i e d e m a n n peans" or "us Americans. surprise — i n there is something intensely narcissistic about such a con- the work of Hegel. or i n Egypt. and therefore i n Asia. rather than a history of philosophy. not justified with regard to philosophy is a vast debate that I entific k i n d ." But this "westering" with "Chaldeans. Philosophy is a magisterial proces- philosophy. I do not see the history of philosophy as therefore being articulated i n a philosophy is the entire world the progressive logical u n f o l d i n g of " S p i r i t . judges the facts of philosophers' lives as irrelevant." as it were. proper logic and empirical science." w h i c h much a history of errors as a progressive unveiling of the truth. the previous history of philosophy is not so ophy of the present.

I hope to show how the material quality of the many lives and deaths that we will review disrupts the move to something like "Spirit" and places a certain way of doing philosophy in question. In a lecture course on Aristotle from 1924. there is some- t h i n g intensely arrogant. about a philoso- pher's disregard for the lives and deaths of other philosophers.XXXVlll INTRODUCTION hold up a mirror so that we may see the reflection of our- selves and our own world. but something quite unlike us. 190 O R S O DEAD PHILOSOPHERS The personality of a philosopher is of interest only to this extent: he was born at such and such a time. Such a stance is unwilling and perhaps incapable of considering the philosopher as a creature who is subject to " a l l the ills that flesh is heir to. and died. It is high time we made a start. To that extent. W h a t I have presented here is a messy and plural ragbag of lives and deaths that cannot simply be ordered into a coherent conceptual schema. O n the contrary. the philosopher who disregards the lives and deaths of philos- ophers is hostile to their and his or her own individuality. he worked. godlike stance towards philosophy and life." In my view. . embodiment and mortality. W h a t this reveals is an O l y m p i a n . remote and removed. Heidegger said. It also leads—as is the case with Hegel and Heidegger—to a triumphalist and self-aggrandizing version of the history of philosophy that utterly disfigures the past. something from w h i c h we might learn. even hubristic. It is my hope that what we see w h e n we look into these many deaths is not just our own reflection striding forth to meet us.

w h e n O e d i p u s guesses t h e r i g h t a n s w e r to the r i d - d l e — m a n crawls o n a l l fours as a baby. a n d o n t h r e e legs i n t h e e v e n i n g ? If t h e y get t h e a n s w e r w r o n g . O f course. o n e m i g h t w i t h s o m e justice c l a i m that the S p h i n x was t h e first p h i l o s o p h e r a n d O e d i p u s t h e s e c o n d . o n t w o legs at n o o n . Sages and Sophists P h i l o s o p h i c a l t h o u g h t e m e r g e d i n the G r e e k . w h i c h is also a r i d - d l e . T h i s w o u l d also h a v e t h e m e r i t o f m a k i n g p h i l o s o p h y b e g i n with a w o m a n and c o n t i n u i n g with an incestuous parricide. w h o a t t e m p t e d to e x p l a i n the o r i g i n s o f the u n i - verse a n d t h e c a u s e s o f n a t u r e . she k i l l s t h e m . Pre-Socratics. w h o d e f i n e the w o r l d o f t h o u g h t p r i o r to the b i r t h o f Socrates a n d the struggle b e t w e e n p h i l o s o p h y a n d sophistry i n A t h e n s d u r i n g the C l a s s i c a l p e r i o d o f the fifth a n d f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s BC. l i k e Pythagoras. w a l k s o n two legs as 3 . Physiologists. F i r s t w e e n c o u n t e r the v a r i - o u s sages a n d s o . W e w i l l t h e n t u r n to t h e s o m e t i m e s s h a d o w y figures.s p e a k i n g w o r l d t w o a n d a h a l f m i l l e n n i a ago. " l i k e T h a l e s and A n a x a g o r a s . H e r a c l e i t u s a n d E m p e d o c l e s . T h e S p h i n x asks h e r visitors a q u e s t i o n .c a l l e d " p h y s i o l o g i s t s . a n d p e r h a p s e v e n a joke: w h a t goes o n f o u r legs i n t h e m o r n i n g . F u r - t h e r m o r e .

T h i s i n s p i r e d D i o g . a r a t i o n s . the setting for E p i m e n i d e s ' f a m o u s paradox. " H o w c a n y o u e x p e c t to k n o w story a b o u t the l e n g t h s to w h i c h P e r i a n d e r w e n t i n o r d e r to about all the heavens. Thales was the possible originator o f the saying " k n o w Periander thyself. i n t o b e d . H o w e v e r . 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS SOLON 5 4 an adult and with a cane in old age—the S p h i n x commits was t u r n e d i n t o a n a d j e c t i v e ) . P l u t a r c h r e m a r k s that S o l o n p h i l o s o p h i c a l s u i c i d e b y t h r o w i n g h e r s e l f to t h e g r o u n d f r o m suggested that b r i d e s s h o u l d n i b b l e a q u i n c e before getting her h i g h rock. H e d i e d i n C y p r u s Thales at the age o f eighty." who famously pre- (628-588 BC) d i c t e d t h e solar e c l i p s e o f M a y 585 B C . w h e n y o u cannot even see c o n c e a l h i s p l a c e o f b u r i a l : h e i n s t r u c t e d t w o y o u n g m e n to what is j u s t beneath your feet?" Some feel — p e r h a p s m e e t a t h i r d m a n at a p r e d e t e r m i n e d p l a c e a n d k i l l a n d b u r y r i g h t l y — t h a t this is a c h a r g e that p h i l o s o p h y n e v e r e n t i r e l y h i m . " S o l o n was a f a m e d A t h e n i a n l e g i s l a t o r w h o r e p e a l e d the H e appears to have i n t e n d e d this l i t e r a l l y . h e w e n t o u t to m e e t t h e t w o y o u n g m e n for h e . a n d k i l l a n d b u r y t h e m . P e r i a n d e r o f C o r i n t h was was t h e u n i v e r s a l s u b s t a n c e a n d o n c e f e l l i n t o a d i t c h w h e n c o n s i d e r e d o n e o f the S e v e n Sages o f G r e e c e . she s a i d . S o l o n a n d C h i l o n . (POSSIBLY F L O U R I S H E D I N T H E SIXTH C E N T U R Y . A s Thales watched the games one festal day Epimenides The fierce sun smote him and he passed away. ( F L O U R I S H E D I N T H E SIXTH CENTURY BC) Thales came f r o m the once Chilon m i g h t y port of M i l e t u s . H a v i n g m a d e a l l these p r e p - ness w h i l e w a t c h i n g a n a t h l e t i c c o n t e s t . e n e s L a e r t i u s to t h e f o l l o w i n g e x e c r a b l e verse: P e r i a n d e r . t i m e s a t t r i b u t e d . thirst a n d weak. of m e n to h u n t d o w n the four. as the great C r e t a n b l o o d y laws o f D r a c o n ( a l t h o u g h it was D r a c o n w h o s e n a m e lie is t h e b e l i e f that Z e u s is m o r t a l . T h e n h e a r r a n g e d for f o u r m e n to p u r s u e the first t w o escaped i n the f o l l o w i n g two a n d a h a l f m i l l e n n i a . W h e n S o l o n was asked w h y he h a d not f r a m e d a law against p a r r i c i d e . T o others. there is a b i z a r r e On h e a r i n g h i s cry. (630-560 BC) E p i m e n i d e s ' o r i g i n a l s t a t e m e n t was " C r e t a n s . h e was s i m p l y a tyrant. he r e p l i e d that h e h o p e d it was u n n e c e s s a r y . close ( F L O U R I S H E D I N T H E SIXTH C E N T U R Y B C ) to t h e p r e s e n t T u r k i s h coast. A r i s t o t l e . always l i a r s . T h a l e s . O l y m p i c victory i n boxing. w h o s e h a r b o u r l o n g ago d r i e d A S p a r t a n to w h o m the s a y i n g " k n o w t h y s e l f is also s o m e - u p t h a n k s to the u n e n d i n g at. POSSIBLY A MYTHICAL F I G U R E ) Solon A native o f C r e t e . l i k e h e was t a k e n o u t d o o r s b y a T h r a c i a n g i r l to l o o k at the stars. whereas every s e n s i b l e . was the t h i r d m a n . T h e r e a s o n for this is u n c l e a r . H e d i e d after c o n g r a t u l a t i n g h i s s o n o n a n t e n t i o n o f silt. H e b e l i e v e d that w a t e r L i k e T h a l e s . T h e n h e a r r a n g e d for a larger g r o u p T h a l e s d i e d at a n a d v a n c e d age o f heat.

s c h o l a r s that P y t h a g o r a s never L e g e n d has it that E p i m e n i d e s was sent i n t o t h e c o u n t r y . is t h i s s t a t e m e n t (580-500 BC) true? If it is. " N o w . l i v e d h o m e . a n d n o t a l l o w P y t h a g o r a s ' m e r e n o n . n u m b e r s (the a n c i e n t G r e e k s c o n s i d e r e d t h e n u m b e r 1 a u n i t a n d n o t a p r o p e r n u m b e r . P e r h a p s w e t h e p l a g u e . more worldly doctrines. Epi. other. w h e r e t h e e n t i r e c o s m o s was t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f a l i m i t e d or that w h i c h is w i t h o u t b o u n d a r i e s (apeiron) is the m u s i c a l h a r m o n y w h o s e k e y was g i v e n i n m a t h e m a t i c s . stories that s u r r o u n d h i m are so c o m p e l l i n g . as the learnt the truth. I n t h i s w a y . B u t i n s t e a d o f a group of people i n southern t e n d i n g to the s h e e p . B e that as it m a y . B u t let's he f o u n d his younger brother. It seems that t h e r e was s i d e b y h i s f a t h e r to l o o k after s o m e s h e e p . so w e k n o w v e r y l i t t l e p r i o r to the v e r s i o n o f d e c i d e d to l i e d o w n . E v e n t u a l l y . i n v e n t e d a " F o u n d e r " for t h e i r i n g that h e h a d o n l y t a k e n a s h o r t n a p . a c c o r d i n g l y . H o w e v e r . C r e t a n s b e c a u s e it was t h e p r o d u c t o f the first e v e n (2) a n d o d d (3) are always l i a r s . m e n i d e s l i v e d to b e 157 years o l d . P y t h a g o r e a n s r e g a r d e d e v e n n u m b e r s as f e m a l e a n d o d d r i o n . T h e y are also E p i m e n i d e s ' f a m e s p r e a d a n d it was b e l i e v e d thereafter i l l u s t r a t i v e o f t h e w i d e r p o i n t that d i s c i p l e s o f a t h i n k e r w i l l that h e possessed t h e gift o f p r o p h e c y . t h e n it is. h e w e n t i n s e a r c h o f t h e s h e e p . s p h e r e s . T h e n u m b e r 5 was c a l l e d " m a r r i a g e " that h e l i v e d to b e 259 years o l d . the u l t i m a t e reality of the universe consists i n n u m b e r . i f it is n o t . T h i s m a k e s h i m a c e n t u . h e f e l l a s l e e p i n a c a v e for fifty-seven Italy c a l l e d P y t h a g o r e a n s who years. W h e n h e r e t u r n e d beliefs w h o . T h i s is a per- fect e x a m p l e o f a p a r a d o x .6 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS PYTHAGORAS 7 p e r s o n k n o w s that h e is r e a l l y i m m o r t a l . tent w i t h those beliefs. opagus. this p a r a d o x takes o n a m o r e a c u t e f o r m .e x i s t e n c e to deter us. T h a t is. P y t h a g o r e a n d o c t r i n e s w e r e b o u n d b y a n m a n d e d that a s a c r i f i c e b e m a d e at e a c h spot w h e r e a s h e e p o a t h o f secrecy. existed. by n o w an elderly m a n . the Pythagoreans also observed a n u m b e r o f l i m i t at the age o f sixty-four. i n v o l v i n g food i n particular. a p p a r e n t l y . the h i g h rock i n the centre of A t h e n s . This had huge (610-546/545 B C ) i n f l u e n c e i n t h e n o t i o n o f musica universalis o r m u s i c o f t h e Anaximander somewhat o b s c u r e l y c l a i m e d that the U n . . H e discovered his o w n H o w e v e r . C o n s i d e r the sen- Pythagoras t e n c e " T h i s s t a t e m e n t is n o t t r u e . D i o g e n e s tells o f h o w often s i m p l y i n v e n t stories a n d anecdotes that illustrate the life the A t h e n i a n s sent for h i m w h e n t h e c i t y was s u f f e r i n g f r o m o f t h e m a s t e r i n w h o m t h e y w a n t to b e l i e v e . A t h e n s was t h e m that appears i n P l a t o . s h o u l d b e s u s p i c i o u s o f this desire for a master. i n l o g i c . H e c o m . everything (unsurprisingly) had changed and a new a n d died i n a m a n n e r consis- o w n e r h a d t a k e n possession o f h i s father's f a r m . i m m o r t a l i t y a n d t r a n s m i g r a t i o n o f the s o u l a n d t h e v i e w that A c c o r d i n g to P h l e g o n i n his work On Longevity. T h e s e i n c l u d e a b e l i e f i n the freed f r o m the plague. e x c l u d i n g h i s l o n g n a p i n t h e cave. P y t h a g o r e a n s also b e l i e v e d that t h e i r m a s t e r h a d estab- Anaximander lished the ratios that underlie music. H e a g a i n t o o k s o m e s h e e p a n d w e n t to the A r e . it is a p r o p o s i t i o n w h o s e S a d l y . w h i c h h a d to express a m u l t i p l i c - ity). it is n o w a l m o s t uni- t r u t h leads to a c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d t h e d e n i a l o f its t r u t h also versally assumed by classical leads to a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . original material of all existing things. b e l i e v . as w e a l l k n o w . t h e n it is not. B u t . U p o n w a k i n g . T h e C r e t a n s c l a i m n u m b e r s as m a l e .

b e c a u s e o f t h e i r a p p a r e n t r e s e m b l a n c e to W h e n c e . H e got as far as a field o f H o w e v e r . I'd l i k e to get b a c k to t h e t o p i c o f b e a n s . t h e y e m i t the s m e l l o f M E N I P P U S : Beans. T h e master o n l y escaped because his followers respectively. a r i c h a n d p o w e r f u l l o c a l sixty-five w o m e n p h i l o s o p h e r s . O d d l y . P y t h a g o r a s left h i s n a t i v e S a m o s . t h i s d e e p r e v e r e n c e for b e a n s ? " T h e the g e n i t a l i a . m y good f e l l o w — s o m e t h i n g y o u s e m e n . beans are c h e w e d a n d left i n the s u n . t h e r e is a n o t h e r story. m u n i t y by the S i c i l i a n tyrant D i o n y s i u s . " b e a n " m a y have b e e n a slang w o n d e r f u l s e c o n d . relates h o w a c e r t a i n C y l o . i f y o u r wallet. the p h i l o - figure. as m a n y o f us k n o w to o u r cost. w i f e a n d daughter gathered. felt s l i g h t e d by the h a u g h t i n e s s w i t h w h i c h Pythagoras s o p h i c a l s c h o o l that attracted the m o s t w o m e n was w i t h o u t treated h i m . Thirty-five o f his followers were subse- m u l l e t is s i n g l e d o u t for e s p e c i a l p r o h i b i t i o n . U n b e l i e v a b l y . A f t e r t h e p e r s e c u t i o n o f t h e P y t h a g o r e a n c o m - h i m a n d c u t his throat. It m i g h t b e n o t e d that i n the tyrant Polycrates. notes that t h e y c o n s i d e r e d the egg t a b o o . FOURTH CENTURY BC) P y t h a g o r a s is a l l e g e d to h a v e m e t h i s e n d . D o c t r i n e s are different first h a v i n g the f o r m o f a w o m a n ' s p u d e n d a a n d afterwards o n a m o n g the dead. I n this b o o k . For some reason red avoid a b e a n f i e l d . b r i d g e d the fire w i t h their o w n bodies. i n the r e g i o n o f present-day C a l a b r i a . b e c a u s e o f a dislike o f the p o l i c i e s o f c a n . close e x a m i n a t i o n a c h i l d ' s h e a d g r o w i n g w i t h it. A p p a r e n t l y . B u t I a m g e t t i n g a h e a d o f myself. E v e n worse. w h e r e h e stopped a n d d e c l a r e d that h e w o u l d rather b e b r i n g s us to T i m y c h a a n d a story t o l d i n I a m b l i c h u s ' Life of k i l l e d t h a n cross it. P o r p h y r y . w h e r e I i s l a n d off the I o n i a n coast. T h e purpose w h e n t h e c i t i e s o f A g r i g e n t u m a n d S y r a c u s e w e r e at w a r . the F r e n c h classical s c h o l a r G i l l e s M e n a g e wrote Historia s o u t h e r n Italy a n d e x t e n d e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e a n d p o w e r Mulierum Philosopharum (The History of Women Philosophers). beans s h o u l d be a v o i d e d . As a c o n s e q u e n c e . i f o n e takes the b e a n i n flower a n d buries it mustn't eat. it was because o f beans that (DATES U N K N O W N . I w i l l seek to rectify this v i e w . T h i s e n a b l e d h i s pursuers to c a t c h u p w i t h Pythagoras. O n e w o u l d b e f o r g i v e n for t h i n k i n g that the h i s t o r y o f p h i - S o the l e g e n d goes. H e fled w i t h h i s followers to C r o t o n i n 1690. t h a t h u s b a n d . a n d P l u t a r c h q u e n t l y b u r n t at the stake for t r e a c h e r y . T h e r e are s o m e f a s c i n a t i n g r e m a r k s i n the Philosophumena [Philosopkizings] or the Refutation of All Heresies b y the C h r i s t i a n P Y T H A G O R A S : L e t m e see i f there's a n y t h i n g to eat i n B i s h o p H i p p o l y t u s w r i t t e n a r o u n d A D 220. " B u t t h e r e are m a n y o t h e r p o s s i b l e reasons ras i n H a d e s i n d i a l o g u e w i t h t h e c y n i c M e n i p p u s . t o o . P y t h a g o r a s . These include Themistoclea. i n h i s Life of Menage—somewhat o p p o r t u n i s t i c a l l y it is t r u e — i d e n t i f i e s Pythagoras. q u e s t i o n : w h y d o P y t h a g o r e a n s p r e f e r to d i e r a t h e r t h a n t r e a d P y t h a g o r a s was k i l l e d b y t h e S y r a c u s a n s as h e was t r y i n g to u p o n b e a n s ? T i m y c h a was p r e g n a n t a n d D i o n y s i u s t h r e a t - . i n w h i c h for this d i s l i k e o f beans.c e n t u r y satirist L u c i a n d e p i c t s P y t h a g o - t e r m for " t e s t i c l e . as they Timycha p r o d u c e terrible flatulence.8 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS PYTHAGORAS 9 T h e y abstained f r o m meat a n d fish. P y t h a g o r a s ' sister. T h i s beans. A c c o r d i n g to h i m . i n the earth a n d i n a few days digs it u p . t h e n ." O f course. w h i c h b e g i n s t h u s : " W o e ! Woe! r e v u l s i o n to b e a n s . M y l l i a s . I n the a n c i e n t w o r l d . T i m y c h a a n d her Y e t . P y t h a g o r a s is p e s t e r i n g M e n i p p u s for f o o d . t h e o f t h e i n t e r r o g a t i o n was to f i n d a n a n s w e r to t h e f o l l o w i n g Pythagoreans sided w i t h the A g r i g e n t i n e s . r e l a t e d b y H e r m i p p u s . C y l o a n d his retinue b u r n t doubt the Pythagoreans. a n l o s o p h y is s o m e t h i n g o f a boys' c l u b . " W e s h a l l see it at P Y T H A G O R A S : Just give m e some. P y t h a g o r a s a n d Diogenes L a e r t i u s devotes possibly the worst of his his followers also i n h e r i t e d f r o m the E g y p t i a n s a strong v e r s e s to t h i s i n c i d e n t . were captured a n d tortured. d o w n the h o u s e i n w h i c h Pythagoras a n d h i s f o l l o w e r s w e r e Theano a n d M y i a .

10 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS HERACLEITUS 11 e n e d h e r w i t h t o r t u r e ." From him alone Persuasion stands apart. dust a n d ashes. " D o g s b a r k (540-480 BC) at those w h o m t h e y d o n o t r e c o g n i z e . a against t h e P e r s i a n s at M a r a t h o n a n d S a l a m i s . " a n d " P i g s w a s h t h e m s e l v e s i n m u d . P r e s u m a b l y . B e f o r e she was k i l l e d . e v e r y o n e s h o u l d f o l l o w logos. for h e asked to b e o f a l y r e . a n d h i s m i l i - t e r m m e a n i n g s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h e l a w . the great t r a g e d i a n was h e r b s ( n o b e a n s are m e n t i o n e d ) . i n p a r t i c u l a r that o f h i s f e l l o w c i t i z e n s o f E p h e s u s . the c o w d u n g is w e t a n d t h e w e e p . b i r d s i n He has no altar. a p p a r e n t l y m i s - w a n d e r e d i n the m o u n t a i n s a n d l i v e d o n a d i e t o f grass a n d t a k i n g h i s h e a d for a stone. ( T h e r e is a t h i r d story t o l d b y D i o g e n e s L a e r t i u s . " H e was. S o m e o f t h e s e are as h o w m o r t a l s m u s t . t h e vast m a j o r i t y o f t o m b s t o n e . h i s m a l n u t r i t i o n represented o n h i s t o m b s t o n e s l u m p e d over. tus d y i n g i n c o w d u n g . and hears no hymns. t h e r e are t w o stories o f H e r a c l e i . c h a f f to g o l d . (525/524-456/455 B C ) a c c o r d i n g to P l u t a r c h . H o w e v e r . S a d l y . I n the s u r v i v i n g f r a g m e n t o f the JViobe. t h e y also bite. T h e c a u s e o f H e r a c l e i t u s ' tears was h u m a n b e h a v i o u r . h o w e v e r . b u t a c t i n s t e a d as i f t h e y w e r e a p p a r e n t l y t h e o r i g i n o f t h e a m u s i n g ." Others are colourful illustrations of his Alone of gods Death has no love for gifts. of h i s d e a t h . smell in Hades. a tortoise s h e l l s t r u n g w i t h a few strings. N o w ." . "eagle-drops-tortoise-on-head-of-sleeping-poet-killing-both. H e a p p a r e n t l y b e l i e v e d that its a c t i o n s o m e o n e i g n o r a n t o f the i c o n o g r a p h y m i s t o o k "eagle-taking- w o u l d d r a w the b a d h u m o u r s o u t o f h i s b o d y a n d d r y u p h i s the-soul-of-dead-poet-to-heaven-in-the-form-of-lyre" to m e a n dropsy. nor sacrifice. A s the first o f A e s c h y l u s f o u g h t w i t h great d i s t i n c t i o n i n the battles h i s e x t a n t f r a g m e n t s insists. a f f l i c t e d w i t h t e r r i b l e diseases. w h i c h relates t h a t H e r a c l e i t u s ' f r i e n d s w e r e u n a b l e to r e m o v e t h e dried c o w d u n g f r o m his body a n d . it is d r y a n d h e is h e r o w n t o n g u e a n d spat it i n t h e tyrant's face for fear that b a k e d to d e a t h i n the I o n i a n s u n . T h i s c o n f i r m s f r a g m e n t 9 7 . m u n c h i n g donkeys. It was w i d e l y b e l i e v e d that A e s c h y l u s was k i l l e d w h e n a n Heracleitus became s u c h a hater of h u m a n i t y that he eagle d r o p p e d a l i v e tortoise o n h i s b a l d h e a d . a n d p e r h a p s was o r i g i - c o v e r e d i n c o w d u n g . suffer o b s c u r e as h i s m o n i k e r w o u l d into t r u t h . b u t a p o c r y p h a l . H o w e v e r . a l t h o u g h the r e m a i n s o f his w o r k are 139 frag. views o n t h e r e l a t i v i t y o f j u d g e m e n t . t h a t is p e o p l e d o n o t f o l l o w logos. b e i n g unrecognizable. A e s c h y l u s suggest: " S o u l s h a v e a sense o f writes. It the b i r d o f A p o l l o — c a r r i e d off h i s s o u l to h e a v e n i n the f o r m was t h r o u g h this c u r e that h e m e t h i s e n d . a l y r e l o o k s l i k e . w h i l e a n e a g l e — gave h i m d r o p s y a n d h e r e t u r n e d to t h e c i t y to seek a c u r e . s u c h as " D o n k e y s prefer Libation helps you not. A p p a r e n t l y . I n the first story. she m i g h t b e t r a y t h e secrets o f t h e P y t h a g o r e a n sect. It is A e s c h y l u s ' t o m b s t o n e . n a l l y . T i m y c h a b i t off i n g p h i l o s o p h e r d r o w n s . p r i n c i p l e or r e a s o n for tary p r o w e s s was p r o u d l y m e n t i o n e d i n t h e e p i t a p h o n h i s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e u n i v e r s e . " S a d l y . he Heracleitus was d e v o u r e d b y dogs. story a s l e e p a n d h a v e as m u c h awareness o f w h a t t h e y d o as chaff. h a n d f u l o f h i s plays that survive are f u l l o f d e e p w i s d o m a b o u t m e n t s . i n the repeated r e f r a i n o f The Oresteia.) T r a d i t i o n a l l y H e r a c l e i t u s was k n o w n as the " w e e p i n g p h i l o s o - Aeschylus p h e r " or " t h e o b s c u r e . A l l t h a t A e s c h y l u s is n o t u s u a l l y seen as a p h i l o s o p h e r . i n t h e s e c o n d .

c l a i m s that h e a t t a c k e d n o t the ear b u t t h e nose. as it d e s c r i b e d as " r o u n d l i k e a b a l l . written i n defence of his master Parmenides. b u t t h e r e is n o r e c o r d o f P a r m e n i d e s ' s u c h t h i n g as m o t i o n . was s t a b b e d to d e a t h . G i v e n that a n a r r o w c a n o n l y o c c u p y a space e q u a l a n d p o i n t e d to t h e stars. the lat- ter w i l l h a v e m o v e d o n . Z e n o l a i d h o l d o f s u m a b l y n o t l i k e a b a l l at a l l . i f s p e e d y A c h i l l e s gives t h e s l o w .12 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS ZENO OF ELEA J 3 o p p o s i t e v i e w a n d s h o w i n g h o w it leads to i r r e s o l v a b l e p a r a - doxes. A n d w h e n h e has c o v e r e d that dis- t a n c e . r e d . u n l i m i t e d s u b s t a n c e t h r o u g h w h i c h w e c o m e into p l a c e w h e r e it is n o t . W h e n s o m e o n e A n a r r o w that appears to b e i n f l i g h t is r e a l l y at rest b e c a u s e asked h i m . C e r t a i n l y n o n e .h o t m e t a l . a t h i n g m u s t b e at the p l a c e at w h i c h it existence. o f M i l e t u s to s t u d y the m o o n . H e defended T h e r e is p e r h a p s n o m o r e c u r i o u s a n d yet attractive f i g u r e P a r m e n i d e s ' d o c t r i n e s i n a u n i q u e m a n n e r b y t a k i n g u p the a m o n g s t the P r e . w h i c h is tyrant a b o u t c e r t a i n p e o p l e b u t o n l y i n h i s p r i v a t e ear. a c c o r d i n g to P l u t a r c h . ( D e m e t r i u s . H e a very i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n Plato's e p o n y m o u s d i a l o g u e w i t h a was i n v o l v e d i n a p l o t to o v e r t h r o w t h e tyrant N e a r c h u s .) Zeno o f E l e a (495-430 BC) Empedocles (490-430 BC) Z e n o was the a u t h o r o f t h e n o w lost Epicheiremata (Attach). a n d o r i g i n a t o r e n e s t h e C y n i c h e a r d s o m e o n e d e c l a r e t h a t t h e r e was n o o f the E l e a t i c S c h o o l . T h e r e f o r e . " a n d n o n . t h e n h e w i l l n e v e r o v e r t a k e i t . H e suggested that nous ( m i n d o r i n t e l l e c t ) was t h e m o v i n g T h i s a r g u m e n t against m o t i o n finds further expression i n the p r i n c i p l e of the universe a n d c o u n s e l l e d his fellow citizens f a m o u s paradoxes o f the a r r o w a n d o f A c h i l l e s a n d the tortoise. T h e r e is also a story that w h e n D i o g - H e was a p p a r e n t l y a P y t h a g o r e a n i n h i s y o u t h . t h i n g s are at rest a n d m o t i o n is a n i l l u s i o n . Z e n o argues against m o t i o n b y s a y i n g Anaxagoras that i f a n y t h i n g m o v e s .b e i n g . " H a v e y o u n o c o n c e r n w i t h y o u r native land?. W h y ? F o r the s i m p l e reason that by the t i m e that A c h i l l e s asked that c h i l d r e n b e g i v e n a h o l i d a y o n t h e d a y o f h i s death.S o c r a t i c s t h a n E m p e d o c l e s . G i v e n that the latter A s t u d e n t o f A n a x i m e n e s . has r e a c h e d the p o i n t f r o m w h i c h the tortoise started. i n h i s Men of the Same Name. w e d o n o t e v e n k n o w for sure if the p l o t was d i s c o v e r e d a n d Z e n o was a r r e s t e d . A n a x a g o r a s h e l d that a i r was the is i m p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e n o t h i n g c a n b e or b e a c t e d u p o n at the u n i v e r s a l . s u n a n d stars. W e h a v e n o a c c o u n t o f how the tyrant's ear w i t h h i s t e e t h a n d w o u l d n o t let go u n t i l h e P a r m e n i d e s passed f r o m o n e state to t h e other. H e d i e d i n e x i l e a n d . W h e n N e a r c h u s was s u m m o n e d . "I a m greatly c o n c e r n e d w i t h m y native l a n d " that space. A n a x a g o r a s was b a n i s h e d f r o m M i l e t u s after a t r i a l at S i m i l a r l y . the a r r o w is m o t i o n l e s s . F o r e x a m p l e ." e v e r y t h i n g that o c c u p i e s a space e q u a l to itself m u s t b e at rest i n h e r e p l i e d .f o o t e d tortoise w h i c h h e was c h a r g e d w i t h c l a i m i n g t h e s u n to b e a mass of a h e a d start i n t h e i r r a c e . is. b u t v e r y y o u n g S o c r a t e s . d e a t h a n d p r e c i o u s few facts a b o u t h i s l i f e . w e r e . t h e n it m u s t e i t h e r m o v e i n the p l a c e (500-428 BC) w h e r e it is or i n the p l a c e w h e r e it is not. the tortoise w i l l h a v e m o v e d o n a g a i n . Y e t . h e got u p a n d w a l k e d a b o u t . a l t h o u g h h e plays T h e m a n n e r o f Z e n o ' s d e a t h is h e r o i c a n d d r a m a t i c . A r i s t o t l e takes s o m e pleasure u n p i c k i n g these (515-? B C ) paradoxes i n h i s Physics. D u r i n g h i s Socrates a n d P a r m e n i d e s ever met. to itself at e a c h instant o f its flight. a n d so o n a d Parmenides i n f i n i t u m . w h i c h is pre. T h e core o f his novel i n t e r r o g a t i o n . Z e n o s a i d t h a t h e h a d s o m e t h i n g to t e l l t h e metaphysics is t h e distinction between b e i n g .

s i o n s f r o m t h e late 1790s.b o i l e d f r o m E t n a . P l a t o devotes a d i a l o g u e to Protagoras i n w h i c h h e is . h e responds. i f h e a t is t h e v e h i c l e o f l i f e . A r c h e l a u s was t h e p u p i l o f A n a x a g o r a s a n d t h e t e a c h e r of There are o t h e r .t a l k i n g Odysseus was the real father o f t r a g e d y was left u n f i n i s h e d a n d u n a p p r e c i a t e d i n t h r e e ver. A c c o r d i n g to A e r i u s . 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS EMPEDOCLES »5 m e t a m o r e s p e c t a c u l a r e n d . M e n i p p u s . H e wrote t w o l o n g religious reformer a n d a political revolutionary. E m p e d o c l e s b e l i e v e d that s l e e p results f r o m a c o o l i n g o f the b l o o d a n d that d e a t h e n s u e s w h e n the (Unrelatedly. Stories a b o u n d a b o u t g o d . T h e r e is a story that h e p e r s u a d e d crater. " W r e t c h e s . w h i c h the latter q u i p s . no longer a f i c e to n a t u r e a n d t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f a p o w e r greater t h a n m o r t a l . h e left p h i . I n o n e o f E m p e d o c l e s ' e x t a n t f r a g m e n t s . " A fit o f m a d d e p r e s s i o n . always c a r r i e d a staff a n d h a d t h i s is r e a s o n e n o u g h for t h e r i d i c u l e t h a t is h e a p e d u p o n a t r a i n o f b o y attendants. T h e cause o f h i s t h i g h o n the w a y to a festival a n d d i e d f r o m t h e e n s u i n g h i s d e a t h is u n k n o w n a n d h i s w r i t i n g s are lost apart f r o m the m a l a d y . H i s death a n d n o l o n g e r extant p o e m s . h e t h r e w h i m s e l f i n t o M o u n t E t n a i n a l l h i s f i n e r y to c o n f i r m Archelaus reports that h e h a d b e c o m e d i v i n e . H e h a d t h i c k h a i r . that was what b u r n t y o u to ashes. H ö l d e r l i n c a l l s E m p e d o c l e s " t h e l o s o p h y i n a state o f w i l d e x c i t e m e n t . " T o his f e l l o w c i t i z e n s o f A g r i g e n t u m i n S i c i l y to e n d t h e i r f a c t i o n . T h e r e is s o m e t h i n g o f the m a g i c i a n h i m b y L u c i a n i n Dialogues of the Dead. as w e l l as s o m e t h i n g o f the H a d e s c o m i n g " h a l f . PROBABLY BORN EARLY FIFTH CENTURY BC) ered w h e n o n e o f his b r o n z e s l i p p e r s . u t t e r t h e n it is t h r o u g h t h e h e a t o f v o l c a n i c fire that E m p e d o c l e s wretches.d r u n k e n m a n " a n d h e c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e s w i t h h i m as a E m p e d o c l e s ' t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o a g o d . i n t h e w a k e o f b o t h the Protagoras e n t h u s i a s m a n d d i s a p p o i n t m e n t that f o l l o w e d the F r e n c h (485-410 B C ) R e v o l u t i o n . H e is u s u a l l y seen as the b r i d g e b e t w e e n I o n i a n nat- d e a t h : h e left S i c i l y for G r e e c e a n d n e v e r r e t u r n e d . T h i s q u i t e s t u n n i n g m o d e r n the c u n n i n g a n d s m o o t h . " D i o g e n e s d e s c r i b e s h i m as w e a r i n g the p u r p l e robes h u m a n f r e e d o m : destiny. keep y o u r hands off beans!") m e e t s h i s e n d i n a quest for i m m o r t a l i t y . less e c s t a t i c stories o f Empedocles' Socrates. A s P l u t a r c h relates. w h o d e p i c t s h i m i n a n d m a g u s a b o u t E m p e d o c l e s . w h o m w e p h i l o s o p h e r . N o w . h e b r o k e u r a l p h i l o s o p h y a n d A t h e n i a n e t h i c a l t h i n k i n g . S o m e t w e n t y . " W h e n a s k e d b y the c h a r l a t a n . Y e t h e is also always s e e n as a p o l i t i c a l r a d i c a l a n d c y n i c M e n i p p u s as to t h e r e a s o n w h y h e j u m p e d i n t o t h e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h d e m o c r a c y . B u t t h e t r u t h was discov- (DATES U N K N O W N . b u t a fit o f vanity a n d p r i d e a n d a dose o f d r i v e l i n g d e a t h as " t h e g r e a t a v e n g e r " a n d t h e r e is a l e g e n d t h a t h e folly. S o t h e story goes. w e l l y o u deserved it. " great age. boots a n d a l l — a n d k e p t a w o m a n a l i v e for t h i r t y days w i t h o u t b r e a t h or p u l s e . h e refers to N o . The Death of Empedocles. t h e m e . " O n N a t u r e " a n d " P u r i f i c a t i o n s . slippers o f b r o n z e a n d a D e l p h i c E m p e d o c l e s is always d e s c r i b e d as grave a n d stately a n d l a u r e l w r e a t h . sophistry. a g o l d e n g i r d l e . E m p e d o c l e s ' f r a g m e n t 141 r e a d s . but continuing our Pythagorean bean h e a t has left it e n t i r e l y . " i n w h a t H ö l d e r l i n c a l l s " t h e h i g h e s t f i r e " is s e e n as a s a c r i - a n d d e s c r i b e d h i m s e l f as a " d e a t h l e s s god.p o e t F r i e d r i c h H ö l d e r l i n to w r i t e h i s v e r s e m e t i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n . it was t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f m y s t i c a l h u b r i s a n d political r a d i c a l i s m that attracted the great German Protagoras was the first a n d greatest o f the S o p h i s t s . was f o u n d o n t h e s l o p e o f the v o l c a n o . h e s l i p p e d i n t o t h e sea a n d d r o w n e d b e c a u s e o f h i s f o l l o w i n g e n i g m a t i c w o r d s : " T h e c o l d is a b o n d . alism a n d cultivate equality i n politics. a l t h o u g h o n e m i g h t m a k e the case that d r a m a .t w o c e n t u r i e s l a t e r . o f royalty. t h r o w n u p by the f l a m e s .

" Protagoras was also t h e first to c h a r g e a F o r s o m e . she w o u l d b e p r e v e n t e d f r o m p a y i n g d u e respect to t h e g o d - dess. rats h e r s o n s . the wife of the R o m a n e m p e r o r Sep. R o b e r t B u r - m a t e r i a l l u x u r y at t h e c o u r t o f t h e h i g h l y i n t e l l e c t u a l Syr. I n Lives of the Sophists. i f y o u w i n . because you w i n it. i n his m o u n t a i n o u s book The Anatomy of Melancholy i a n e m p r e s s J u l i a D o m n a . " B u t I have b r o t h e r w o u l d d i e d u r i n g t h e festival o f T h e s m o p h o r a a n d n o t w o n a case yet. c h a r g i n g a fee. D e m o c r i t u s l i v e d Forensic Speech for a Fee. P h i l o . these to h i s n o s t r i l s h e s o m e h o w m a n a g e d to p o s t p o n e h i s death. V e r y sadly.) D e m o c r i t u s w r i t e s . D o g s . cats. h i s sister g r e w V e x e d b e c a u s e she f e a r e d that h e r d i s c i p l e E u a t h l u s for h i s fee. w o r k s s u r v i v e . t u r n . she was h e r s e l f a (1621). ton. Philostratus calls h e r " J u l i a the p h i l o s o .o r i g i n a t o r o f G r e e k a t o m i s m . I n a s e e m i n g l y o d d gesture. f r o m t h e e a r l y t h i r d c e n t u r y . t h e j o i n t e m p e r o r s C a r a c a l l a a n d G e t a . " he treatise o n w r e s t l i n g . " F o o l s w a n t to l i v e to b e o l d b e c a u s e Protagoras is c r e d i t e d w i t h m a n y w o r k s . P r o t a g o r a s a p p a r e n t l y d r o w n e d i n a s h i p w r e c k after h e L u c r e t i u s t e l l s a d i f f e r e n t story. ages that h e w a n t e d to b u r n D e m o c r i t u s ' b o o k s . a that C a r a c a l l a m u r d e r e d G e t a i n his mother's arms a n d theory that p o w e r f u l l y prefigures the m o d e r n scientific t h a t J u l i a s t a r v e d h e r s e l f to d e a t h after C a r a c a l l a w a s . ( I n c i d e n t a l l y . a n d t h e y are often from a l o n g line of Sophists and enjoyed considerable d e p i c t e d i n this way i n m e d i e v a l iconography. " s i n c e the p u r s u i t s o n w h i c h w e spend From Cicero and Horace onwards. Democritus was m o n e y w e p r i z e m o r e t h a n t h o s e f o r w h i c h n o m o n e y is k n o w n b y t h e s o b r i q u e t o f t h e " l a u g h i n g p h i l o s o p h e r " (as c h a r g e d . i n c l u d i n g Of t h e y fear d e a t h . m u r d e r e d i n 217. It is s a i d a n d ziggurats are s i m p l y different a r r a n g e m e n t s of atoms. H e f a m o u s l y said that " M a n is the m e a s u r e o f Democritus a l l things. B y a p p l y i n g n i n g . A v i v i d to b e very o l d . n a m e l y t h a t w h e n De- h a d b e e n t r i e d a n d b a n i s h e d (or i n s o m e stories c o n d e m n e d m o c r i t u s r e a c h e d a r i p e o l d age a n d was a w a r e t h a t " t h e to d e a t h ) for h i s a g n o s t i c r e l i g i o u s v i e w s . H e a l s o w r o t e a m i n d f u l motions of his intellect were r u n n i n g d o w n . i n worldview. h o t l o a v e s o f b r e a d to b e b r o u g h t to h i s h o u s e . a n d c o . . D e m o c r i t u s o r d e r e d m a n y If I w i n this case against y o u I must have the fee for w i n . d y i n g i n h i s 109th year." T o w h i c h P r o t a g o r a s r i p o s t e d . Julia r e m a i n e d a hugely influential figure through i n terms o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a t o m s i n space. T h e lat- pher. two books of opposing arguments. P l a t o n e v e r m e n - fee for t e a c h i n g h o n e y . W h e n it was c l e a r that h e was a p p r o a c h - s e e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a n e c d o t e : w h e n P r o t a g o r a s a s k e d his i n g h i s e n d .t o n g u e d e l o q u e n c e a n d the g e n t l e arts t i o n s h i m a n d t h e r e is a r u m o u r that has c i r c u l a t e d d o w n the of persuasion. " P h i l o s t r a t u s k n e w w h e r e o f h e s p o k e . I must have it. cheerfully committed suicide. n o n e o f w h o s e t i m u s Severus. a n d t h e m a n n e r o f h i s e x a m p l e o f t h e m o n e t a r y use o f o p p o s i n g a r g u m e n t s c a n be d e a t h shows n o fear." a n d professed a g n o s t i c i s m a b o u t the n a t u r e o f the (460-370 BC) gods: " A b o u t t h e gods. " Yet. Plato's w i s h was u n w i t t i n g l y f u l f i l l e d b y the disasters o f h i s t o r y stratus asserts t h a t w e s h o u l d n o t c r i t i c i z e P r o t a g o r a s for a n d very l i t t l e o f D e m o c r i t u s ' w o r k survives." After the death of Severus o n a m i l i t a r y c a m p a i g n i n ter is a n e n t i r e l y m a t e r i a l i s t e x p l a n a t i o n o f the p h y s i c a l w o r l d B r i t a i n . t h e latter r e p l i e d . p l a y f u l l y signs h i m s e l f " D e m o c r i t u s J u n i o r . " t h e p r i n c e o f p h i l o s o p h e r s .l6 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS DEMOCRITUS 1J presented i n a m o r e favourable l i g h t t h a n m a n y o t h e r adver- saries o f Socrates. tus was the p u p i l o f the s h a d o w y L e u c i p p u s . " T h o u g h h e was n o f o o l . " D e m o c r i - very interesting figure. I a m n o t a b l e to k n o w w h e t h e r they exist or d o n o t exist. for h e c a m e opposed to " w e e p i n g " H e r a c l e i t u s ) .

the great c o m i c p o e t . Aristotelians and Cynics c o u n t v e r s i o n . T h a t s a i d . C h r i s t a n d the V i r g i n M a r y . Anaxagoras. X e n o p h o n . h e was a l i v e at the t i m e o f Socrates' trial a n d e x e c u t i o n a n d m e t a n e e r i l y s i m i l a r e n d : there is a story that P r o d i c u s was p u t to d e a t h by the A t h e n i a n s o n the c h a r g e o f c o r r u p t i n g t h e i r y o u t h . w h e r e h e is n a m e d as h a v i n g b e e n p r e s e n t at t h e t r i a l o f S o c r a t e s . m e n - tions.d r a c h m a dis.d r a c h m a or f i f t y . we have relatively little infor- m a t i o n about his life a n d k n o w n o t h i n g reliable about his death. " Plato (428/427-348/347 B C ) Like Pythagoras. Socrates q u i p s i n Cratylus that i f h e h a d b e e n a b l e to afford the f i f t y .i8 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS Prodicus (PRECISE DATES U N K N O W N . Cyrenaics. BORN B E F O R E 460 BC) T h e r e was a s t a n d i n g joke i n a n t i q u i t y that P r o d i c u s . P l a t o o n l y o n c e . t h e r e is a q u e s t i o n a b l e story t o l d . " b u t h e h a d to m a k e d o w i t h the o n e . H o w e v e r .d r a c h m a l e c t u r e o n s e m a n t i c s . w h o wrote m u c h about Socrates. u s e d to offer a o n e . P l a t o o n l y m e n t i o n s h i m s e l f t w i c e i n h i s t w o d o z e n or so d i a l o g u e s . T h e t r u t h is that c o n s i d e r i n g Plato's o v e r w h e l m - ing philosophical importance. a n d D e m o s t h e n e s mentions h i m t w i c e i n p a s s i n g . Nietzsche insists that Plato u s e d to s l e e p o n a c o p y o f the w o r k s o f A r i s t o p h a n e s .d r a c h m a l e c t u r e h e Platonists. H i s f i n a l extant f r a g m e n t reads. b u t a b s e n t at t h e m o m e n t o f Socrates' death. " M i l k is best i f o n e draws it a c t u a l l y f r o m the f e m a l e . it is said that P l a t o was n e v e r seen to l a u g h o u t r i g h t . A l t h o u g h w e d o n o t k n o w the date o f P r o d i c u s ' d e a t h .h u n g r y S o p h i s t . w o u l d have understood everything about "the correctness of n a m e s . a n appar- e n t l y m o n e y .

w h o s a i d . D I E D 314 B C ) story t o l d i n t h e c e n t u r i e s after P l a t o ' s d e a t h that s u c h was D i o n y s i u s ' a p p r e c i a t i o n o f P l a t o ' s efforts that h e s o l d h i m A p u p i l o f P l a t o a n d successor to S p e u s i p p u s . St. w e d o n ' t e v e n k n o w w h y h e was c a l l e d A r c e s i l a u s refused to either a c c e p t or d e n y the p o s s i b i l i t y o f " P l a t o . as t h e l e a r n e d Thomas story o f C a r n e a d e s g i v i n g t w o ( p r e s u m a b l y q u i t e noisy) o r a - S t a n l e y p o i n t s o u t i n h i s 1687 History of Philosophy. H e . h e d i e d at the i n t o slavery a n d P l a t o was o n l y saved b y b e i n g r a n s o m e d age o f eighty-two after f a l l i n g over s o m e u n i d e n t i f i e d b r o n z e b y t h e C y r e n a i c p h i l o s o p h e r A n n i c e r i s . T h e r e is a ( D A T E O F B I R T H U N K N O W N ." Plato's n e p h e w a n d successor as h e a d o f the A c a d e m y ( o r i g i n - In his famous S e v e n t h L e t t e r . h e . t h e letter offered i n s t r u c t i o n i n p h i l o s o p h y to those w h o w e r e i n t e r - is w i d e l y c o n s i d e r e d i n a u t h e n t i c a m o n g c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r s . D I E D 339/338 B C ) t h e n e w b o r n P l a t o was p r e s e n t e d b y h i s f a t h e r to S o c r a t e s . s i n c e it is t h e m o s t p e r f e c t n u m b e r . it m i g h t b e t h e case that h e m a d e t h r e e visits to S i c i l y before Xenocrates b e c o m i n g e n t i r e l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h p o l i t i c s . h e a r g u e d i n f a v o u r o f that s p r e a d s u c h a nasty story a b o u t P l a t o " d o h i m m u c h justice. " T h i s is t h e s w a n I saw. t o o . I n fact. h e was a' w h o i n t r o d u c e d s c e p t i c i s m i n t o the s c h o o l b u t wrote n o t h i n g . h e a r g u e d against it.o n e a n d w a s b u r i e d i n t h e g r o u n d s o f the (2147-129? B C ) A c a d e m y . A c c o r d i n g F o u n d e r o f w h a t b e c a m e k n o w n as "the M i d d l e A c a d e m y . it g r e w feathers. " w h i c h means " b r o a d " i n G r e e k a n d perhaps alludes certainty. T h e R e n a i s s a n c e P l a t o n i s t M a r s i l i o F i c i n o adds that P l a t o d i e d o n h i s b i r t h d a y a n d t h a t t h e n u m b e r 81 is C a r n e a d e s was the f o u n d e r o f " t h e N e w A c a d e m y " a n d a f o l - o f h u g e s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e n e x t day. w h e r e P l a t o a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l i n s i g h t s that w e possess. h e was greater t h a n t h e m a n Arcesilaus buying him. b u t advocated a s u s p e n s i o n o f j u d g e m e n t or epochs i n to a m u s c u l a r p h y s i q u e a n d c a n b e c o n n e c t e d w i t h stories of all t h i n g s . b u t . H e n e v e r m a r r i e d . ested). I n the first.20 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS SPEUSIPPUS 21 b y A p u l e i u s that Socrates d r e a m t h e saw a f l e d g l i n g c y g n e t o n h i s k n e e . J e r o m e c l a i m s u t e n s i l i n the n i g h t . I n fact. S i c i l y at t h e i n v i t a t i o n o f D i o n y s i u s t h e E l d e r . ( D A T E O F B I R T H U N K N O W N ." that o n e c o u l d c o n s i s t e n t l y a r g u e for or against a thesis. A c c o r d i n g to C i c e r o . s p r e a d its w i n g s a n d Speusippus f l e w i n t o t h e sky s i n g i n g t h e sweetest songs. A l t h o u g h . t h a t P l a t o was c a p t u r e d b y p i r a t e s a n d s o l d i n t o slavery. h e d i e d at a w e d d i n g feast at the Carneades age o f e i g h t y . t h e s u m o f 9 t i m e s 9. P l a t o w r i t e s o f h i s e a r l y c a r e e r a n d h i s first t w o visits to p a r a l y s i n g disease. w h i l e i n t h e s e c o n d . A l l at o n c e . S p e u s i p p u s c o m m i t t e d s u i c i d e b e c a u s e o f a p a i n f u l . those tions i n R o m e i n 155 BC. " to P l u t a r c h .o n e y e a r s o l d w h e n S o c r a t e s was e x e c u t e d . H e d i e d t h r o u g h d r i n k i n g too freely o f u n m i x e d prowess i n w r e s t l i n g . S a d l y . T h e r e is a o f a l i c e i n f e s t a t i o n . B u t t h e r e is a n o t h e r story t h a t h e d i e d P l u t a r c h notes that h e spoke i n a very l o u d v o i c e . l o w e r o f A r c e s i l a u s ." (316/315-241 B C ) W h a t else d o w e k n o w ? P l a t o was t h i r t y . B u t a c c o r d i n g to H e r m i p p u s . B y s h o w i n g injury. wine. P l a t o d i e d at h i s w r i t i n g desk. l o v e r o f figs. P l a t o g i v e s us t h e few a l l y a n o l i v e grove o u t s i d e the o l d city o f A t h e n s . " b e c a u s e a p h i l o s o p h e r . w h o d i d m u c h to p o p u l a r i z e P l a t o . was a s c e p t i c w h o wrote n o t h i n g .

H e g e s i a s was too g l o o m y to e n t e r t a i n this h e was G r e a t . ( F o r reasons that I w o u l d prefer n o t to reveal. w i t h m i x e d h u m i l i t y . totle w i t h d r e w to h i s late m o t h e r ' s estate at C h a l c i s o n the A r i s t o t l e was b a l d . o g e n e s the C y n i c a n d s a i d . t h e r e was a n u p r i s i n g a g a i n s t M a c e d o n i a n rule (384-322 B C ) w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y l e d to the defeat a n d s u b j u g a t i o n o f A t h e n s T h e Medievals called h i m simply " T h e Philosopher. but o n l y if f o r m e d m e w i l l a l s o d e s t r o y m e . b e t w e e n t h e ages o f t h i r t e e n a n d s i x t e e n . " b u t o n l y s u c h as c a n n o t g r o w a g a i n w h e n c o m p l e t e l y (DATES U N K N O W N . h e s t o o d over that d e a t h . t h a t i f h e c e r n o f h u m a n b e i n g s was the a v o i d a n c e o f p a i n . w h i c h a c c o r d i n g o f i m p i e t y a g a i n s t h i m . H e h i m as t h e latter was s i t t i n g i n h i s t u b a n d s a i d h e c o u l d h a v e b e c a m e k n o w n as peisithanatos. " A l i t t l e . " N a t u r e w h i c h or his s p l e e n . H o w - f o r m o f h e d o n i s m . W h e n A l e x a n d e r v i s i t e d D i o g e n e s . " I w i l l n o t to P l u t a r c h was m i m i c k e d b y s o m e . a f r o m c r u e l i n f i r m i t i e s a n d a n a l l . s o m e d r i e d figs. p l e a s u r e was i m p o s s i b l e a n d the o n l y c o n . " G e t o u t o f i t i v e l y a d v o c a t e d s u i c i d e a l t h o u g h it is u n c l e a r w h e t h e r he m y l i g h t . o l d age d i d i f the h a n d l e or s o m e o t h e r n o t treat C a r n e a d e s w e l l . H e was h u m a n b e i n g is n o t m u t i - c r i t i c i z e d f o r n o t h a v i n g t h e c o u r a g e to c o m m i t s u i c i d e . " H e c o n c l u d e s that " b a l d p e o p l e are n o t m u t i l a t e d . A r i s t o t l e was t u t o r to A l e x a n d e r before goodness. w h i c h was also g r o w back. H e was so w e r e n o t h i m s e l f . A l e x a n d e r s e e m s to h a v e b e e n m o r e i m p r e s s e d b y D i - Critica Philosophiae. the A t h e n i a n s b r o u g h t t h e i r n o w f a m i l i a r c h a r g e calves w e r e s l e n d e r a n d h e spoke w i t h a l i s p . " G r e a t is D i o g e n e s . b u t o n l y s e e m s to h a v e r e a d b e f o r e h i s m e n t a l c o l l a p s e ) . N o w . " T h e r e is a story t h a t D i o g e n e s o f f e r e d A r i s t o t l e f o l l o w e d his o w n p r e s c r i p t i o n . as the c u r e for a l l e v i l . his A l e x a n d e r . w h i c h gives a n i r o n i c twist to the discussion i s l a n d o f E u b o e a a n d d i e d t h e r e the f o l l o w i n g year. H e w o r e rings a n d h a d a a l l o w t h e A t h e n i a n s to s i n t w i c e a g a i n s t p h i l o s o p h y .d a y L i b y a . ) e x p e r i e n c e d i n the present m o m e n t is the o n l y c r i t e r i o n of A s is w e l l k n o w n . l a t e d i f h e loses s o m e flesh a l t h o u g h it s e e m s h e c a m e c l o s e . " After news of Alexander's death i n 323 BC s p r e a d to Aristotle A t h e n s . H o w e v e r . " A r i s - d i s t i n c t i v e style o f dress. I n his view. l i k e A e s c h l y u s . P r e s u m a b l y this is b e c a u s e one's h a i r c a n . Because of Aristotle's association w i t h k n o w s o m e c u r i o u s facts a b o u t Aristotle: h e h a d s m a l l eyes. A r i s t o t l e argues that A c c o r d i n g to V i c t o r B r o c h a r d i n Les Sceptiquesgrecs (1887 — a c u p is n o t m u t i l a t e d i f a w h i c h was i n c i d e n t a l l y o n e o f t h e last b o o k s that N i e t z s c h e h o l e is m a d e i n it. eighty-five. T r a d i t i o n relates that. S i m i l a r l y ." We i n the L a m i a n W a r .22 190 OR SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS ARISTOTLE 2 3 d e m o n s t r a t e d that the p r o p e r p h i l o s o p h i c a l attitude is a scep. was the greatest g o o d . " a n d d i e d at t h e age of s o m e e x t r e m i t y is m i s s i n g . " H e pos. as r e p o r t e d i n B r u c k e r ' s Historia ever. w h i c h t h e l a t t e r a c c e p t e d a n d l i f t e d a l o f t e x c l a i m i n g . . n a m e d after C y r e n e i n p r e s e n t . a n y t h i n g h e w a n t e d .k n o w n f o l l o w e r o f the C y r e n a i c s c h o o l o f p h i l o s o p h y . t h e p e r s o n h e w o u l d m o s t l i k e to b e was t h o r o u g h l y dissatisfied w i t h life that h e wrote a b o o k to prove D i o g e n e s . to w h i c h D i o g e n e s r e p l i e d . H e left t h e c i t y s a y i n g .c o n s u m i n g l a n g u o r . at least i n p r i n c i p l e . H e b e c a m e b l i n d a n d suffered part is b r o k e n . THIRD CENTURY BC) r e m o v e d . physics. Aristotle immediately q u a l i f i e s this b y a d d i n g that t h i s is n o t t r u e o f every ex- Hegesias tremity. "death's p e r s u a d e r . o f m u t i l a t i o n i n the Meta- tical suspension of judgement. T h e C y r e n a i c s h e l d that p l e a s u r e this a r e a s s u r i n g c o n c l u s i o n . H e s a i d . I find C a r n e a d e s ' h o m e t o w n .

successor as h e a d o f the P e r i p a t e t i c s c h o o l (so c a l l e d b e c a u s e A r i s t o t l e l i k e d to w a l k a n d t a l k ) . (DATES U N K N O W N ) w h o d i e d t e n years after t h e i r m a r r i a g e . H e this vast c o r p u s are t w o b o t a n i c a l w o r k s a n d t h e n i n e t y . D I E D 27O B C ) T h a n k s to D i o g e n e s L a e r t i u s . " holds m o r e d i s a p p o i n t m e n t t h a n advantage. T h e o p h r a s t u s b r e a t h e d his last. "to die h a p p y . t h r e e w h e n h e d i e d a n a t u r a l d e a t h . B u t as I c a n A c c o r d i n g to A r i s t o t l e i n t h e Metaphysics. Antisthenes' n o longer discuss what we ought to d o . saying that she "has been good to m e . a n d p o s s i b l e e d i t o r o f his teacher's w o r k s . L i f e A n t i s t h e n e s s a i d .808 l i n e s . Pythias. s o m e t i m e s also a t t r i b u t e d to asked if he h a d any final words o f w i s d o m . " B u t Aristotle Lyco instructs his executors that the b o n e s of his wife. h e boasts are but i n the seeming. f r u i t (445-365 B C ) a n d f r e n z y . w e h a v e a r e c o r d o f h i s w i l l . Theophrastus D i o g e n e s . h a i r . T h e o p h r a s t u s d i e d at t h e age o f e i g h t y . N o t h i n g else b u t this. e x c e p t b y its p r o p e r n a m e : o n e n a m e for e a c h t h i n g . x x x i . l o ! W e die. t h e m w i t h a d i r e c t l i n e o f d e s c e n t f r o m Socrates. N o t h i n g t h e n is so u n p r o f i t a b l e as and had vomited into a basin. T h e r e is a story. Theophrastus (372-287 B C ) Demetrius (DATES UNKNOWN) P u p i l o f A r i s t o t l e . his w i l l .o n e . F a r e w e l l a n d m a y y o u be h a p p y . is s o m e t i m e s seen as the f o u n d e r o f the Stoics. " T h e b i l e I see.x x x i i ) . b u t n o t the p r i d e . h i s c o n c u b i n e . a m o u n t i n g to Antisthenes s o m e 232. a n d t h e r e is a story o f A r i s t o t l e d y i n g f r o m a s t o m a c h disease f r o m w h i c h h e appar- Strato e n t l y h a d l o n g suffered. a l t h o u g h t h i s is v e r y p r o b a b l y a l a t e r i n v e n t i o n . i n c l u d i n g treatises o n h o n e y .24 190 OR SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS THEOPHRASTUS 25 A c c o r d i n g to E u m e l u s . that m a n y of the pleasures w h i c h life W h e n h e was a s k e d a b o u t t h e h e i g h t o f h u m a n b l i s s .f i v e a n d h i s f i n a l h e is best s e e n as the first o f the C y n i c s . that A n t i s t h e n e s was c a l l e d a " d o w n r i g h t d o g " a n d said. M o r e t r u l y . he died. H e d i e d at seventy-four after s u f f e r i n g greatly f r o m gout. A r i s . A c c o r d i n g to P l u t a r c h . A l l that survives o f A n i n t i m a t e o f Socrates o f w h o m a l m o s t n o t h i n g survives. I n t h i s . as this p r o v i d e s p a g e f r a g m e n t On Sensation (see p p . ( D A T E O F B I R T H U N K N O W N .l i k e or kunikos words typify the p h i l o s o p h i c a l death. P e e r i n g into the vomit. Strato b e c a m e so t h i n that it is said that h e felt n o t h i n g w h e n totle m a k e s g e n e r o u s p r o v i s i o n for H e r p y l l i s . o f t h e P e r i p a t e t i c s c h o o l d i d n o t c o m e to so n o b l e a n e n d . w h o was i l l n i n g to live. A r i s t o t l e d i e d b y d r i n k i n g a c o n i t e W i t h those w o r d s . Diogenes L a e r t i u s lists o v e r 2 0 0 w o r k s . W h e n his disciples p h i l o s o p h e r s . " O n e day h e v i s i t e d P l a t o . the love o f glory. was so p l e a s e d w i t h t h e e p i t h e t that after his d e a t h the figure o f a d o g was c a r v e d i n stone to m a r k his f i n a l r e s t i n g p l a c e . please go o n w i t h p h i l o s o p h i c a l d o c t r i n e was t h a t n o t h i n g c a n b e d e s c r i b e d the i n q u i r y into right c o n d u c t . e x e c u t o r of F a t a l l y b i t t e n b y a n asp. I m m a c u l a t e l y dressed a n d o f a t h l e t i c d i s p o s i t i o n . b u t A p o l l o d o r u s says that h e was sixty. F o r w h e n we are just b e g i n . T h e o p h r a s t u s s a i d that t h e s o u l pays a h i g h r e n t a l to t h e b o d y . a status that was n o t at a l l d i s c r e d i t a b l e i n t h e a n c i e n t w o r l d . s h o u l d b e b u r i e d together w i t h his remains. the d o g . r e p l i e d . L a t e r heads at the age o f seventy.

A n t i s t h e n e s appears to h a v e c o n c l u d e d that c o n t r a d i c . " H e r e is Plato's m a n . " F o r a y o u n g ease. W h e n a s k e d b y L y s i a s t h e p h a r m a c i s t i f h e b e l i e v e d what m i g h t release h i m f r o m his pains. s n o w i n the w i n t e r . " W h e n P l a t o was talk- the latter. v i d u a l freedom requires honesty a n d a life o f c o m p l e t e mate. D I E D 320 B C ) f r o m a t e m p l e . h u g g e d statues a n d mastur- t h e gadfly o f the A t h e n i a n city state. b l e passage to t h e afterlife. f r o m t h e i r h a n d s . a m o n g t h e m is a t r e a t i s e o n d e a t h (as w e l l as s o m e t h i n g H e i n u r e d h i m s e l f to c o l d b y e m b r a c i n g statues c o v e r e d w i t h strangely c a l l e d "Jackdaw"). h e r e p l i e d . P l a t o h a d d e f i n e d the h u m a n b e i n g as a n a n i m a l .26 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS DIOGENES 2 7 way. r i a l austerity. to w h i c h the f o r m e r q u i p p e d . O n o n e a g a i n s t c o r r u p t i o n . T o w h i c h o n e is that one c o u l d l e a r n i n a t e m p t e d to r e s p o n d : n o t t r u e . W h e n A n t i s t h e n e s asked slavery. h e r e p l i e d . w h e n A n t i s t h e n e s was o l d a n d i l l . r o l l i n g i n it over h o t s a n d i n the s u m m e r . he w i l l i n g l y a c c e p t e d the epithet "dog. " H e d i e d o f a n u n s p e c i f i e d dis. H e ate raw s q u i d i n o r d e r to a v o i d t h e t r o u b l e o f O n o n e o c c a s i o n . " I s a i d f r o m w h e n I see a g o d ." W h e n i n g i n h i s w a y a b o u t " c u p n e s s " a n d " t a b l e n e s s " i n r e l a t i o n to P l a t o c a l l e d h i m a d o g . " W h e n h e was m y p a i n s . " W h y t h e n w i s h e d it w e r e as easy to r e l i e v e h u n g e r b y r u b b i n g h i s e m p t y don't y o u die?' s t o m a c h . If d e s c r i b e d as " a Socrates g o n e m a d . " T h e table a n d b a c k a g a i n a n d a g a i n to those w h o h a v e s o l d m e . " c u p I see. n o t f r o m m y l i f e . but listed l i v e d i n a b a r r e l . D i o g e n e s t h e C y n i c was once r e p l i e d that h e was a " c i t i z e n o f the w o r l d " or kosmopolites. m a n n o t yet.p o l i t i c a l stance t h a n s o m e sort o f b a n a l W h e n a s k e d w h a t was t h e m o s t b e a u t i f u l t h i n g i n t h e internationalism. D i o g e n e s showed i n t h e gods. " b u t this o v e r l o o k s the o n l y m o r e c o n t e m p o r a r y self-styled c o s m o p o l i t a n s d r a n k water sanity o f his a p p r o a c h to life a n d h i s real affinity w i t h Socrates. money and what doesn't. for a n o l d m a n n e v e r at a l l . " H o w c a n I h e l p b e l i e v i n g i n t h e m h i m t h e d a g g e r . H e s a i d t i o n is i m p o s s i b l e a n d f a l s e h o o d n e a r l y so. D i o g e n e s replied. l i k e r o o m . D i o g e n e s ' " c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m " is m u c h m o r e o f a n a n t i . D i o g e n e s c r e d i t e d h i s t e a c h e r A n t i s t h e n e s w i t h D i o g e n e s p l u c k e d a c h i c k e n a n d b r o u g h t it i n t o t h e l e c t u r e i n t r o d u c i n g h i m to a l i f e o f p o v e r t y a n d h a p p i n e s s a n d . a b i p e d a n d featherless. none of w h i c h survive.m i n d e d a n d u n e n d i n g protest D i o g e n e s t h o u g h t Plato's l e c t u r e s a waste o f t i m e . c o o k i n g . D i o g e n e s said. a n d e a t i n g a n y flesh w h a t s o e v e r . " A p p a r e n t l y h e a d v o c a t e d a c o m m u n i t y o f wives a n d h u s - b a n d s a n d t h o u g h t that c h i l d r e n s h o u l d also b e h e l d i n c o m - Diogenes mon. I n d e e d . ate h u m a n flesh. c y n i c i s m is n o t c y n i c a l i n the h u m a n flesh. l u x u r y a n d h y p o c r i s y . b r o t h e l that t h e r e is n o dif- W h e n A n t i s t h e n e s was b e i n g i n i t i a t e d i n t o t h e O r p h i c f e r e n c e b e t w e e n w h a t costs m y s t e r i e s ." H i s words a n d a c t i o n s m a n i f e s t a s i n g l e . o c c a s i o n . . i n c l u d i n g C o n t r a r y to c o m m o n o p i n i o n . T o w h i c h A n t i s t h e n e s s a i d to t h e p r i e s t . saying that he H a d e s . w h i c h w e r e secret r i t u a l s c o n n e c t e d to the possi. H e illustrious namesake. " Q u i t e t r u e .f o r s a k e n w r e t c h l i k e y o u . b u t I d o n o t see t a b l e n e s s a n d c u p n e s s . "freedom of speech. W h e n asked where he c a m e f r o m . " D i o g e n e s is a s o u r c e o f w o n d e r f u l stories: h e t h r e w away D i o g e n e s L a e r t i u s a t t r i b u t e s a n u m b e r o f w r i t i n g s to h i s his c u p w h e n h e saw s o m e o n e d r i n k i n g f r o m t h e i r h a n d s . b a t e d i n p u b l i c . d e c l a r i n g . H e also t h o u g h t t h e r e was n o t h i n g w r o n g i n s t e a l i n g ( D A T E O F B I R T H U N K N O W N . t h e h i g h p r i e s t s a i d that those w h o H e m a s t u r b a t e d i n the m a r - b e c a m e initiates w o u l d partake o f m a n y w o n d e r f u l things i n ketplace. T h e p a t h to i n d i . h e s a i d . D i o g e n e s m o d e r n sense o f t h e w o r d . for I c o m e the p r o b l e m of universals. H e m o c k e d the auctioneer w h i l e b e i n g sold into enes v i s i t e d h i m w e a r i n g a dagger. D i o g . w o r l d . a s k e d w h a t was the r i g h t t i m e to m a r r y . for w h i c h h e was w a r m l y a p p l a u d e d .

T h i s is the b r i d e g r o o m . (365-285 B C ) this m e r e l y c a u s e d h i m to repeat the i n d i s c r e t i o n . Diogenes Laertius. t h i n k of the tiny fart that y o u r intestines make. became a follower of c r o o k e d b y age. l u p i n s w e r e very p o p u l a r a m o n g s t the C y n i c s of Crates. and o n another he c o m m i t t e d suicide by h o l d i n g his breath. F o r t h u n d e r a n d farting are. ades o f the c a u s e o f t h u n d e r . H e f a i l e d a n d . she d e m a n d e d to m a r r y C r a t e s . " F a c e d o w n . F o r reasons A p u p i l o f D i o g e n e s a n d a n o t h e r C y n i c . w h o was i n t e r r e d i n (DATES U N K N O W N . unless y o u share m y pursuits. T h u s . p h i l o s o p h y begins i n farting. O n o n e a c c o u n t . r e a s o n for t h i s . As a young w o m a n H i p p a r c h i a became T h i s puts m e i n m i n d o f the f o l l o w i n g passage f r o m e n a m o u r e d o f the p h i l o s o p h y a n d p e r s o n o f C r a t e s . T h i s drove h i m into s u c h despair that h e t r i e d to starve h i m s e l f to d e a t h . " o n d c e n t u r y . one a n d the same. M e t r o c l e s was H i p p a r c h i a ' s b r o t h e r . LATE THIRD CENTURY B C ) h i s vast e p o n y m o u s M a u s o l e u m after c o n q u e r i n g m o s t o f A s i a M i n o r . way of m a k i n g a p h i l o s o p h i c a l point. H i p p a r c h i a ' s parents s u m m o n e d C r a t e s i n o r d e r to dissuade h e r .28 190 OR SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS HIPPARCHIA 29 When Diogenes was a s k e d h o w h e w o u l d l i k e to be H i p p a r c h i a c h o s e a n d f r o m that m o m e n t she l i v e d w i t h b u r i e d . Socrates says. w h e n rehearsing a speech. h e r e are h i s possessions. w h o was A r i s t o p h a n e s ' The Clouds w h e r e S o c r a t e s ." Crates. T h e n clothes a n d said. i n d i s c r e t i o n s w e r e n o t h i n g to b e a s h a m e d o f a n d M e t r o c l e s . " X e n i a d e s i n q u i r e d after t h e a n d dressed l i k e C r a t e s a n d f o l l o w e d t h e l i f e o f t h e C y n i c . O f Crates o f Thebes c o u r s e . I n despair. O n e hopes that the cause H i p p a r c h i a is the first f e m a l e p h i l o s o p h e r to b e m e n t i o n e d by wasn't l u p i n s . " B e c a u s e A c c o r d i n g to the t e s t i m o n y o f S e x t u s E m p i r i c u s i n t h e sec- after a l i t t l e t i m e d o w n w i l l b e c o n v e r t e d i n t o u p . Hipparchia M e t r o c l e s d i e d i n o l d a g e . " h a v i n g c h o k e d h i m s e l f . i n p r i n c i p l e . D e a t h m a k e s C y n i c s o f us a l l . i n t h e r o l e o f t h e c o n s i d e r a b l y o l d e r t h a n h e r . i n a last gesture. b e n t formerly a p u p i l of Theophrastus. C r a t e s spent his a n d are m e n t i o n e d b y D i o g e n e s i n L u c i a n ' s Dialogues. P l u t a r c h w r o t e a Life that escape m e . is t r y i n g to c o n v i n c e the g u l l i b l e S t r e p s i - b i r t h a n d w e a l t h . h e s a i d . A l l are e q u a l b e f o r e d e a t h a n d a m o u n t to n o t h . L u c i a n depicts D i o g e n e s i n H a d e s r i d i c u l i n g the once Metrocles m i g h t y a n d h a n d s o m e K i n g M a u s o l u s . m a k e y o u r c h o i c e a c c o r d i n g l y . K n o w i n g that h e was d y i n g . C r a t e s r i p p e d off a l l his First. C r a t e s c a m e to visit the distraught M e t r o c l e s a n d m a d e h i m a m e a l of lupins. A p p a r e n t l y . . a n d some m i g h t say that h o t a i r at o n e e n d o f the b o d y is s i m p l y a c c o m p a n i e d b y h o t a i r at the o t h e r e n d . " as (DATES U N K N O W N . consider the heavens: their infinite farting is t h u n d e r . T h e m a n n e r o f h e r d e a t h is h e d i e d . F L O U R I S H E D LATE THIRD CENTURY BC) D i o g e n e s L a e r t i u s c u r t l y notes. as l u p i n s are m e m b e r s o f t h e b e a n f a m i l y or fabaceae. E v e n t u a l l y . for y o u w i l l be n o h e l p m e e t o f W h i c h is to say that t h u n d e r s t o r m s are nature's f l a t u l e n t m i n e . R e f u s i n g m a n y suitors o f h i g h c h a r l a t a n S o p h i s t . days i n p o v e r t y a n d l a u g h t e r . " Y o u are g o i n g . d e a r h u n c h b a c k . C r a t e s c o n s o l e d M e t r o c l e s that s u c h gaseous C r a t e s w o u l d c h a n t to h i m s e l f the c h a r m . y o u are o f f to t h e h o u s e o f H a d e s . w h i c h has b e e n lost. a n d r e c e i v e d t h e m y s t e r i o u s r e p l y . h e d i e d after e a t i n g raw o c t o p u s unknown. H e r e p o r t e d l y f a r t e d i n g i n H a d e s . C r a t e s a n d H i p p a r c h i a p a r t o o k o f the u n u s u a l D i o g e n e s is s a i d to h a v e b e e n n e a r l y n i n e t y years o l d w h e n h a b i t o f h a v i n g sex i n p u b l i c .

It is Y o u alone were a credit to your b r e e d — y o u a n d D i o g e n e s said that d u r i n g a b a n q u e t w i t h A l e x a n d e r h e i n s u l t e d N i c o - before y o u . Stoics and Epicureans t h e C y n i c m o s t p r o n e to l a u g h t e r . " P o u n d . F L O U R I S H E D FOURTH CENTURY BC) i n a n i t i e s o f the p h i l o s o p h e r s l i k e Socrates. h e trav- e l l e d w i t h the c o n q u e r i n g a r m i e s o f A l e x a n d e r the G r e a t . l a u g h i n g a n d a n d w h e n b a d w e a t h e r f o r c e d A n a x a r c h u s to l a n d his s h i p i n c u r s i n g at everyone. a n d b e c a m e a c i t i z e n o f T h e b e s . b u t of y o u r o w n a c c o r d . C y p r u s . h e d i d n ' t c o m e to a h a p p y e n d . h e is k n o w n t h r o u g h a l i t e r a r y g e n r e that h e i n s p i r e d : M e n i p p e a n satire. It is a that h e k n e w n o t h i n g . h e was s e i z e d . " t h e e u d a i - dialogue by saying. a n d the (DATES U N K N O W N . case o f o n e d o g a d m i r i n g a n o t h e r . y o u d o n o t p o u n d A n a x - Scepticism. i n the m o d e r n sense. p o u n d exerted a vast i n f l u e n c e i n later a n t i q u i t y a n d beyond: the p o u c h c o n t a i n i n g A n a x a r c h u s . L i k e P y r r h o . . S o the story goes. A l t h o u g h n o n e o f his w r i t i n g s survives. o f the C y n i c s . A t w h i c h p o i n t . m o n i s t . to pay C h a r o n .h e a d e d h e l l h o u n d .h e r o . w h o is d e p i c t e d c h a s i n g boys i n H a d e s ( o l d habits die h a r d ) . C e r b e r u s c o n c l u d e s t h e i r A l t h o u g h h e was k n o w n as " t h e h a p p y m a n . it is s a i d that. l i k e M i d a s a n d C r o e s u s . N i c o c r e o n o r d e r e d that A n a x a r c h u s b e p l a c e d i n a h u g e m o r t a r a n d p o u n d e d to d e a t h w i t h i r o n pes- I w o u l d n o w l i k e to t u r n to three p h i l o s o p h i c a l s c h o o l s that tles. I n the latter's Dialogues of the Dead. the t h r e e . l i k e T i m y c h a . T h e tyrant n e v e r forgot the i n s u l t forced or p u s h e d . M e n i p p u s refuses H e was a f o l l o w e r o f D e m o c r i t u s a n d the t e a c h e r o f P y r r h o . Stoicism and Epicureanism. h e was r o b b e d of a l l his m o n e y a n d h a n g e d h i m s e l f i n despair. a d e l i g h t f u l l y c r u e l r i b - a l d r y . a n d a c q u i r e s the A n a x a r c h u s c l a i m e d that h e k n e w n o t h i n g . n o t e v e n the fact a d m i r a t i o n o f C e r b e r u s . archus. M e n i p p u s was a f o l l o w e r o f D i o g e n e s a n d p e r h a p s the m o s t c y n i c a l . f e r r y m a n to the u n d e r w o r l d . A n a x a r c h u s b i t off h i s o w n tongue a n d spat it at the tyrant. s u m m o n e d d o w n to H a d e s to l a u g h at the c o m p l a i n t s o f the Anaxarchus f o r m e r l y r i c h a n d p o w e r f u l . b e c a u s e y o u c a m e i n w i t h o u t h a v i n g to be c r e o n . H e was c e r t a i n l y Sceptics." W h e n N i c o c r e o n o r d e r e d that his t o n g u e b e c u t o u t . p r e s u m a b l y a r i c h o n e .3° 190 OR SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS Menippus (FLOURISHED THIRD CENTURY BC) H e was a P h o e n i c i a n a n d o r i g i n a l l y a slave w h o p r a c t i s e d u s u r y . M e n i p p u s is the c o n s u m m a t e a n t i . A n a x a r c h u s e x c l a i m e d . the tyrant o f C y p r u s . a p p a r e n t l y w i t h great success. w h o s e great exponents are P e t r o n i u s a n d L u c i a n .

" T h e r e is n i n e t y years o l d . b u t the e x p r e s s i o n o f a n e n t i r e w a y o f life. w h i c h was e x t r e m e l y r a d i c a l . o r w h a t v e r y l i t t l e a b o u t P y r r h o ' s l i f e . I n P h i l o ' s w o r d s . T o b o r r o w s o m e o f t h e m o r e c o l o u r f u l a n c i e n t e x a m - P y r r h o was the f o u n d e r o f the h u g e l y i m p o r t a n t t r a d i t i o n o f p l e s . it dif. w e Pyrrho c a n a s s e m b l e e v i d e n c e that w o u l d justify b e l i e f x o r its n e g a - (360-262 B C ) t i o n y. h i s ideas come a b o u t h a v i n g sex w i t h t h e i r d a u g h t e r s . W h e n h e was b a d l y bitten by a dog a n d m o m e n t a r i l y frightened. Z e n o a r g u e d that p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d n o t I n G r e e k . he apologized b y s a y i n g t h a t " i t was d i f f i c u l t to s t r i p o n e s e l f o f b e i n g Zeno o f C i t i u m (335-263 B C ) h u m a n . t h e P e r s i a n s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e was n o t h i n g u n u s u a l a n c i e n t s c e p t i c i s m . A p p r o p r i a t e l y e n o u g h . w e k n o w o f a n issue a n d p r a c t i s e a s u s p e n s i o n o f j u d g e m e n t . " separate f r o m the b o d y or w h e t h e r t h e r e is a h e a v e n o r a h e l l . A b o a r d a s h i p . A s w i t h t h e o t h e r s c e p t i c s . T h e i r c o u n s e l is to l o o k at b o t h sides f r o m the s e c o n d c e n t u r y . a p h y s i c i a n b i l i t y o f b e l i e f as s u c h . A s h e left n o w r i t i n g s . T h e r e are t w o sides to every story. Plato's Republic takes answered by d i s c o v e r i n g certainty. b a s k i n g i n the s u n . w h i l e C h r y s i p p u s d o w n to us t h r o u g h h i s p u p i l T i m o n . e a c h m a r k e d o u t b y its o w n l e g a l system. p l a c e at P i r a e u s . w i t h a twisted n e c k a n d b y c i s m . " I t is b y n o m e a n s assert or d e n y that t h e r e is l i f e after d e a t h . practises s i l e n c e or aphasia. the o n e . w i t h a cargo o f p u r p l e . i n D e s c a r t e s a n d K a n t for i n s t a n c e . n o t h i n g f i r m w e c a n say a b o u t a n y t h i n g . A c c o r d i n g to S c e p t i c i s m is e m i n e n t l y p r a c t i c a l . but a Phoenician who ended up i n Athens. " a n d h e was f a m o u s for a l w a y s q u i l l i t y t h a t is o p e n to a l l f o r m s o f i n q u i r y a n d a n u t t e r m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s a m e t r a n q u i l state. but s i m p l y suspends j u d g e m e n t a n d m e t w i t h t h e n a k e d ascetics w h o m the G r e e k s c a l l e d " G y m . B u t the clearest a n d m o s t p o w e r f u l a c c o u n t o f P y r r h o n i a n B y contrast. is h o w t h e Wise p e r s o n s h o u l d b e h a v e . s c e p t i c i s m poverty-stricken. I n m o d e r n not a Greek. It is s a i d t h a t h e l i v e d t o b e was c a l l e d a n epoche. O f c o u r s e . I n t h i s . o p i n i o n a n d l a w w o u l d h a v e w i n c e d at b o t h these b e l i e f s . d u r i n g a stranger to a n y species o f d o g m a t i s m . w h o called h i m s e l f " C y c l o p s " because he sex w i t h o n e ' s m o t h e r . that is. skeptikos m e a n s " i n q u i r e r " a n d t h e s c e p t i c is b e based o n cities.b e i n g . b e c a u s e o f a s h i p w r e c k off P i r a e u s . w h e r e a s m a i n s t r e a m a n c i e n t G r e e k o n l y h a d o n e eye. Z e n o was e x i s t e n c e o f t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d . " T h e s c e p t i c n e i t h e r d e r t h e G r e a t as a c o u r t p h i l o s o p h e r to I n d i a a n d a l l e g e d l y declines nor chooses. h i s o w n Republic. . B y contrast. " S u c h t r a n q u i l l i t y o f m i n d is t h e g o a l o f a n c i e n t s c e p t i c i s m . T h u s . p h i l o s o p h y . T i m o n . 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS PYRRHO ?3 s o m e o n e w h o d o e s n o t c l a i m to k n o w .e y e d e x . P l u t a r c h . the port o f r e p r e s e n t s a d a n g e r o u s a n d d i z z y i n g t h r e a t t h a t has to b e A t h e n s . a n d e s t a b l i s h e d h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e p u t a t i o n . " A s J o n a t h a n B a r n e s n o t e s . G o d or the s o u l . b u t w h o persists i n t h e i r i n q u i r i e s . w h e t h e r the s o u l is i m p o s s i b l e that P y r r h o n i s m has a n I n d i a n g o d f a t h e r . T h e f o u n d e r o f S t o i c i s m . H e was swarthy. P y r r h o it is n o t k n o w n h o w P y r r h o d i e d . ferocious s t o r m that terrified the other passengers. t h e s c e p t i c refuses to e i t h e r n o s o p h i s t s . n o o t h e r I n n e i t h e r asserting n o r d e n y i n g a n y t h i n g . for it is h e r e that w e f i n d w e l l . a l t h o u g h it w o u l d b e t a k i n g p o i n t e d to a p i g that c a l m l y w e n t o n e a t i n g a n d s a i d that this h i s s c e p t i c i s m too far to d e n y that it o c c u r r e d . w h o was f o n d o f e a t i n g g r e e n figs a n d fers d r a m a t i c a l l y f r o m t h e m o d e r n c o n n o t a t i o n s o f s c e p t i . t h e s c e p t i c is s i m p l y s c e p t i c a l a b o u t the possi- s c e p t i c i s m c a n be f o u n d i n Sextus E m p i r i c u s . greatly a d m i r e d r i e n c e o f d o u b t .d a n c e r . i n antiquity. Interestingly. says that " T r u l y . W e n o r m a l l y c o n n e c t it w i t h r a d i c a l d o u b t a b o u t the a l l a c c o u n t s rather h a r s h i n m a n n e r . W e d o k n o w that h e t r a v e l l e d w i t h A l e x a n . a p r o f e s s i o n a l d a n c e r b e l i e v e d that it was a m a t t e r o f i n d i f f e r e n c e w h e t h e r o n e h a d turned philosopher. a n d it was a g a i n s t P l a t o that Z e n o w r o t e s c e p t i c i s m is the a n s w e r a n d it was n o t s o m e a c a d e m i c expe. o n e lives i n a t r a n - m o r t a l c o u l d r i v a l P y r r h o . i n a l l matters.

Dionysius Z e n o was f a m o u s l y f r u g a l . I n a h i g h l y u n . b e i n g b a l d . Z e n o s r a d i c a l i s m was Thus seeking warmth more than was reasonable. b u t w h e n t h e y are s o a k e d t h e y b e c o m e wet. h e b e l i e v e d that h a p p i n e s s c o u l d b e d e f i n e d as m y o w n a c c o r d . . c i t i z e n s h i p was e x t e n d e d that. A s h e h e was l e a v i n g t h e s c h o o l . T r u e . t h e m a n n e r o f h i s d e a t h i l l u s t r a t e s w e l l the t h e respect o f h i s f a s t e r . c u l t i v a t i o n o f i n d i f f e r e n c e towards v i c e a n d v i r t u e w h e r e o n e H e starved h i m s e l f u n t i l he expired. party. h e r e p l i e d . H e e n j o y e d I n t e r e s t i n g l y . H e was s e e m i n g l y o b l i v i o u s to the effects o f r a i n . " L u p i n s t o o Cleanthes are b i t t e r . w h y t h e n c a l l m e ? " H e d i e d o n the spot "a g o o d flow of life. h e p e r s i s t e d w i t h h i s fast. he wrote down through h o l d i n g his breath. h e a t a n d p a i n f u l i l l n e s s .e i g h t is b i z a r r e . Ariston I n h i s o l d age.34 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS ARISTON 35 b u t i n s t e a d a l l h u m a n b e i n g s s h o u l d b e r e g a r d e d as f e l l o w cit. t h e c o v e r e d w a l k w a y s or porticos that s u r r o u n d e d the A t h e n i a n m a r k e t p l a c e . b r e a k i n g a was s o m e t h i n g o f a p l o d d e r .t h i n k i n g p u p i l . when old and bald did you let the a n d a d v o c a t e d u n i s e x c l o t h i n g . e a t i n g raw f o o d a n d w e a r i n g a (FLOURISHED THIRD CENTURY BC) t h i n c l o a k . l i k e lit unwillingly upon the chill reality of death. " a n d q u o t e d a l i n e f r o m t h e Niobe o f T i m o t h e u s . Z e n o ' s l e c t u r e s o n oyster s h e l l s a n d ox b o n e s . H e was i n favour o f a n o p e n c o m m u n i t y o f wives a n d h u s b a n d s Wherefore. C l e a n t h e s was sometimes toe. a l t h o u g h S t o i c b e l i e f that v i r t u e consists i n f o l l o w i n g t h e l a w o f n a t u r e they h a d a c u r i o u s disagreement about the nature o f walk- a n d that a l l n a t u r a l events a n d e n t i t i e s — l u p i n s i n c l u d e d — i n g : C l e a n t h e s s a i d that w a l k i n g was b r e a t h e x t e n d i n g f r o m are t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f d i v i n e p r o v i d e n c e . O n e day. F o r s o m e r e a s o n . s u c c e s s f u l l y b y d o c t o r s . h e was k n o w n as " T h e R e n e g a d e . " w h o p r o c l a i m e d indif. L y i n g t h e r e i n p a i n . h e s t r u c k t h e g r o u n d w i t h h i s fist k n o w n as " T h e A s s ." F o r lack of m o n e y . k n o w n as " T h e B a l d . H e said that the e n d o f l i f e was the that h e h a d a l r e a d y w a l k e d too far d o w n the r o a d to d e a t h . what the Stoics c a l l e d the " c o m m a n d i n g faculty" o f the soul to t h e feet. Ariston. you a s o u r c e o f e m b a r r a s s m e n t to the l a t e r R o m a n S t o i c s . Z e n o also a r g u e d against the b u i l d i n g o f L a e r t i u s devotes t h e worst o f h i s t e r r i b l e verses: t e m p l e s a n d l a w c o u r t s a n d d e n o u n c e d the use o f m o n e y . " I c o m e o f L i k e Z e n o . T o w h i c h Diogenes to w o m e n a n d slaves. Seneca a n d M a r c u s Aurelius. s e c o n d l e a d e r o f the Stoics a n d o r i g i n a l l y a f o l l o w e r s w e r e first c a l l e d Z e n o n i a n s a n d l a t e r S t o i c s . " H e c o m - t h e r e is a story o f Z e n o g e t t i n g d r u n k a n d n i c e l y h a p p y at a mitted suicide by starving himself. C l e a n t h e s s u f f e r e d f r o m e x t r e m e inflam- (FLOURISHED THIRD CENTURY BC) m a t i o n o f t h e g u m s a n d r e f u s e d a l l f o o d . w h e n Stoicism enjoyed imperial a p p r o v a l at the very h i g h e s t e c h e l o n s o f society. h e t r i p p e d a n d f e l l . a r g u i n g f e r e n c e towards a l l t h i n g s . R e t u r n i n g to o u r t h e m e o f l u p i n s ." (331-232 B C ) Z e n o gave h i s l e c t u r e s o n t h e stoa. C h r y s i p p u s . T h e story goes i z e n s . W h e n h e was c h a l l e n g e d as to h o w m u c h h i s u s u a l u n p l e a s a n t m a n n e r was c h a n g e d . h e d i e d o f s u n s t r o k e . p r e s i d e d o v e r h i s s c h o o l for fifty-eight years a n d t h e m a n n e r C l e a n t h e s was a p h i l o s o p h e r o f great p a t i e n c e a n d slow- o f h i s d e a t h at t h e age o f n i n e t y . It is p r o b a b l e that h e also sun roast your forehead? d e f e n d e d i n c e s t a n d c a n n i b a l i s m . C h r y s i p p u s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t w a l k i n g was t h e c o m m a n d i n g f a c u l t y itself. A f t e r b e i n g treated A p u p i l o f Z e n o . H e professional boxer.G r e e k m a n n e r . H i s Z e n o s successor. c o u l d be e q u a l l y d i s p o s e d to b o t h a n d n e i t h e r . as w i t (it is n o t k n o w n w h e t h e r p u g i l i s m was t h e c a u s e ) .

h e l a u g h e d so h e a r t i l y t h a t h e On the Happy Life that E p i c u r u s does n o t at a l l deserve h i s b a d died. a n d andria." Timocrates claimed in pus' family funerals. h e c r i e d o u t to a n o l d w o m a n . r e p u t a t i o n . W h a t is not i n the city is not i n the house either: n o w there is n o w e l l i n the city. ( i i i ) A s s u c h . h e c a n b e s e e n to a d v a n c e the e n e s says to E p i c u r u s ' a c c u s e r s . O n e dreads to t h i n k a b o u t the c a t e r i n g at C h r y s i p . (ii) F o r t h e S t o i c s . "It is e v i d e n t l y n o t i m p o s s i b l e s o m e a r r o g a n c e w h o a l l e g e d l y w r o t e 705 b o o k s d e a l i n g that w e too after o u r d e a t h w i l l r e t u r n a g a i n to t h e s h a p e w e extensively w i t h logic a n d the nature of propositions. b u t is part o f w h a t it was s a i d . ergo there is n o n e i n the house either. C l e m e n t of Alex- p e r m i t t e d m a r r i a g e w i t h m o t h e r s . (iv) T h e r e f o r e . therefore f o u n d e r . " W e c a n are s o m e e x a m p l e s o f h i s deftness i n matters l o g i c a l : t h e r e f o r e p e r h a p s l o o k f o r w a r d to s e e i n g m o r e o f C h r y s i p p u s i n the future. h e a l l o w e d e a t i n g the corpses Epicurus " T h e Prince of Athe- o f the d e a d . i n d u l g e n c e . d e f e n c e o f E p i c u r u s . " I f t h e r e h a d b e e n n o C h r y s i p p u s . " T h e s e p e o p l e are stark m a d . a n d that h e a d y o u have not. a n d h e gets the l o n g e s t a n d . "the p r e a c h e r o f e f f e m i n a c y " b y E p i c t e t u s . T h e latter's this b e i n g so. h e t o o k a d r a u g h t o f sweet w i n e u n m i x e d w i t h nauseating abuse of one N a u s i p h a n e s . a f r a u d a n d a t r o l l o p " — a n d t h e s e c o n d is e v e n better: after a n ass ( p r e s u m a b l y n o t h i s h e was o n l y w a r m i n g u p . T h e Stoics were bitterly o p p o s e d T h e r e is a c e r t a i n h e a d . o f w h o m l i f e o f t h e s o u l does n o t e n d w i t h d e a t h . " N o w g i v e t h e ass a d r i n k o f p u r e w i n e to w a s h O t h e r S t o i c s w e r e m o r e c o n c i l i a t o r y a n d S e n e c a writes i n d o w n t h e figs. a n illiterate. for i f w e p i c k o u r way t e n b o o k s o f t u r g i d r e p o r t a g e is t h e s t r e n g t h a n d l e n g t h o f h i s t h r o u g h t h e s m a l l t h i c k e t o f f r a g m e n t s that are a l l that sur. was s e i z e d w i t h d i z z i n e s s a n d d i e d five days later. t h e r e w o u l d b e t h e S t o i c s saw as the e t e r n a l a n d e t e r n a l l y r e c u r r i n g c y c l e o f no Stoa." T h e r e u p o n . E p i c u r u s . his Merriment that E p i c u r u s used to v o m i t t w i c e a day f r o m over- T h e r e are t w o stories o f h i s d e a t h . E p i c u r u s c a l l e d the w a t e r . b o t h i n v o l v i n g a l c o h o l . a n d h i s views o n the W o n d e r f u l h o w l o g i c h e l p s o n e to k n o w oneself! n a t u r e o f the gods were d e r i d e d D i o g e n e s L a e r t i u s s c a n d a l o u s l y reports that C h r y s i p p u s by C i c e r o . the T h e t h i r d leader o f the Stoics.36 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS CHRYSIPPUS 37 f o l l o w i n g theses. Epicurus (341-271 B C ) A n d again. W h a t is m o s t s u r p r i s i n g i n D i o g e n e s L a e r t i u s ' B u t p e r h a p s t h e last l a u g h is o n us. C h r y s i p p u s c o n c l u d e s . called i n the t h i r d b o o k o f his On Justice. w h i c h is (280-207 B C ) i d e n t i c a l w i t h G o d or t h e d i v i n e p r i n c i p l e . was c a l l e d y o u are w i t h o u t a h e a d . after c e r t a i n p e r i o d s o f t i m e h a v e e l a p s e d . ism. from 232 u n t i l his death. the i n d i v i d u a l s o u l or microcosmos Chrysippus is part a n d p a r c e l o f t h e " w o r l d s o u l " or macrocosmos. there is a h e a d w h i c h y o u have not. i n a f r a g m e n t f r o m L a c t a n - C h r y s i p p u s was a p h i l o s o p h e r o f g r e a t b r i l l i a n c e a n d t i u s ." t h e w o r l d o r d e r . N o w to the E p i c u r e a n s . o l d t e a c h e r . the Christian. C l e a n t h e s ) h a d e a t e n h i s figs. I n response to the I n t h e first. B u t latter " a jelly-fish. even more bewilderingly. H e r e n o w are. " D i o g - v i v e o f C h r y s i p p u s ' w r i t i n g s . daughters a n d sons. (i) D e a t h is t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e s o u l f r o m t h e b o d y .

some E p i c u r u s was a p r o l i f i c a u t h o r . P l a t o n i s t s a n d S t o i c s . scientific view of nature with an ethi- gence. cake a n d some water. E p i c u r u s w r i t e s . s u r r o u n d e d by his friends a n d disciples. " N o o n e was ever t h e better for s e x u a l i n d u l . a n d t e s t i m o n i e s . T o l i v e w i t h o u t a n x i e t y is to e n j o y t h e bliss o f the gods. that fascinated P i e r r e G a s s e n d i i n his extended d e f e n c e of ties o f a n extravagant t a b l e . T w o m i l l e n n i a later. a m a z i n g l y . or c o n s u m i n g f i s h a n d t h e o t h e r d a i n . w h o says o f h i m . modelled on b o o k ( p p . it was this c o n t e n t m e n t o f s o u l i n g boys a n d w o m e n . c a l m a n d o v e r c o m i n g t h e s t a n d i n g o f p l e a s u r e . p o w e r f u l a n d it was t o u c h e d o n i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n to this T h e Epicureans lived in small communities. t h e n E p i c u r u s was far f r o m b e i n g a n E p i c u r e a n . m e n t of s o u l w h i c h I derive f r o m r e m e m b e r i n g o u r rea- A p e r s o n w i l l n e v e r b e h a p p y i f t h e y are a n x i o u s a b o u t w h a t sonings a n d discoveries. t h e C y n i c s w e r e n o t c y n i c a l . a n d h i s m a i n treatise o n s e v e n years after t h a t o f P l a t o . thoroughly atomistic. E p i c u r u s ' v i e w o f d e a t h is p l a i n a n d w a n t to b e c o m e a h e d o n i s t . E p i c u r e a n i s m is n o t a b o u t d r i n k i n g . w i t h the rise o f t h e m o d e r n S o . w h i c h are o f c o m p e t e w i t h Z e u s i n h a p p i n e s s as l o n g as h e h a d a b a r l e y the utmost possible severity.s e v e n v o l . " E p i . " If. B u t h e goes o n . It is c o n c e r n e d w i t h prudence i n the life a n d o p i n i o n s o f E p i c u r u s that I discussed above a l l matters. most o f a l l . n o r w i l l h e " d r i v e l w h e n d r u n k e n ." w e e k s o f s u f f e r i n g c a u s e d b y k i d n e y stones. T h e wise E p i c u r e a n w i l l n o t m a r r y o r rear a f a m . Yet a l l m y sufferings are c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d by the content- p a n y a life w i t h o u t wants. " S e n d m e a little pot o f c h e e s e . x x x v ) . s i c k l y c h a r a c t e r a n d t h e r e was e v e n a b o o k w r i t t e n b y h i s dis- u m e s . it is n o t at a l l c l e a r w h y a n y o n e s h o u l d t e r r o r o f a n n i h i l a t i o n . p h i l o s o p h e r for o u r t i m e t h a n E p i c u r u s . enjoy. p r e s e r v e d l a r g e l y t h a n k s to D i o g e n e s L a e r . t h e y d o n o t h a v e . I a m suffering a b s t e m i o u s n e s s i n a l l t h i n g s ." O f course. E p i c u r u s adds. worries a n d . c a l s t a n c e that a i m s at p r u d e n c e . " d e a t h is u n d e r s t o o d as c o m p l e t e e x t i n c t i o n a n d t h e s o u l is . day of m y life. anxiety. In a final c o n n o t a t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e w o r d " E p i c u r e a n . B u t h e e x p i r e d A l a r g e p a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m w i t h E p i c u r u s is w i t h t h e cheerfully. i n 1649. c a l l e d " T h e G a r d e n . E p i c u r u s says that the greatest blessed- ness i n h u m a n l i f e is t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f f r i e n d s h i p a n d that I n c o n t r a s t to t h e P y t h a g o r e a n s . H e d i e d i n e x c r u c i a t i n g p a i n f r o m r e n a l f a i l u r e after t w o t i u s . v a l u e o n f r i e n d s h i p . r u n n i n g The painful truth of E p i c u r u s ' purported pleasure- to 154 pages. a n d the last. I m a y feast s u m p t u o u s l y . w h i c h is u n d e r s t o o d as t h e state o f b l i s s that w o u l d a c c o m . xxix—xxx): t h e o n e that E p i c u r u s e s t a b l i s h e d o n t h e outskirts o f A t h e n s . w h e n it c o m e s to d e a t h we h u m a n beings a l l l i v e i n a n vants a n d w o m e n o n e q u a l t e r m s a n d t h e y p l a c e d a v e r y h i g h u n w a l l e d city. t h e n . w h e n I l i k e .3§ 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS EPICURUS 39 m o s t d e t a i l e d t r e a t m e n t o f a n y p h i l o s o p h e r i n Lives. ( p . s c i e n t i f i c v i e w o f t h e w o r l d . A l l that s u r v i v e are f o u r letters a n d scattered f r a g m e n t s c i p l e M e t r o d o r u s c a l l e d On the Weak Constitution of Epicurus. E p i c u r u s was a n o t o r i o u s l y n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y e x t e n d e d to a m a s s i v e t h i r t y . h e a d v o c a t e d O n the happiest. " A s for f o r n i c a t i o n . given E p i c u r u s ' extremely ascetic under. as w e letter to H e r m a r c h u s . H e s a i d that h e was p r e p a r e d to f r o m diseases of the b l a d d e r a n d intestines. the wise m a n " w i l l o n o c c a s i o n d i e for a f r i e n d . B u t these c o m m u n i t i e s . " W e k n o w very little a b o u t the life of A g a i n s t other things it is possible to o b t a i n security. seeking c a n be seen i n the c i r c u m s t a n c e s of his death. c u r e a n i s m is c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f h a p p i n e s s . t h e r e is n o m o r e r e l e v a n t ancient i l y . saw a b o v e . for h e c o m b i n e s a E p i c u r u s says. I n m y v i e w . p a r t y i n g . e x c e p t that t h e y i n c l u d e d h o u s e h o l d ser. " H i s g o o d n e s s was p r o v e d i n a l l ways. O n t h e c o n t r a r y .

L u c r e t i u s ' p a s s i o n is d i r e c t e d n o t at h i s w i f e . w h i c h is its r e s e m b l a n c e . " A n e t e r n i t y passed b e f o r e passed i n t o l e g e n d . W i t h E p i c u r u s . TITUS CARUS 41 n o t h i n g m o r e than a temporary a m a l g a m of atomic particles. several books w h i c h C i c e r o c o r r e c t e d . O thou Passionless bride. L u c i l l a grew w r a t h f u l a n d p e t u l a n t . H e c o m . i n c l a i m i n g t h a t " D e a t h is n o t h i n g to u s . b u t b e c a u s e h e o f w h a t w i l l h a p p e n to o u r b o d y after d e a t h . i n g t h e d e s i r e d a m o r o u s effect. T e n n y s o n w r o t e h i s " L u c r e t i u s " i n 1868. A s E p i c u r u s puts it. " w h o m h e h e l d d i v i n e . t h i s p o e m . a n d L u c r e t i u s was " b u r i e d i n s o m e w e i g h t i e r a r g u m e n t . b e c a u s e T h e poet T i t u s L u c r e t i u s C a r u s was b o r n . Is t h a t a s o u r c e o f a n x i e t y ? O f c o u r s e n o t . " s u c h as the r o l l of writes. H a v i n g a r g u e d for t h e m o r t a l i t y a n d i n d e e d w h o writes f o u r c e n t u r i e s after L u c r e t i u s i n a n entry u n d e r the materiality of the s o u l . or differ i n any way insanity. w h o m he personifies a n d l i v i n g w e l l a n d to p r a c t i s e d y i n g w e l l are o n e a n d t h e s a m e . A love p o t i o n drove h i m m a d . " addresses i n a p a i n e d p a e a n : I f l i f e c a n b e l i v e d as a p r a c t i c e for d e a t h . F a r f r o m i n d u c . b e d i s a g r e e a b l e to roast i n the s c o r c h i n g flames o f a . l o n g . h e i m a g i n e s t h e story f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f T h e n w h y s h o u l d t h e e t e r n i t y that w i l l pass after o u r d e a t h L u c r e t i u s ' wife. the L a t i n h e x a m e t e r or the 300 scrolls left b e h i n d b y h i s mas- ter E p i c u r u s . t h e p o t i o n p r o d u c e d i n T h e v i t a l m o r a l c o r o l l a r y o f this v i e w is that it is t h e fear o f L u c r e t i u s a horrific vision of the E p i c u r e a n universe w i t h d e a t h a n d the l o n g i n g for i m m o r t a l i t y that r u i n s l i f e . cer. w h y w e e p a n d w a i l over d e a t h ? It is n o t h i n g . a n d he c o m p o s e d . one L u c i l l a . L u c r e t i u s joins his master E p i c u r u s year 9 4 B C . It is less a l t h o u g h it w o u l d o b v i o u s l y s u i t J e r o m e ' s C h r i s t i a n purposes t h a n s l e e p . w e f i n d L u c r e t i u s ' De Rerum Matura (On the Nature of the Universe or On the Mature of v i e w s o n d e a t h p o w e r f u l l y e x p o u n d e d at the e n d o f B o o k 3 o f Things). i n the intervals o f his O n e w h o n o l o n g e r is c a n n o t suffer. b u t to the h i g h e s t t a i n l y n o t h i n g to b e f e a r e d . J e r o m e . S o . T i t u s C a r u s ( F L O U R I S H E D FIRST C E N T U R Y B C ) A f t e r a c k n o w l e d g i n g h i s f a i l u r e to w o o d i v i n e t r a n q u i l l i t y . d i d a c t i c L a t i n e p i c d e v o t e d to the t e a c h i n g o f E p i c u r u s . T h e d i f f e r e n c e is s i m - to d e n o u n c e the h e d o n i s t i c excesses o f the great p a g a n poet. m u s t b e c u l t i v a t e d is the i d e a that d e a t h is n o t h i n g to us. W h a t e v e r t h e v a l i d i t y o f J e r o m e ' s story. I n w e w e r e b o r n . p l y that i n d e a t h w e d o n ' t w a k e a n d o u r b o d i l y f o r m disperses B u t the story o f L u c r e t i u s b e i n g d r i v e n m a d b y a l o v e p o t i o n i n t o " t h e s e e t h i n g mass o f m a t t e r . W e h a v e n o r e a s o n to e i t h e r b e l i e v e or d i s b e l i e v e this story. " It is n o t h i n g to fear. life has b e e n u s u r p e d by death the i m m o r t a l . w h e n o n c e this m o r t a l m i t t e d s u i c i d e aged 43. " T o p r a c t i s e E p i c u r e a n virtue of tranquillity. W e k n o w a l m o s t n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e a u t h o r o f the r e m a i n e d s o m e w h a t s e x u a l l y frustrated b y this o u t c o m e . divine Tranquility Yearn'd after by the wisest of the wise Who fail to find thee. e m p l o y i n g c r u n c h e d by r a v e n i n g jaws. De Rerum Natura. Lucretius." b e a n y greater s o u r c e o f a n x i e t y ? W e s h o u l d also h a v e n o fear T h i s was n o t for w a n t o f l o v e o n the poet's part. t h e n E p i c u r u s ' " c o n t e n t m e n t of s o u l " m i g h t be m o r e t h a n a v a i n w i s h . w e are f i n i s h e d w i t h the l o n g l i n e o f a n c i e n t h e d r i v e s a k n i f e i n t o h i s s i d e a n d expires. " U n w i l l i n g to a c c e p t F o r i f it is really a b a d t h i n g after death to be m a u l e d a n d s u c h c o l d n e s s . f r o m one w h o has never b e e n b o r n . B u t there is the i n f a m o u s s t a t e m e n t o f St. L u c i l l a m u s t h a v e G r e e k s . I c a n n o t see w h y it s h o u l d not the services o f a w i t c h to b r e w a l o v e p h i l t r e . W h a t atoms c o l l i d i n g r a n d o m l y i n the v o i d .40 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS LUCRETIUS. I n h i s r a v i n g m a d n e s s . w h o " f o u n d her master cold. w i t h a rude r e a l i s m .

43 . s c o r c h e d . w h i c h e n d e d w i t h t h e u n i f i c a t i o n o f the l e n g t h o f t i m e s p e n t d e a d ? V i e w e d f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t C h i n a u n d e r t h e Q i n D y n a s t y . b u t is a n d m o s t p r o m i n e n t o f w h o m was M a s t e r K o n g or K o n g z i . o n the surface of a c h i l l y slab. the basis for c o n t e n t m e n t a n d c a l m . H o w e v e r m a n y g e n e r a t i o n s y o u m a y a d d to y o u r store by l i v i n g . to s u c c u m b to t h e d e s i r e for i m m o r t a l i t y . T o r u n away f r o m d e a t h is to r u n away f r o m oneself. W h e t h e r s q u a s h e d . t h e p h i l o s o p h e r k n o w s w h e n to d i e a n d d o e s n o t a p p e a l a g a i n s t h i s s e n t e n c e w h e n it has b e e n p a s s e d . B y p r o l o n g i n g l i f e .4 2 190 O R SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS funeral pyre. A p p a r e n t l y his m o t h e r u s e d to c a l l h i m " Q i u . or to lie e m b a l m e d i n honey. C l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e p h i l o s o p h y b e l o n g s to t w o r i c h a n d c o m - there waits for y o u nonetheless the same eternal death. or to be squashed u n d e r a c r u s h i n g weight of earth. t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e first o f e t e r n i t y . " m e a n i n g " m o u n d " or " h i l l o c k . " b e c a u s e o f the u n u s u a l eleva- t i o n o n the top of his forehead w i t h w h i c h h e is often depicted. Classical Chinese Philosophers a g a i n s t w h i c h L u c r e t i u s offers a m a t h e m a t i c a l argument: t h e a m o u n t o f t i m e o n e is a l i v e is n o t g o i n g to r e d u c e the e t e r n i t y o f one's d e a t h : So an u n q u e n c h a b l e thirst for life keeps us always o n the gasp. It is also b r e v i t y or l o n g e v i t y is n o t h i n g i n c o m p a r i s o n to t h e e t e r n i t y k n o w n as t h e p e r i o d o f the " H u n d r e d P h i l o s o p h e r s . M o r e o v e r . stifled o r s o a k e d i n h o n e y . a n d t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e G r e a t W a l l . we c a n n o t subtract or w h i t t l e away o n e jot f r o m the d u r a t i o n o f o u r d e a t h . plex h i s t o r i c a l epochs: the later part of the " S p r i n g a n d A u t u m n " p e r i o d (722-481 BC) a n d the " W a r r i n g States" W h a t is a year or a d e c a d e m o r e or less i n c o m p a r i s o n to p e r i o d (403-221 B C ) . stifled a n d stiff w i t h c o l d . " the first o f o u r d e a t h . n o p h i l o s o p h e r has i n f l u e n c e d m o r e h u m a n b e i n g s t h a n K o n g z i a n d h e is i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m whatever " C h i n e s e n e s s " has m e a n t for the past t w o a n d a h a l f m i l l e n - n i a . life's e m p e r o r . K o n g z i or Confucius (551-479 B C ) W i t h o u t d o u b t . this e t e r n i t y is n o t h i n g to fear. a n d K o n g z i ' s n a m e was L a t i n i z e d b y J e s u i t m i s s i o n a r i e s i n t o C o n f u c i u s . E p i c u r u s is m e n t i o n e d just o n c e i n L u c r e t i u s ' p o e m i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h i s p r e p a r e d n e s s for d e a t h . w h a t S p i n o z a c a l l s sub specie aeternitatis. T h e suffix " Z i " o r " T z u " m e a n s t e a c h e r or master.

Cynics. N o o n e k n o w s w h e r e u n d u e sorrow?' he died. S i m a K o n g z i revived the a n c i e n t . t h e b o r d e r g u a r d u n d e r s t o o d that L a o z i was f o r t h r e e y e a r s . for w h o m s h o u l d I show h i s b u f f a l o a n d was n e v e r s e e n a g a i n . W h e n I have F o r a l o n g t i m e the w o r l d has b e e n u n r e g u l a t e d . n a m e d after h i m . t o o . " A m I? Y e t i f n o t for h i m . W h e n h e f i n i s h e d . ancient Greek thought and " Y o u do not understand even life. Q i a n . w i s d o m . death?" ized by intense disagreements between Platonists. b i r t h a n d d e a t h are b o u n d a r i e s a n d t h e r e l i . W h e n his m o t h e r d i e d . that is so i n . a n d w h e n h i s dis. L a o z i left h i s post as i m p e r i a l l i b r a r - b u r i e d w i t h great s p l e n d o u r a n d s o l e m n i t y a n d K o n g z i i a n a n d t r a v e l l e d west o n a b u f f a l o . so. L e g e n d has it that K o n g z i k n e w w h e n h e was g o i n g to die H e wrote. ritu. " M a y I ask a b o u t d e a t h ? " to w h i c h t h e latter r e p l i e s . I . L a o z i was t u r n e d i n t o a h e a v e n l y b o d y w h e n asteroid 7854 was lars where the coffin is p l a c e d ." The great p e r i o d of I n t h e Lunyii or Analects. that w h o d i d n ' t feel that the d e b t to h i s m a s t e r h a d b e e n p a i d a n d is so i n d e e d . K o n g z i expresses s o m e a g n o s t i - classical C h i n e s e philosophy cism about the p o s s i b i l i t y of the afterlife. a n d h i s c o f f i n was p l a c e d and he said of h i m s e l f (and between p i l l a r s as d e s c r i b e d i n h i s d r e a m . W h e n t h e k i n g d o m o f Z h o u still e n d u r e i n C h i n a . n o one n o body. c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n s u c h a p e r s o n a n d the a u t h o r o f t h e Tao g i o u s rites for m o u r n i n g are h u g e l y i m p o r t a n t o c c a s i o n s Te Ching is w e a k a n d e m b r o i l e d i n l e g e n d . H e a l s o s h o w e d e x t r e m e g r i e f o v e r the l e a v i n g for ever a n d a s k e d h i m to w r i t e d o w n s o m e o f h i s d e a t h o f h i s f a v o u r i t e d i s c i p l e . 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS KONGZI OR CONFUCIUS 44 45 IB L i k e S o c r a t e s . L a o z i i m m e d i a t e l y c o m p l i e d a n d t h u s t h e Tao Te ciples suggested t h a t h e w a s s h o w i n g u n d u e s o r r o w . m o u r n e d for a f u r t h e r t h r e e years. L a o z i got b a c k o n r e p l i e d . Y e n Y u a n . b u t i n his day forgotten. L a o z i or L a o T z u S t o i c s a n d E p i c u r e a n s . w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f T z e K u n g . from a bereaved f a m i l y . C h i n e s e t h o u g h t f i n d s bit- ( F L O U R I S H E D I N T H E SIXTH CENTURY B C ) ter o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n C o n f u c i a n . as p r e s e r v e d b y C h i n a ' s first great h i s t o r i a n . a n d h a d the f o l l o w i n g despairing v i s i o n i n a d r e a m : I suffer great disaster because I have a body. m o u r n e d h i m for three years before d i s p e r s i n g to t h e i r " T o say t h a t I a m l i k e a d o g h o m e s . a very c l o s e d i s c i p l e . H o w can you understand just as t h e l a t t e r is c h a r a c t e r . Last n i g h t I d r e a m e d that I was sitting before the sacrificial offerings between the p i l . what disaster c a n there be? understands h o w to f o l l o w m e . Daoist and Mohist schools. A c c o r d i n g to t h a t f o r g i v i n g p r o p e r e x p r e s s i o n to t h e v a l u e o f h u m a n l i f e . 7853 is n a m e d after K o n g z i . W h e n h e c a m e to t h e r e s i g n e d a l l h i s p u b l i c offices a n d m o u r n e d h e r i n s o l i t u d e H a n G u Pass. he Ching c a m e i n t o b e i n g . she was was d i s i n t e g r a t i n g i n w a r . K o n g z i was K o n g z i d i e d at t h e age o f seventy-three s u r r o u n d e d b y a not particularly good-looking large n u m b e r o f f a i t h f u l d i s c i p l e s . It is a l t o g e t h e r u n c l e a r w h e t h e r L a o z i r e a l l y e x i s t e d . H i s d i s c i p l e s one thinks of the Cynics). deed. l e g e n d . s o m e o f w h i c h a b o u t the i m p o r t a n c e o f r i t u a l . a n d t h e F o r K o n g z i . Chi-lu asks fascinatingly coincides with K o n g z i . K o n g z i w e n t to visit L a o z i a n d t h e y d i s a g r e e d s t r o n g l y als c o n n e c t e d w i t h b u r i a l a n d m o u r n i n g .

a p h i l o . T h e r e f o r e . S O M E S O U R C E S SAY 4 7 0 . in classical C h i n e s e p h i l o s o p h y a n d their views were progressively m a r g i n a l i z e d by successive i m p e r i a l dynas.e x e m p l a r y p e r s o n . n a m e l y n o t d o i n g the right t h i n g . " M i n . as o n e m a y detest d e a t h . It is o n l y that the e x e m p l a r y persons are able to b e c a u s e o f h i s e x p e r t i s e i n f o r t i f i c a t i o n . I w i l l give u p fish a n d take bears' paws. o f h u m a n n a t u r e a n d s o u g h t to c u l t i v a t e Tightness or p r o p e r glected rival of K o n g z i . s c h o l a r s h i p suggests t h a t " M o " is t h e g e n e r i c name for s o m e o n e w h o has b e e n b r a n d e d as a c r i m i n a l slave." I n i t i a l l y .4 6 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS MENGZI OR MENCIUS 47 Mozi M e n g z i or M e n c i u s ( D A T E S U N C E R T A I N . t h e d i s c i p l e s o f t h e W a y o f M o o p p o s e d (369-286 BC) t h e p o w e r o f t h e r u l i n g class b y d e c l a r i n g t h e m s e l v e s fol- l o w e r s o f slaves. If o n e c a n n o t have b o t h o f t h e m . as m u c h b u r e a u c r a t i c e l i t i s m o f C o n f u c i a n i s m w i t h its c o n t e m p . T h u s . t h e g n o m i c u t t e r i n g s o f L a o z i . It is not o n l y e x e m - M o z i ' s l i f e .r e f l e c t i o n and C o n f u c i a n i s m against the M o h i s t s . H e c o n c l u d e s . w h a t h e saw as the w a y o f H e a v e n or w i t h ritual c o n s u m e d too m u c h m o n e y a n d i m p o v e r i s h e d «qr 77 1 lan. a defender o f a n i d e a l i z e d a n d lofty v e r s i o n o f s o p h i c a l s c h o o l d e v o t e d to frugality. " T h e M o h i s t s were the proletarians a n d democrats typically. S u c h t e a c h i n g is too barren. M e n g z i . " lofty m o r a l i s m o f M e n g z i . I n d e e d . the people. U n l i k e the m a k e it w a r m . d e e p r e m a r k s . we k n o w next to n o t h i n g about things that we detest m o r e t h a n death. Z h u a n g z i is b y far t h e m o s t i n t r i g u i n g . M e n g z i writes. H e w o u l d have m e n toil t h r o u g h life. p r o c l a i m e d the goodness w h a t w o u l d n o w be c a l l e d distributive justice. Z h u a n g z i m a k e s t h e f o l l o w i n g q u i p at t h e e x p e n s e of Mozi: I desire fish a n d I desire bear's paws. H e c o n s i d e r e d self- suffering as the i d e a l . " M o z i d i d n o t r e t a i n a s i n g l e seat l o n g e n o u g h to a n d witty of the classical C h i n e s e p h i l o s o p h e r s . M o z i was t h e f o u n d e r o f M o h i s m . w i t h a bare f u n e r a l at death. b e l i e v e d the C o n f u c i a n c o n c e r n c o n d u c t i n a l l t h i n g s . there are things that we desire m o r e t h a n life. o n e c a n detest s o m e t h i n g more tuous a n d p a t r o n i z i n g idea of the common people or t h a n d e a t h . that is a l l . s e l f . On Zhuangzi or C h u a n g T z u this i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I ' l l take fish a n d life a n d n a m e a n d " T i " or " Z i " his p e r s o n a l n a m e . H e l e d a n i t i n e r a n t l i f e s t y l e . a l l h u m a n beings l o w e r classes w h o e n d e d u p h o l d i n g a n o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n have it. t h e n o n e T h e M o h i s t s w e r e b i t t e r l y o p p o s e d to w h a t t h e y saw as the s h o u l d give u p l i f e a n d p u r s u e Tightness. H u a i N a n t z e T o m y m i n d . M o z i . A s a c o n s e q u e n c e .3 9 0 B C ) (372-289 B C ) S o t h e story goes. If I c a n n o t have b o t h o f t h e m . the ne. m u c h debate about the m e a n i n g of the n a m e "Mozi. B u t recent p o l i t e l y pass o n Tightness a n d bears' paws. O n one o c c a s i o n . it was t h o u g h t t h a t " M o " was t h e f a m i l y o r c l a n A s a n o n . t h e r e is avoid l o s i n g it. a n d ties. M e n g z i pursues the a n a l o g y b y c l a i m i n g that o n e m a y desire life a n d Tightness. It a p p e a r s t h a t M o z i was a c r a f t s m a n f r o m the p l a r y persons w h o have this i n m i n d .

A n o t h e r change a n d she was b o r n . m u t t e r . It's just like the pro- s n a t c h i n g food f r o m the m o u t h s o f crows a n d eagles a n d gression o f the four seasons: spring. eases m e i n o l d age. s u m m e r . for the f o l l o w i n g extraordinary anecdote. c r o w f o o d o r e v e n b e a r f o o d ? E x i s t e n c e is m u s t r i n g the c h a n g e s . H u i T z u v i s i t e d h i m to offer his c o n d o l e n c e s . s a y i n g . W h e n Z h u a n g z i was a b o u t to d i e . t h e n the s p e c u l a t i o n . . dead s h o u l d n ' t be m o u r n e d . " W e are w o r r i e d that b u t the t i m e before she h a d a body. forces u p o n m e s i n g i n g . the p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o r m s have to b e a c c e p t e d for w h a t they are. b e l i e f that e v e r y t h i n g s h o u l d b e a l l o w e d to b e h a v e a c c o r d i n g to its n a t u r e . saying. Z h u a n g z i universe of Zhuangzi is writes. N o w there's b u t a b u r i e d b o d y w i l l be eaten u p by ants." before she was b o r n .4 8 190 OR SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS ZHUANGZI OR C H U A N G T Z U 49 a n d the m o r a l propriety of d e f i n e d b y its t r a n s i t i o n s f r o m o n e f o r m to a n o t h e r a n d a l l K o n g z i ." Z h u a n g z i before she h a d a body. a n t f o o d to a n t f o o d . B u t he else? B u t I l o o k e d b a c k to h e r b e g i n n i n g a n d the t i m e refused. A s h e s to ashes. b u t Z h u a n g z i is m a k i n g a n s o m e t h i n g else t h r o u g h a n effort o f w i l l or e n g a g i n g i n e m p t y e v e n m o r e r a d i c a l c l a i m : i f life a n d d e a t h are e q u a l . N o t o n l y the t i m e y o u r b o d y w i l l be eaten by crows a n d eagles. One t e n c e as a n t f o o d . p r e c e d e s life to the formlessness that s u c c e e d s d e a t h . Z h u a n g z i p r o t e s t e d . death is good also. w i t h o u t f o r c i n g t h e m to be o n c e or t w i c e a l r e a d y i n this b o o k . s a y i n g . b u t a c c e p t e d a n d even celebrated. T h i s c a n be illustrated w i t h o n l y d o i n g w h a t a c c o r d s w i t h a t h i n g ' s n a t u r e . h a d a body. W h e n h i s d i s c i p l e s o b j e c t e d . If we o n c e u n d e r s t a n d this version of Daoism is the p r i n c i p l e we c a n equalize life a n d death. R i g h t b e h a v i o u r W e have m e t this idea of the equality of life a n d death consists i n a l l o w i n g t h i n g s to b e . a u t u m n . do y o u t h i n k I didn't grieve l i k e anyone p r e p a r e a l a v i s h f u n e r a l i n t h e C o n f u c i a n s t y l e . his d i s c i p l e s w a n t e d to W h e n she first d i e d . " W h e n H u i T z u suggested t h a t t h i s was p e r - If life is good. a n d g r e w o l d . H e f o u n d h i m s i t t i n g w i t h his legs s p r a w l e d o u t . E x i s t e n c e is t h e passage f r o m t h e formlessness that t h e n w h y c a n ' t w e also f i n d h a p p i n e s s i n a n e w f o r m o f exis. N o w she's l y i n g peacefully i n a vast r o o m . W h y are y o u s h o w i n g ter. p o u n d i n g o n a t u b a n d T h e great earth b u r d e n s m e w i t h a body. If w e c a n f i n d h a p p i n e s s i n this e x i s t e n c e . T h u s . After Z h u a n g z i ' s wife Zhuangzi. N o t o n l y the t i m e before she was b o r n . d i e d . T h e y are The core of Zhuangzi's n o t the e n d o f a b e g i n n i n g . In the midst of the j u m b l e of w o n d e r a n d mystery a change took p l a c e a n d she h a d a spirit. a n d c a l m s m e i n death. T h i s is o n e w a y o f a p p r o a c h i n g the i d e a o f " n o n . S o y o u ' r e b e e n another change a n d she's dead. D e a t h a n d life are never-ceasing transformations. dust to dust. o n e m i g h t t e n c e to a n o t h e r . b u t their passing s h o u l d be a c t i o n " or "wu wei. " T h e s u n a n d earth w i l l be m y coffin. haps a l i t t l e d i s r e s p e c t f u l . there is n o t h i n g i n existence that is n o t good." w h i c h does n o t m e a n d o i n g n o t h i n g . If I were to favours to ants? follow after her b a w l i n g a n d sobbing. it w o u l d show that I don't understand a n y t h i n g about fate. she b r o u g h t u p y o u r c h i l d r e n the toil of life. b u t the t i m e before she h a d a spirit. w i n - feeding it into the m o u t h s o f ants. A n o t h e r c h a n g e a n d she A n u n b u r i e d b o d y w i l l be c o n s u m e d by crows a n d eagles. linguistically dazzling and philosophically unsettling. So I stopped. p o u n d t h e t u b a n d s i n g . D e a t h is n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a c h a n g e f r o m o n e f o r m o f exis. F o r Z h u a n g z i . " Y o u l i v e d w i t h h e r . offered the r e m a r k a b l e r e p l y . T h u s .

S o m e t i m e later. b u t affirm it. O n e day. a p r o t r u d i n g w e n . However. b u t t h i s was the ated the m o r a l propriety of K o n g z i . h o w c o u l d there be any q u e s t i o n of p u t t i n g life b r i l l i a n c e . L i S i . M a s t e r L a i l o o k e d at M a s t e r Y u a n d said. he was n o t sad. i n a b a m b o o case covered w i t h a kerchief. I sug- let. h a d the c h a n c e to regret his d e c i s i o n ( w h i c h he apparently Z h u a n g z i said. d i d ) . w h o w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y a s c e n d t h e t h r o n e as t h e first E m p e r o r o f C h i n a . . t h e K i n g o f Q i n h a d l a i d siege to first or death last? the ruler of H a n . T h e l o r d keeps it out of politics. s t u t t e r e d b a d l y . " E v e n i f o u r w a t c h a l l night. In the h o p e of saving his Unlike Kongzi. b u t g e n u i n e l y c u r i o u s about T h e m i n i s t e r s s a i d . b u t t o c k s m i g h t h a v e b e e n t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o c a r t w h e e l s . M a s t e r L a i says. . t h e n . H o w e v e r . gest that w e f o l l o w Z h u a n g z i a n d d r a g o u r tails t h r o u g h the or his buttocks m i g h t be t u r n e d i n t o cartwheels. " T o w h i c h Z h u a n g z i r e p l i e d . a n d u p o n death as h i s m i n i s t e r . . h e w r o t e w e l l ." W e m u s t n ' t disturb the process o f c h a n g e f r o m life to alive a n d drag its tail t h r o u g h the m u d ? d e a t h . who ended up a police commissioner. W h e n M a s t e r Y u fell i l l . K i n g o f Q i n . H i s writings fell i n t o the hands o f the claimed. cause o f his u n d o i n g . w h o was i n i t i a l l y d e l i g h t e d . "Please go his left a r m i n t o a rooster. green-eyed L i S i p e r s u a d e d t h e k i n g that H a n F e i z i w o u l d w h e n Z h u a n g z i was f i s h i n g i n t h e P u R i v e r . i n d e s t i t u t i o n a n d o f t e n a p p e a r e d m a l n o u r i s h e d . I n a n age when e l o q u e n c e was t h e m o s t p o t e n t p o l i t i c a l w e a p o n .50 190 OR SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS ZHUANGZI OR C H U A N G T Z U 51 I n a debate a b o u t death a m o n g four masters. L i S i was a f o r m e r f e l l o w s t u d e n t the d r a i n i n g of a sore or the b u r s t i n g of a b o i l . H a n F e i z i d r a n k it a n d d i e d . h e w o u l d save a h u g e a m o u n t o f m o n e y o n underwear. H a n F e i z i was i m p r i s o n e d a n d b e f o r e t h e k i n g t h e state's a f f a i r s . Q i n S h i H u a n g . H a n Feizi (280-233 B C ) H o w w o n d e r f u l the creator is! W h a t is he g o i n g to m a k e of y o u next? W h e r e is he g o i n g to send you? W i l l he m a k e H a n F e i z i was t h e a u t h o r o f The Way of the Ruler. T h i s is a n o t h e r r e a s o n w h y p h i l o s o p h e r s s h o u l d k e e p w h i c h was dead for three t h o u s a n d years. who allegedly ex. for the same reason I m u s t t h i n k w e l l of tle prefer to be dead a n d kept i n s u c h a g r a n d style or to be m y death. state f r o m d e s t r u c t i o n . T h e y l o o k u p o n life e x p r e s s e d h i s d e e p a d m i r a t i o n for H a n F e i z i ' s w r i t i n g s to as a s w e l l i n g t u m o r . T o s u c h m e n of H a n Feizi and bitterly jealous o f the latter's l i t e r a r y as these. L i S i sent p o i s o n to t h e p r i s o n . for it is a necessary t ra nsf orma t i o n. "It w o u l d p r e f e r to b e a l i v e a n d d r a g its w h a t c h a n g e awaited h i m : m a y b e the creator w o u l d transform t a i l i n the m u d . K i n g A n d i s p a t c h e d H a n F e i z i to Z h u a n g z i refused a l l p u b l i c office a n d spent his w h o l e life t h e K i n g o f Q i n . w h o h a d always refused to f o l l o w the W a y of H a n F e i z i . K i n g A n . H e m e t a n y o u into a rat's liver? W i l l he m a k e y o u into a bug's arm? u g l y e n d at t h e h a n d s o f a w a y w a r d r u l e r . L i S i b e c a m e p r i m e m i n i s t e r to t h e first E m p e r o r o f I've h e a r d that there is a sacred turtle i n the state o f C h u . i n w h i c h case h e w o u l d be able to away. i n w h i c h case h e ' d be able to shoot d o w n a n o w l for roasting. L o r d W e i f r o m always h a v e the interest o f the e n e m y H a n at h e a r t a n d n e v e r t h e state o f C h u s e n t t w o m i n i s t e r s to i n v i t e h i m to r u n t h e k i n g . W o u l d this tur- " I f I t h i n k w e l l o f life. i n w h i c h case mud. C h i n a . or his right a r m m i g h t b e c o m e a crossbow p e l . H a n F e i z i It is n o t d i f f i c u l t to i m a g i n e h o w s u c h b e h a v i o u r infuri. T h e king W h a t sort of m e n are they a n y w a y ? . H o l d i n g t h e f i s h i n g r o d i n h i s h a n d s . N o w . I'd r a t h e r d r a g m y t a i l i n t h e m u d .

straighten h i s b a c k . a n t i c i p a t e the m o m e n t o f h i s d e a t h . B u t w h e n h i s f o l l o w e r s c o m p l a i n e d that his death h a d b e e n too s u d d e n . Here in the shadow of death it is hard To utter the final word.52 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS ZEN A N D T H E ART OF DYING 53 M o o n in a barrel: You never know just when Z e n a n d the A r t o f D y i n g The bottom will fall out. T h e s e d e a t h p o e m s dis- p l a y e x t r e m e e c o n o m y . H e w e n t to K y o t o to s h o w p e o p l e h o w to d i e . Nothing more. I'll only say. I n a d d i t i o n to l e a v i n g t h e u s u a l w i l l . w r i t e his p o e m . 1837). 1721). T o this e n d . cross his a r m s . he revived a n d d i e d i n e x a c t l y t h e s a m e w a y five days later. H o w e v e r . then." Nothing more. 1874): . f o r m a l r i g o u r a n d b e a u t y . Y e t w h a t is f a s c i n a t i n g is the w h i c h r e m i n d s us o f Z h u a n g z i ' s i d e a o f the corpse as a n t f o o d : tradition o f Japanese death p o e m s written by Z e n m o n k s o n t h e v e r g e o f d e a t h . as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g h a i k u f r o m M a b u t s u (d. Z e n Till now I thought m o n k s w o u l d w r i t e a f a r e w e l l to l i f e i n the f o r m o f a h a i k u or That death befell other short elegiac p o e m . sat s t i l l i n t h e Z e n p o s i t i o n a n d d i e d . his i n k b r u s h . I a m n o t a n expert i n Z e n B u d d h i s m a n d s o m e o f its W e s t e r n O r t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t f r o m K y o r i k u ' s kyo/ca d e a t h poem v a r i a n t s i n v i t e m y s c e p t i c i s m .d e p r e c a t i n g a n d h u m o r o u s . set aside If those with talent. The joy of dewdrops In the grass as they Turn back to vapour. "Without saying. f r o m D o k y o E t a n (d. too. m a n y o f these death p o e m s are w o n d e r f u l l y s e l f . the d y i n g m o n k w o u l d The untalented alone. Must die Surely they make A n e x t r e m e a n d s l i g h t l y c o m i c a l e x a m p l e o f t h i s c a n be Better manure. f o u n d i n E i s a i (1141-1215). t h e m o n k p r e a c h e d to t h e c r o w d . o n e o f t h e f o u n d e r s o f J a p a n e s e Z e n . a n d d i e . O r t h i s . s u c h as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g h a i k u f r o m K o r a k u (d. Ideally.

Romans (Serious and Ridiculous) and Neoplatonists Cicero. H o w - e v e r . S t i l l it makes a difference how they die. De Officiis (On 55 . B r u t u s was a n i n t i m a t e f r i e n d a n d i n d e e d s h o u t e d C i c e r o ' s n a m e as h e waved the b l o o d . it is t i m e to t u r n to R o m e a n d c o n s i d e r w h a t it m i g h t m e a n to die l i k e a R o m a n . w h o s e i n t e l - l e c t u a l pleasure mastered his extreme p h y s i c a l p a i n . C i c e r o is t h i n k i n g o f t h e d e a t h o f E p i c u r u s . H e died n o b l y a m o n g the disintegration of the Roman R e p u b l i c that h e h a d always s o u g h t to d e f e n d against its s l i d e into despotism. I n h i s f i n a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l w o r k . t h e v i o l e n t d e a t h o f C i c e r o more resembles the demise o f a c o m m a n d e r than a p h i l o s o p h e r . I n De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum [About the Ends of Goods and Evils). A s w e s h a l l see. M a r c u s T u l l i u s (106-43 B C ) M o v i n g b a c k f r o m east to west. b u t p h i l o s o p h e r s mostly die i n their beds. A l t h o u g h C i c e r o had no prior knowledge of t h e p l o t to m u r d e r C a e s a r o n the Ides o f M a r c h . C i c e r o writes.s t a i n e d dagger (hardly p o l i t i c a l l y discreet b e h a v i o u r ) . far f r o m h i s b e d . it is a f a i r l y b l o o d y b u s i n e s s . A great c o m m a n d e r ' s death is f a m o u s .

C i c e r o ' s h e a d a n d hands were p r o m i s e is to p e r m i t us to i n h a b i t t h e p r e s e n t w i t h o u t c o n - sent to A n t o n y i n R o m e w h o o r d e r e d that t h e y b e fastened c e r n for t h e f u t u r e . S e n e c a says. S o m e t i m e has passed: he grasps it i n r e c o l l e c t i o n . LUCIUS ANNAEUS 57 Duties). l e d b y t h e c e n t u r i o n H e r e n n i u s . " T h e p r o b l e m w i t h l i f e is n o t its W h a t t h e p h i l o s o p h e r seeks a n d t r i e s to t e a c h is s o m e - brevity. t h e p h i l o s o p h e r is t h e p e r s o n w h o is at h o m e R o m e for G r e e c e i n J u l y 4 4 B C . w h o h a d b e e n e d u c a t e d by that b o d y o f m e n w o u l d s t i l l b e a l i v e . A b a n d o f s o l d i e r s . So the life of the p h i l o s o p h e r extends widely: he is not c o n - i n . m i g h t i m a g i n e . e m p e r o r X e r x e s . B u t a n y i d e a o f a r e s t o r a t i o n o f the a n d c o n c e a l i n g the fear o f d e a t h that u n d e r p i n s it. the o n l y i m m o r t a l i t y that p h i l o s o p h y c a n P h i l i p p i c s against A n t o n y . After a p h i l o s o p h e r w i l l s h o w y o u h o w to take t i m e a n d w i l l t e a c h new R o m a n triumvirate had been formed. b u t t h e fact that w e s q u a n d e r it as t h o u g h it was n e v e r t h i n g " g r e a t a n d s u p r e m e a n d n e a r l y d i v i n e . i n m y view. W e l i v e i n f i r m n e s s o f m i n d . H i s brother a n d n e p h e w m e t the same shortness o f life. for S e n e c a . w r i t e s .56 190 OR SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS SENECA. a n d l i k e erators" were chased out of R o m e . p r o s c r i p t i o n s w e r e i s s u e d for f u t u r e . b u t t h a t w e waste a l o t o f i t . M a r k i m m o r t a l s i n a l l that y o u desire. h i m . K n o w i n g h e was i n d a n g e r . a n x i e t y over t h e f u t u r e is p a r a l y s i n g a n d t h e c a u s e o f t h e f e e l - P e r c e i v i n g that H e r e n n i u s a n d his m e n were p u r s u i n g i n g o f life's brevity. A s returned. " It is a steady g o i n g to e n d . S e n e c a R o m a n R e p u b l i c was s h o r t . c a l l e d t h e P h i l i p p i c s i n m e m o r y o f losophers s h o u l d greet e a c h other: "Take y o u r t i m e ! " T h e D e m o s t h e n e s ' denunciations of P h i l i p of M a c e d o n . C i c e r o tirelessly justifies C a e s a r ' s m u r d e r as a l e g i t i . T i m e is present: he uses it. " Y o u act l i k e m o r t a l s i n a l l t h a t y o u fear. c l e a r l y i n t e n d e d to take C a e s a r ' s p l a c e . Y e t — i n e x p l i c a b l y — C i c e r o to a l l h u m a n b e i n g s a n d w h o w i l l a l w a y s m a k e t i m e . a n d t h i s fear is t h e c a u s e o f t h e w e e p i n g o v e r t h e C i c e r o ' s e x e c u t i o n . A f r e e d slave. L u c i u s Annaeus is to c o m e : he anticipates it. s u c h e s c a p e d a n d was h e a d i n g towards t h e sea. the very hands that h a d w r i t t e n the a n d . " T h i s is h o w p h i - series o f f o u r o r a t i o n s . i n w h i c h t h e m i n d seeks to . b e l i e v i n g o u r desire to b e i m m o r t a l m a t e act o f t y r a n n i c i d e . b y the o r d e r o f h e does n o t w o r r y o v e r its shortness. T i m e Seneca.l i v e d . a t r a n q u i l l i t y . Y e t . A s o n e forgotten. a n d a l l ages serve h i m as t h o u g h he were a god. w h o w e p t b e c a u s e i n a h u n d r e d years n o t a s o u l i n h o m e . enjoys a l o n g l i f e b e c a u s e h i m . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n of a l l times (4 B C . F o r h i s b e t r a y a l . H e a l o n e is free a n d eat i t — t h e w o r l d ' s first self-service barbecue. P h i l o l o g u s was o r d e r e d b y C i c e r o ' s sister. as t h o u g h life w e r e i n i n f i n i t e s u p p l y . his hands. composed of y o u h o w to d i e . bat. M o s t o f us h a v e i m a g - Cicero. a n x i e t y is c a u s e d b y fear for t h e O c t a v i a n . i n f o r m e d the soldiers that his master had just i n e d t h e w o r l d w i t h o u t us or t h o s e w e l o v e i n it.A D 65) into one gives h i m a l o n g life." T h e c o r r e c t p h i l o s o p h i c a l A n t o n y . f r o m the laws that l i m i t the h u m a n race. attitude is exactly t h e o t h e r w a y a r o u n d . B r u t u s a n d the o t h e r " l i b . P h i l o l o g u s . a c o u n t e r f e i t i m m o r t a l i t y . A n t o n y a n d L e p i d u s . b u t h e was n o t at p l a i n s . a n d t h e n roast f i n e d by the same b o u n d a r y as others. C i c e r o p l a n n e d to e s c a p e F o r S e n e c a . S e n e c a writes. H e l i v e s i n t h e p r e s e n t A n t o n y . C i c e r o c o n f r o n t e d h i s assailants. a n d the c o n s u l . initially i n t r i u m p h . F o r S e n e c a . A l l h o n o u r s a n d offices o f state are s o o n above the rostra w h e r e the R o m a n orators spoke. this was s o m e t h i n g o f a d i s i n c e n t i v e to free B u t n o t so t h e p h i l o s o p h e r . first c u t t i n g off C i c e r o ' s h e a d a n d t h e n . "It is n o t that w e h a v e a short t i m e to l i v e . d e p l o y i n g h i s h u g e a r m y o v e r t h e vast t e r e d d o w n t h e d o o r to C i c e r o ' s h o u s e .l a w to c u t off h i s o w n flesh p i e c e b y p i e c e . H e r e n n i u s t h e n k i l l e d T h e p h i l o s o p h e r . speech. H e gives the example of the Persian fate. H e denounced Antony i n a W i t t g e n s t e i n r e m a r k s i n Culture and Value. m o n u m e n t s a n d p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s fall into r u i n .

D e a t h m i g h t c o m e at a n y m o m e n t . like Seneca. A t o n e a n d t h e i n f l u e n c e s C h r i s t i a n i t y . h e was p l a c e d i n t o a b a t h o f h o t w a t e r to b e c o u r a g e o u s . this u n i v e r s a l a n d u l t i m a t e l y d i v i n e because of an aged frame attenuated by a frugal diet. " F o r t u n e b i d s m e a less e n c u m b e r e d p h i l o s o p h e r . P e t r o n i u s was N e r o ' s arbiter elegantiae. m a c r o c o s m . he substance. a n d b e g a n a p e c u l i a r l y tedious process o f d y i n g . c o s m that w e r e t u r n . W h e n Z e n o o f C i t i u m lost a l l h i s possessions i n a s h i p w r e c k . vidual s o u l is t h e m i c r o c o s m of the divine animating S e n e c a s e e m s to h a v e h a d c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y d y i n g . A t t h e p o i n t o f d e a t h . to c o m e . S e n e c a a s k e d for h e r to b e r e m o v e d e v i d e n c e d i n o u r r a t i o n a l i t y . " T h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g is to b e p r e p a r e d for d e a t h . " S e e t h a t y o u d o n ' t i n g i n a state o f e q u i l i b r i u m . a n d d e a t h s t u b b o r n l y r e f u s e d to d i e w e l l . Canus was playing a game of pleasure. For longer. the h u . " T h i s r a t i o n a l s o u l is p a r t o f t h e w o r l d ding Paulina's death. S e n e c a w r o t e : " H e w i l l l i v e b a d l y w h o does n o t k n o w h o w H e d r a n k it i n v a i n . h i s adviser i n matters o f W h e n J u l i u s C a e s a r c o n d e m n e d J u l i u s C a n u s to d e a t h . T h e n came word from N e r o forbid- m a n d i n g f a c u l t y . s o u l a n d b o d y w h e r e d e a t h is P a u l i n a . " N o o n e ever p u r s u e d p h i l o s o p h y the m o r t a l i t y of the soul. s a m e m o m e n t ." S e n e c a c o n c l u d e s . Petronius d r a u g h t s w h e n the c a l l c a m e for h i m to be k i l l e d . i t is i n t o t h i s m a c r o . she l i v e d o n for several the S t o i c s a n d that w e saw a b o v e i n C h r y s i p p u s . w h a t m u s t be m a i n t a i n e d at a l l t i m e s is t r a n q u i l l i t y . l u x u r y a n d extravagance. years. into another chamber. this n o . T i t u s Niger r e m a r k l a t e r e c h o e d b y S p i n o z a . w h a t is also c a l l e d " t h e c o m . H e was a n o t o r i o u s l y d e b a u c h e d w h a t was m o s t r e m a r k a b l e was h o w c a l m h e r e m a i n e d w h i l e m a n . " U p o n s e e i n g the B u t this is n o t the t r a n q u i l l i t y s o r r o w o f h i s f r i e n d s . S e n e c a s p o k e c a l m l y to h i s f r i e n d s a n d e m b r a c e d h i s w i f e . As he had c o n c l u d e s h i s essay " O n T r a n q u i l i t y o f M i n d " w i t h stories o f r e q u e s t e d i n h i s w i l l . T h e s o u l for t h e S t o i c s is " d i v i n e b r e a t h " t h a t is b y h i s wife's s u f f e r i n g . Soldiers b o u n d up her arms and s o u l . T o r m e n t e d tian. h e s a i d to t h e m . o f the s a m e k i n d a d m i n i s t e r e d to S o c r a t e s . S e n e c a ' s o w n d e a t h is m o r e t r a g i c o m i c t h a n h e r o i c . h e s a i d . B u t a l t h o u g h S t o i c i s m to take h e r o w n l i f e a l o n g w i t h h e r h u s b a n d . W h e n p h i l o s o p h e r s are ( D I E D 66) t h r e a t e n e d b y e m p e r o r s or w o u l d . i n a n i m a g e m u c h u s e d by s t a u n c h e d t h e b l e e d i n g . E v e n t u a l l y . Epictetus S a d l y . T h u s . h i s . L i k e S e n e c a . H e c o u n t e d was o b l i g e d to c o m m i t s u i c i d e . falsely c l a i m after m y d e a t h that y o u w o n . a n d o n s u s p i c i o n of treason. h o w e v e r . w h o passed h i s days i n sleep a n d h i s nights i n excessive awaiting his execution." Stoics. H a v i n g r e c e i v e d the o r d e r f r o m N e r o that h e s h o u l d take h i s m a n b e i n g is a c o m p o u n d o f l i f e . u s u a l f u n e r a l rites. t h e p i e c e s a n d s a i d to h i s c o m p a n i o n . t h e y slit t h e arteries o f t h e i r a r m s w i t h daggers t i o n o f t h e s o u l is n o t C h r i s . a s k e d for p o i s o n . " W h y are y o u sad? Y o u of Lucretius and Epicurus. " a Petronius. H o w e v e r . u n a b l e to d i e b y b l e e d i n g t o d e a t h . LUCIUS ANNAEUS 59 f o l l o w a steady c o u r s e . u r g i n g h e r to e n d u r e a h u s b a n d ' s loss w i t h h o n - t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f o n e f r o m the o u r a b l e consolations. are w o n d e r i n g w h e t h e r s o u l s are i m m o r t a l : I s h a l l s o o n f i n d with their materialist belief i n out. S e n e c a and suffocated w i t h steam by his servants. u n l i k e S e n e c a . T a c i t u s r e p o r t s t h a t . h i s b o d y was b u r n t w i t h o u t a n y o f t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s w h o r e m a i n e d c a l m i n the face o f fortune.5« 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS SENECA. t h e i n d i . r e m a i n .b e e m p e r o r s . A p p a r e n t l y . S h e refused a l l c o n s o l a t i o n a n d d e c i d e d other. a n d M a r c u s A u r e l i u s . w h i c h is d i v i n e .

a n d a l l other things w h i c h appear ter. T h e t h o u g h t is c o m p l e t e d i n a l a t e r r e m a r k O r i g i n a l l y a R o m a n slave. w h i c h his servants h e gave g e n e r o u s presents. p o s s i b l y b e c a u s e o f m a l t r e a t m e n t w h e n h e was a covet a n y t h i n g . Epictetus t h e n o u r t e r r o r o f i t a n d o u r a t t a c h m e n t to w o r l d l y t h i n g s (55-135) w i l l f a l l away. else it w o u l d have a p p e a r e d so to But didn't. f r o m The Enchiridion: tures w e r e p o s t h u m o u s l y p u b l i s h e d as The Discourses a n d the s h o r t d i d a c t i c m o r a l m a n u a l The Enchiridion. one of w h i c h interestingly o f t h e s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y a n d w h o is i n t e n d e d to b e a c a r i c a t u r e e n d s u p as t h e e p i g r a p h to L a u r e n c e Sterne's m o n u m e n t a l o f E m p e r o r N e r o . be daily before y o u r eyes. . H e e n c o u r a g e d s e l f . T h u s d e a t h He could have had any job in Rome is n o t h i n g t e r r i b l e . t o l d jokes a n d sang l i g h t a n d p l a y f u l songs. Socrates. t h e pragmata. " T r i . brave and true. that it is t e r r i b l e . m a k i n g slave. C o m p a r e d to a " g r e a t s h i n i n g p i g . a c c o r d i n g to T h e E m p e r o r D o m i t i a n . " It reads. c o m p o s e d i n w h a t B e c k e t t man (1759—67): w o u l d c a l l "pigsty L a t i n . b u t c h a t t e d w i t h f r o m R o m e i n 95. H e d i n e d . b u t death chiefly. B u t the terror consists i n o u r o p i n i o n o f d e a t h . H e l i v e d a l i f e o f great s i m p l i c i t y i n a h u t w i t h a s i m p l e f u n o f the i d e a l o f the p h i l o s o p h i c a l d e a t h . his h u m o u r . a n d y o u a c c o u n t o f t h e c a m p a i g n s o f A l e x a n d e r the G r e a t ) . d e l i v e r e d i n a m i l d . H e f o u n d e d a h i g h l y friends. P e t r o n i u s d i d n o t e x p o u n d o n t h e i m m o r t a l i t y o f was d e e p l y s u s p i c i o u s o f p h i l o s o p h e r s a n d h e e x i l e d t h e m a l l t h e s o u l or t h e t h e o r i e s o f p h i l o s o p h e r s . Loyal. AND HE NEVER ONCE LISTENED TO A PHILOSOPHER. b u t by the Here Lies C . i n d u l g e d i n sleep a n d e v e n t u a l l y A l t h o u g h a hugely influential figure i n subsequent cen- passed f r o m this l i f e i n m u c h t h e s a m e m a n n e r as h e h a d t u r i e s . b u t t h e r e a r e T r i m a l c h i o . E p i c t e t u s ' e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r l e c .6o 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS EPICTETUS 61 d e a t h was e l a b o r a t e l y staged as a k i n d o f anti-Socrates. T o s o m e o f successful p h i l o s o p h i c a l school i n N i c o p o l i s . T e r r o r o f d e a t h . d r a n k . rush mat a n d earthenware l a m p (apparently his i r o n l a m p h a v i n g m a d e an i n c i s i o n into his veins.h e r o o f The Satyricon is T h e m a n n e r o f h i s d e a t h is u n r e c o r d e d . E p i c t e t u s w i l l never e n t e r t a i n any abject t h o u g h t . T a c i t u s writes that.m a n n e r e d yet a s s u r e d a n d h i g h l y P e t r o n i u s was a l s o t h e a u t h o r o f The Satyricon. o n l y to r e o p e n t h e m a n d b i n d t h e m a g a i n . Pompeius Trimalchio o p i n i o n s [dogmata] w h i c h they have o f things.r e l i a n c e . I f w e l o o k h a r d at t h e t h i n g s t h e m s e l v e s . a b i t i n g a c c e s s i b l e way. n o r too eagerly was l a m e . u p . t h e n .' A r r i a n ( h i m s e l f the a u t h o r o f the most i m p o r t a n t extant r i b l e . If w e k e e p d e a t h c o n s t a n t l y b e f o r e o u r eyes a n d i n o u r m o u t h s . Petronius b o u n d t h e m h a d b e e n stolen). E p i c t e t u s is s o m e t h i n g o f a m a s t e r o f S t o i c m o r a l t r u - l i v e d it. t h e base a n d v u l g a r slave w h o crawls to t h e t o p some pithy remarks o n mortality. t h e d o g m a s t h a t w e t a k e to b e t r u e . i s m . b y h i s s t u d e n t L e t death a n d exile. M e n are d i s t u r b e d n o t by things [pragmata]. to others h e gave a was e v e n t u a l l y v i s i t e d b y the E m p e r o r H a d r i a n . The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy. lies i n the o p i n i o n w e h a v e o f d e a t h . G r e e c e . a h o r r i d t h u g a n d a c r u e l tyrant. c o m i c disgust w i t h h u m a n i t y . l i t e r a r y o d d i t y . E p i c t e t u s i n c l u d e d . T h e a n t i . And left his heirs thirty million. a c c e p t a n c e of satire that was i n t e n d e d n o t so m u c h to p r o d u c e m i r t h as a providence a n d forbearance i n all things. He started with a nickel in his pocket. t h e n t h e t e r r o r falls away. f l o g g i n g . Gentle- m a l c h i o writes h i s o w n e p i t a p h .

" O h . F o r w h a t is that n o v e l E v e n worse. " after the H o m e r i c c h a r a c t e r c a p a b l e clearly Stoical: o f m a n y s u d d e n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . b u t i n f u l l p u b l i c v i e w . After having witnessed the auto- p r o t e c t the d e l i c a t e w e b o f t h e c e r e b e l l u m ." Meditations w e r e w r i t t e n d u r i n g m i l i t a r y c a m p a i g n s i n t h e last t e n years o f h i s l i f e . he man" according to Oscar o r d e r e d h i s f a m i l y to b u r y h i m a l i v e . a n d c r e m a t i o n . a r o u n d the pyre: Sterne's riposte to E p i c t e t u s w o u l d s e e m to b e that h u m a n b e i n g s s i m p l y c a n n o t help b u t s u b m e r g e t h e m s e l v e s i n o p i n . o n l y the t o n g u e is left. getting o u r nostrils f i l l e d w i t h a v i l l a i n o u s reek. M a r c u s A u r e l i u s sees l i f e as war- Peregrinus Proteus fare. a n d styled h i m s e l f " P r o t e u s . w i t h n u m b e r o f p a t h e t i c p u b l i c speeches. H i s f i n a l . a n d so o n . " a b r i e f s o j o u r n i n g i n a n a l i e n l a n d . " t h e perfect behold me r e d u c e d to s i l e n c e ! " T o m a k e his point. " T h e greatest o f m e n " a c c o r d - P o l e m o l o v e d to d e c l a i m a n d v o w e d . L u c i a n addresses a n u m b e r o f C y n i c s s t a n d i n g o n . the v a i n g l o r y ! " L u c i a n W a l t e r S h a n d y . Peregrinus h a d already d e c l a r e d that he was b u t a n e x t r a o r d i n a r y a n d e x h a u s t i n g e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e fact g o i n g to t u r n h i m s e l f i n t o a h u m a n O l y m p i c t o r c h i n a t h a t h u m a n b e i n g s are m o r e t r o u b l e d w i t h o p i n i o n s . his v o i c e c o u l d be h e a r d f r o m Epictetus. m a k e haste!" o f the s o c i a l scale to the slave W h e n the job was d o n e . " M a k e haste. y o u simpletons. it is n o s m a l l i r o n y that this t h o u g h t s h o u l d e n d h i m s e l f far f r o m the m a d d i n g c r o w d . Peregrinus d i d not i m m o l a t e h i m . is e n t i r e l y m a d e u p o f b i z a r r e o p i n i o n s : o n explains Peregrinus' suicide by a love of fame a n d a sheer n a m e s . . I n d e e d . u p as t h e e p i g r a p h to Tristram Shandy. F r o m the o p p o s i t e e n d i n t o the s e p u l c h r e . o n noses. It is not a n agreeable spec- i o n s a n d that's t h e r e a s o n w h y w e r e m a i n t e r r i f i e d o f d e a t h . L e t us go away. A s h e was b e i n g w a l l e d W i l d e . where can one find something P e r e g r i n u s was a C y n i c w h o started o u t as a C h r i s t i a n a n d s o l i d to g u i d e a n d g u a r d one's path? T h e a n s w e r is c l e a r . T o be a philosopher o f E m p e d o c l e s b y j u m p i n g i n t o t h e O l y m p i c f l a m e i n 165. a n d after repute. tacle to l o o k at an o l d m a n w h o h a d b e e n roasted. Marcus Aurelius inside the t o m b : " G i v e m e a b o d y a n d I w i l l d e c l a i m . is to keep u n s u l l i e d a n d unscathed the divine spirit w i t h i n However. he declares. a n d o n for h u n d r e d s o f pages. h e c r i e d . H i s has w e a k e n e d or a d m i t s water. Polemo o f L a o d i c e a ( B O R N 85) M a r c u s Aurelius (121-80) A n o b s c u r e ." In such a world. so that it m a y transcend a l l pleasure a n d all p a i n . " N e v e r s h a l l t h e s u n i n g to V o l t a i r e . fatal a n d m o s t f a m o u s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was to c r e m a t e h i m s e l f i n t h e m a n n e r In one t h i n g a n d one alone: Philosophy. " was R o m a n E m p e r o r f r o m 161 T h i s story r a t h e r c o n f i r m s C l e m e n t o f A l e x a n d r i a ' s j i b e at u n t i l his death i n V i n d o b o n a t h e S o p h i s t s t h a t t h e y are l i k e o l d shoes: " T h e rest o f t h e m ( m o d e r n V i e n n a ) i n 180. (100-65) oblivion. the stupidity! O h . T h e satirist L u c i a n w h a t S t e r n e c a l l s t h e i r " h o b b y horses. t a l k a t i v e S o p h i s t w h o s e e x t r a o r d i n a r y d e a t h is r e c o r d e d i n P h i l o s t r a t u s ' Lives of the Sophists. u n l i k e E m p e d o c l e s .62 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS PEREGRINUS PROTEUS 63 O f c o u r s e . o n the best t e c h n i q u e for b i r t h i n o r d e r to desire for a t t e n t i o n ." t h a n w i t h t h e t h i n g s a c t u a l l y w i t n e s s e d t h i s e v e n t a n d i n The Passing of Peregrinus themselves? T h e universe of Tristram's loquacious father.

d i v i n e s p i r i t a n d to a c c e p t w h a t e v e r n a t u r e sends y o u . As we have seen i n n u m e r o u s exam- p u p i l P o r p h y r y (232/3-305). the Meditations e n d s w i t h a m e d i t a t i o n d i r e c t t i t l e Against the Christians. . P l o t i n u s ' d e a t h s c e n e is r a t h e r r e v e a l i n g ." a n d that c a n b e r e j o i n e d after d e a t h . A t t h e e n d o f the first Ennead. never flustered. The already seen i n S e n e c a : Enneads were quite a r t i f i c i a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o fifty-four trea- t i s e s . p h i l o s o p h e r m u s t " w a i t w i t h g o o d grace for d e a t h . T o l i v e the p h i l o s o p h e r of o u r times. " e n d o w e d with supernatural powers. " T r y Plotinus to b r i n g b a c k t h e g o d i n us to t h e d i v i n e i n the W h o l e . P l o t i n u s asks. " It is t h i s " O n e " o r t h e n . as a s n a k e c a n s h e d its s k i n a n d s l i p b a c k i n t o its h o l e — b u t t i o n o f the i m m o r t a l s o u l f r o m t h e m o r t a l b o d y . " T h i s A n adulatory m y s t i c i s m infuses b o t h Porphyry's b i o g - m e a n s c u l t i v a t i n g the s e n t i m e n t o f t r a n q u i l l i t y that w e h a v e raphy a n d the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f his master's writings. b e c a u s e o f the w a y i n w h i c h h i s l i f e was c o m m e m o r a t e d . " I t gave m e pleasure apathetic. I n t h i s r e g a r d . M a r c u s A u r e l i u s says t h a t t h e p h y w h i c h I w i l l t u r n to i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . w h o was a l s o t h e e d i t o r o f h i s ples. "Pass o n y o u r w a y . we c a n detect a d e c i d e d shift i n the philosopher's b r e a t h e d h i s last. t o f i n d t h e p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e n u m b e r six a l o n g w i t h t h e acter. t h e b o d y . " H o w does like m a n . " T h e p r i m a r y g o a l o f P l o t i n u s ' p h i l o s o p h y is to D e a t h is o n l y a t h i n g o f t e r r o r for those u n a b l e to l i v e i n t h e overcome i n d i v i d u a l i t y by u s i n g the i n t e l l e c t to achieve p r e s e n t . as P o r p h y r y e x p l a i n s . never n u m e r o l o g i c a l . " ( P o r p h y r y is h i m s e l f a f a s c i n a t i n g f i g u r e a n d a u t h o r of a m o n u m e n t a l fifteen-volume work w i t h the rather N a t u r a l l y e n o u g h . A s h e was at t h e p o i n t o f e x p i r i n g . a shift that b o t h a n t i c i p a t e s a n d i n f l u e n c e s W h a t m i g h t t h i s m e a n ? P e r h a p s t h i s : t h e i n t e l l e c t is t h e C h r i s t i a n i t y . t h e r e was a b s o l u t e l y n o s h a m e i n s u i c i d e i n t h e a n c i e n t m u c h a k i n to a g o s p e l a n d P l o t i n u s is d e s c r i b e d as a " g o d . M a r c u s A u r e l i u s asks. " W i t h (205-70) these w o r d s . b u t to h o l d it i n c o n t e m p t . U n s u r p r i s i n g l y . w i t h its s t r o n g l y P l a t o n i c e m p h a s i s o n the separa. perhaps not. M a n y o f these traits are t a k e n t i o n takes p l a c e w h e n " t h e b o d y is u n a b l e to b i n d " t h e s o u l . b u t m o r e so t h e n again. the C h r i s - o n d e a t h . most recently i n the o d d c o u p l e of S e n e c a a n d Petro- w r i t i n g s . was l y i n g a n d d i s a p p e a r e d i n t o a h o l e i n the w a l l a n d he p h e r . P o r p h y r y ' s text is v e r y n i u s . P l o t i n u s also a n t i c i p a t e s C h r i s t i a n i t y i n h i s A n i m p o r t a n t b i o g r a p h y o f P l o t i n u s was w r i t t e n b y h i s p r o h i b i t i o n o f suicide. M a r c u s A u r e l i u s c o n c l u d e s . just p h i l o s o p h y . h o w d o e s t h e i m m o r t a l s o u l sepa- e v e n c l a i m s to h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d a m y s t i c a l c o m m u n i o n rate f r o m t h e m o r t a l b o d y ? P l o t i n u s a n s w e r s that t h i s separa- w i t h P l o t i n u s after h i s d e a t h . T h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s is T o live each day as t h o u g h one's last. m a d e u p o f s i x sets o f n i n e . ) l e n g t h o f days?" T h e p o i n t o f l i f e is to f o l l o w r e a s o n a n d t h e P o r p h y r y begins his b i o g r a p h y w i t h the words " P l o t i n u s . w i t h a s m i l i n g f a c e .6 4 190 OR SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS PLOTINUS 65 S u c h a v i e w o f p h i l o s o p h y c u l m i n a t e s i n h a v i n g the r i g h t u p i n t o the lives o f t h e saints a n d t h e t r a d i t i o n o f h a g i o g r a - a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s m o r t a l i t y . T h i s is p a r t l y b e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f P l o t i n u s ' g o d w i t h i n us that c a n r e j o i n t h e d i v i n i t y o f t h e W h o l e . u n i o n w i t h w h a t h e c a l l e d t h e " O n e . I n t e r e s t i n g l y . w o r l d . r e l a t i o n to d e a t h . Porphyry t h e b o d y d e p a r t ? " T h a t is. a s n a k e c r e p t u n d e r t h e b e d o n w h i c h P l o t i n u s W i t h the last great ( s o m e w o u l d say greatest) p a g a n p h i l o s o . c o l l e c t e d as The Enneads. n i n e s . u n d e r the s m i l e o f h i m w h o b i d s divine universal intellect i n w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l participates y o u go. P l o t i n u s m a d e the g n o m i c p r o n o u n c e m e n t . " W h y d o y o u h u n g e r for t i a n s o r d e r e d it to b e b u r n t i n 4 4 8 . seemed ashamed of b e i n g i n i n t h i s w a y is n o t to fear d e a t h . never a t t i t u d i n i z i n g — h e r e is perfection of char.

p h i l o s o p h y is n o t w o u l d a p p e a r that she was a P l a t o n i s t a n d a d e v o t e d a n d b r i l . w h i c h l e d to t h e f o r c e d e x p u l s i o n o f the A l e x a n d r i a n . n a m e l y C h r i s t i a n i t y . A c c o r d i n g to o n e s o u r c e . c i t i n g as a u t h o r i t y H y p a t i a was p u l l e d f r o m h e r c a r r i a g e b y a g a n g o f C h r i s t i a n s t h e C h a l d e a n o r a c l e " Y o u s h a l l n o t take o u t y o u r s o u l . O n h e r w a y to t h e l e c t u r e theatre. " T h i s is w h a t y o u l o v e . she l e c t u r e d p h y . it is s i m p l y a p r e p a r a t i o n for the true p h i l o s o - l i a n t e x p o n e n t o f the views o f P l o t i n u s . B u t o n n o pots. A s w e s h a l l see. A f t e r h e r s k i n was s t r i p p e d w i t h oyster s h e l l s . t h e n . History of Women Philosophers. " a n d d r a g g e d to t h e C h u r c h o f C a e s a r e u m . this is a v i e w w i t h a n d p u b l i s h e d extensively o n m a t h e m a t i c s a n d a s t r o n o m y ." T h i s remark b o t h c u r e d the y o u n g devotee o f his passion a n d r e i n f o r c e d the P l o t i n i a n d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n the m e r e a p p e a r a n c e o f b e a u t y a n d its t r u e f o r m ." W i t h t h e o d d l y r e v e r s e d m a r t y r d o m o f H y p a t i a at t h e h a n d s o f C h r i s t i a n s . w h i l e a n o t h e r says t h a t s h e r e m a i n e d a v i r g i n . s a y i n g that it w a s c u t i n t o s e v e r a l p i e c e s a n d b u r n t at a p l a c e c a l l e d was u n s u i t a b l e for a n e l d e r l y m a n to u n d e r g o this sort o f treat. t h e y t u r n e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c i t y ' s m o s t t h r o u g h a s u i c i d a l act? P l o t i n u s i n s i s t s t h a t w e m u s t o n n o f a m o u s p h i l o s o p h e r . t h e p a g a n p r e f e c t o f A l e x a n d r i a . " T o t e a c h s u p e r s t i t i o n s as t r u t h is a s h o u l d n o t b e p e r m i t t e d to b l o c k o u r passage to the W h o l e . y o u n g m a n . A p p a r e n t l y . H y p a t i a h a d l o v e r s . h e r b o d y c o n d i t i o n w o u l d P l o t i n u s s u b m i t to a n e n e m a . S h e was f o r t y . H y p a t i a was k i l l e d w i t h p i e c e s o f b r o k e n m a s t e r o f t e n suffered f r o m a disease o f the b o w e l s . Hypatia W h a t is t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e c l a s s i c a l p h i l o s o p h y o f a n - (370-415) t i q u i t y a n d C h r i s t i a n i t y ? T h i s is a vast q u e s t i o n . A s t a t e m e n t a t t r i b - m e n t . " a t u t o r everywhere to h e a r her. the care o f o u r arseholes u t e d to H y p a t i a reads. E i t h e r w a y s h e s e e m s to h a v e i n s p i r e d j e a l o u s y a n d this l e d to h e r v i o l e n t d e a t h . H y p a t i a showed h i m some cloths covered w i t h menstrual b l o o d a n d s a i d . most terrible thing. w e pass f r o m p a g a n i s m to C h r i s t i a n i t y . P o r p h y r y notes that h i s s t r i p p e d n a k e d . C i n a r o n . b u t y o u d o n o t l o v e b e a u t y for its o w n sake.66 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS HYPATIA 67 B u t s u p p o s e t h a t s o m e o n e c o n t r i v e s to d e s t r o y h i s b o d y J e w s i n 414. " O n t h i s v i e w . s o m e fatal c o n s e q u e n c e s . b u t i n t h e A c c o r d i n g to the e v i d e n c e a s s e m b l e d by G i l l e s M e n a g e i n The Stromateis (Miscellanies) f r o m the very early t h i r d century. a n d t h e r e was gossip that she was the r e a s o n for O r e s t e s ' o p p o s i t i o n to C y r i l . T h e r e is a p o s s i b l y a p o c r y p h a l story i n t h e S u d a Lexicon that w h e n o n e o f h e r s t u d e n t s f e l l i n l o v e w i t h h e r .f i v e years o l d . A f t e r C h r i s t i a n m o b s h a d b u r n t the f a m o u s L i b r a r y o f A l e x a n d r i a a n d d e s t r o y e d J e w i s h syna- g o g u e s . A l t h o u g h little is k n o w n o f h e r w o r k . A f t e r b e i n g T u r n i n g f r o m o u r souls to arseholes. it e s c o r t i n g t h e m to C h r i s t . H y p a t i a s u c c e e d e d P l o t i n u s to the C l e m e n t o f A l e x a n d r i a c l a i m s t h a t p h i l o s o p h y was to t h e c h a i r o f the P l a t o n i c s c h o o l a n d p h i l o s o p h e r s f l o c k e d f r o m G r e e k w o r l d w h a t t h e l a w o f M o s e s was to t h e Jews. w h o was e l e c t e d to t h e p a t r i a r - c h a t e o f A l e x a n d r i a i n 412. a c c o u n t f o r c e t h e b o d y t o leave the s o u l . F o r the g o o d o f o u r souls. w r o n g as s u c h . H y p a t i a was a c l o s e f r i e n d o f O r e s t e s .

T r u e . F u r t h e r m o r e . w h i c h was r e m a r k a b l e for a J e w at that t i m e . In a characteristic t u r n of phrase. Yet P a u l quotes the H e b r e w s c r i p t u r e s i n G r e e k t r a n s l a t i o n a n d h e was e v e n a R o m a n c i t i z e n . it is t h r o u g h P a u l ' s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y i t i n e r a n t a c t i v i s m that C h r i s t i a n i t y de- veloped from a local cult that o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e v i l l a g e s o f P a l e s t i n e to a r e l i g i o n that became established in the most i m p o r t a n t cities of the ancient world. S o m e . P a u l was t h e s e c o n d and arguably most important founder of Christianity. P a u l was n o l o v e r o f p h i - losophy a n d he thought (like 69 . perhaps many. he c a l l e d h i m s e l f " a H e b r e w o f H e b r e w s " a n d was t r a i n e d i n the t r a d i t i o n o f P h a r i s a i c o r a l law. The Deaths of Christian Saints St. pro- fessional philosophers might dispute t h e c l a i m to under- s t a n d P a u l as a p h i l o s o p h e r . P a u l (io?-67?) St.

JO 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS ST. PAUL 71

m a n y p r e s e n t - d a y e v a n g e l i c a l C h r i s t i a n s ) that h e was l i v i n g T h e " a c t u a l " life o f P a u l is r e c o r d e d i n A c t s o f the A p o s t l e s ,
i n t h e last days o f the e n d o f history. H a p p i l y for us, h e was t r a d i t i o n a l l y t h o u g h t to have b e e n w r i t t e n b y the s a m e a u t h o r
m i s t a k e n . H o w e v e r t h a t m a y b e , it is d i f f i c u l t to t h i n k o f a as L u k e ' s G o s p e l . H o w e v e r , A c t s does n o t give a n a c c o u n t o f
W e s t e r n t h i n k e r whose c o n c e p t s have h a d a greater influ- P a u l ' s d e a t h , b u t i n s t e a d ends w i t h h i m l a n g u i s h i n g for t w o
e n c e , a n i n f l u e n c e that is s t i l l felt i n m o d e r n p h i l o s o p h y as years i n R o m e , u n d e r h o u s e arrest. H o w e v e r , P a u l was s t i l l
e i t h e r r e p u l s i o n ( N i e t z s c h e ) or a t t r a c t i o n ( K i e r k e g a a r d ) . a p p a r e n t l y free to w r i t e a n d p r e a c h the G o s p e l , a n d A c t s ends
T h e l o g i c o f P a u l ' s l a n g u a g e is d e e p l y a n t i t h e t i c a l , w h a t w i t h the words " b o l d l y a n d w i t h o u t h i n d r a n c e he p r e a c h e d
L u t h e r calls "a delicious language . . . a n unheard-of speech the k i n g d o m o f G o d a n d t a u g h t a b o u t the L o r d Jesus C h r i s t . "
w h i c h h u m a n reason s i m p l y c a n n o t understand." N o w h e r e P a u l h a d w o u n d u p i n R o m e after h a v i n g b e e n i m p r i s -
is t h i s t r u e r t h a n w h e n P a u l w r i t e s a b o u t d e a t h . S i n c a m e o n e d for t w o y e a r s i n C a s a e r e a i n P a l e s t i n e for g i v i n g a n
into the w o r l d t h r o u g h the a c t i o n o f o n e m a n , A d a m , a n d u n s u c c e s s f u l s p e e c h i n A r a m a i c w h e r e a m o b t r i e d to k i l l
w i t h s i n c o m e s d e a t h . F o r P a u l , s i n a n d d e a t h go o u t o f the him. B e c a u s e h e was a R o m a n c i t i z e n , h e h a d t h e r i g h t to
w o r l d t h r o u g h the a c t i o n of another m a n , C h r i s t , the second t r i a l i n R o m e , w h i c h a c c o u n t s for h i s f i n a l j o u r n e y i n w h i c h
A d a m , w h o dies for o u r sins. A s P a u l puts it i n Romans: h e takes t h e G o s p e l to t h e very h e a r t o f the E m p i r e .
A c c o r d i n g to E u s e b i u s i n The History of the Church, P a u l
T h e n as o n e m a n ' s trespass l e d to c o n d e m n a t i o n for a l l m e t a g r i s l y d e a t h u n d e r t h e o r d e r s o f N e r o ( w h o is n o w
men, so o n e man's act o f righteousness leads to acquittal r e s p o n s i b l e for t h r e e deaths i n this b o o k ) : "It is r e c o r d e d that
and life for a l l m e n . i n h i s r e i g n P a u l was b e h e a d e d i n R o m e itself." T h e t r a d i -
t i o n a l tale is that P a u l was i n t e r r e d i n t h e c a t a c o m b s a n d that
It is C h r i s t ' s d e a t h i n t h e c r u c i f i x i o n that puts a n e n d to s i n s o m e c e n t u r i e s l a t e r t h e B a s i l i c a o f St. P a u l O u t s i d e the
and d e a t h i n o r d e r that w e m a y l i v e , that w e m a y b e b o r n W a l l s was b u i l t o v e r t h e site o f h i s s a r c o p h a g u s . A r e w e to
a g a i n . P a u l says o f C h r i s t : b e l i e v e s u c h tales o f m a r t y r d o m ? A c c o r d i n g to V o l t a i r e , " W e
c a n o n l y g u f f a w at a l l t h e h u m b u g w e are t o l d a b o u t m a r -
For if we have been u n i t e d w i t h h i m i n a death like his, we tyrs." H o w e v e r , o n e s h o u l d n e v e r u n d e r e s t i m a t e t h e p o w e r
shall certainly be u n i t e d w i t h h i m i n a resurrection l i k e his. of humbuggery.

T h e r e f o r e , w h a t dies o n t h e cross is n o t just C h r i s t the G o d -
Origen
m a n , b u t o u r f o r m e r s i n f u l , d e a t h - b o u n d e x i st e nc e . T h r o u g h
(185-254)
the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the passion o f the C h r i s t , C h r i s t i a n s die
to t h e i r selves i n order to b e b o r n i n t o eternal life. T h u s , to p u t I n Against the Christians, the p a g a n P o r p h y r y expresses h i s exas-
the c e n t r a l p a r a d o x o f C h r i s t i a n i t y at its m o s t stark, C h r i s t p e r a t e d a d m i r a t i o n for t h e C h r i s t i a n O r i g e n as " t h e most
puts d e a t h to d e a t h a n d i n d y i n g for o u r sins w e are r e b o r n d i s t i n g u i s h e d p h i l o s o p h e r o f o u r t i m e . " St. G r e g o r y o f N y s s a
i n t o l i f e . T o b e a C h r i s t i a n , t h e n , is to t h i n k o f n o t h i n g else c a l l s h i m " T h e P r i n c e o f P h i l o s o p h e r s , " a n d for St. J e r o m e h e
b u t d e a t h , for it is o n l y t h r o u g h a m e d i t a t i o n o n m o r t a l i t y was t h e greatest t e a c h e r i n the e a r l y C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h . L i k e
that t h e p a t h to s a l v a t i o n m i g h t b e s o u g h t . I n w h i c h case, P l o t i n u s , O r i g e n was a p u p i l o f t h e p h i l o s o p h e r A m m o n i u s ,
and this is the q u e s t i o n that K i e r k e g a a r d w i l l ask eighteen b u t u n l i k e P l o t i n u s , h e was l e d to c l a r i f y C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e
c e n t u r i e s later: h o w m a n y s o - c a l l e d C h r i s t i a n s are r e a l l y a n d p r o v i d e the m o s t d e t a i l e d textual c r i t i c i s m o f the O l d a n d
Christian? N e w Testaments.

190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS ST. ANTONY 73

M a n y stories are t o l d a b o u t O r i g e n ' s e x t r a o r d i n a r y c h a s -
tity. I n t h e G o s p e l a c c o r d i n g to St. M a t t h e w , C h r i s t says,
St. Antony
(251-356)
F o r there are s o m e e u n u c h s , w h i c h were so b o r n f r o m
their mother's w o m b : a n d there are some e u n u c h s , w h i c h B i s h o p A t h a n a s i u s ' e l e g a n t l y r e c o u n t e d Life of Antony is t h e
were m a d e e u n u c h s o f m e n : a n d there be eunuchs, f o u n d i n g text o f C h r i s t i a n m o n a s t i c i s m . " M o n a c h o s " i n
w h i c h have m a d e themselves e u n u c h s for the k i n g d o m G r e e k m e a n s " l i v i n g a l o n e " a n d the m o n a s t i c life m e a n t w i t h -
o f heaven's sake. H e that is a b l e to r e c e i v e it, let h i m d r a w a l f r o m the w o r l d , chastity, c o n s t a n t p r a y e r a n d m a n u a l
receive it. l a b o u r . F o r A n t o n y , this w i t h d r a w a l m e a n t l o n g years s p e n t
d e e p i n t h e a r i d m o u n t a i n s o f the E g y p t i a n desert.
U n f o r t u n a t e l y , O r i g e n seems to have interpreted these words lit- T h e Life of Antony b e c a m e a n i m m e d i a t e b e s t - s e l l e r a n d
erally, a n d w h e n h e was t e a c h i n g i n A l e x a n d r i a h e castrated e x e r t e d e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e f r o m A u g u s t i n e to L u t h e r a n d
h i m s e l f i n order to w o r k freely w i t h f e m a l e students o f C h r i s t i a n b e y o n d . It b e c a m e t h e m o d e l for h a g i o g r a p h y . M y r e a s o n for
d o c t r i n e . A l t h o u g h the c o u r a g e r e q u i r e d to p e r f o r m this act i n c l u d i n g A n t o n y is to s h o w t h e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s c o n n e c t i o n
m a k e s c o w a r d s o f us a l l , O r i g e n ' s f a i t h w a s so s t r o n g t h a t b e t w e e n the death of the C h r i s t i a n saint a n d that of the
h e was c e r t a i n l y able to "receive it." E u s e b i u s e u p h e m i s t i c a l l y p h i l o s o p h e r , e x e m p l i f i e d by Socrates. W h a t A n t o n y repre-
describes O r i g e n ' s self-castration as " a h e a d s t r o n g act." It pre- sents, i n m y v i e w , is t h e C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l
v e n t e d h i m f r o m b e i n g o r d a i n e d a n d h e was n e v e r c a n o n i z e d . d e a t h t h r o u g h w h i c h " t h e lives o f the p h i l o s o p h e r s " b e c o m e
In D e u t e r o n o m y it is w r i t t e n , " t h e l i v e s o f t h e saints."
T h e r e are m a n y s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l s b e t w e e n A n t o n y a n d
N o m a n whose testicles have b e e n c r u s h e d or whose organ Socrates: rejecting n o r m a l values, b o t h of t h e m live a life o f
has b e e n r e m o v e d s h a l l b e c o m e a m e m b e r of the assembly p e r s o n a l austerity a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l h u m i l i t y . B u t this h u m i l i t y
of the L o r d . is c o m b i n e d w i t h d e v a s t a t i n g p e r c e p t i v e n e s s . O n o n e o c c a -
s i o n , t w o p a g a n p h i l o s o p h e r s c a m e to v i s i t A n t o n y o u t o f
O r i g e n m e t his death i n a particularly gruesome m a n n e r . c u r i o s i t y . A n t o n y a s k e d t h e m w h y these w i s e m e n w a n t e d to
After D e c i u s b e c a m e e m p e r o r i n 249, h e b e g a n his b r i e f reign speak to s o m e o n e as s t u p i d as h i m s e l f . T o w h i c h the p h i l o s o -
w i t h w i d e s p r e a d p e r s e c u t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n s . A s E u s e b i u s relates p h e r s c o u r t e o u s l y r e p l i e d t h a t A n t o n y was n o t s t u p i d b u t
i n his e x t e n d e d b i o g r a p h i c a l a c c o u n t , terrible sufferings befell exceedingly wise. A n t o n y t h e n i m m e d i a t e l y m a d e the follow-
Origen: i n g inference:

C h a i n s a n d b o d i l y torments, agony i n i r o n a n d the dark- If y o u h a v e c o m e to see a s t u p i d m a n , y o u r effort is
ness o f his p r i s o n ; h o w for days o n e n d his legs were p u l l e d wasted; b u t i f y o u t h i n k that I a m wise a n d possess wis-
four paces apart i n t h e torturer's stocks. d o m , it w o u l d be a g o o d i d e a to i m i t a t e w h a t y o u approve
of, for it is right to i m i t a t e g o o d things. If I h a d c o m e to
y o u , I w o u l d i m i t a t e y o u , b u t s i n c e y o u have c o m e to m e
O r i g e n a p p a r e n t l y f a c e d these h o r r o r s w i t h c o u r a g e before h e i n the b e l i e f that I a m w i s e , y o u s h o u l d be C h r i s t i a n s
eventually expired. like me.

74 190 OR SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS ST. ANTONY 75

T h e p a g a n p h i l o s o p h e r s d e p a r t e d , a m a z e d at A n t o n y ' s m e n t a l ings. S h u t yourself i n a t o m b as t h o u g h y o u were already
agility. O n a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n , a g r o u p o f o l d m e n c a m e to visit dead, so that at a l l times y o u w i l l t h i n k death is near.
A n t o n y for c o u n s e l a n d h e d e c i d e d to test t h e m b y a s k i n g a b o u t
the m e a n i n g o f a passage o f S c r i p t u r e . E a c h m a n gave h i s o p i n - T h e C h r i s t i a n a t t i t u d e t o d e a t h c a n a l s o l e a d to w h a t
i o n u n t i l t h e last was a s k e d a n d h e s a i d s i m p l y , " I d o n o t s o u n d s l i k e c o l d c a l l o u s n e s s to m o d e r n ears. T h e r e is a story
k n o w . " L i k e Socrates, A n t o n y said this was the o n l y true answer. t o l d o f C a s s i a n f r o m t h e e a r l y f i f t h c e n t u r y , w h e r e h e is
W i t h A n t o n y , t h e d e a t h o f t h e C h r i s t i a n s a i n t takes over r e p o r t e d as s a y i n g :
a n d t r a n s f o r m s t h e "art o f d y i n g " or ars moriendi o f the p a g a n
p h i l o s o p h e r . A n t o n y k n e w w h e n h e was g o i n g to d i e a n d T h e r e was a m o n k l i v i n g i n a cave i n the desert. H i s rela-
i n s i s t e d to h i s f o l l o w e r s t h a t h e d i d n o t w a n t h i s body tions a c c o r d i n g to the flesh let h i m k n o w , " Y o u r father is
e m b a l m e d a n d m u m m i f i e d i n the E g y p t i a n fashion. H e very i l l , at the p o i n t o f death: c o m e a n d receive his i n h e r i -
asked for a s i m p l e earth b u r i a l a n d b e q u e a t h e d his w o r n tance." H e r e p l i e d to t h e m , "I d i e d to the w o r l d before h e
t u n i c a n d o l d s h e e p s k i n r u g to A t h a n a s i u s , h i s b i o g r a p h e r . d i d a n d the dead do not i n h e r i t f r o m the l i v i n g . "
W h e n h e h a d f i n i s h e d s p e a k i n g , " h e s t r e t c h e d h i s feet o u t a
l i t t l e a n d l o o k e d u p o n d e a t h w i t h joy." A s w e saw w i t h St. P a u l , to b e C h r i s t i a n is to d i e to t h e s e l f
T h e s u b l i m e s i m p l i c i t y of A n t o n y ' s death c a n be c o m - a n d t h e w o r l d i n o r d e r to b e b o r n a g a i n . F r o m the w o r l d l y ,
p a r e d w i t h t h e d e a t h o f St. B e n e d i c t i n G r e g o r y t h e G r e a t ' s f l e s h l y p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e t r u e C h r i s t i a n is a l r e a d y d e a d a n d
h a g i o g r a p h y f r o m t h e late s i x t h c e n t u r y . B e n e d i c t p r e d i c t s therefore relations w i t h one's f a m i l y m e m b e r s have n o i m -
the day o f h i s d e a t h , s u r r o u n d s h i m s e l f w i t h h i s d i s c i p l e s , h i s p o r t a n c e . B u t w e are g o i n g to see s u c h C h r i s t i a n a u s t e r i t y
b o d y t o o w e a k to s t a n d w i t h o u t s u p p o r t . I n G r e g o r y ' s w o r d s , interestingly c o m p r o m i s e d i n the next two entries.
h e " a r m s h i m s e l f " for d e a t h b y " p a r t a k i n g o f the L o r d ' s b o d y
a n d b l o o d . " S p i r i t u a l l y n o u r i s h e d , h i s h a n d s r a i s e d u p to
St. Gregory o f N y s s a
h e a v e n , h e b r e a t h e s h i s last i n t h e m i d d l e o f a prayer.
(335-94)
It is i m p o r t a n t , I t h i n k , i n c u l t u r e s l i k e o u r o w n w h e r e
C h r i s t i a n i t y has b e c o m e so t r i v i a l i z e d , to r e m i n d o n e s e l f o f O n e the m o s t b r i l l i a n t a n d i n f l u e n t i a l o f the C h u r c h F a t h e r s ,
this c o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e rigorous a n d d e m a n d i n g C h r i s t i a n G r e g o r y left a n e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y t e n d e r p i e c e o f w r i t i n g o n the
attitude towards d e a t h . I n this r e g a r d , the sayings o f the life a n d d e a t h o f St. M a c r i n a , h i s sister. H e visits h e r c o n v e n t ,
Desert Fathers f r o m the f o u r t h a n d fifth centuries are w h e r e she is a l r e a d y t e r r i b l y a f f l i c t e d . I n p l a i n a n d s u b t l e
a b s o l u t e l y f a s c i n a t i n g . E v a g r i u s , a f o l l o w e r o f O r i g e n , says, d e t a i l , G r e g o r y r e c o u n t s h e r last days a n d h o u r s . H e r final
p r a y e r displays the severity o f the C h r i s t i a n attitude to d e a t h :
Always keep y o u r death i n m i n d a n d do not forget the eter-
n a l j u d g m e n t , t h e n there w i l l be n o fault i n y o u r s o u l . T h o u , O L o r d , hast freed us f r o m the fear of death. T h o u
hast m a d e the e n d of life the b e g i n n i n g to us o f true life.
J o h n t h e D w a r f says, T h o u for a season restest o u r bodies i n sleep a n d awakest
t h e m again at the last t r u m p .
R e n o u n c e e v e r y t h i n g m a t e r i a l a n d that w h i c h is o f the
flesh. D o y o u r work i n peace. Persevere i n k e e p i n g v i g i l , i n T h e r e f o r e , o n e s h o u l d n o t fear d e a t h , as it is n o t the e n d b u t
h u n g e r a n d thirst, i n c o l d a n d nakedness, a n d i n suffer- t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the t r u e l i f e that w i l l r e a c h f r u i t i o n w i t h the

t h e p r o f o u n d g r i e f i n B o o k 4 o f t h e Confessions is that o f w h e r e " — a n d o n l y asks to b e " r e m e m b e r e d at t h e a l t a r o f t h e a p a g a n . Augustine missing or. N o t h i n g is far f r o m G o d . i f h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y has been divided by his mother's death. T h e p a i n t h a t A u g u s t i n e feels o v e r . A u g u s t i n e makes the f o l l o w i n g a s t o n i s h i n g she asks. this is also the reason w h y A u g u s t i n e fears d e a t h : i f h e dies t h e n the f r i e n d w h o m h e l o v e d so m u c h w o u l d also L i k e o t h e r s w e h a v e s e e n i n t h i s b o o k . i n B o o k 4 o f the Confessions. A l l at o n c e she o p e n e d the o r b o f h e r eyes a n d l o o k e d towards the l i g h t . a n d w h a t e v e r I l o o k e d u p o n was d e a t h . that grieved m e so heavily. a n d w h e n it is c l e a r t h a t s h e is d y i n g . a n d w h e n t h i s h a d t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e m a n n e r that d a r k b y sorrow. H e goes o n to say that h i s heart was " r i p p e d a s u n d e r " b y h i s i n g . i n a c h a r a c t e r i s t i - g u a g e at o n c e h a g i o g r a p h i c a n d p e r s o n a l : cally self-lacerating question. AUGUSTINE 77 S e c o n d C o m i n g o f C h r i s t a n d the r e s u r r e c t i o n o f the d e a d . B u t w h e n she h a d f i n i s h e d the thanksgiv. s o u l . and this pains him G r e g o r y ' s a c c o u n t o f the d e a t h o f h i s sister finds a n e v e n m o r e immeasurably. e q u a l l e d s i n c e . w h i l e her lips stirred i n sympathy w i t h her i n w a r d desire. therefore. k n o w where to raise m e u p at the e n d o f the w o r l d . but u n n a m e d .l i f e . Y e t . F o r I t h o u g h t that m y s o u l a n d his s o u l were b u t one gaste. Y e t . L o v e h a l f . for e x a m p l e i n R o u s s e a u . I n e e d not fear that h e w i l l not A u g u s t i n e sees h i s s o u l as s u n d e r e d a n d h i s l i f e as a h a l f . S a n t a M o n i c a . a n d falls i n t o d e e p grief. at the e n d o f B o o k 9 o f the his dear.a l i v e is s t i l l better t h a n l o v e f u l l y d e a d . A u g u s t i n e ' s b r o t h e r asks h e r — i n a v a i n offer o f c o m f o r t — i f she m i n d s b e i n g so W e l l has s o m e o n e said of his f r i e n d that he is h a l f of his far f r o m h o m e . W h a t was it. wretchedness. H e feels as i f part o f h i s s e l f is St." v e r s i o n to C h r i s t i a n i t y . H e M o n i c a ' s f i n a l w i s h was to see h e r s o n c o n v e r t e d to C h r i s . T h e issue b e c o m e s r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t after h i s c o n - Lord. already (354-430) dead. "for out of her life a n d m i n e o n e life h a d h a d signified the e n d of the prayer. A u g u s t i n e is n o t a s s u a g e d b y h i s m o t h e r ' s f i n a l w o r d s G r e g o r y w i t n e s s e d M a c r i n a ' s d e a t h a n d d e s c r i b e d it i n a l a n . friend Confessions. c o n c e r n for t h e c a r e o f h e r c o r p s e — " p u t t h i s b o d y any. " W h a t a m I d o i n g h e r e ? " M o n i c a falls i n t o a fever remark. clearly w a n t i n g to repeat the thanksgiv. i n O s t i a n e a r R o m e r a t h e r t h a n b a c k i n T h a . she drew a deep breath b e e n m a d e . s o u l i n two bodies. revealing a subjective depth a r g u a b l y n e v e r s e e n p r i o r to A u g u s t i n e a n d o n l y r a r e l y M e a n w h i l e e v e n i n g h a d c o m e a n d a l a m p was b r o u g h t i n . a n d h e r h a n d b r o u g h t to h e r face to m a k e the S i g n mother's death. i f n o t i n g s u n g at the L i g h t i n g of the L a m p s . Augustine has p o w e r f u l e c h o i n A u g u s t i n e ' s f a m o u s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the d e a t h a l r e a d y g r i e v e d for the d e a t h o f o f h i s m o t h e r . " A u g u s t i n e feels as a n d closed her life a n d h e r prayer together. i n m o d e r n A l g e r i a . Interestingly. S h e r e p l i e s . B u t her voice failed the fresh w o u n d w r o u g h t by the s u d d e n r u p t u r e o f o u r a n d she f u l f i l l e d her i n t e n t i o n i n the heart a n d by m o v i n g most sweet a n d dear way o f life together? her hands. " I n h i s A u g u s t i n e d r a m a t i c a l l y d e s c r i b e s i n B o o k 8 o f t h e Confessions.76 190 OR SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS ST. M o n i c a expresses n o w h o l l y d i e . indeed. writes that h i s h e a r t was " m a d e t i a n i t y . H e asks h i m s e l f .

i n . for a p o o r m a n h e h a d n o t h i n g to l e a v e . was a h u g e l y i m p o r t a n t t u r e that A u g u s t i n e s h o u l d feel s h a m e for w e e p i n g " a s m a l l p h i l o s o p h e r . traditionally k n o w n as the last o f the R o m a n s a n d It m u s t s o u n d m y s t i f y i n g to t h e e g g s h e l l egos a n d t h e i r the first o f the M e d i e v a l S c h o - easy tears that p o p u l a t e so m u c h c o n t e m p o r a r y p o p u l a r c u l . A d e o ." still i n the grip o f h u m a n feelings and not sufficiently T h e Life of St. I confess to y o u i n w r i t i n g . S o m e t i m e later." W h e n asked b y H o n o r a t u s w h e t h e r o r n o t b i s h o p s a n d c l e r g y H i s s o r r o w for h i s m o t h e r b e c o m e s t w o f o l d at t h e s o r r o w h e s h o u l d w i t h d r a w f r o m the C h u r c h i n t h e face o f a n e n e m y . h a v i n g s e r v e d as o p e n h i m s e l f u p f u r t h e r i n a n act o f c o n f e s s i o n to G o d : b i s h o p or p r i e s t i n H i p p o .m o n t h siege a n d b l o c k a d e of I sorrowed u n d e r m y sorrow w i t h an a d d e d sorrow. at t h e age o f s e v e n t e e n . for h e also feels guilt for t o g e t h e r a c o u p l e o f years e a r l i e r : " A n x i e t y over o u r past l i f e t h e d e p t h o f h i s grief. T h i s is a fas. let h i m interpret it as he wants. translate all of Plato's and T o say it o n c e a g a i n . L e t h i m read it w h o tine h a d the psalms o f D a v i d c o p i e d a n d he read t h e m " w i t h wants to. Augustine was w r i t t e n b y B i s h o p P o s s i d i u s a t t a c h e d to G o d . If h e finds s i n i n c o p i o u s a n d c o n t i n u a l w e e p i n g . W h y ? B e c a u s e it shows h o w far h e is f l e d away f r o m us. let h i m w e e p over m y sins before y o u . H e w r i t e s . A u g u s - N o w . A u g u s t i n e confesses t h a t h i s still i n h i s forties. P O S S I B L Y A R O U N D 475. B u t this has to be h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s that A r i s t o t l e ' s e x p l a i n e d i n C h r i s t i a n t e r m s : h e feels g r i e f b e c a u s e o f the l o g i c a l works survived i n the fact o f s i n that s t i l l c o r r o d e s A u g u s t i n e ' s n a t u r e a n d m a k e s West. for forty years. B u t rather. it is n o t easy b e i n g C h r i s t i a n . A s h e was d y i n g . for a l t h o u g h A u g u s t i n e k n o w s t h a t h i s was t h e o b l i g a t i o n o f t h e c l e r g y to stay w i t h t h e i r f l o c k a n d m o t h e r w i l l l i v e e t e r n a l l y t h r o u g h C h r i s t . a n d I H i p p o b y "a m i x e d g r o u p o f savage V a n d a l s a n d A l a n s . a p r o p e r l y C h r i s t i a n a t t i t u d e to d e a t h is r e v e a l e d i n A u g u s . exist- peace of m i n d because he a n d his son h a d b e e n baptized i n g i n h u n d r e d s of m a n u s c r i p t copies. b e c a u s e as it. feels for n o t d y i n g to h i s s e l f a n d l i v i n g i n C h r i s t . let h i m Boethius. that I wept for m y m o t h e r for a s m a l l part of a n h o u r . i n m o d e r n A l g e r i a . Boethius planned to h i m imperfect. his v i o l e n t d e a t h w h i l e h e was d a t u s . i n a n e x t r a o r d i n a r y s e n t e n c e : t h i r t y years after h i s d e a t h . T h i s is w h y h e feels g u i l t a n d a n e x i s t e n t i a l n e e d to A u g u s t i n e d i e d at t h e age o f seventy-six. the Father o f a l l brothers of y o u r C h r i s t . a r g u i n g that it c i n a t i n g m o m e n t . as it was t h r o u g h p a r t o f a n h o u r " over h i s m o t h e r ' s d e a t h . D I E D 524) charity. L o r d . that m o t h e r n o w d e a d to m y eyes w h o for so m a n y years h a d wept for m e so that I m i g h t live i n y o u r eyes. A u g u s t i n e w r o t e a l o n g a n d w i t h e r i n g r e b u k e . h e r e q u e s t e d s o l i t u d e a n d s e c l u s i o n . h e c a n n o t assuage n o t h a n d t h e m o v e r to the p a g a n " w o l f . Ancius M a n l i u s Severinus not l a u g h m e to scorn. t o g e t h e r w i t h a G o t h i c t r i b e a n d p e o p l e o f d i f f e r e n t races. p r o j e c t b r o u g h t to a n e n d b y tine's r e a c t i o n to t h e s e e m i n g l y t r a g i c d e a t h o f h i s s o n . lastics. i f he is a m a n of large ( D A T E O F B I R T H U N K N O W N . The Consolation s o n was " b o r n o f m e i n the flesh o u t o f m y s i n " t h r o u g h h i s of Philosophy was one of the first w i f e . B u t A u g u s t i n e is a b l e to l o o k o n h i s d e a t h w i t h m o s t i m p o r t a n t b o o k s i n t h e M i d d l e A g e s a n d b e y o n d . AUGUSTINE 79 h i s m o t h e r ' s d e a t h is a d o u b l e p a i n . Boethius. was torn by a twofold sadness. " h i s grief. A u g u s t i n e f e l l i l l w i t h a t e r r i b l e fever d u r i n g the f o u r t e e n . T h e Aristotle's work into L a t i n . " H e left n o w i l l .78 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS ST.

W h a t c o n s o l a t i o n does p h i l o s o p h y offer to t h e m a n c o n - c a t e d i n a p l o t to u n d e r m i n e T h e o d o r i c . writes. w h i l e at other t i m e s she W i t h B o e t h i u s ' b l u d g e o n i n g a n d the c o l l a p s e o f l e a r n i n g i n s e e m e d to t o u c h the very sky w i t h the top of her h e a d . it s h o u l d n o t b e f o r g o t t e n that t i o n is t h e k n o w l e d g e that G o d r e w a r d s t h e g o o d a n d p u n - this is a b o o k w r i t t e n b y a m a n w h o b e l i e v e s h i m s e l f u n j u s t l y ishes t h e w i c k e d — i f n o t i n t h i s w o r l d . I n d e e d . It is i n a p r i s o n c e l l . B y t h e age o f t h i r t y . that P h i l o s . T h i s is m o s t o b v i o u s l y t h e case w i t h t h e e n d o r s e - i n t w e n t y . P h i l o s o p h i a also c l a i m s that o f t h e W e s t e r n R o m a n E m p i r e after t h e c a p i t a l h a d b e e n h a p p i n e s s . e x i l e to await e x e c u t i o n . T h e senate at t h e demned to d e a t h ? T h e b o o k f i n i s h e s w i t h a d i s t i n c t i o n t i m e was l i t t l e m o r e t h a n t h e p l a y t h i n g o f t h e k i n g . B a g h d a d a n d P e r s i a .8o 190 OR SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS BOETHIUS. J u d a i c s o u t h o f C o r d o b a . a n d t h e n to t h e great m e d i e v a l u n i v e r s i t i e s o f P a r i s a n d O x f o r d . o f reward to true goodness. the c o n c e p - t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h y offered b y t h e fifty-foot w o m a n is h i g h l y . " Boethius death. yet C h r i s t is n e v e r so m u c h as m e n t i o n e d . as o p p o s e d to t h e J u d a e o . ANCIUS MANLIUS SEVERINUS 8l 1593. T h i s w i l l take us first to the B o e t h i u s is f u l l o f r i g h t e o u s i n d i g n a t i o n a n d h e says to barbaric n o r t h of E n g l a n d a n d Ireland. A n d what a w o m a n she i s : ' " S o m e t i m e s . T h e f o r m o f t h e b o o k is a d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n B o e t h i u s a n d P h i l o s o p h i a a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f h a p p i n e s s . m e n t of Plato's c o n c e p t i o n of creation where eternal matter L i k e C i c e r o a n d S e n e c a b e f o r e h i m . c a n o f t e n b e u n j u s t . I'd l i k e to b e g i n a j o u r - n e y t h r o u g h m e d i e v a l p h i l o s o p h y . t h e n i n t h e next. B o e t h i u s was a very is f o r m e d b y t h e h a n d s o f t h e d e m i u r g e o r c r a f t s m a n o f the i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e . g o o d n e s s a n d G o d are i d e n t i c a l a n d that w e c a n m o v e d to C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . m u c h m o r e P l a t o n i c a l l y b y t u r n i n g o u r i n t e l l e c t towards t h e w h o c o n t r o l l e d access to t h e k i n g . i n t h e case o f T h e o d o r i c . B o e t h i u s participate i n t h e m not t h r o u g h the m e d i a t i o n o f C h r i s t . h e a d o f c i v i l a n d m i l i t a r y affairs. b u t b e c a m e magister officiorum. the Islamic a n d Philosophia. a n d between h u m a n and divine judgement. P h i l o s o p h i a insists that this is u l t i m a t e l y o v e r r i d d e n b y " t h e i n g that B o e t h i u s w r o t e The Consolation of Philosophy. It's q u i t e a A n d n o w y o u see the o u t c o m e of m y i n n o c e n c e — i n s t e a d journey. w h o g o v e r n e d Italy a n d m u c h the u n i v e r s e o u t o f n o t h i n g . H e was c r u e l l y t o r t u r e d b e f o r e b e i n g b l u d g e o n e d to t i o n . A n d h e r e i n lies t h e m a i n r i d d l e o f the text: B o e t h i u s is o s t e n s i b l y a C h r i s t i a n i n a n e m p i r e t h a t was b y t h a t t i m e f u l l y C h r i s t i a n i z e d . H e g a i n e d t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f the w o r l d . p e r s o n i f i e d as a w o m a n a n d o f f e r i n g c o n s o l a . w h a t r e m a i n e d o f the c l a s s i c a l w o r l d . t h e n . T h e e x t e n t o f B o e t h i u s ' c o n s o l a t i o n b y p h i l o s o p h y is n o t o p h i a a p p e a r s . b u t it s e e m s that h e was i m p l i . c o n d e m n e d to d e a t h a n d s e n t i n t o j u d g e m e n t . she was o f average h u m a n size. a l l e g e d l y P l a t o n i c . s i g h t o f a j u d g e w h o sees a l l t h i n g s . T h e d e t a i l s o f h i s r a p i d emanations f r o m their substance. " P h i l o s o p h y ' s c o n s o l a - W h e n r e a d i n g Consolation. A l t h o u g h h u m a n B o e t h i u s was a r r e s t e d . c o n d e m n e d to d e a t h . f a l l f r o m p o w e r are n o t c l e a r .f o u r ( s o m e say twenty-seven) hours. a n e l d e r l y E l i z a b e t h I translated the Consolation. k n o w n . p u n i s h m e n t for a c r i m e I d i d not c o m m i t .C h r i s t i a n G o d w h o creates O s t r o g o t h i c k i n g T h e o d o r i c . It was i n t h i s p e r i o d o f a n x i o u s w ait.

C u t h b e r t records a b e a u t i f u l l y e c o n o m i c a l a n d u n s e n t i m e n t a l death song that B e d e spoke i n his native N o r t h u m b r i a n dialect: 83 . A s h e was d y i n g . In St. Medieval Philosophers: Christian. C u t h b e r t ' s h a g i o g r a p h i c a l letter o n B e d e ' s d e a t h . w e f i n d a t o n e that is s t r i k i n g l y different f r o m w h a t w e saw i n A n t o n y a n d A u g u s t i n e . B e d e l i k e d to q u o t e P a u l ' s w o r d s . H o w - ever. B e d e is s h o w n b r e a k i n g d o w n a n d w e e p i n g over the dread departure o f the s o u l f r o m the b o d y a n d the prospect of G o d ' s judgement. Islamic and Judaic T h e Venerable Bede (672/3-725) B e d e is t h e o n l y E n g l i s h m a n who made it into Dante's Paradiso. "It is a f e a r f u l t h i n g to f a l l i n t o t h e h a n d s o f t h e l i v i n g G o d . t h e n e w s t h a t B e d e m a d e it to p a r a d i s e is p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l c o m e as h e s e e m s to h a v e expressed s o m e a n x i e t y about death d u r i n g his demise. S o m e m i g h t c o n s i d e r t h i s a l i t t l e too g e n e r o u s . " In an unusually and powerfully h u m a n m o m e n t in t h e d e a t h o f t h e s a i n t .

In the thirteenth century. ( s e c o n d .F a r a b i . " O n l y a table. A l t h o u g h m a n y readers k n o w n o t h i n g o f this T h e C h u r c h ' s p r o b l e m w i t h E r i u g e n a lay i n his deeply p e r i o d i n the history o f p h i l o s o p h y . E r i u g e n a enjoyed the m u n i f i c e n t patronage of King N o one becomes wiser in thought C h a r l e s the B a l d a n d spent his entire a d u l t life i n F r a n c e . i f p r o o f w e r e n e e d e d . by need. " • A r i s t o t l e . T h e k i n g s a i d . p a r t i c u l a r l y A r i s t o t l e . A v e r r o e s and E r i u g e n a c a n be s e e n as a p r e c u r s o r o f " h e r e t i c s " l i k e G i o r . the H i s w r i t i n g d a z z l e s w i t h d i a l e c t i c a l b r i l l i a n c e a n d deep m u r d e r w e a p o n s w e r e n o t k n i v e s b u t w r i t i n g styli. " I n t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y . f r o m a m o n g I r i s h m o n k s . k n o w n as the " S e c o n d M a s t e r " of p a n t h e i s m . T h e reasons for E r i u g e n a ' s n e g l e c t are m a n i f o l d . a lan. cians" like H e g e l . Than him who. p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s l o g i c a l w o r k s . d a r k c e n t u r i e s that separate A u g u s . T h i s transmitted to the C h r i s t i a n West. was a d y n a m i c process o f e m a n a t i o n f r o m the d i v i n e O n e . F u r t h e r l e a r n i n g . F o r s o m e . across f r o m e a c h o t h e r . or the identity of G o d wjth nature. sumably some unsatisfied E n g l i s h monks. W i l l i a m of M a l m e s b u r y tells the doubtless apocryphal E r i u g e n a is t h e g r e a t e s t a n d m o s t o r i g i n a l European tale that E r i u g e n a was s u m m o n e d to E n g l a n d b y A l f r e d t h e p h i l o s o p h e r i n t h e l o n g . a n d m a n y o f h i s w r i t i n g s w e r e translated i n t o L a t i n . As such." T h e contempo- rary I r i s h p o e t P a u l M u l d o o n gives a n u p d a t e d v e r s i o n o f J o h n Scottus Eriugena t h i s j o k e i n h i s a u d a c i o u s Madoc (an alternative history of (810-77) p h i l o s o p h y f r o m the G r e e k s onwards): H i s n a m e is a p l e o n a s m . p r e - t i n e a n d A n s e l m . t h a t is. Pope H o n o r i u s III T h e c o m p l e x a n d h u g e l y i m p o r t a n t story o f the p l a c e o f p h i l o s - d e s c r i b e d E r i u g e n a ' s w r i t i n g as " s w a r m i n g w i t h w o r m s of o p h y or w h a t M u s l i m s c a l l "falsqfa" i n the I s l a m i c w o r l d c a n n o t heretical perversity"—praise indeed! be t o l d h e r e .F a r a b i ' s f a m e rests l a r g e l y o n h i s c o m m e n t a r i e s on years later." turies later it c a m e to refer to s o m e o n e f r o m S c o t l a n d .8 4 190 OR SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS JOHN SCOTTUS ERIUGENA Before the unavoidable journey there. ponders. b u t also the Rhetoric . Apparently. M a t t e r s w e r e n o t h e l p e d b y t h e fact that his Al-Farabi m a j o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l w o r k . as we see w i t h J o h n D u n s S c o t u s or J o h n t h e S c o t ) . There is a s t o r y r e l a t i n g to a n i n c i d e n t w h e n the bald Before his going hence. m e a n i n g " J o h n the I r i s h m a n . et Scottum?" ( " W h a t separates a f o o l f r o m a n I r i s h m a n ? " ) T o w h i c h E r i u g e n a q u i p p e d . " T h e bottle. Periphyseon: On the Division of Nature. o n l y to A r i s t o t l e ) . d l e ? " A n d a voice pipes u p . (870-950) was p l a c e d o n the I n d e x o f F o r b i d d e n B o o k s b y t h e C a t h o l i c Church. As F e u e r b a c h w o u l d write a thousand A l . h e o n l y has h i s e q u a l i n A q u i n a s . I r e l a n d was c a l l e d " W h a t is the difference b e t w e e n a n I r i s h m a n a n d a p u d - " S c o t i a M a i o r " a n d "scottus" m e a n t a n I r i s h m a n ( s o m e c e n . "atheists" l i k e S p i n o z a a n d "godless dialecti. p r o o f . A v i c e n n a . M a s t e r . G r e a t a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y s t a b b e d to d e a t h b y h i s p u p i l s . that the p e n is m i g h t i e r t h a n t h e g u a g e w h i c h h a d m o r e o r less d i e d o u t i n t h e W e s t apart sword. " A t h e i s m is reversed P a n t h e i s m . w h i c h i n c l u d e d both u m e n t a l l a b o u r o f the great m e d i e v a l I s l a m i c philosophers G o d a n d c r e a t i o n . it is o n l y t h r o u g h the m o n - N e o p l a t o n i c c o n c e p t i o n of nature. M o s e s M a i m o n i d e s a l l a c k n o w l e d g e t h e i r d e b t to the S e c o n d d a n o B r u n o . T h i s t r a d i t i o n is u s u a l l y c o n - p o s i t i o n b r i n g s E r i u g e n a d a n g e r o u s l y c l o s e to t h e a c c u s a t i o n sidered to b e g i n w i t h A l . N a t u r e is t h e w h o l e a n d is u n d e r s t o o d as that k n o w l e d g e o f G r e e k p h i l o s o p h y . "Quiddistat inter sottum After his day of death will be judged. w i t h a perfect k n o w l e d g e o f A n c i e n t G r e e k . native o f I r e l a n d ( E r i n ) . m o n a r c h a n d t h e I r i s h p h i l o s o p h e r w e r e s e a t e d at a t a b l e What good and evil within his soul.

T o w a r d s t h e e n d o f The Life of Ihn Sina. " . h o w e v e r . A c c o r d i n g to o n e s o u r c e . Avicenna's instructions were not followed a n d the s o m e m e d i e v a l b i o g r a p h e r s h e was v i o l e n t l y m u r d e r e d by d o c t o r t h r e w i n "five dirhams" ( a n o t h e r A r a b i c m e a s u r e . T h e M a s t e r was v i g o r o u s i n a l l his f a c u l t i e s . i n c a p a b l e o f g o v e r n i n g . he w e k n o w v e r y l i t t l e a b o u t his l i f e o n e a r t h . H i s w o r k is a n e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y a m b i t i o u s attempt afflicted by what his disciple vaguely calls " c o l i c . so I use every faculty as it s h o u l d be used. b u t a c c o r d i n g to However. H e was b o r n i n B u k h a r a i n m o d e r n s exual i n t e r c o u r s e . Sages. w h i c h w e get the w o r d " d r a m " ) o f c e l e r y seed. t h e P r i n c e o f Isfahan. G o d . e d u c a t e d i n D a m a s c u s a n d B a g h d a d a n d worked i n c l u d e d i n the e n e m a . " I p r e f e r a s h o r t l i f e p h y s i c s to m e d i c i n e . b u t If w e d o n ' t k n o w e n o u g h a b o u t t h e l i f e o f A l . T h e g o a l o f s u c h a p h i l o - s o p h i c a l h a r m o n y c a n n o t b e s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e m o r e reli. the w i t h w i d t h to a n a r r o w o n e w i t h l e n g t h .J u z a j a n i . W e d o n o t k n o w i f A l . T h e story c o n t i n u e s . f r o m h i g h w a y m e n o n the r o a d f r o m D a m a s c u s to A s h k e l o n . H o w e v e r . i n c l u d i n g The Canon of Medicine.F a r a b i m a d e it to t h e next life and O n e day. the sexual f a c u l t y b e i n g t h e m o s t v i g o r o u s a n d d o m i n a n t o f his H i s disciple c o n c l u d e s his biography w i t h the words " M a y c o n c u p i s c i b l e faculties. H e was b o r n i n ordered that two danaqs [a measure i n A r a b i c ] of celery be T u r k e s t a n . w h i c h aggra- vated t h e abrasions. A l - b e g a n to w r i t e a n a u t o b i o g r a p h y . " T h e g o v e r n o r w h o u s e d to g o v e r n m y b o d y is e n j o y i n g t h e p a t r o n a g e o f A b u Y a ' f a r .86 190 OR SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS AVICENNA OR IBN SINA 87 a n d Poetics. was a s k e d a b o u t h i s excesses.F a r a b i ." A l . S a d l y . to the p o i n t that some of his intestines ulcerated a n d a m b i t i o n p l a i n : The Harmonization of the Opinions of the Two a n abrasion broke out o n h i m . B u t t h e w o r d " c o m m e n t a r y " has unfortunate H o w e v e r . r a n g i n g w i d e l y f r o m meta. w i s h i n g to b r e a k the w i n d o f the c o l i c . Y e t . has b e e n generous c o n c e r n i n g m y h i s d i s c i p l e writes: external a n d i n t e r n a l faculties. W h o is exalted. s u c h was A v i c e n n a ' s s e x u a l a p p e t i t e that h i s p r i - c o n n o t a t i o n s a n d understates the o r i g i n a l i t y o f Al-Farabi's apic performances made h i m i l l a n d h e was grievously p h i l o s o p h y . h e s a i d . " H e d i e d a few days later at t h e age A v i c e n n a w r o t e s o m e 4 5 0 b o o k s . He c o n t i n u e d to t r e a t h i m s e l f u n t i l h e c o u l d w a l k . I n a d d i t i o n . then he was so w e a k t h a t h e was u n a b l e to s t a n d . he d i e d i n A l e p p o after a l o n g t r i p to E g y p t . gave h i m a h u g e Avicenna or Ibn Sina q u a n t i t y o f o p i u m i n o r d e r to try to k i l l h i m . i n A l e p p o i n n o r t h e r n S y r i a . " E v e n t u a l l y . the Divine Plato and Aristotle.F a r a b i ' s w o r k s f r o m 9 0 0 m a k e s this day. g i o u s a m b i t i o n o f the s a l v a t i o n o f t h e s o u l i n the n e x t life. " W h e n A v i c e n n a s t a n d a r d m e d i c a l t e x t b o o k i n E u r o p e for s e v e n centuries. (980-1037) I n this p e r i l o u s state. w h o h a d stolen a large s u m o f m o n e y f r o m A v i c e n n a . of fifty-eight a n d is r e p o r t e d to h a v e s a i d . A v i c e n n a gave i n to h i s i l l - U z b e k i s t a n a n d w o r k e d at v a r i o u s c o u r t s i n P e r s i a before ness s a y i n g . t h e p h y s i c i a n d o e s n ' t s e e m to h a v e been a b l e to h e a l h i m s e l f . h e perhaps we k n o w a little too m u c h a b o u t A v i c e n n a . w h i c h was c o m p l e t e d by J u z a j a n i c o n t i n u e s . he a d m i n i s t e r e d a n e n e m a to h i m s e l f eight times i n o n e T h e t i t l e o f o n e o f A l . a n d he exercised it often. G o d find h i s d e e d s w o r t h y . w i t h t h e m o r e m y s t i c a l i n t u i t i o n o f t h e O n e i n P l o t i n u s and Neoplatonic thought. A v i c e n n a j o u r n e y e d to I s f a h a n . " H e d i d n o t take c a r e a n d f r e q u e n t l y h a d h i s d i s c i p l e A l . " " T h e r e - to c o m b i n e the l o g i c a l r i g o u r a n d e m p i r i c i s m o f Aristotle fore.J u z a j a n i c o n t i n u e s . o n e o f h i s servants.

A p p a r e n t l y . option o f G o d to s o m e h o w exist i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . t h e c o r p s e o f I b n G a b i r o l u n e a r t h e d . F o r perpetrator apprehended a n d hanged (although not from h a t is it to conceive o f G o d ? W h a t does it m e a n for t h e c o n . If that is t r u e . a n d t h e T o w h i c h I a m t e m p t e d to r e p l y : I a m n o t e v e n a f o o l . b u t i f H e s h o u l d prefer |uotes as s a y i n g . S a d l y . n o r t h e r n I t a l y . A s a consequence. f a m o u s for o n e a r g u m e n t . p l a t o n i s t a n d p o e t was. o f scholars. o n e c a n c o n c e i v e o f that t h a n w h i c h n o t h i n g of the o r i g i n of the s o u l w h i c h I have kept t u r n i n g over i n xeater c a n b e t h o u g h t . m a r k e d that h e w o u l d p r o b a b l y die by Easter.?8 190 O R SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS ST. p r i n c e 3th passeth u n d e r s t a n d i n g . e n v i o u s M u s l i m p o e t w h o b u r i e d h i m b e n e a t h a f i g tree. n o o n e h a s s u b s e q u e n t l y b e e n a b l e to s o l v e t h e sality. A n s e l m is a r c h s : W i l l i a m R u f u s a n d H e n r y I. t h e tree b o r e f r u i t o f s u c h sweetness that s u s p i c i o n f G o d c a n d e n y that s u c h a b e i n g exists. " T h e r e is n o G o d . w h i c h is greater? I f it d i d n o t exist i n r e a l i t y . his b e d s u r r o u n d e d by f e l l o w m o n k s . t h e n it problem. I c a n c o n c e i v e o f n e i t h e r d e a t h n o r G o d . one of them re- m e n t for the existence o f G o d . w i t h called the ontological argu. the great J e w i s h N e o - e l l as the u n d e r s t a n d i n g . o u r A r i s t o t l e . for I d o u b t c c e p t that s u c h a c o n c e p t i o n exists i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . t h e n does this c o n c e p . n o t e v e n a f o o l . m u r d e r e d b y a n l g greater c a n b e t h o u g h t . t h e n assuredly it m u s t exist i n reality as B o r n i n M a l a g a i n M u s l i m S p a i n . A few days b e f o r e A n s e l m ' s d e a t h . S o l o m o n Ibn G a b i r o l or Avicebron (1021-58) rierefore. ]ven the f o o l w o u l d agree. w h e t h e r anybody else w i l l solve it w h e n I a m gone. Wry? F o r the s i m p l e r e a s o n that t h e r e w o u l d b e s o m e t h i n g reater t h a n t h a t w h i c h o n l y exists i n t h e understanding. . w o u l d s i m p l y d e n y that w e c a n c o n c e i v e o f s u c h a b e i n g i n Peter A b e l a r d l u c h t h e s a m e w a y as I d o n o t t h i n k w e c a n c o n c e i v e of (1079-1142) . P l a t o o f the W e s t . i f o n e c a n c o n c e i v e o f that t h a n w h i c h n o t h i n g reater c a n be t h o u g h t . " m e to stay w i t h y o u just l o n g e n o u g h to solve the question F o r A n s e l m . It is a n a r g u m e n t o f s i n g u l a r Anselm replied. T h e y Socrates o f t h e G a u l s . e l e g a n c e d e s i g n e d to persuade the fool whom the psalmist If it is H i s w i l l I shall gladly obey. t h e n o n e is o b l i g e d to m y m i n d . a c c o r d i n g to l e g e n d . the tree. A n s e l m was c h o s e n to s u c c e e d L a f r a n c as A r c h b i s h o p St. a t h . N o w ." I n his Historia cakimitatum or Story of His Misfortunes. ' o u l d n o t be that t h a n w h i c h n o t h i n g greater c a n b e thought. A n s e l m o f C a n t e r b u r y i n 1093. was a r o u s e d . ANSELM 89 A l t h o u g h b o r n i n P i e d m o n t . B u t i f o n e c a n c o n c e i v e o f that than / h i c h n o t h i n g greater c a n be t h o u g h t . G o d exists i n b o t h c o n . i n 1033 o r 34. as h e o n o n l y exist i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g ? M u s t it n o t also exist i n p r e d i c t e d . T h e r e f o r e . s p t i o n a n d reality. h i s t i m e as A r c h b i s h o p was (1033/4-1109) m a r k e d by serious p o l i t i c a l conflicts w i t h two E n g l i s h m o n - J u s t l y or u n j u s t l y . w h e r - /er t h e latter m i g h t b e l o c a t e d ? W h e t h e r G o d exists or not. I w o u l d gratefully accept the c h a n c e . N o o n e w h o is a b l e to f o r m the c o n c e p t i o n O d d l y . I n Abelard was described by Peter the V e n e r a b l e as "The d e e p sense. G o d d i d n ' t a l l o w A n s e l m t h e extra days a n d . G o d is that t h a n w h i c h n o t h . 1109. it w o u l d a p p e a r ) . S a d l y . that d e a t h c a n n o t b e l o c a t e d i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . what A n s e l m s p e n t m a n y years i n e x i l e a n d d i e d i n R o m e s h o r t l y a later p h i l o s o p h i c a l tradition b e f o r e E a s t e r .

b i d d i n g . F u l b e r t sent s o m e o f h i s servants a n d f r i e n d s dents. A b e l a r d was castrated because to b r e a k i n t o A b e l a r d ' s l o d g i n g s . p r e s u m a b l y i n h o n o u r o f that Averroes or Ibn R u s h d a n c i e n t a s t r o n o m i c a l c o m p u t e r for d e t e r m i n i n g t h e position (1126-98) o f t h e stars. P e t e r w r i t e s t h a t " O u r desires left no monastery i n perpetual silence. H e l o i ' s e writes seen. c a n n o t b e Some t i m e later. w h e r e h e h a d b e e n sent b y h i s f r i e n d a n d the c a n o n s at N o t r e . Averroes became b r i d e . p o s s i b l y d e s e r v e d s o m e t h i n g worse. Peter's f i n a l letter to H e l o i ' s e r e a l l y h e r father. w i t h the p a g a n p h i l o s o p h e r s .S a o n e .m a k i n g u n t r i e d . a n d i f l o v e c o u l d devise some. I n o n e o f h e r letters. h i s was s e e n as t h e l e a d i n g p h i l o s o p h e r fate was s e a l e d . I n A b e l a r d ' s w o r d s . I n c i d e n t a l l y . at the age o f sixty-three. love i n t h e c o n v e n t refectory. the d e v e l o p m e n t o f M e d i e v a l C h r i s t i a n p h i l o s o p h y . n o t w i t h o u t r e a s o n . A b e l a r d r e s p o n d e d b y r e m o v i n g H e l o i ' s e to a c o n v e n t . l i k e A b e l a r d . " T h e c u t t i n g i r o n y h e r e is that they c o n t i n u e d to m e e t a n d are r e p o r t e d m a k i n g passionate A b e l a r d m e t a s i m i l a r fate to O r i g e n . h e b e g a n a passionate sexual h e r e t i c a l b y t h e p o p e i n 1140. E n r a g e d . this act After defeating W i l l i a m o f C h a m . n u n . first o n protective a n d rather priggish arrogance of A b e l a r d . A b e l a r d d i e d e i g h t e e n m o n t h s l a t e r at t h e m o n a s t e r y i n t h i n g n e w . " T h e greatest o f C h r i s t i a n p h i l o s o . Averroes' i n f l u e n c e o n o f H e l o i ' s e ' s l a n g u a g e as o p p o s e d to t h e i m p e r s o n a l .go 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS PETER ABELARD 9 1 Peter A b e l a r d describes Origen as A b e l a r d a n d b e g a n to s p r e a d t h e n e w s o f t h e i r m a r r i a g e . Heloi'se Abelard. a l t h o u g h A v i c e n n a . " A s w i t h O r i g e n .D a m e . F u l b e r t was f u r i o u s a n d A b e l a r d offered to m a r r y Heloi'se. h o m e c o u n t r y i n B r i t t a n y . H e l o i ' s e . that " I b e g a n to t h i n k o f m y s e l f as the w h i c h e f f e c t i v e l y e n d e d u p as A b e l a r d ' s t r i a l . A t B e r n a r d ' s o n l y p h i l o s o p h e r i n the w o r l d . F u l b e r t broke his agreement with overstated. w r o n g o f w h i c h t h e y c o m p l a i n e d . w h e r e p h e r s . i n e x p l i c a b l y c a l l e d A s t r a l a b e . stage o f l o v e .t h i r t i e s . as w e h a v e F u l b e r t i n i t i a l l y a g r e e d . w h e r e s h e g a v e b i r t h to a son. A l b e r t t h e G r e a t a n d later o n A q u i n a s a n d o t h e r s . the difference being that whereas F u l b e r t s u s p e c t e d . H e entered into a famous debate with i n P a r i s . w h o s o m e suspect was p r o t e c t o r . a l o n g p r o v i d e d it was k e p t secret i n o r d e r to p r o t e c t h i s r e p u t a t i o n . p o w e r f u l leader of the C i s t e r c i a n s . s u c h was h i s possessiveness a n d rage against describes a peaceful death.o n e years l a t e r o n 16 M a y 1163 or 64. t h a t A b e l a r d was O r i g e n castrated h i m s e l f i n o r d e r to t r y i n g to get r i d o f H e l o i ' s e a n d save h i m s e l f b y m a k i n g h e r a devote h i m s e l f to t e a c h i n g f e m a l e stu. d i e d t w e n t y . peaux i n p u b l i c disputations. w i t h o u t a r i v a l . t h a t s h e w o u l d r a t h e r b e A b e l a r d ' s w h o r e t h a n h i s secret B o r n i n C o r d o b a i n M u s l i m S p a i n . s u r r o u n d e d by his books. " H e l o i ' s e was t h e n i e c e o f one of C h a l o n . Abelard A l t h o u g h A b e l a r d r e t u r n e d to t e a c h i n g a n d w r i t i n g . w h a t strikes t h e r e a d e r i n t h e i r famous k n o w n i n t h e C h r i s t i a n W e s t as " T h e C o m m e n t a t o r " for h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e is the d i r e c t w a r m t h a n d i n t e l l i g e n t power extensive e x p l a n a t i o n s o f A r i s t o t l e . self. F u l b e r t . T h i s i n f l u e n c e was also h u g e l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l a n d . A b e l a r d ' s t h e o l o g i c a l v i e w s w e r e c o n d e m n e d as w h e n h e was i n h i s m i d . w e w e l c o m e d i t . " T h e y o f a n i n a b i l i t y to restrain h i s desire for c u t o f f t h e parts o f m y b o d y w h e r e b y I h a d c o m m i t t e d t h e one o f his. prevented A b e l a r d from being ordained. h i s f o l - a f f a i r w i t h a y o u n g s t u d e n t . P e t e r t h e V e n e r a b l e . Averroes a n d A v i c e n n a b o t h m a d e it i n t o D a n t e ' s Limbo. H e relates B e r n a r d o f C l a i r v e a u x .s u r . " A t the peak o f his fame. H i s b o o k s w e r e b u r n t . w h o was seventeen lowers w e r e e x c o m m u n i c a t e d a n d h e was c o n f i n e d to a years o l d at t h e t i m e . S o m e say H e l o i ' s e b e c a m e p r e g n a n t a n d A b e l a r d r e m o v e d h e r to his she d i e d .

H a p p i l y . w o r l d . T h e f a m i l y d e c i d e d to d i s g u i s e t h e m - (Tahafut al-Tahqfut). S o m e years l a t e r . A v e r r o e s w r o t e a d e t a i l e d F a c e d w i t h this c h o i c e . b u t o n t h e c o n t r a r y is to b e e n c o u r a g e d by tise a n d s t u d y J u d a i s m p r i v a t e l y . a n d h e n c e u n t h e o l o g i c a l interpretations of Aristotle and w r i t t e n i n A r a b i c . flourishing centre of Jewish culture a n d learning u n d e r the G h a z z a l i (1058-1111). i n this m a n n e r for a n o t h e r e l e v e n years b e f o r e f l e e i n g to F e z .G h a z z a l i ' s a t t a c k was A v i c e n n a .F u s t a t . The Guidefor the Perplexed. h i s dis. A f t e r a s i g n i f i c a n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . R o u g h l y a n d r e a d i l y . Mai- t h e m u l e b y h i s w o r k s o f p h i l o s o p h y . A l t h o u g h t h e m a i n target of M u s l i m s or e x p u l s i o n . gious f r e e d o m . as w e w i l l see b e l o w . B e t h a t as it m a y . t h e n a T h e s e events e c h o a debate that Averroes h a d w i t h A l . b u t w h e r e . T h e m o s t e x t r e m e o f t h e Averroists was Siger o f B r a b a n t . A l . n o w part o f m o d e r n C a i r o . I n s t r a i t e n e d f i n a n c i a l r e m a i n s w e r e l a t e r t a k e n to C ö r d o b a o n a m u l e . t h e f a m i l y f l e d first b y b o a t to P a l e s t i n e a n d t h e n to E g y p t g r a c e was s h o r t . being b e c o m e the v i c t i m o f p o l i t i c a l h a r a s s m e n t a n d was exiled strangers. w h e r e t h e y s e t t l e d i n A l . h i s m a j o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l w o r k . Moses Maimonides. W h e n a r a b b i w i t h f r o m the court o f the sultan i n M a r r a k e c h i n m o d e r n w h o m M a i m o n i d e s h a d s t u d i e d was arrested a n d e x e c u t e d i n M o r o c c o to a s m a l l t o w n n e a r to C o r d o b a . for a r a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y o f J u d a i s m . Averroists d e f e n d e d t h e a u t o n o m y of Rabbi Moshe ben M a i m o n p h i l o s o p h y a n d its s e p a r a t i o n f r o m q u e s t i o n s o f t h e o l o g y a n d (1135-1204) r e l i g i o u s f a i t h . RABBI M O S H E BEN MAIMON 93 l e d to t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f " A v e r r o i s m " a m o n g C h r i s t i a n philosophers. M a i m o n i d e s ' f a m i l y was offered r e p l y w o n d e r f u l l y e n t i t l e d The Incoherence of the Incoherence r e f u g e b y A v e r r o e s . a r o u n d 1195 A v e r r o e s s e e m s to have w h i c h was also u n d e r A l m o h a d r u l e .l i v e d a n d h e r e t u r n e d to t h e s u l t a n ' s c o u r t . c l a i m e d to b e i n d e p e n d e n t o f C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g y . t o m b is s t i l l v i s i t e d as a s h r i n e . T h e story c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I n a d d i t i o n to h i s extensive w o r k o n J e w i s h l a w a n d t h e roes w e r e b e i n g e m p l o y e d to p r o d u c e p u r e l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l T o r a h . w h i c h granted citizens complete reli- I s l a m . L i k e A v e r r o e s . philosopher o f all time s h o u l d have emerged from the Islamic versity o f P a r i s . It is u n c l e a r w h e t h e r m o n i d e s was b u r i e d i n T i b e r i a s i n m o d e r n I s r a e l . quest o f S p a i n b y t h e i n t o l e r a n t a n d f a n a t i c a l A l m o h a d s i n w h e r e h e h a d a c c u s e d t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s o f i n f i d e l i t y (al-kufr) 1148. they m i g h t go u n r e c o g n i z e d . M a i m o n i d e s was referred mission o f sixteen theologians issued a h i g h l y influential to as " R a b b i M o y s e s " w i t h great respect b y A l b e r t t h e G r e a t condemnation against any concept of philosophy that and Aquinas. e v e n t u a l l y goes that t h e w e i g h t o f his b o n e s was b a l a n c e d o n t h e b a c k of e n d i n g u p as c o u r t d o c t o r to t h e S u l t a n S a l a d i n . w h o m e t a s t i c k y e n d . w h o w a s k n o w n as " T h e P r o o f o f A l m o r a v i d caliphate. a c o m . I n h i s c o m m e n t a r y o n t h e . " T h e latter h a d w r i t t e n a p o w e r f u l attack o n p h i l o s o . h e m a d e a l i v i n g as a p h y s i c i a n .F u s t a t . 1165. H e a r g u e d that p h i l o s o p h y is n o t f o r b i d . P o p e J o h n X X I a s k e d t h e B i s h o p o f P a r i s to l o o k into that t h e p e r s o n w h o m m a n y r e g a r d as t h e greatest J e w i s h t h e p o s s i b l e heresies that w e r e b e i n g p r o p a g a t e d at t h e U n i . his the J e w i s h c o m m u n i t y i n A l . w h i l e c o n t i n u i n g to p r a c - d e n b y t h e K o r a n . T h e y r e m a i n e d i n C ö r d o b a those w i t h a d e q u a t e i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . T h e w o r r y was t h a t p h i l o s o p h e r s l i k e Aver. shows t h e i n f l u e n c e o f A r i s t o t l e i n a r g u i n g m u c h m o r e besides.02 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS MOSES M A I M O N I D E S . w h e r e h e e n d e d h i s days. M a t t e r s c h a n g e d d r a m a t i c a l l y w i t h the c o n - p h y i n The Incoherence of Philosophers (Tahafut al-Falasifah). In It is a n i r o n y f r o m w h i c h t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y w o r l d m i g h t l e a r n 1277. selves as M u s l i m s w h e n i n p u b l i c . w h o r e q u i r e d e i t h e r t h e f o r c e d c o n v e r s i o n o f a l l n o n - a n d t e a c h i n g s i n i m i c a l to I s l a m . w h e r e h i s this m e a n s that h e w r o t e t o o m u c h o r w e i g h e d t o o l i t t l e . M a i m o n i d e s was b o r n i n C ö r d o b a . M a i m o n i d e s was c h o s e n to b e h e a d o f Although h e was i n i t i a l l y b u r i e d i n M a r r a k e c h .

A c c o r d i n g to B u t l e r ' s Lives of the Saints.t i m e stu- d e n t T h o m a s A q u i n a s . Latin Middle Ages o n the o r d e r o f the s o n o f S a l a d i n for c u l t i v a t i n g h e r e t i c a l m y s t i c a l beliefs. t h e m o s t i n f l u e n t i a l p h i l o s o p h e r a n d t h e o l o g i a n o f the C h r i s t i a n West. h e was asked to p r o v i d e a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e n e w i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Aristotle that h a d e m e r g e d f r o m Jewish a n d A r a b i c sources i n S p a i n ." Albert the Great or Albertus M a g n u s (1200-80) A l b e r t r e c e i v e d t h e t i t l e o f Magnus f r o m h i s contemporaries b e f o r e h i s d e a t h . h e f a m o u s l y f o r m u l a t e d t h i r t e e n p r i n c i p l e s o f faith that a l l Jews s h o u l d f o l l o w . A l t h o u g h his p h i l o s o p h i c a l influence has b e e n felt m a i n l y t h r o u g h the w r i t i n g o f h i s l o n g . h e d i e d p e a c e f u l l y a n d w i t h o u t illness. H e was e x e c u t e d i n A l e p p o . H e is s o m e t i m e s s i m p l y c a l l e d M a q t u l . was k n o w n as Doctor Angelicus 95 . A t t h e r e q u e s t o f h i s D o m i n i c a n b r e t h r e n . D u r i n g a l e c t u r e i n 1278. " T h e Slain. sitting i n his chair. H e was a l s o k n o w n as Doctor Universalis (Universal D o c t o r ) . St.n i n e v o l u m e s .94 190 OR SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS M i s h n a . T h e t h i r t e e n t h c o n c e r n s b e l i e f i n the r e s u r r e c t i o n o f t h e d e a d — l u c k y for s o m e . T h o m a s A q u i n a s . Shahab al-din Suhrawardi (1155-91) A n I r a n i a n S u f i w h o d e v e l o p e d a n i n f l u e n t i a l m y s t i c a l philos- Philosophy i n the o p h y a n d was f o u n d e r o f w h a t b e c a m e k n o w n as the S c h o o l of I l l u m i n a t i o n . H i s e x p l a n a t i o n r a n to s o m e t h i r t y . s u r r o u n d e d by his brethren i n his h o m e town of C o l o g n e . h e was a p o w e r f u l p h i l o s o p h e r i n h i s o w n r i g h t . i n m o d e r n Syria. A l b e r t ' s m e m o r y s u d d e n l y f a i l e d and the strength of his m i n d rapidly deteriorated. T h o m a s A q u i n a s (1224/5-74) St.

i o n o n the matter. . t h o u hast w r i t t e n w e l l c o n . i n g to offer a s u m m a r y . " L a r g e c h u n k s h a d to ture o f the h u m a n soul. p i c k e d u p the ple. "a huge p o s i t i o n w h e n h e writes that " t h e h u m a n b o d y is the best p i c - b u l l o f a m a n . H e giae was s u s p e n d e d at Part 3.i n f l u e n c e d a c t i v i t y o f p h i l o s o - t i o n for a n u n u s u a l l y l o n g t i m e p h y a n d n a t u r a l s c i e n c e n e e d n o t b e s e e n as h e r e t i c a l o r before w r i t i n g d o w n his opin. " A n d T h o m a s certainly b e l l o w e d . T h e r e is a of p h i l o s o p h y a n d theology or the realms of reason a n d faith. H e was. i n G . C h e s t e r t o n ' s words. Sacrament i n the Christian T h o m a s always argues a g a i n s t t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e n a t u - M a s s . W i t t g e n s t e i n u n w i t t i n g l y adopts t h i s s m a l l m a n . K . h i s views o n t h e n a t u r e o f the t h e n f a i t h w i t h o u t r e a s o n is b l i n d . as T h o m a s was n o t a l a r g e l u m p o f m a t t e r ) . E i t h e r w a y . t h y M c D e r m o t t p o i n t s o u t . he reportedly seen i n T h o m a s ' s c o n c e p t i o n of the h u m a n b e i n g situated t h r e w d o w n h i s t h e s i s at the a m p h i b i o u s l y at t h e j u n c t u r e o f these t w o r e a l m s . Q u e s t i o n 9 0 . seen i n prayer a l l that I have w r i t t e n seems to m e as i f it G i v e n t h e v o l u m e o f T h o m a s ' s w r i t i n g . w r o t e over e i g h t m i l l i o n w o r d s . that I a m ( a n d as w e h a v e a l r e a d y s a i d ." b e s a w n o u t o f d i n i n g tables so that T h o m a s c o u l d sit a n d eat O n 6 D e c e m b e r 1273 d u r i n g M a s s i n N a p l e s . T h e o t h e r D o m i n i c a n friars t e r i a l s u b s t a n c e l o c a t e d i n o u r b r a i n or b e n e a t h o u r left n i p - r e p o r t e d that C h r i s t d e s c e n d e d f r o m the cross. W e are a foot o f a c r u c i f i x a n d b u r i e d c o m p o s i t e o f s o u l a n d b o d y . fat a n d s l o w a n d q u i e t . h e was s u m m o n e d b y t h e p o p e to a t t e n d the C o u n - . I n this sunk i n prayer a n d c o n t e m p l a . A r t i c l e 4. D e s p i t e h i s transfor- does this m e a n ? Let's go b a c k to A v e r r o e s a n d h i s s e p a r a t i o n m a t i o n . it p r o c e e d s to its i n P a r i s . T h e s o u l is that w h i c h i n d i v i d u - c e r n i n g the S a c r a m e n t o f M y B o d y . o6 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS ST. W h e n he T h i s c o n t i n u i t y of the n a t u r a l a n d the s p i r i t u a l c a n be had finished. I c a n n o t . o n e I n r e s p o n s e to the p r o t e s t a t i o n s o f h i s secretary. t w o m i l l i o n o n the B i b l e .a i r . i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h w h a t I have w i t h l i n k s to o t h e r t o p i c s a n d a r t i c l e s to b e r e a d i n p a r a l l e l . " T h o m a s . way. I t e l l s t r o k e . a n d s a i d . R e g i n a l d m i l l i o n o n A r i s t o t l e a n d the rest d e v o t e d to u n i v e r s i t y t e a c h . T h o m a s was r a l a n d t h e s p i r i t u a l a n d i n f a v o u r o f t h e i r c o n t i n u i t y . A s T i m o . t h i s was n o m e a n m i r a c l e . B e c a u s e h e was so b i g a n d q u i e t . T h o m a s was a f t e r w a r d s u n w i l l i n g or y o u t h a t t h e d u m b ox w i l l b e l l o w so l o u d t h a t h i s b e l l o w i n g u n a b l e to w r i t e a n d the m a s s i v e l a b o u r o f t h e Summa Theolo- w i l l fill the w o r l d . b u t as a p a t h to G o d . T h o m a s ates e a c h o f us a n d a n i m a t e s this i n d i s t i n c t l u m p o f m a t t e r was m i r a c u l o u s l y b o r n e u p i n t o m i d . answered. " A t w h i c h p o i n t . Thomas i n g a n d c o m p e n d i a for use b y students o f t h e o l o g y . a t h e i s t i c . s o u l is t h e f o r m o f t h e b o d y . of P i p e r n o . T h o m a s was q u i t e a N o w . see as a m y s t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e a n d o t h e r s see as a c e r e b r a l A l b e r t t h e G r e a t r e t o r t e d . it is p o i n t l e s s try. r e a d it. b u t t h e s o u l is n o t s o m e i m m a - h i m s e l f o n c e m o r e i n p r a y e r . B u t w h a t A d m i t t e d l y . T h o m a s d e v a s t a t i n g h a p p e n e d to T h o m a s t h a t s o m e commentators was c a l l e d " t h e d u m b o x " b y h i s f e l l o w s t u d e n t s i n P a r i s . I f r e a s o n w i t h o u t f a i t h is e m p t y . were straw. t h e e m p i r i c a l A r i s t o t l e . it is a n a w f u l l o t o f straw. It is o f t e n s a i d that T h o m a s ' s a c h i e v e - m e n t is a s y n t h e s i s o f A r i s t o t l e a n d C h r i s t i a n i t y . s o m e t h i n g w i t h h i s b r e t h r e n . T H O M A S AQUINAS 97 ( A n g e l i c D o c t o r ) . . a r g u i n g that a l t h o u g h t h e o l - w h e n h e was at the S o r b o n n e ogy b e g i n s f r o m t h e r e v e a l e d t r u t h s o f f a i t h . T h o m a s was asked for c o n c l u s i o n s u s i n g r e a s o n . that he s h o u l d c o m p l e t e the work. d o u b t l e s s a p o c r y p h a l story that T h o m a s rejects this s e p a r a t i o n . the s c r o l l . " w i t h a r t i c l e s l i k e W e b pages R e g i n a l d . " Y o u c a l l h i m a d u m b ox. A p p a r e n t l y . a n d here T h o m a s follows Aristotle. " T h e largest o f these w o r k s read l i k e a n i n t e r n e t e n c y c l o p a e d i a . O n the contrary.

t o r t u r e d a n d A q u i n a s was to the D o m i n i c a n s . S c h o p e n h a u e r c o n t i n u e s . ) L i k e T h o m a s . H o w e v e r . I f t h e l a t t e r w a s at o d d s w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e i n v e n t e d m a c h i n e s for t h i s p u r p o s e . "as i f h e h a d l o o k e d i n t o h e l l . Paris o n the s a m e day i n 1257. H e is f a m o u s for h i s ars p h i l o s o p h y a n d t h e o l o g y or r e a s o n a n d f a i t h . L l u l l ' s e n t i r e l i f e c o m m e n t a r y o n S o l o m o n ' s S o n g o f S o n g s . t h e n so m u c h t h e worse for the . B o n a v e n t u r e a n d A q u i n a s expelled f r o m T u n i s a n d escaped w i t h his life o n l y t h r o u g h w e r e b o t h r e c o g n i z e d as R e g e n t M a s t e r s o f the U n i v e r s i t y of the i n t e r c e s s i o n o f G e n o e s e traders. ( I n c i d e n t a l l y . H e w e n t o n n u m e r o u s m i s - not survived. charismatic and i n f l u e n t i a l o f the Paris toria or c o m b i n a t o r y art. m a k i n g L l u l l t h e f a t h e r o f c o m p u t e r b o u g h o f a tree a n d d i e d at the age o f f o r t y . l e a v i n g t h e c o u r t o f t h e K i n g o f M a j o r c a .n i n e . I n 1273. H e also A r i s t o t l e . a r i s t o c r a t i c f a m i l y a n d as a y o u n g m a n h e l e d a l i f e T h o m a s . twenty-five s c i e n c e .o8 190 O R SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS RAMON L L U L L OR RAYMOND LULLY 99 c i l o f L y o n s . story that (1217-74) h e was s t o n e d to d e a t h d u r i n g o n e o f h i s m i s s i o n s to T u n i s . B o n a v e n t u r e was m u c h m o r e s u s p i c i o u s o f the of h e d o n i s m a n d d i s s i p a t i o n . B u t unlike w e a l t h y . s i o n s to N o r t h A f r i c a to c o n v e r t M u s l i m s a n d f o u g h t the I s l a m i c . o n B o n a v e n t u r e . as h e o f t e n w a s . S i g e r was the magna or great art. A l t h o u g h h e was n e v e r c a n o n i z e d . However. " F r o m that m o m e n t . " G r e g o r y X m a d e B o n a v e n t u r e i n t o a c a r d i n a l a n d s o o n after. T h e p u r p o s e o f this art was to s h o w A v e r r o i s t s . w e r e u n i t e d i n t h e i r h o s t i l i t y to A v e r r o i s m a n d its s e p a r a t i o n o f w r i t t e n i n C a t a l a n . o n e day L l u l l was r a t i o n a l i s m o f A r i s t o t l e a n d m u c h c l o s e r to A u g u s t i n e a n d f i n a l l y a d m i t t e d to t h e b e d r o o m o f a w o m a n h e h a d l o n g N e o p l a t o n i s m i n a r g u i n g that t h e e m a n a t i o n s o f t h e d i v i n e b e e n w o o i n g . B o n a v e n t u r e was Enlightened Doctor). W h e n she o p e n e d h e r dress. P o p e her breast eaten away w i t h cancer. " age o f fifty-seven. most radical. S o m e say that h e was p o i s o n e d . Schopenhauer tells the highly critical of Averroism. the present p o p e . wrote h i s " H a b i l i t a t i o n . B o n a v e n t u r e d i e d s u d d e n l y at the w e n t i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s to d o p e n a n c e . b u t p r o b a b l y f a l l a c i o u s . A q u i n a s . w h i c h s o m e h a v e s e e n C h u r c h . O n t h e way. it s e e m s that h e was i n j u r e d b y the as t h e first c o m p u t e r s . O n his d e a t h b e d . L a t i n a n d A r a b i c . B o n a v e n t u r e a n d R a m o n L l u l l L l u l l was a great M a j o r c a n p o l y m a t h a n d a u t h o r o f 290 works. h e m i d s t o f C o u n c i l a c t i v i t i e s . w h i c h sadly has was spent i n a battle w i t h I s l a m . h e r e c e i v e d t h e t i t l e o f B e n e d i c t X V I . T h o m a s dictated a brief of C h r i s t i a n i t y b y the use o f l o g i c a n d reason. " or s e c o n d d o c t o r a l a B l e s s e d a n d is k n o w n as Doctor Illuminatus (the Most thesis. Bonaventure or Giovanni de F i d a n z a T h e r e is a w i d e l y t o l d . h e wards t h e y t r a v e l l e d to the S e c o n d C o u n c i l o f L y o n s . Doctor Seraphicus ( S e r a p h i c D o c t o r ) was to the F r a n c i s c a n s what B r u c k e r r e c o u n t s t h a t L l u l l was c a p t u r e d . H o w e v e r . t h e p u r p o s e o f these l o g i c m a c h i n e s was miles f r o m his birthplace i n Roccasecca.i n f l u e n c e d A v e r r o i s m at the U n i v e r s i t y o f Paris w h e n he taught there. H i s m a i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n c e r n was e s t a b l i s h i n g t h a t t h e e n t i r e t y o f h u m a n k n o w l e d g e was d e r i v a b l e f r o m the t r u t h o f w h a t t h e a n c i e n t p h i l o s o p h e r s w r o t e . Siger o f Brabant R a m o n L l u l l or R a y m o n d L u l l y (1240-84) (1232/3-1315/16) As we have seen. St. w h a t L e i b n i z later b a p t i z e d a n ars combina. I n the was c o n v e r t e d . halfway between h i g h l y s p e c i f i c : the c o n v e r s i o n o f i n f i d e l M u s l i m s to the t r u t h R o m e a n d N a p l e s . a tendency w h i c h he thought c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y m i s o g y n i s t i c story that L l u l l was c o n v e r t e d w o u l d l e a d to the s e p a r a t i o n o f the w o r l d s o f f a i t h a n d reason to C h r i s t i a n i t y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : L l u l l was f r o m a and w o u l d ultimately culminate in atheism. she s h o w e d h i m had to b e e x p e r i e n c e d at a l l levels o f reality. e s p e c i a l l y t h e l o g i c a l c o m b i n a t i o n o f several b a s i c c o n c e p t s .

ing but hair-splitting i n his v o l u m i n o u s arguments pro and A l t h o u g h O c k h a m n e v e r uses the t e r m ." T h i s is best u n d e r s t o o d as a p r i n - u n n a m e d c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . a t t e m p t s to e s c a p e . w h e n h i s t o m b was r e o p e n e d . J o h n D u n s Scotus W i l l i a m of O c k h a m (1266-1308) (1285-1347/9) V e r y l i t t l e c a n b e s a i d w i t h c e r t a i n t y a b o u t the l i f e a n d death T h e m o s t i n f l u e n t i a l p h i l o s o p h e r o f the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y o f J o h n the Scot. Scot's theory of meaning. J O H N D U N S SCOTUS IOI C h u r c h . O c k h a m f l e d A v i g n o n w i t h s o m e f e l l o w J o h n the Scot famously Franciscans and eventually f o u n d sanctuary i n Munich developed the notion of t h a n k s to t h e h o l y R o m a n e m p e r o r . at t h a t t i m e t h e seat o f t h e p a p a c y . S o m e see n o t h . o t h e r p h i l o s o p h e r s see J o h n the S c o t i n very dif. p o n t i f i c a l c u r i a g e n e r o u s l y a l l o w e d h i m to stay a n d e v e n pro. h i s n a m e is associ- con with objections. W i l l i a m o f O c k h a m is often s e e n as a p r e c u r s o r to w i d e l y d i f f e r i n g e v a l u a t i o n s o f its i m p o r t a n c e . " f r o m w h e r e w e get the n o t i o n of necessary unless it is g i v e n i n e x p e r i e n c e . e s t a b l i s h e d b y rea- the " d u n c e " o r s t u p i d f e l l o w w h o b e l i e v e s h i m s e l f s u b t l e . Ockham giving expression to the s p e n t the r e m a i n d e r o f h i s l i f e i n M u n i c h w r i t i n g p o l e m i c a l u n i q u e n e s s or the indivisi. less to d o w i t h m o r e w h a t c a n be d o n e w i t h fewer. O c k - ble "thisness" of a person. H o w e v e r . St." ferent terms. "It is use- H o w e v e r . w h e r e the i n t o a c o m a . L u d w i g o f B a v a r i a . h e h a d f a l l e n f o r c e d to flee Paris for t h e safety o f O r v i e t o i n Italy. T h e n a m e " D u n s " m i g h t refer to the present was a native o f O c k h a m . S a d l y . village of D u n s i n B e r w i c k s h i r e i n s o u t h e r n S c o t l a n d . a s m a l l village i n Surrey. A q u i n a s ' s p r o p o s e d m a r r i a g e b e t w e e n H i s o w n u n i q u e n e s s was c u t s h o r t p r e m a t u r e l y at a F r a n c i s - A r i s t o t l e a n d C h r i s t i a n i t y was d o o m e d to e n d i n d i v o r c e . h i s secretary w e n t m a d a n d coffin a n d his hands were bloody from his unsuccessful s t a b b e d S i g e r to d e a t h . replies and endless debates with ated w i t h " O c k h a m ' s razor. c a n s t u d y h o u s e i n C o l o g n e . h a m a r g u e d that the p o p e s h o u l d l i m i t h i m s e l f to t h e o l o g i c a l . I n d e e d . being. was b e l i e v e d d e a d . w h e r e h e was d e v e l o p m e n t of Heidegger's d e t a i n e d for f o u r years a l t h o u g h n o a g r e e m e n t c o u l d be early views o n the q u e s t i o n of r e a c h e d as to w h e t h e r or n o t h e was a h e r e t i c . h i s b o d y was f o u n d o u t s i d e its v i d e d h i m w i t h a secretary. the C h u r c h was n o t too p l e a s e d a n d Siger was J o h n t h e S c o t was b u r i e d a l i v e . m o d e r n p h i l o s o p h e r s s u c h as the l o g i c a l positivists. but abrasive a n d p o l e m i c a l . T h e r e is a h o r r i f y i n g story that N e e d l e s s to say. T h e great A m e r i c a n p h i l o s o p h e r C h a r l e s Sanders H i s p o l e m i c s against w h a t h e saw as t h e errors o f p r e v i o u s P e i r c e c a l l e d h i m " t h e p r o f o u n d e s t m e t a p h y s i c i a n that ever p h i l o s o p h e r s l i k e A q u i n a s a n d D u n s S c o t u s got h i m i n t o l i v e d " a n d H e i d e g g e r w r o t e h i s d o c t o r a l thesis o n J o h n the t r o u b l e a n d h e was c h a r g e d w i t h h e r e s y b y J o h n L u t t e r e l l . s o n i n g or r e q u i r e d b y faith. O c k h a m t r a v e l l e d to A v i g n o n w h i c h was i m p o r t a n t for the i n 1324. D i s p u t a t i v e . A p p a r e n t l y . F e a r i n g t h e worst. f o l l o w e r s o f J o h n the Scot ciple of parsimony.lOO 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS ST. H e was k n o w n as Doctor Subtilis (Subtle dence a n d l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s as a w a y o f c u t t i n g t h r o u g h D o c t o r ) a n d the u n d o u b t e d d i f f i c u l t y o f h i s w o r k has l e d to n o n s e n s e . O c k h a m f a m o u s l y writes. tracts against t h e p a p a l p r e t e n t i o n s to p o l i t i c a l p o w e r . where n o t h i n g s h o u l d be assumed as w e r e k n o w n as " D u n s m e n . w i t h a p r e d i l e c t i o n for e m p i r i c a l e v i - e v e n that is n o t c e r t a i n . f o r m e r C h a n c e l l o r o f O x f o r d . "haecceity" as a way of Charged w i t h apostasy and excommunicated. a n d was b u r i e d . I n this v i e w .

F i c i n o ' s c o m m e n t a r i e s o n P l a t o w e r e hugely influential a n d . F i c i n o founded the P l a t o n i c A c a d e m y o f F l o r e n c e i n 1462. S i n c e p h i l o s o p h y is d e f i n e d by a l l m e n as love o f w i s d o m a n d w i s d o m is the c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f the d i v i n e ." O c k h a m was a v i c t i m o f t h e B l a c k D e a t h that ravaged the fourteenth century and brought about an intellectual and c u l t u r a l d e c l i n e that lasted for a c e n t u r y . Renaissance. 103 . H e c o m p l e t e d the first complete translation o f Plato's dialogues in Latin before m o v i n g o n to P l o t i n u s . F i c i n o writes i n a letter o n the P l a t o n i c f u n c t i o n of the philosopher. b u t d i v i n e l o v e .1 0 2 19° OR SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS issues. " T h e latter does n o t s i m p l y m e a n f r i e n d s h i p or n o n . ruler of F l o r e n c e . Reformation and Scientific Revolution M a r s i l i o Ficino (1433-99) Let's p i c k u p the t h r e a d o f o u r story i n the w a r m g l o w o f the I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e i n F l o r e n c e . t h e n cer- t a i n l y the p u r p o s e o f p h i l o s o p h y is k n o w l e d g e o f the divine.p h y s i c a l l o v e . T h a n k s to the p a t r o n a g e o f C o s i m o de' M e d i c i . a n d this i d e a was at the c e n t r e o f F i c i n o ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f P l a t o n i s m (he e v e n w r o t e a n a s t r o l o g i c a l c h a r t d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e stars at t h e t i m e o f Plato's b i r t h ) . "lest h e s h o u l d t u r n t h e l a w o f t h e G o s p e l s i n t o a l a w o f slavery. i n his celebrated interpretation of Plato's Symposium. h e c o i n e d the c o n c e p t o f " P l a t o n i c l o v e .

ic>4 190 O R SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS COUNT GIOVANNI PICO DELLA MIRANDOLA 105

F o r F i c i n o this is also the reason w h y the p h i l o s o p h e r s h o u l d r u m o u r e d that, l i k e S i g e r o f B r a b a n t , h e h a d b e e n p o i s o n e d by

m e d i t a t e u p o n d e a t h , f o r it is t h r o u g h s u c h a m e d i t a t i o n his secretary. O n the day o f his d e a t h , C h a r l e s V I I I o f F r a n c e
t h a t " w e are r e s t o r e d to t h e l i k e n e s s o f G o d . " P h i l o s o p h y , e n t e r e d F l o r e n c e after the sorry c a p i t u l a t i o n o f the F l o r e n t i n e
t h e n , is n o t h i n g less t h a n a n i m i t a t i o n o f G o d a n d the Republic.
p h i l o s o p h e r is a " d e m i - g o d " o r i n t e r m e d i a r y b e t w e e n the
h u m a n a n d the d i v i n e . It is h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g , o n this strato-
Niccolö M a c h i a v e l l i
s p h e r i c a l l y m e t a p h y s i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f P l a t o , t h a t the
(1469-1527)
c o r e o f F i c i n o ' s P l a t o n i s m is t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e i m m o r t a l -
ity o f t h e s o u l . L o o k e d at d i s i n t e r e s t e d l y , a n d f r o m a c e r t a i n M a r t i a n dis-

A s for F i c i n o h i m s e l f , h e was s l i g h t l y less t h a n d i v i n e i n tance, what generalizations might one make about h u m a n

p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e . A c c o r d i n g to G i o v a n n i C o r s i ' s Life of b e i n g s ? A s o n e m i g h t e x p e c t , i n g i v i n g a d v i c e to his i m a g i n e d
Marsilio Ficino f r o m 1506, h e was very s h o r t , s l e n d e r , s l i g h t l y p r i n c e , M a c h i a v e l l i doesn't exactly m i n c e his words:
h u n c h e d a n d stuttered. H e h a d persistent s t o m a c h prob-
l e m s , was c h e e r f u l i n c o m p a n y a n d l i k e d to d r i n k , b u t was T h e y are ungrateful, f i c k l e , liars a n d deceivers, they s h u n
g i v e n to s o l i t u d e a n d m e l a n c h o l y . A s to t h e c a u s e o f his danger a n d are greedy for profit.
d e a t h , C o r s i c l a i m s that it was p o s s i b l y h i s l i f e l o n g s t o m a c h
c o m p l a i n t , o r p o s s i b l y just o l d age. If a p r i n c e treats p e o p l e w e l l , t h e n t h e p e o p l e are h i s a n d
t h e y w i l l p r o c l a i m t h a t t h e y w i l l risk t h e i r l i v e s for h i m . B u t
t h i s o n l y lasts for as l o n g as d a n g e r is r e m o t e . W h e n the
C o u n t Giovanni Pico dell a M i r a n d o l a
p r i n c e h i m s e l f is i n d a n g e r , t h e p e o p l e w i l l t u r n against h i m .
(1463-94)
T h i s is w h y t h e p r i n c e has to use fear o f d e a t h as a m e a n s o f

T h i s b r i l l i a n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l m e t e o r o f the I t a l i a n Renaissance p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l . I f t h e p r i n c e e x p e c t s to g o v e r n b y b e i n g

l e d a short, e x t r a o r d i n a r y l i f e . P i c o was the m o s t f a m o u s stu- l o v e d , t h e n h e w i l l b e greatly d i s a p p o i n t e d . H u m a n b e i n g s —

d e n t o f F i c i n o , o n e i n w h o m c o u l d be seen "powers w h i c h were w r e t c h e d creatures that they a r e — w i l l always b r e a k the b o n d

a l m o s t d i v i n e , " a c c o r d i n g to C o r s i . H i s a p p r o a c h to p h i l o s o p h y of love w h e n it is to t h e i r a d v a n t a g e to d o so. W h a t is

was as m e t a p h y s i c a l as F i c i n o ' s , b u t m u c h m o r e syncretic, since r e q u i r e d , t h e n , is a fear o f d e a t h , " s t r e n g t h e n e d b y a d r e a d o f

he read H e b r e w , A r a b i c a n d A r a m a i c as w e l l as L a t i n a n d G r e e k . p u n i s h m e n t w h i c h is always

I n a d d i t i o n to P l a t o , A r i s t o t l e a n d the m e d i e v a l I s l a m i c a n d effective."

S c h o l a s t i c p h i l o s o p h e r s , P i c o d r e w o n the most diverse sources: If political control re-
H e r m e t i c , Zoroastrian, O r p h i c , Pythagorean a n d Cabbalistic. quires the fear of death,
H e b e l i e v e d that e a c h o f these positions possessed a g r a i n of t h e n the p r o b l e m that this
truth a n d assembled s o m e 9 0 0 theses that, w i t h a d e l i g h t f u l l y raises — a s is e v i d e n c e d in
n a i v e a r r o g a n c e , h e d e c i d e d to d e b a t e i n R o m e against a l l contemporary suicide b o m b -
c o m e r s . U n s u r p r i s i n g l y P o p e I n n o c e n t V I I I d e c i d e d that P i c o ers—is that such control
was guilty o f heresy. H e fled to F r a n c e , was arrested a n d o n l y sur- cannot be exercised over
v i v e d because o f the p r o t e c t i o n o f L o r e n z o d e ' M e d i c i . H e d i e d s o m e o n e w h o l a c k s a fear o f
i n suspicious c i r c u m s t a n c e s at the age o f t h i r t y - o n e a n d it was death. T h u s ,

lo6 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS DESIDERIUS ERASMUS lOJ

P r i n c e s c a n n o t escape death i f the attempt is m a d e by a Folly." B u t t h e e m p h a s i s h e r e s h o u l d b e p l a c e d o n the w o r d
fanatic, because a n y o n e w h o has n o fear o f death h i m s e l f " a l m o s t , " for i n p r a i s i n g f o l l y E r a s m u s defends the o n l y possi-
c a n succeed i n i n f l i c t i n g it. b i l i t y o f s a l v a t i o n that, for h i m , was a v a i l a b l e , w h a t P a u l c a l l s
i n Corinthians the " f o l l y o f the cross." L e s t it b e f o r g o t t e n , the
T h i s q u e s t i o n o f p u n i s h m e n t was n o t s i m p l y a t h e o r e t i c a l c e n t r a l p a r a d o x o f C h r i s t i a n i t y is that G o d b e c o m e s a f o o l i n
issue for M a c h i a v e l l i . I n 1513, h e was i m p r i s o n e d o n charges the p e r s o n o f C h r i s t a n d is c r u c i f i e d i n o r d e r to r e d e e m the
o f c o n s p i r a c y a n d t o r t u r e d . T h e r e are reports that h e was sub- folly o f h u m a n i t y a n d free us f r o m s i n a n d d e a t h . A s F o l l y says,
j e c t e d to t h e d e l i g h t s o f " s t r a p p a d o , " w h e r e t h e p r i s o n e r ' s " W h a t else c a n that be b u t m a d n e s s ? "
h a n d s are t i e d b e h i n d h i s b a c k a n d a t t a c h e d to a r o p e a n d
t h e n the prisoner's b o d y is h o i s t e d off the g r o u n d .
St. T h o m a s M o r e
There is a d o u b t l e s s f a l l a c i o u s story t h a t M a c h i a v e l l i
(H77-!535)
t h o u g h t that o n e s h o u l d fake one's d e a t h i n o r d e r to f o o l one's
e n e m i e s . T h e t r u t h i n h i s case is a l i t t l e less d r a m a t i c . M a c h i - In J o h n A u b r e y ' s (1626-97) w o n d e r f u l Brief Lives, h e tells the
a v e l l i d i e d a d i s a p p o i n t e d m a n , l e a v i n g h i s f a m i l y i n utter f o l l o w i n g story o f h o w M o r e n e a r l y b e c a m e n o m o r e . W h e n
poverty. I n h i s last years, h e was d e n i e d the g o v e r n m e n t a l post he was e l d e r l y a n d s e r v i n g as L o r d C h a n c e l l o r o f E n g l a n d , a
h e d e s i r e d b e c a u s e o f h i s past c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h the M e d i c i " T o m o f B e d l a m , " or l u n a t i c , b u r s t i n t o M o r e ' s h o u s e , threat-
dynasty, w h o h a d finally b e e n o u s t e d f r o m p o w e r i n F l o r e n c e . e n i n g to t h r o w h i m o u t o f t h e w i n d o w . A l t h o u g h p h y s i c a l l y
M a c h i a v e l l i has e n j o y e d a u n i q u e l y e v i l r e p u t a t i o n s i n c e m u c h w e a k e r t h a n the m a d m a n , the a u t h o r o f Utopia t h o u g h t
the t i m e o f h i s d e a t h , a n d S h a k e s p e a r e speaks i n Henry VI of q u i c k l y o n h i s feet a n d p o i n t e d towards a l i t t l e d o g that h e
the " m u r t h e r o u s M a c h e v i l . " I a m m o r e i n c l i n e d to Rousseau's o w n e d . M o r e suggested that t h e y first t h r o w d o w n t h e d o g , as
assessment o f M a c h i a v e l l i as " a n h o n e s t m a n a n d a g o o d citi- " T h i s is very fine sport." After defenestrating the p o o r creature,
z e n . " I n a letter w r i t t e n a c o u p l e o f m o n t h s before his d e a t h , M o r e t o l d the m a d m a n to r u n d o w n s t a i r s a n d repeat the jest.
M a c h i a v e l l i wrote a b o u t F l o r e n c e , " I love m y native city m o r e W h i l e the m a d m a n was d e s c e n d i n g , M o r e f o l l o w e d , fastened
t h a n m y o w n s o u l . " S a d l y , this d o e s n ' t p r e v e n t the c i t i z e n s o f the d o o r s h u t , a n d c a l l e d for h e l p . A u b r e y c o n c l u d e s that " m y
one's city f r o m b e i n g u n g r a t e f u l , f i c k l e , liars a n d deceivers. L o r d ever after k e p t the d o o r s h u t . "

T h e f u l l story o f h o w M o r e e n d e d u p b e h i n d shut doors i n
the T o w e r o f L o n d o n c a n n o t b e t o l d h e r e . A f t e r r e f u s i n g to
Desiderius E r a s m u s
bless H e n r y V I I I ' s m a r r i a g e to h i s s e c o n d w i f e , A n n e B o l e y n ,
(1469-1536)
because it w o u l d e n t a i l a r e p u d i a t i o n o f p a p a l a u t h o r i t y , M o r e
U n l i k e h i s close f r i e n d T h o m a s M o r e , E r a s m u s seems to have was s e n t e n c e d to a traitor's d e a t h . T h i s m e a n t b e i n g g r u e -
m e t a n u n e v e n t f u l e n d i n the t u r b u l e n t t i m e s o f t h e early somely hanged, drawn a n d quartered, although H e n r y V I I I in
R e f o r m a t i o n . T h e Moriae Encomium or Praise of Folly, a d e l i g h t - his i n f i n i t e m e r c y c o m m u t e d t h e s e n t e n c e to b e h e a d i n g .
f u l l y s t i n g i n g satire, is d e d i c a t e d to M o r e a n d its title is a p u n M o r e w r o t e a b e a u t i f u l d i a l o g u e i n the T o w e r c a l l e d " A D i a -
u p o n his n a m e . l o g u e o f C u m f o r t [sic] a g a i n s t T r i b u l a t i o n . " T h e dialogue
P e r s o n i f i e d as a w o m a n , F o l l y speaks a n d defends m a d n e s s ends w i t h a n e x t e n d e d m e d i t a t i o n o n the p r o s p e c t o f a p a i n f u l
against the p u r p o r t e d w i s d o m o f p h i l o s o p h e r s a n d theolo- death. M o r e h e r o i c a l l y a r g u e d i n h i s c o n c l u s i o n that a c o n s i d -
gians. T h i s got E r a s m u s i n t o e n o r m o u s t r o u b l e , a n d i n a letter e r a t i o n o f the p a i n f u l d e a t h o f C h r i s t is sufficient to m a k e us
to M a r t i n D o r p h e says that "I a l m o s t regret that I p u b l i s h e d c o n t e n t to suffer a p a i n f u l d e a t h for h i s sake. H e writes,

io8 190 OR SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS MARTIN LUTHER 109

R e m e m b r e that yf yt were possible for m e a n d y o u alone, T h u s death k i l l e d death, b u t this death w h i c h kills death is
to suffre as m y c h t r o w b l e as the w h o l e w o r l d d o t h to- life itself. B u t it is c a l l e d the death of death, by a n exuber-
gether / a l l that were not worthy o f yt selfe, to b r y n g vs to ant i n d i g n a t i o n o f the spirit against death.
the ioy w h i c h we hope to h a u e euerlastyngly / A n d therfor
I pray y o u let the c o n s i d e r a c i o n o f that Ioy, p u t a l l w o r l d l y L u t h e r ' s l a t e r years w e r e p l a y e d o u t i n a m i n o r key. T h e
trowble out o f y o u r h a r t . . . f i r e b r a n d m o n k d e n o u n c e d as a h e r e t i c for h i s i m p l a c a b l e
o p p o s i t i o n to the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h s h o w e d h i m s e l f a n i r a s c i -
W h e n o n t h e s c a f f o l d , M o r e s a i d to t h e l i e u t e n a n t , "See b l e , u n p l e a s a n t a n d r e a c t i o n a r y f i g u r e i n h i s final years. H i s
m e safe u p a n d for m y c o m i n g d o w n l e t m e shift for myself." views o n the Jews as " p o i s o n o u s e n v e n o m e d w o r m s " w h o s e
I n a d r a m a t i c a l t e r a t i o n to the u s u a l e x e c u t i o n r i t u a l , M o r e s y n a g o g u e s a n d s c h o o l s s h o u l d b e b u r n t are c l e a r l y i n c e n d i -
b l i n d f o l d e d h i m s e l f a n d c a l m l y a w a i t e d h i s d e a t h b l o w . After ary. T h e s a m e L u t h e r w h o m a d e t h e B i b l e a c c e s s i b l e to the
b e h e a d i n g , M o r e ' s b o d y was i n t e r r e d i n a c h u r c h i n C h e l s e a , c o m m o n p e o p l e t h r o u g h h i s G e r m a n t r a n s l a t i o n c a l l e d for
w h i l e h i s h e a d was s t u c k o n a p i k e o n L o n d o n B r i d g e . the n o b i l i t y to c r u s h t h e Peasants W a r i n 1524-5, a n u p r i s i n g
A u b r e y tells the c h i l l i n g story o f M o r e ' s d a u g h t e r w h o , w h i l e w h i c h was to s o m e e x t e n t i n s p i r e d b y h i s t e a c h i n g . H i s w i f e ,
crossing the bridge and seeing h e r father's h e a d , said, K a t y , o n c e s a i d to h i m , " D e a r h u s b a n d , y o u are too r u d e . "
" W o u l d to G o d it w o u l d f a l l i n m y l a p as I pass u n d e r . " H e r A l t h o u g h t h e r e was a r u m o u r , c i r c u l a t e d b y C a t h o l i c s ,
w i s h c a m e t r u e a n d h e r d e a d dad's h e a d f e l l i n t o h e r l a p — that h e h a d c o m m i t t e d s u i c i d e , L u t h e r d i e d o f a h e a r t c o n d i -
t h u d ! S h e p r e s e r v e d the h e a d i n spices b e f o r e it was interred t i o n , c o m p l i c a t e d b y k i d n e y stones. I n a letter f r o m h i s last
at St. D u n s t a n ' s C h u r c h i n C a n t e r b u r y . years, h e m o v i n g l y w r o t e ,
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I desire that there be given to m e a good little h o u r w h e n I
Martin Luther
c a n m o v e o n w a r d to G o d . I have h a d e n o u g h . I a m tired. I
(1483-1546)
have b e c o m e n o t h i n g . D o pray earnestly for m e so that the
I n s h a r p o p p o s i t i o n to the ra- L o r d m a y take m y soul i n peace.
tionalism o f m a n y o f the medi-
eval C h r i s t i a n p h i l o s o p h e r s we
Nicolaus C o p e r n i c u s
h a v e e n c o u n t e r e d , for L u t h e r
(1473-1543)
the t r u t h o f the G o s p e l is justi-
fied by faith a n d by faith alone. W i t h C o p e r n i c u s , w e b e g i n to enter
T h a t s a i d , L u t h e r ' s interpreta- the m o d e r n w o r l d a n d the effect is
t i o n o f the N e w T e s t a m e n t , for* n o t r e a s s u r i n g , it is b e w i l d e r i n g . T h e
example P a u l ' s L e t t e r to the Copernican revolution changed
Galatians—to which Luther t h i n k i n g i n two d i s t i n c t b u t r e l a t e d
confessed h i m s e l f " b e t r o t h e d " — ways:
is f u l l o f a u d a c i o u s reasoning.
F o r L u t h e r , as for P a u l , the d e a t h o f C h r i s t was the death of (i) In physics, the hitherto i m m o v -
death itself a n d the advent o f eternal life. D e l i g h t i n g i n paradox, a b l e a n d c e n t r a l e a r t h is s h o w n to b e i n movement
L u t h e r writes, a r o u n d the s u n . W i t h C o p e r n i c u s , b u t m o r e radically

H e p e r i s h e d as h e h i s f i n e b e a r d a n d t h e h e a d to w h i c h it was a t t a c h e d w e r e c u t p u b l i s h e d a n d p u b l i s h e d as h e p e r i s h e d . t h i s s e l f is n o t s o m e t r i u m p h a l a n d p h i l o s o p h e r d u r i n g the sixteenth a n d seventeenth centuries. i n the f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r y . 0 0 0 H u g u e n o t Protestants were p l a c e d i n h i s h a n d s . t h e n . off a n d t h r o w n i n t o t h e S e i n e .a s s u r e d i n d i v i d u a l . it was b e l i e v e d that T y c h o ' s nose was m a d e o f g o l d W e h a v e a l r e a d y m e t M o n t a i g n e i n this b o o k (p. H e h a d a n impres- a n d e m b a r k i n g o n a q u e s t for c e r t a i n t y . R a m u s was m u t i l a t e d a n d m a g n u m o p u s a n d i m m e d i a t e l y e x p i r e d .no 190 O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS TYCHO BRAHE 111 w i t h B r u n o a n d G a l i l e o . A p p a r e n t l y . N e w s o f the m a s s a c r e was w e l - c o m e d by m a n y C a t h o l i c s a n d Pope G r e g o r y XIII had a m e d a l s t r u c k to c o m m e m o r a t e t h e e v e n t . a n e w l y p u b l i s h e d c o p y o f h i s d e c i s i v e astro.n i n e years a n d I n e e d at least as t h e f e s t i v i t i e s . b u t is r a t h e r a q u e s t i o n m a r k a m o n g o t h e r a n d w h i t e w i n e . x v i ) .n o s e d f r i e n d d i e d i n a n d p o t e n t i a l l y m e a n i n g l e s s u n i v e r s e . T h e self a n d u p d a t i n g o f A r i s t o t l e . many more. h e r e g a i n e d c o n * slaughtered i n Paris a n d t h r o u g h o u t F r a n c e i n a frenzy of s c i o u s n e s s just l o n g e n o u g h to r e a l i z e that h e was h o l d i n g his k i l l i n g that lasted several m o n t h s . s o m e 7 0 . Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) M i c h e l E y q u e m de M o n t a i g n e A p p a r e n t l y . connivance of C a t h e r i n e de' Medici and the French n o m i c a l w o r k On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres was C a t h o l i c n o b i l i t y . b u t o f w h i c h M o n t a i g n e was t h e i n v e n t o r : T y c h o d i e d i n s t r a n g e c i r c u m s t a n c e s s o m e y e a r s after h e l e f t D e n m a r k for P r a g u e i n 1599. W i t h t h e f r o m a s t r o k e . A s P a s c a l w i l l write a g o n y s o m e days later. p r o v i d i n g evi. H i s a n d silver. o n c e a year. m e d i t a t i o n o n d e a t h is m a r k e d b y a h u n g e r for l i f e . " Petrus R a m u s or Pierre de l a R a m e e ( i i ) I n m e t a p h y s i c s . h i s b l a d . . o u r c o p p e r . t h e c l o s e d m e a n i n g f u l n e s s of nal b l e e d i n g because he overate a n d his digestive tract the m e d i e v a l w o r l d v i e w b e g i n s to o p e n u p to a n i n f i n i t e r u p t u r e d . in an intimate tone w i t h w h i c h we have l o n g b e c o m e familiar d e n c e o f e x p o s u r e to c o p p e r . s e l f . S o t h e l e g e n d goes. E i t h e r way. T h e s e l f is n o t sively b u s h y b l a c k beard w h i c h he washed d a i l y i n water g i v e n . A n o t h e r s t o r y says t h a t h e d i e d f r o m i n t e r . i t is r a t h e r s o m e t h i n g t h a t is M o s t f a m o u s for h i s w o r k o n l o g i c . I n i t i a l l y . R a m u s p u b l i s h e d o v e r fifty b o o k s . the great D a n i s h a s t r o n o m e r lost h i s n o s e i n a (!533-9 ) 2 d r u n k e n d u e l a n d w o r e a false o n e for t h e rest o f h i s life. I was b o r n b e t w e e n e l e v e n o ' c l o c k a n d n o o n o n the last d e r b u r s t d u r i n g a b a n q u e t b e c a u s e h e t h o u g h t it w o u l d day o f February. " T h e e t e r n a l s i l e n c e o f i n f i n i t e spaces fills m e w i t h d r e a d . o n l y b e c o m e s itself by t h r o w i n g everything into doubt m a n y o f w h i c h ran into several editions. 1533. H e writes the nasal o p e n i n g i n h i s s k u l l was t i n t e d g r e e n . It was o n l y just two weeks ago that I be t h e h e i g h t o f b a d m a n n e r s to r e l i e v e h i m s e l f d u r i n g passed the age o f t h i r t y . B a r t h o l o m e w ' s D a y T h e r e is a story that after C o p e r n i c u s lost c o n s c i o u s n e s s m a s s a c r e t h a t b e g a n at d a w n o n 24 A u g u s t 1572. R a m u s was m u r d e r e d d u r i n g t h e St. R a m u s was a h u g e l y i n f l u e n t i a l t o w a r d s t h e self. w h i c h was a d e f e n c e revealed t h r o u g h Pascal's f e e l i n g of dread. b u t a p p a r e n t l y w h e n h i s c o f f i n was o p e n e d i n 1901. Y e t . N a n c e l i u s reports that h e o n l y t o o k a b a t h question marks. t h e C o p e r n i c a n r e v o l u t i o n is a t u r n a w a y f r o m G o d as t h e s t i l l p o i n t i n a t u r n i n g w o r l d a n d A l t h o u g h l a r g e l y f o r g o t t e n .

fatally struck b y a tennis full gallop.112 1QO O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS MICHEL EYQUEM DE MONTAIGNE 113 S a d l y . H e d i e d after a n attack It felt as i f a l i g h t n i n g flash was s t r i k i n g m y s o u l w i t h a o f q u i n s y ( p e r i t o n s i l l a r abscesses) that c o m p l e t e l y d e p r i v e d s h u d d e r i n g b l o w a n d that I returned at that m o m e n t f r o m him of speech. In j u d g i n g the life of another. I always observe h o w it ended. " M o n t a i g n e " t o o k h i m s e l f for a d e a d m a n . M o n t a i g n e s e e m s to T h e g e n i u s o f M o n t a i g n e consists i n t h e w a y i n w h i c h h i s have died in d u m b silence. M o n t a i g n e h a d a n e a r - a b s o l u t e l y c r u c i a l to that j u d g e m e n t . "It is n o t i n M o n t a i g n e . W h a t h e . w i t h g r e a t In m y t i m e three o f the most execrable a n d most i n f a m o u s i m p e r s o n a l i t y . b u t i n h e s e e m s to h a v e shown no m y s e l f . " H e t h e n a l t h o u g h n o t at a l l i n t h e m a n n e r h e h a d h o p e d . f r o m m a n y d i f f e r e n t i l l n e s s e s i n h i s last years. M o n t a i g n e says h e has d e a t h e x p e r i e n c e a f e w years p r i o r to t h e w r i t i n g o f " T o P h i - k n o w n g o o d p e o p l e w h o have d i e d b a d l y a n d b a d p e o p l e w h o l o s o p h i z e Is to L e a r n H o w to D i e . o n e o f M o n t a i g n e ' s servants. h i g h l y p e r s o n a l style d o e s n o t at a l l a p p e a r s e l f . as i f m a n n e r o f w r i t i n g is as i m p o r t a n t as t h e m a t t e r . show- H e c o n c l u d e s by t h i n k i n g of his o w n demise: i n g n o m o r e signs o f m o v e m e n t or f e e l i n g t h a n a l o g o f wood. " h e w r i t e s . the a c c i d e n t o n l y gradually returned over t i m e . H o w e v e r . Elsewhere in the other w o r l d . a n d l i k e E p i - c u r u s was p l a g u e d b y k i d n e y stones. l e a g u e f r o m h i s h o m e . h i s Essais." S o p h o c l e s . T h e i m m i n e n c e o f to d i e w i t h o u t t h e p o w e r of d e a t h was f a c e d w i t h e q u a n i m i t y . W h e n he e v e n t u a l l y d i d r e c a l l the m e m o r y o f " t h e h o r s e b e a r i n g d o w n It s e e m s that M o n t a i g n e ' s w i s h to d i e q u i e t l y was g r a n t e d . leaving both horse a n d rider u n c o n - s c i o u s . I n h i s essay " O n P r a c t i s i n g . r i d i n g at ous b r o t h e r at the age o f twenty-three.i n d u l g e n t . a creature of words. that is to say quietly a n d insensibly. m y face a l l b r u i s e d a n d l a c e r a t e d . that I find a l l that I see i n h i m . insists that h e felt n o fear t h r o u g h o u t . P a s c a l is r i g h t w h e n h e says. However.c o m i c d e a t h o f his valor. I n stark contrast: o n w i t h M o n t a i g n e . " F o r M o n t a i g n e . E c h o i n g the w i s d o m of m o s t is fear. . M o n t a i g n e ' s w i s h was n o t g r a n t e d a n d h e d i e d six r e s p o n d i n g to a l i n e f r o m h i s essay o n fear. " T h e t h i n g I fear m o n t h s short o f h i s sixtieth b i r t h d a y . h e w r i t e s t h a t the m o s t h o r r i b l e d e a t h w o u l d be W h a t is f a s c i n a t i n g a b o u t t h i s i n c i d e n t is t h a t M o n t a i g n e to h a v e o n e ' s t o n g u e c u t o u t . speech. " this is r i g h t . " W h i l e o u t r i d i n g just a have d i e d w e l l . and m e ten or a d o z e n paces further o n . h e writes a short essay e n t i t l e d " T h a t O u r H a p p i . o n m e . d e a d . M o n t a i g n e ' s reflections o n death. w h i c h is a n a w f u l e n d for s u c h b u t r a t h e r s p e a k s to s o m e t h i n g s h a r e d i n o u r experience. H e speaks o f the t r a g i . H e suffered adds t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y t h o u g h t . c o l l i d e d head- b a l l just above his r i g h t ear. . a n d b e a r i n g d o w n like a colossus. c a n s e e m l i k e a p i e c e o f "stoic b r a v u r a . l y i n g o n m y b a c k . as i f it h a d h a p p e n e d to s o m e o n e else. " N o w . t h e d r e a d o f d e a t h at the e n d . i f i n t h e p r i m e o f l i f e . and one of m y p r i n c i p a l concerns about m y o w n e n d is that M o n t a i g n e s u f f e r e d severe a m n e s i a a n d t h e m e m o r y o f it shall go w e l l . t h e n the m a n n e r i n w h i c h o n e ends one's life is as T e r e n c e C a v e n o t e s . T r u e e n o u g h . persons I have k n o w n i n every a b o m i n a t i o n o f life have had deaths that were o r d e r e d a n d i n every c i r c u m s t a n c e S o there was the horse l y i n g stretched o u t u n c o n s c i o u s c o m p o s e d to perfection. written ness M u s t N o t B e J u d g e d U n t i l after O u r D e a t h .

B r u n o settled for a t i m e i n Paris. he A l t h o u g h M o n t a i g n e was a n a d m i r e r o f S e n e c a a n d the f a m o u s l y q u a r r e l l e d w i t h the O x o n i a n doctors. L o n d o n . its c e n t r a l d o c t r i n e is: ag a in s t i m m o r t a l i t y : " I m a g i n e h o n e s t l y h o w m u c h less bear- a b l e a n d m o r e p a i n f u l to m a n w o u l d b e a n e v e r l a s t i n g l i f e . m e m o r y c a n m e m o r i z e all i n a l l . f o r e t h o u g h t or regret. c o m b i n e d w i t h his f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h the fixed p o i n t at the c e n t r e o f the u n i v e r s e . the absolute knowledge and become d i v i n e .or h e r s e l f for d e a t h . O x f o r d t h i n g u t t e r l y m o d e r n : a n a t t e m p t to w r i t e i n s u c h a w a y that a n d v a r i o u s u n i v e r s i t y towns i n G e r m a n y . often at t h e i n i t i a - p l a t i v e life is t h e v e r y i m a g e o f d e a t h . its digres. So i n the intellect a l l is i n a l l . towards the e n d o f his life he d e c i d e d that Sceptics I n 1591. M o r e c l o s e l y c o n s i d e r e d . I t a l i a n t o w n s the P i a z z a G i o r d a n o B r u n o . l e d to m o v e m e n t o f the m i n d . B r u n o has also m o s t s u b l i m e h a p p i n e s s t h a t p h i l o s o p h y p r o m i s e s is t h e life always b e e n v i e w e d as t h e d i s s e n t i n g h e r o o f p o l i t i c a l r a d i c a l - o f c o n t e m p l a t i o n . T o s t u d y is "to d r a w o u r s o u l o u t o f u s " a n d "to of n a t u r e a n d t h r o u g h the t e c h n i q u e s o f m e m o r y c a n a c h i e v e k e e p it b u s y o u t s i d e the b o d y . "t o p e n e t r a t e i n t o t h e o p a q u e depths m u l t i p l e c h a r g e s o f heresy. " F r o m A r i s t o t l e o n w a r d s . D u r i n g a n e x t e n d e d c a p t u r e s a n d evokes t h e w a n d e r i n g s o f t h e m i n d . . F o l l o w i n g his e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n Italy a n d a n a c c u s a t i o n tle shades a n d s t i r r i n g s . as is If C o p e r n i c u s i g n i t e d a r e v o l u t i o n i n a s t r o n o m y a n d our p o w e r f u l l y d r a m a t i z e d i n B r e c h t ' s Life of Galileo. h e m a d e the fatal m o v e o f r e t u r n i n g to Italy. 1*4 1 9° O R S 0 DEAD PHILOSOPHERS GIORDANO BRUNO 1^5 d e v e l o p s is a n e x p e r i m e n t a l style t h a t is a b l e to m a p the h e r m e t i c t r a d i t i o n o f m a g i c a n d the arts o f m e m o r y . I k n o w o f n o o t h e r i m m o r t a l i t y . w h e r e h e b e f r i e n d e d s i o n s . to tease o u t a n d p i n d o w n so m a n y o f its sub. stands d i r e c t l y o p p o s i t e the of a c a l m that a c c o m p a n i e s existing i n the present w i t h o u t main Catholic church. p a r e h i m . retract his views. A n d P h i l o s o p h y is t h e w a y i n w h i c h a h u m a n b e i n g c a n pre. After b e i n g c o n d e m n e d to d e a t h for refusing to e d g e was u n a t t a i n a b l e a n d t h e y gave to M o n t a i g n e t h e ques. "Que sais-je?" ( W h a t d o I k n o w ? ) i n g it. " The he was t r i e d for h e r e s y b r i e f l y i n V e n i c e a n d for s e v e n l o n g a n c i e n t s c e p t i c s d e c l a r e d that c e r t a i n t y w i t h r e g a r d to k n o w l . t h e n it was B r u n o w h o his C o p e r n i c a n i s m u n d e r threat o f t o r t u r e b y the I n q u i s i t i o n . " P e r h a p s y o u r t i o n w i t h w h i c h h e is m o s t i d e n t i f i e d a n d w h i c h m a r k s o u t a fear i n passing j u d g e m e n t o n m e is greater t h a n m i n e j n receiv- t r u e p h i l o s o p h i c a l a t t i t u d e . H i s theories o f a n i n f i n i t e u n i v e r s e a n d a si muove" ( " S t i l l it m o v e s " ) : s t i l l t h e e a r t h m o v e s a n d is n o t a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f w o r l d s . he r e c a n t e d e n t i r e t h i n k i n g a b o u t the u n i v e r s e . F o r M o n t a i g n e . t h e bios theoretikos." H e was gagged a n d b u r n t alive o n the C a m p o de' F i o r i . a n d he adopts L u c r e t i u s ' a r g u m e n t m e m o r y . after his r e t r a c t i o n . Stoics. B r u n o was the m a g u s o f a h e r m e t i c t r a d i t i o n o f t h e arts o f e n c e of E p i c u r e a n i s m . its assertions a n d its h e s i t a t i o n s . I n F r a n c e s Yates's w o r d s . o f its recesses. t h e c o n t e m . t h e s t u d y nec- essary for p h i l o s o p h y is b o t h a n a p p r e n t i c e s h i p for d e a t h a n d T h e h u m a n b e i n g is the m i c r o c o s m o f the d i v i n e m a c r o c o s m its s e m b l a n c e . h e f a m o u s l y said to his judges. Sir P h i l i p S i d n e y a n d m i g h t even have m et Shakespeare. t h e s t i l l n e s s o f t h e soul's i s m a n d a n e n e m y o f the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . h e m u t t e r e d . years i n R o m e . " W h a t w e see i n M o n t a i g n e is some. M o n t a i g n e ' s a p p r o a c h to d e a t h also shows the s t r o n g i n f l u . " A l l is i n a l l i n nature. b u t . spread that fire a l l across E u r o p e a n d w h o was finally e n g u l f e d T h e r e is a l e g e n d that. w h e r e like P y r r h o "were the wisest party o f p h i l o s o p h y . o f m u r d e r . It is the achievement tive o f t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i s t party. I n m a n y s m a l l d i a l o g u e w i t h itself. a n d h i g h l y i n f l u e n t i a l stay i n E n g l a n d . Galileo Galilei Giordano B r u n o (1564-1642) (1548-1600) H e was t h r e a t e n e d w i t h t h e s a m e fate as B r u n o . "Pero b y the c o n f l a g r a t i o n .

" a n d . His Francis Bacon G a n i m e d s a n d Favourites took bribes. B y con. " T h i s is w h a t w e m i g h t c a l l " d e a t h b y e m p i r i c i s m . B a c o n t h e n stuffed t h e h e n w i t h s n o w a n d was t i n u a l l y o p e n to o u r g a z e . fine." A l t h o u g h the t r u t h o f (1561-1626) B a c o n ' s s e x u a l p r e d i l e c t i o n s c a n n o t b e e s t a b l i s h e d . H e was d i s m i s s e d f r o m n o progress s i n c e t h e a n c i e n t G r e e k s . disgraced. It was i n captivity that he T r u e to h i s w o r d . l i f e u n d e r h o u s e arrest u n t i l his b l i n d n e s s p u t a n e n d to his B a c o n was p u t to b e d at t h e E a r l o f A r u n d e l ' s h o u s e i n H i g h - experiments with telescopes a n d he died of something gate. w h e r e h e insists that h e h e a r d it f r o m no lived a n d d i e d u n d e r the protection of C a r d i n a l R i c h e l i e u . B a c o n p r o p o s e d a Novum Organum (1620) or n e w i n . it was as a wrote h i s m o s t f a m o u s w o r k . his lofty post o f s o l i c i t o r g e n e r a l . w o r k i n g views a n d c o n f i n e d to a c o n v e n t . C a m p a n e l l a was o n c e more t h e story to J o h n A u b r e y . a n d g i v e n a h u g e m e n t . l i v e d t h e r e . during a particularly cold winter in London with snow on the g r o u n d . "Philosophy of H i g h g a t e H i l l a n d b o u g h t a h e n f r o m a p o o r w o m a n w h o is w r i t t e n i n this g r a n d b o o k . After b e i n g d e n o u n c e d to the I n q u i s i t i o n for h i s h e t e r o d o x trast. the f i e l d o f " n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y " h a d made f o u n d g u i l t y o f a c c e p t i n g bribes i n 1621. c o n d u c t i n g e x p e r i m e n t s a n d amassing seven years i n p r i s o n for f o m e n t i n g r e b e l l i o n i n C a l a b r i a i n d a t a that c a n g u a r a n t e e k n o w l e d g e a n d p o w e r o v e r nature. a c o m m u n i s t i c consequence of conducting Utopia i n the f o r m o f d i a l o g u e . " H e s p e n t t h e last e i g h t years of his i m m e d i a t e l y t a k e n i l l w i t h a c h i l l . less a n a u t h o r i t y t h a n T h o m a s Hobbes. a c c o r d i n g to H o b b e s . The City of the Sun. s o u t h e r n Italy against S p a n i s h r u l e . Republic. strongly i n f l u e n c e d b y Plato's s u c h a n e x p e r i m e n t t h a t Ba. i n h i s 1623 text TheAssayerhe writes. I n h i s v i e w . p o w e r . h e was I n B a c o n ' s v i e w . T h e p r o b l e m is that these cob- w e b s f a i l to t o u c h r e a l i t y a n d are easily b l o w n away. It has b e c o m e a b a n a l i t y to say that " k n o w l e d g e is dose o f n i t r e o r o p i u m . " b u t w e o w e this i d e a to B a c o n . the b e d was so d a m p that h i s c o n d i t i o n w o r s e n e d d e s c r i b e d as a " s l o w fever. s t r u m e n t o r t o o l that w o u l d supersede the organon o f Aristotle T h e r e is a less c o l o u r f u l story t h a t B a c o n h a d d e p e n d e d a n d a l l o w h u m a n b e i n g s to r e g a i n t h e i r m a s t e r y over the nat. t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s p e c u l a t i v e p h i l o s o p h e r s were Tommaso Campanella l i k e spiders s p i n n i n g w e b s o f f i n e a n d m a r v e l l o u s c o m p l e x i t y (1568-1639) f r o m o u t o f t h e i r o w n b o d i e s . o n opiates d u r i n g h i s e n t i r e a d u l t life a n d d i e d f r o m a n over- u r a l w o r l d . con met his end. S a d l y . B a c o n was t r a v e l l i n g w i t h a S c o t t i s h p h y s i c i a n and . We owe A f t e r five years o f f r e e d o m . " A u b r e y also c l a i m s t h a t B a c o n "was a paiderastos. " i n 2 o r 3 days. h e d y e d o f Suffo- c a t i o n . U n a b l e to r e t u r n h o m e . who t h r e a t e n e d w i t h i m p r i s o n m e n t a n d f l e d to F r a n c e . Apparently. N o t o n e for understate. t h e t r u e p h i l o s o p h e r s h o u l d b e l i k e a b e e . C a m p a n e l l a spent twenty- t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r s . n6 190 OR SO D E A D PHILOSOPHERS FRANCIS BACON 117 A l t h o u g h G a l i l e o is l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e rise of f e l l u p o n t h e i d e a t h a t f l e s h m i g h t as w e l l b e p r e s e r v e d i n e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n a n d t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f p h y s i c s from s n o w as i n salt. w h i c h stands con. t h e u n i v e r s e . T h e y b o t h got o u t o f t h e c a r r i a g e at t h e foot p h i l o s o p h y .

a n d h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h b o t h k i n g a n d p a r l i a m e n t h a d t h e i r dif- 119 . A l t h o u g h not a native of S w e d e n . b r u t i s h . I have a c c o m p l i s h e d n o t h i n g . Empiricists and Religious Dissenters H u g o Grotius o r H u i g d e Groot (1583-1645) T h e great D u t c h theorist o f just war. p o o r . H o b b e s f a m o u s l y d e s c r i b e s l i f e i n t h e state o f n a t u r e a s "solitary. he h a d b e e n a p p o i n t e d S w e d i s h a m b a s s a d o r t o F r a n c e i n 1634. G r o t i u s was r e c a l l e d t o S t o c k h o l m b y Q u e e n C h r i s t i n a a n d released f r o m his post." A l t h o u g h H o b b e s ' s l i f e was n o t w i t h o u t d r a m a — h i s m o t h e r w e n t i n t o labour w i t h h i m because o f fright about the Spanish A r m a d a . After s o m e p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e a n d b a c k s t a b b i n g . O n h i s r e t u r n sea voyage t o L ü b e c k i n G e r m a n y . w h o s e views o n i n t e r n a - tional law h a d a p r o f o u n d i n f l u e n c e on subsequent juris- prudence and politics. Rationalists (Material and Immaterial). h e was s h i p w r e c k e d a n d w a s h e d u p o n the shore. " Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) I n Leviathan. met a suitably international end. nasty. H e was t a k e n b y o p e n cart t o R o s t o c k where he died of his injuries. H i s final words were " B y under- standing m a n y things. a n d short.

H i s o v e r o n e d e a t h . H o b b e s even p l a y e d t e n n i s several t i m e s a year. Think not the man a fool though he be old tions of p o p u l a r . w o m e n " a n d s t o p p e d d r i n k i n g a t t h e age o f sixty. w h i l e i n exile i n . H o b b e s leaves 1 0 p o u n d s t o a n o t h e r w i s e u n m e n - " i t d i d h i s l u n g s g o o d . " o r stone. late at n i g h t w h e n To tell you who she is were very bold. " H o b b e s f e l l i l l w i t h " t h e s t r a n g u r y . T h i s was n o t h i n g I f H o b b e s ' s l i f e was n o t nasty. nor anything will do w o u l d r e t u r n t o his h o u s e . a fairer mind. H o b b e s And yet not proud. t h e n n e i - short o f m i r a c u l o u s i n the tur. And many winters made me even so cold f u l l y m o n i t o r e d his diet. H e care. s u c h as " P h y l l i s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t h e h a d a n u n n a m e d bulence of E n g l a n d in the y o u n g e r f e m a l e c o m p a n i o n w h e n h e was i n h i s n i n e t i e s w i t h seventeenth century. b r u t i s h a n d s h o r t . f a m i l y a n d n e i g h b o u r s a t h i s f u n e r a l w e r e very h a n d s o m e l y still writing and publishing e n t e r t a i n e d w i t h " w i n e . b u r n e d a n d raw. m o n e y t o r u b h i m . life. W a s this h i s love? W e s h a l l n e v e r k n o w ." a c u t e p a i n i n u r i n a t i n g . " a n d t h e n give t h e servant some To make me of her favour to despair. s e n t i m e n t a l songs. o t h e r w i s e w e s h o u l d h a v e too l i t t l e t i m e t o f a v o u r i t e was t h e f o l l o w i n g : " T h i s i s t h e t r u e p h i l o s o p h e r ' s m o u r n for o t h e r s . t h e r was i t s o l i t a r y . H o b b e s invited his friends to write O f d e a t h . H e i s r e p o r t e d t o h a v e said t o o n e o f his Rene Descartes d o c t o r s "that t h e n h e s h o u l d b e g l a d t o f i n d a h o l e t o creep (1596-1650) o u t o f t h e w o r l d at. I n stark contrast t o H o b b e s ." T h e s e were collec. h e was i n b e d a n d s u r e t h a t n o b o d y c o u l d h e a r h i m . the c o m p a n y of f i e d . e a t i n g lots o f f i s h . H e l i v e d t o b e past ninety. sometimes described as the smallest o f these e p i t h e t s s e e m s justi." Before his final illness. b i s c u i t . I am become almost all over stupid. The reasons for Hobbes's H o b b e s c o m p o s e d the f o l l o w i n g self-deprecating a n d t o u c h - l o n g e v i t y are d e s c r i b e d w i t h i n g verses: great w i t a n d t e n d e r n e s s b y his younger friend J o h n Aubrey. H o b b e s was b u r i e d a t t h e l o c a l p a r i s h c h u r c h o f A u l t shortly before his fifty-fourth birthday." e x t e n s i v e l y . c a k e . h e w r o t e t h a t " w e s h o u l d n o t m o u r n too l o n g possible epitaphs to be engraved on his tombstone." I t was n o t that H o b b e s h a d a g o o d v o i c e . to say the l e a s t — n o n e H u c k n a l l . s h o u l d w e d e l a y ? " a n d " G a t h e r y e r o s e b u d s w h i l e y e may. A c c o r d i n g to Aubrey. H o b b e s a v o i d e d excesses "as t o w i n e a n d To expect preferment in the court of Cupid. F i n a l l y . etc. i n g s . N o t l o n g b e f o r e h i s d e a t h . w h i c h was p r o b a b l y c a u s e d b y a n u l c e r a t e d b l a d d e r . " e s p e c i a l l y whit. b u t h e b e l i e v e d that I n h i s w i l l . " H o b b e s w a l k e d v i g o r o u s l y every d a y i n o r d e r t o work u p a sweat. As fair as can be and as wise as fair." H e d i e d after s u f f e r i n g a s t r o k e that 0 p a r a l y s e d the r i g h t side o f h i s body. for h e b e l i e v e d that i n this w a y h e w o u l d a c q u i r e Yet I can love and have a mistress too. h e But if I the character yourself you find w o u l d sing f r o m books of "prick-song. why Who loves in body fair. w h o m h e was very m u c h i n l o v e . D e r b y s h i r e . h e a t — f o r o l d m e n are c o l d — a n d e x p e l a n y excessive mois. 120 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS THOMAS HOBBES 121 A c u i t i e s . D e s c a r t e s d i e d r e l a t i v e l y y o u n g . Though I am now past ninety and too old E v e n i n h i s y o u t h . W h e n h e h a d got h i m s e l f i n t o a great sweat. village in E n g l a n d . a n d c o n d u c e d m u c h t o p r o l o n g his t i o n e d M a r y D e l l . " U n t i l a t least seventy-five. t u r e .

G e n e v i e v e i n P a r i s . lived well").122 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS RENE DESCARTES 123 S t o c k h o l m i n t h e c o l d e s t w i n t e r for sixty years. C h a n u t . D e s c a r t e s t h o u g h t s u c h u n r e a s o n a b l e fear i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . it took fully eleven winter. t h e i n i t i a l i n s c r i p t i o n o n D e s c a r t e s ' s grave. t h i s p a t t e r n s e e m s t o h a v e c o n t i n u e d after h i s b u r d e n of this body. W h e r e a s C h a n u t n i t i o n o f d e a t h b y s h i p w r e c k .G e r m a i n . "I do w o u l d not be a l l o w e d to enter heaven a n d w o u l d be n o t k n o w i f she [ C h r i s t i n a ] has ever l e a r n t a n y t h i n g a b o u t p h i . Y o u must suffer this rupture w i t h joy d e a t h a n d t h e story o f t h e w a n d e r i n g s o f D e s c a r t e s ' s c o r p s e a n d courage. first sending an n e v e r c a r r i e d o u t a n d after t w o m o r e t e m p o r a r y r e s i d e n c e s a d m i r a l t o i n v i t e h i m t o Swe. was "Bene qui latuit. e n t l y n o t an early riser. the F r e n c h ambassador. b o r d e r s o n t h e t r a g i . h e r e a d very s a i d . A s D e s c a r t e s was a C a t h o l i c a n d S w e d e n was P r o t e s t a n t . d e c i d e d t o m o v e h i s r e m a i n s t o t h e P a n t h e o n . D e s c a r t e s was n o t o r i o u s l y i t i n e r a n t . A c c o r d i n g to D e s m o n d S a d l y ." D e s c a r t e s h a d just t h i n g s t o t h e s o u l . p a r t i c u l a r l y remedies were nonsensical a n d h o p e d to recover naturally. i t was f r o m C h a n u t that D e s c a r t e s c a u g h t the v i r a l C l a r k e . i n t e r r e d a t the f o r m e r m o n a s t e r y o f S t . y o u have b e e n h e l d captive a l o n g t i m e . I n 1666 D e s c a r t e s ' s l o s o p h y . a s G r o t i u s h a d d i e d i n t h a t m a n n e r just five years e a r l i e r H i s fever c o n t i n u e d a n d w o r s e n e d o v e r a p e r i o d o f t e n days.P r e s i n ing a warship to f e t c h the 1819. S a d l y . W a s it the flattery I n t r i g u i n g l y . this m e a n t that the m o n a r c h p h i l o s o p h y . this seems to have b e e n a total the s o u l of w h i c h Descartes spoke so f u l s o m e l y above f a i l u r e . Because o f l e n g t h y delays in C o p e n h a g e n and t o take p l a c e a t f i v e o ' c l o c k i n the m o r n i n g i n the S t o c k h o l m n u m e r o u s interruptions elsewhere. i n t h e m a n n e r o f a Socrates o r a P l o t i n u s . T h i s i s t h a n thirty-eight addresses d u r i n g his l i f e t i m e . in Parisian cemeteries. death w i s h on Descartes's part. after a m e e t i n g w i t h t h e s a m e m o n a r c h . A f t e r i n i t i a l l y b e i n g I t i s u n c l e a r w h y Descartes p l a c e d i n t h e c h u r c h o f S a i n t e . Oddly the t i m e for y o u to leave the p r i s o n a n d to r e l i n q u i s h the e n o u g h . " M e n ' s t h o u g h t s freeze h e r e d u r i n g t h e It is true that the desire for r e c o g n i t i o n c a n do t e r r i b l e w i n t e r m o n t h s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e water. . B u t that was n o t a n e n d t o the matter. h e was b u r i e d i n a c e m e t e r y I t was C h a n u t w h o h a d e n c o u r a g e d Descartes t o a c c e p t the for u n b a p t i z e d o r p h a n s a n d v i c t i m s o f t h e p l a g u e . i t was accepted Christina's invita. Descartes's remains were finally d e n a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y send. little a n d wrote almost n o t h i n g . m o n t h s for i t t o a r r i v e i n P a r i s . bene visit" ( " H e m o n a r c h w h e n h e felt totally who h i d well. . l i v i n g a t n o f e w e r M y s o u l . O f c o u r s e . " T h e p e d a g o g i c a l s i t u a t i o n was c e r t a i n l y n o t h e l p e d b o d y was e x h u m e d a n d a l o n g r e t u r n j o u r n e y t o P a r i s b y the fact that C h r i s t i n a a r r a n g e d for h e r p h i l o s o p h y tutorials began. B u t i t m i g h t a l s o h a v e b e e n s o m e sort o f one friend i n S t o c k h o l m . Sadly.c o m i c . It is t r u e t h a t s h e was c a t h e d r a l o f the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . t h e great t i o n . t h i s was h a r d l y a n r e c o v e r e d after s o m e b l o o d . p h i l o s o p h e r .d e s .l e t t i n g . of being recognized by a w h i c h no l o n g e r exists. d o o m e d i n s t e a d t o w a n d e r i n l i m b o . D e s c a r t e s s e e m s t o B e f o r e D e s c a r t e s lost c o n s c i o u s n e s s . this d e c i s i o n was insistent. D e s c a r t e s u n r e c o g n i z e d in his native F r a n c e or his adopted H o l l a n d ? w r o t e t o a f r i e n d . A c c o r d - i n v i t a t i o n o f Q u e e n C h r i s t i n a o f S w e d e n t o c o m e a n d teach i n g to the C h r i s t i a n theology of the t i m e . he is r e p o r t e d to have h a v e b e e n e n t i r e l y u n s t i m u l a t e d b y S t o c k h o l m . D e s c a r t e s was appar. b e f o r e h e left for S t o c k h o l m D e s c a r t e s h a d a p r e m o - i n f e c t i o n that b r o u g h t a b o u t h i s d e m i s e . for after a c o u p l e of sessions Descartes confessed.

w h o s e u n c l e was C h a r l e s I o f i n a m a n n e r that p r e f i g u r e s m u c h s u b s e q u e n t c r i t i c i s m . s u c h as c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . " G a s s e n d i s m " was very i n f l u e n t i a l a n d the m a i n r i v a l s o r e l y a b s e n t f r o m the c o u r t l y to C a r t e s i a n i s m in the seventeenth c e n t u r y as an alternative to language of the seventeenth S c h o l a s t i c i s m . In 1643. Descartes s i o n s . I n d e e d . If the t h i n k i n g m i n d is c o m p l e t e l y o n r e a s o n . He argues that the p i n e a l Elizabeth of B o h e m i a . M o l i e r e was a s t u d e n t o f G a s s e n d i a n d was i n s p i r e d b y h i s In a d d i t i o n . A t E n g l a n d . i n a o n e p o i n t i n h e r d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h D e s c a r t e s a b o u t t h e pas- letter o f c o n s o l a t i o n t o E l i z a b e t h after the r e g i c i d e . m i g h t b e a b o u t n o t h i n g o u t s i d e o u r o w n f~J(H thought a n d extension—that o f m i n d s a n d have n o c o n t a c t w i t h reality. as Descartes c l a i m s . G a s s e n d i raises w h a t D e s c a r t e s c a l l e d century. w h e r e she d i e d . E l i z a b e t h was c l e a r l y u n d e r w h e l m e d b y R e n e ' s p i n e a l ber h i m s e l f w i t h a wife. the separation of the m i n d a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i r r i t a t i o n b y r e f u s i n g t o take the o b j e c t i o n seri- ously. t h e i r p r e s e n c e i n the history v e n t a n d b e c a m e c a n o n e s s a n d abbess a t H e r f o r d i n W e s t - o f p h i l o s o p h y tends t o f i n d e x p r e s s i o n n o t s o m u c h i n trea. Princess Palatine g l a n d ." " t h e d e a t h o n e awaits i n b e d " — a r e m a r k o f p e c u l i a r i r o n y S o m e have c l a i m e d that D e s c a r t e s a n d E l i z a b e t h w e r e i n c o n s i d e r i n g the facts o f Descartes's o w n d e m i s e . none more brilliant than Descartes's r a t i o n a l i s m a n d h i s m e c h a n i s t i c v i e w o f t h e b o d y the e x i l e d P r i n c e s s E l i z a b e t h . " ( T h i s i s a t e r r i b l e s l u r o n b o t h body. The Passions of the Soul. e v e n i f c l e a r a n d d i s t i n c t . r u d e l y b u t r i g h t l y b e h e a d e d i n 1649. o r par- separate from the extended rots. saying. a greenish-grey l u m p o f m a t t e r a b o u t t h e size o f a p e a (1618-80) a n d located at the centre of the b r a i n . D e s c a r t e s replies w i t h 1 « H_. "I appear to have the w r o n g body. p u b - l i s h e d shortly before his death. E l i z a b e t h never married a n d some a n d r o l e i n p u b l i c a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l life u n t i l m o r e r e c e n t l y years after D e s c a r t e s ' s d e a t h she r e m o v e d h e r s e l f t o a c o n - t h a n w e m i g h t care t o i m a g i n e . p h a l i a . she writes w i t h i r o n y a b o u t t h e weakness o f h e r sex a n d writes that a fast a n d g l o r i o u s b e h e a d i n g was p r e f e r a b l e to c o n c l u d e s . as w e l l as classics a n d t h e o l o g y . W i t h a r i g o r o u s e d u c a t i o n i n s c i e n c e (1592-1655) a n d m a t h e m a t i c s .124 19° O R S O DEAD PHILOSOPHERS ELIZABETH OF BOHEMIA. w h e n she was twenty-four. A p p a r e n t l y . " t h e o b j e c t i o n o f o b j e c t i o n s " against h i s p h i l o s o p h y : n a m e l y r T h e q u e s t i o n she raises i s that a l l k n o w l e d g e . tises as in o t h e r l i t e r a r y f o r m s . l o v e . h e r letters are m a r k e d by a r e f r e s h i n g c a n d o u r . a s D e s c a r t e s c e n t r a l to Descartes's d u a l i s m of always e m p h a s i z e d . Descartes's i n t e l l e c t u a l e q u a l a n d he treated h e r as such. t h e n m o n k e y s a n d parrots. she was W e b r i e f l y m e t G a s s e n d i a b o v e (see E p i c u r u s ) . E l i z a b e t h b e g a n a l o n g a n d d e t a i l e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h D e s c a r t e s that Pierre Gassendi lasted u n t i l h i s d e a t h ." Be that as it may. PRINCESS PALATINE 125 c a n be f o u n d in h i s f i n a l b o o k . A u b r e y writes that D e s c a r t e s was "too wise a m a n to e n c u m .) h o w d o m i n d a n d b o d y interact? Descartes's full response T h e core of Gassendi's p h i l o s o p h y is what he calls " m i t - . a n d n o l o n g e r m e n . I n d e e d . is the locus of the In w h a t is p o s s i b l y t h e m o s t s t u p i d e n t r y in h i s Brief Lives. he enjoyed g l a n d a n d h e r letters show h e r c o n t i n u a l l y c r i t i c i z i n g relationships w i t h m a n y w o m e n . it was c l e a r l y a very s t r o n g B e c a u s e o f the restrictions p l a c e d o n w o m e n ' s e d u c a t i o n a n d deep friendship. " t h e n we have to shut the d o o r body. m i n d ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the b o d y . W h a t e v e r t h e t r u t h m a y b e . a n d b e c o n t e n t t o b e m o n k e y s . if true. t e a c h e r to translate L u c r e t i u s ' On the Nature of the Universe i n t o w a r m t h a n d directness that was F r e n c h .

he confesses to h i s past p e c c a - d i l l o e s a n d ." H e d i e d after m a n y A brave. P a s c a l writes. b u t u n l u c k y soldier. " t o l e r a b l y well-set. I n h i s p o s t h u m o u s l y p u b l i s h e d Ernsees. death "is a d i t i o n o f h i s t i m e a n d ours. shot t h r o u g h the h e a d a t the battle o f F a u b o u r g S t . that of their fellows a n d wait their t u r n . that it is n o t h i n g to fear. " N o t h i n g proves m o r e h o w d r e a d f u l death i s apart b y t h e r i v a l c l a i m s o f s c i - t h a n the t r o u b l e that p h i l o s o p h e r s take t r y i n g to persuade us ence a n d religion. m e n t they go t h r o u g h in order to establish the i m m o r t a l i t y c i o u s task. " A l t h o u g h h e d i e d o f a l o n g i l l n e s s f r o m l u n g disease. i s the at the age of sixteen. " T h i s consists i n the rather i m p r o b a b l e N o t h i n g proves as w e l l that p h i l o s o p h e r s are not as c o n - attempt to r e c o n c i l e the a t o m i s m a n d m a t e r i a l i s m of E p i c u . for t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d . v e r y u n u s u a l l y for t h e t i m e . i t i s F o r L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s ' c o n t e m p t for p e r h a p s a n a p p r o p r i a t e i m m o r t a l i t y for a n a t o m i s t l i k e d e a t h is b u t a b a r e l y c o n c e a l e d d e s i r e for g l o r y a n d p o s t h u - G a s s e n d i that h i s n a m e was g i v e n t o a l a r g e c r a t e r o n the m o u s f a m e . La R o c h e f o u c a u l d counsels. in my view. we s h o u l d a b a n d o n the hypocrisy o f p h i l o s o p h e r s a n d " c o n t e n t ourselves i n o r d e r t o b e a r d e a t h Duke Francois d e L a Rochefoucauld w e l l . desire a l l things as if we were i m m o r t a l . H e w r i t e s . He writes. T h i s i s a n auda. who seen i n s o m a n y a n c i e n t p h i l o s o p h e r s that o n e c a n o r s h o u l d speaks so p o w e r f u l l y to t h e c o n - have c o n t e m p t for death. "I am of a m e d i u m d e m n e d to death. " By contrast. w h i c h . L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d was years o f c r i p p l i n g p a i n f r o m gout. " w i t h c u r l y black sight of others. O n the contrary. w h e r e h i s target i s the i d e a l T h e r e is no more divided genius of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l death." H e goes o n t o c o n . o n o n e o c c a s i o n . " He other sorrowfully a n d w i t h o u t hope. a n d w e moon. h e r o i c . It is an image of the was a l e a d i n g l i g h t i n t h e P a r i s s a l o n s o f t h e m i d . he in- great virtue o f c o m m o n p e o p l e .A n t o i n e i n 1652 a n d n e a r l y lost his sight. In h i s l i t e r a r y self-portrait. p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n G a s s e n d i argues l i k e a l i b e r t i n e of their names by the loss of their lives. n o t to m e n t i o n his l i f e . as the tor- rus w i t h t h e r e v e a l e d truths o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . D e a t h c a n o n l y be tolerated by either P a s c a l w r o t e h i s first. t o r n d r e a d f u l t h i n g . He was Blaise Pascal also n o t e d for g a l l a n t r y i n a n u m b e r o f n o t o r i o u s r o m a n t i c (1623-62) l i a i s o n s for w h i c h . that the h i g h e s t g o o d is " v o l u p t u o u s n e s s . v e n t e d t h e first c a l c u l a t i n g m a - . h u m a n condition. a n d those w h o r e m a i n see their o w n fate in h a i r a n d w h i t e t e e t h . b u t " o f a w i t s p o i l e d by m e l a n c h o l y .s e v e n . " L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d f a m o u s l y writes that " N e i t h e r the (1613-80) s u n n o r d e a t h c a n b e l o o k e d a t steadily. v i n c e d as they c l a i m that death is not an e v i l . . in m o d e r n thought than Pascal La R o c h e f o u c a u l d is resolutely against the idea that we have and none. for h i m . 126 1()0 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS DUKE FRANCOIS DE LA ROCHEFOUCAULD 127 igated s c e p t i c i s m .p r o p o r t i o n e d . " W e fear a l l t h i n g s a s m o r t a l s . g r o u n d - c u l t i v a t i n g one's i m m o r t a l i t y a n d p o s t h u m o u s f a m e o r being b r e a k i n g m a t h e m a t i c a l treatise s t u p i d . H e writes. elegant a n d w e l l . L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d was i m p r i s o n e d a t the B a s t i l l e b y C a r d i n a l R i c h e l i e u . where some are k i l l e d e a c h day in the height. l o o k i n g at e a c h fess that he is witty. d e s c r i b e s h i m s e l f i n Let us imagine a number of m e n in chains and all con- careful physical detail. t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n d h i s c y n i c a l Maxims c o n t a i n s o m e splen- d i d l y b a r b e d r e m a r k s o n d e a t h .

b l o o d clot i n the b r a i n . to be clear." If reason is left to itself. but h e c o u l d not h e l p allow. f o u n d sewn into his jacket w h i c h he c a r r i e d w i t h h i m at all times. a n d his p o s t h u m o u s g l o r y is e v i n c e d t a i g n e ." o n l y b e i n g that c a n be said to act is that b e i n g w h o possesses R e a s o n m u s t o p e n its ears t o t h e t r u e m a s t e r o f t h e h u m a n k n o w l e d g e of h o w the a c t i o n is done. t h e n P a s c a l t h i n k s i t leads t o endless a n d u n a n s w e r a b l e scep. w e d o n o t act. H e writes o f Descartes. i n the guise o f a s y l l o g i s m . G o d o f Isaac. Pascal is not an irrational. h e was a t t h e f o r e f r o n t o f e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d expressed p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y . h e saw a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e d e e p s p i r i t u a l crisis i t t i o n . 1654. i n a m a n n e r that spectacle. w e a k reason. t . condition: "Hear G o d . to a d m i t n o t h i n g b u t reason. Nevertheless. h u m a n beings. I am n o t h i n g m o r e than a spectator of the w o r l d . a text was G e u l i n c x writes.128 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS BLAISE PASCAL 129 c h i n e a c o u p l e of years later to h e l p h i s father w i t h his tax. the experience of faith cannot be c o l l e c t i n g j o b . t o p i c that p r e o c c u p i e d t h e great m i n d s o f t h e day. " N o t h i n g i s s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e a s o n a s this F o r G e u l i n c x . P a s c a l seeks t o d e f e n d a before his d e a t h he i n v e n t e d a large carriage w i t h m a n y seats C h r i s t i a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of death against the r a t i o n a l i s m of w h i c h w o u l d p r o v e t o b e t h e w o r l d ' s first b u s l i n e . T h e r e f o r e . a n d the s c e p t i c i s m o f M o n - passengers across Paris. and Simone Weil. T h e r e f o r e . w h o i n c i d e n t a l l y exerted some g i v e n b y r e a s o n . o n t h e other. a s the strangest t h e o r y o f c a u s a t i o n i n the history o f p h i l o s o p P a s c a l w r i t e s . l e d g e o f h o w i t i s d o n e . G o d i s t h e A n d Pascal d i d hear G o d o n the night o f 2 3 N o v e m b e r cause of the a c t i o n s w h o s e effects we see in the w o r l d . t h e f a m o u s " n i g h t of f i r e . T h e r e f o r e . " A f t e r h i s d e a t h . after that he h a d no m o r e use for G o d . s h o r t l y I n s p i r e d b y P a u l a n d A u g u s t i n e . After a l i f e t i m e o f i l l h e a l t h . are not i n possession o f s u c h k n r e a s o n . M o n t a i g n e ' s v i c e is n o t in t r u t h a v i r t u e . c a r r y i n g Descartes." B u t . h e says. h a d quite p o s s i b i a n d c a n n o t e s t a b l i s h its o w n first p r i n c i p l e s . G o d acts t h r o u g h us.n i n e after s u f f e r i n g f r o m i n t e s t i n a l g a n g r e n e a n d a w o u l d l i k e t o d o w i t h o u t G o d . O n t h e c o n t r a r y . T h a t b e i n g is G o d . P a s c a l d i e d a t the y o u n g age I c a n n o t forgive Descartes: in his w h o l e p h i l o s o p h y he of t h i r t y . " T h e r e f o r e . I n his v i e w . G o d alone c a n p r o d u c e this spectacle. for P a s c a l . not o f 2. the w o r l d itself c a n n o t p r o d u c e this p h i l o s o p h e r s a n d s c h o l a r s . B y c o n t r a s t . r e a s o n i s l i m i t e d i n f l u e n c e over the y o u n g S a m u e l B e c k e t t . l e d g e . o n the one h a n d . we c a n n o t t r u l y be said to act. N o w — a n d this i s the strange m o v e i n the a r g u m e n t — t h e t i c i s m . Iacl ist. T h e G o d o f the p h i l o s o p h e r s i s t h e o r e t i c a l w o r k o n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e v a c u u m w h i c h was a an i n t e l l e c t u a l m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the experience of faith. "to e x c l u d e adequate self-awareness. by the c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m i n g l a n g u a g e that bears his I n t e r e s t i n g l y . G o d o f J a c o b . P a s c a l w r i t e s that M o n t a i g n e professes " a name. cowardly a n d effeminate" c o n c e p t i o n of death based in A l t h o u g h P a s c a l was a p r o d i g i o u s e x p o n e n t o f t h e n e w p a g a n s o u r c e s a n d w i t h n o c o n c e r n for o u r p e r s o n a l salva- s c i e n c e . t h e r e are t w o excesses. " F i r e . It is the m e m o r i a l of his c o n v e r s i o n a n d it begins. f 1. I t i s a n o p e n q u e s t i o n p o s e d i n this b o o k a s t o w h e t h e r opens u p . Wittgenstein 3. " H u m b l e y o u r s e l f . anticipates philosophers s u c h as Kierkegaard. G o d o f A b r a h a m . i n g h i m a flick of the fingers to set the w o r l d in m o t i o n . n a m e l y that i t a d m i t s o f n o o t h e r l i m i t t o e x p l a n a t i o n t h a n those T h e F l e m i s h m e t a p h y s i c i a n . a n a c t i o n c a n n o t b e d o n e unless o n e has k r d e n i a l of reason. A r n o l d Geulincx (1624-69) T h e p r o b l e m w i t h C a r t e s i a n r a t i o n a l i s m i s its h u b r i s . " I m p o r t a n t l y .

B y t u r n i n g itself always credited his mature towards G o d . Although Locke one's o w n e x i s t e n c e does n o t e n d i n d e a t h . " the a m b i t i o n o f the p h i l o s o p h e r s h o u l d Ancient and Modern Philosophy. " m y h u m a n c o n d i t i o n not t o m y nature. A t t h e b e g i n n i n g the entirely m e c h a n i s t i c theory of nature advanced by of his m a j o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l w o r k . t h e m i n d t u r n s itself towards that w h i c h grants interest in p h i l o s o p h y to his it e t e r n a l l i f e . After converting to Q u a k e r i s m . i f I k i l l a g r i z z l y b e a r w i t h a n A K . what is that to m e . for D e s c a r t e s . this raises a d e l i c a t e issue i n the case o f m u r d e r . she argues against m a t e r i a l i s m be that of . Viscountess Conway N o w h e r e i s this c l e a r e r t h a n i n (1631-79) Locke's conception of philoso- U n t i l r e c e n t l y . F o r C o n w a y . for i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c u s s i o n a n d d e v e l o p e d a c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p G e u l i n c x ' s v i e w o f c a u s a t i o n a l s o has a s t r a n g e c o n s e . H e m a y decide t o For many. " m o n a d . suffering from unbearable headaches. H e n r y M o r e . taken f r o m his reading of C o n w a y . t h e y m e r e l y want t o k i l l . since I owe consists o f two w o r d s : " Q u a k e r L a d y . W h e r e a s . i t i s G o d that k i l l s the bear a n d n o t I (it i s p r o b . E x c l u d e d f r o m t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s b e c a u s e o f h e r sex. Anne Conway. T h e r e f o r e . h i s ideas are l a r g e l y d e v e l o p e d i n o p - p o s i t i o n to the F r e n c h m a n ' s .4 7 gas-operated ter. t h e n . b u t i n the power o f G o d ' s w i l l . H e r views exerted a the c o m p a n y of bears). W h a t i s c e r t a i n for G e u l i n c x i s that influential. VISCOUNTESS CONWAY J 3* O f c o u r s e . A n n e C o n w a y was a c o m p l e t e l y n e g l e c t e d p h y itself. w i t h the f o r e m o s t o f t h e C a m b r i d g e P l a t o n i s t s . An Essay Concerning Human Descartes a n d Hobbes? Understanding (1690). but t o the w i l l o f another? John Locke (1632-1704) G o d has a " s e c r e t g o v e r n m e n t " o v e r m e a n d d e a t h i s n o t i n m y power. . J o h n L o c k e is the j o i n me to another body. into a centre cases are i g n o r a n t o f G e u l i n c x ) .io 3 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS ANNE CONWAY. F o r a n d i n d e e d against a n y d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n m i n d a n d m a t - e x a m p l e . r e a d i n g o f D e s c a r t e s . p e r c e i v i n g entity out of w h i c h he k i l l . " T h e s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f b e l i e v e d t h e c o s m o s t o b e c o m p o s e d . L o c k e is m u c h m o r e modest a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y : w h a t are the r e l i g i o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s o f c i r c u m s p e c t a b o u t the s c o p e o f p h i l o s o p h y . q u e n c e for h o w w e c o n c e i v e o f d e a t h . o r — a n d greatest E n g l i s h p h i l o s o p h e r this w o u l d b e the i d e a l for G e u l i n c x — r e l e a s e m e f r o m b o d i l y a n d w i t h o u t d o u b t the most e x i s t e n c e a l t o g e t h e r . H e r epitaph If death s h o u l d befall m e . transform me into a bear. s h e ably a g o o d t h i n g that most defence lawyers in h o m i c i d e made her h o m e at Ragley H a l l . H e w r i t e s . a n d h i s use o f t h e t e r m G e u l i n c x writes. " M e n d o not. W a r w i c k s h i r e . N e w t o n . p h i l o s o p h y i s t h e q u e e n o f figure i n the history o f p h i l o s o p h y . " as the s i m p l e . S h e was d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n the sciences that c a n give us the key to i n d u b i t a b l e k n o w l e d g e o n e o f t h e m a j o r p r e o c c u p a t i o n s o f p h i l o s o p h e r s i n the later in physics a n d metaphysics. properly speaking. h e writes that i n the w a k e o f " t h e i n c o m - In h e r p o s t h u m o u s l y p u b l i s h e d The Principles of the Most parable M r . C o n w a y died relatively y o u n g . the u n i v e r s e consists o f o n e s u b s t a n c e : spir- assault rifle (not that I possess s u c h a w e a p o n or often frequent i t u a l i z e d m a t t e r w h o s e s o u r c e i s d i v i n e . t h e n is it t r u l y I that k i l l s the bear? d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o n L e i b n i z . was v e r y p r o b a b l y the act o f k i l l i n g d e p e n d s o n the w i l l o f G o d .

S h e sat i n v i g i l w i t h L o c k e t h r o u g h o u t h i s last days n o t . . H i s argu. f l e d t o H o l l a n d i n 1683 a n d l i v e d for six years u n d e r t h e p s e u - ing?" H e goes o n . c o n t e n t e d w i t h his t e e n t h . no further. L o c k e was n o t m u c h a n i m a t e d b y the p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n o f d e a t h . c l a i m i s that h u m a n k n o w l e d g e consists i n n o t h i n g b u t what H e d i e d i n the p r e s e n c e o f L a d y M a s h a m .c e n t u r y E n g l a n d a n d a l t h o u g h h i s Two Treatises o f modest lot [. the resi- D o n ' t h u r r y y o u r s e l f — I t is a history b o o k . y o u w i l l cut n o c o n . for his prevented h i m from riding. H e i s b u r i e d i n a very s i m p l e b u t a c c e p t that q u e s t i o n s l i k e G o d a n d t h e s o u l are n o t capable d i g n i f i e d grave i n the c h u r c h y a r d o f H i g h L a v e r i n Essex. van der L i n d e r . w h o f i n a l l y s u c c e e d e d t o the t h r o n e i n c l e a r i n g away r u b b i s h a n d t i d y i n g u p . Essay w h e r e he c l a i m s that t h e i d e a that t h e d e a d w i l l rise is n o t a m a t t e r o f k n o w l e d g e b u t a q u e s t i o n o f f a i t h . It was d u r i n g o n e of these rides that he dis- t e m p t i b l e figure in a metaphysick c i r c l e . S i r of what d e n c e o f S i r F r a n c i s M a s h a m . a s D e s c a r t e s t h o u g h t . Government was o n l y p u b l i s h e d a n o n y m o u s l y i n 1 6 9 0 . w h i c h h e t h o u g h t was r e s p o n s i - b l e for t h e a c u t e p a i n h e felt i n h i s legs. " I w i l l tell y o u i n three words w h a t the b o o k d o n y m o f " D r . L o c k e l i v e d a m i d s t the p o l i t i c a l t u r b u l e n c e o f late seven.]. After r e m i n d i n g D a m a r i s C u d w o r t h about his s y n c r a t i c history. . b u t is m o r e of a janitor in the p a l a c e of the sciences. ties does n o t r e q u i r e p r o o f . and remov. " D i d y o u ever a n d t r i e d for t r e a s o n for h i s o p p o s i t i o n t o J a m e s I I . In Tristram Shandy. believe m e . h e said t o h e r . H i s virtues. the L o c k e d i d n o t w r i t e i n o r d e r t o justify a r e v o l u t i o n that h a d p h i l o s o p h e r is no l o n g e r a P l a t o n i c k i n g or a C a r t e s i a n master t a k e n p l a c e . D a m a r i s C u d - passes in a m a n ' s m i n d . A s h l e y C o o p e r . r e c e n t s c h o l a r - s h i p has s h o w n that i t was w r i t t e n m u c h e a r l i e r . a n d n o m o r e . At three o'clock the f o l l o w i n g afternoon. t w o i n g some of the rubbish that lies in the way of knowledge. b u t have t h e i r s o u r c e i n a n d n i g h t s a n d gave h i m w h a t e v e r f o o d a n d l i q u i d h e c o u l d either sensation o r r e f l e c t i o n . N e a r this p l a c e lies J o h n L o c k e . " is. I have l i v e d l o n g e n o u g h a n d I thank G o d I have enjoyed sage o n t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e i m m o r t a l i t y o f t h e s o u l i n the a happy life. years after t h e G l o r i o u s R e v o l u t i o n o f 1688. T h e r e i s a r e v e a l i n g pas. — A history! of w h o ? what? where? w h e n ? retired to the Essex countryside to live at Oates. h e l i f t e d his h a n d s t o h i s face. horse every day. i n s t r u c t i o n s for the d i s p o s a l o f h i s b o d y . w h a t he calls "ideas. w h o was a r r e s t e d r e n c e S t e r n e . tolerate. c o v e r e d a l u m p o n h i s b a c k . b u t t o b r i n g a b o u t a n i n s u r r e c t i o n against t h e of n a t u r e . H e o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r o o f a n d f u r t h e r m o r e b e l i e f i n s u c h enti- wrote h i s o w n e p i t a p h . E x h a u s t e d b y this w o r k a n d suffering f r o m a s t h m a . were too slight . S t e r n e asks. L o c k e r e a d s u c h a b o o k as L o c k e ' s Essay upon the Human Understand. i n e a c h i n d i v i d u a l ' s idio. S t e r n e b e i n g S t e r n e gives the a n s w e r i n four L o c k e ' s f o r t u n e s w e r e restored after t h e G l o r i o u s R e v o l u - words: t i o n a n d h e was a p p o i n t e d c o m m i s s i o n e r for trade i n 1696. C a t h o l i c James II. T h e r e f o r e . w h i c h d e c l a r e s . 1685. that is. a n d if y o u w i l l say so m u c h of joy a b o u t h i s f r e e d o m f r o m w o r k a n d b e i n g a b l e t o r i d e h i s the book. . l i k e y o u n g T r i s t r a m .13 2 19° O R s o DEAD PHILOSOPHERS JOHN LOCKE 133 an under-labourer in clearing the g r o u n d a little. but after a l l this life is n o t h i n g but vanity. . L o c k e It is a h i s t o r y . L o c k e ' s letters express e v i d e n t passes in a man's o w n m i n d . I n d e e d . w h i l e D a m a r i s m e n t is that k n o w l e d g e o n l y extends as far as one's ideas a n d was r e a d i n g f r o m t h e P s a l m s . if he h a d any." O f c o u r s e . F o r L o c k e a n d the e m p i r i c i s t t r a d i t i o n that h e i n s p i r e s . w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y T h i s is a p e c u l i a r l y apt d e s c r i p t i o n of L o c k e ' s Essay. " T h e modesty of p h i l o s o p h y " requires us to c l o s e d h i s eyes a n d d i e d ." T h e s e ideas are w o r t h . i n n a t e . b e c a u s e o f h i s close f r i e n d s h i p w i t h A n t h o n y M y favourite d e s c r i p t i o n o f L o c k e ' s Essay i s g i v e n b y L a u . U n l i k e S t e r n e . t h e E a r l o f S h a f t e s b u r y .

If we e m p l o y what S p i n o z a F r o m s o m e o f the letters. Damaris Cudworth. LADY MASHAM J 35 to serve either to his o w n credit or as an example to y o u . B e that what is described in the final as it m a y . L o c k e a d m i r e d D a m a r i s C u d w o r t h e n o r m o u s l y a n d h e writes e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y t o oth. Lady M a s h a m T h e y o u n g e r F r a n c i s M a s h a m d i e d a t t h e age o f forty-five (1659-1708) a n d i s b u r i e d i n M a t c h i n g . o f a v i s i o n o f C h r i s t i a n .2 34 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS DAMARIS CUDWORTH. D a m a r i s d i e d i n 1708 a n d S h e was t h e d a u g h t e r o f t h e l e a d i n g C a m b r i d g e P l a t o n i s t was b u r i e d i n B a t h A b b e y . To be free is to desire the g o o d a n y f o r m o f p a t r i a r c h y a n d i n favour. T h i s i s w h y the free h u m a n G i v e n the intensity of the affection b e t w e e n t h e m . I t also appears that L o c k e the m i n d . a n d was e d u c a t e d b y h e r father. o n e o f the L o c k e . h a r m f u l to us the greater the tion. a n d a l t h o u g h w o m e n were d e n i e d access t o u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . in Occasional Thoughts in free h u m a n b e i n g i s o n e w h o lives a c c o r d i n g t o reason a l o n e Reference to a Virtuous or Christian Life (1705). a n d l e t i n w a t e r . directly a n d to act a n d l i v e in s u c h a way as to persist in this ity b a s e d o n c o m p l e t e e q u a l i t y o f t h e sexes. i t seems that she d o u b t e d L o c k e ' s sees a s t h e n a t i v e w i s d o m o f c a p a c i t y for l o v e a n d d e e p f e e l i n g . R a l p h C u d w o r t h . S p i n o z a argues that a f e m i n i s t s t a n d p o i n t . S h e w e n t o n t o p u b l i s h two d o m is a m e d i t a t i o n on life. In 1693. " P e r h a p s i t i s a g o o d t h i n g that L o c k e d i d not have a n y p r o g e n y h i m s e l f . b o o k s i n later l i f e . L o c k e t o o k up p e r m a n e n t r e s i d e n c e at pages of t h e Ethics as " j o y . but it we w i l l be able to overcome c a m e t o o late a n d she m a r r i e d F r a n c i s M a s h a m . L a t e r . not on death. noza writes. A free m a n thinks of n o t h i n g less than death. "Death is less t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e . " . u n c l e a r w h y L o c k e a n d D a m a r i s C u d w o r t h d i d n o t marry. Francis Cudworth lectual love of G o d . it is b e i n g t h i n k s o f n o t h i n g less t h a n death. she b e g a n a n intense a n d revealing p h i l o s o p h i c a l correspondence with I n B o o k I V o f the p o s t h u m o u s l y p u b l i s h e d Ethics. T h i s joy i s the i n t e l - of Sir Francis and Lady Masham. she argues against a n d is not g o v e r n e d by fear. L o c k e left h a l f of his estate to the o n l y son this b o o k . desire w i t h o u t f l i n c h i n g o r f a i l i n g . H e was greatly p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h the boy's educa. " a Masham's home. c o l d w a t e r d a i l y a n d t h e y s h o u l d w e a r t h i n shoes that l e a k L e t his vices b e interred w i t h h i m . a n d his wis- ers o f h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l b r i l l i a n c e . w h e r e he argues that c h i l d r e n ' s feet s h o u l d be washed in m i n d loves G o d . w o r d t o o l i t t l e u s e d s o far i n After his d e a t h . C a m b r i d g e . H e r p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n i s t h e first a r t i c u l a t i o n o f a In the d e m o n s t r a t i o n of this p r o p o s i t i o n . and Spi- M a s h a m . after 1690. a n o l d e r t h e fear o f d e a t h a n d a c h i e v e w i d o w e r w i t h e i g h t c h i l d r e n f r o m h i s first m a r r i a g e . H e also t h o u g h t that c h i l d r e n s h o u l d b e o b l i g e d to eat at i r r e g u l a r intervals a n d on no c o n d i t i o n to eat f r u i t a s " a t h i n g t o t a l l y u n w h o l e s o m e for c h i l d r e n . t h e y b e c a m e lovers. Essex. a l t h o u g h the f o l l o w i n g : h e was twenty-six years h e r s e n i o r . L o c k e p u b l i s h e d Some Thoughts Concerning Educa. t h e n had a change of heart a n d wanted to w e d D a m a r i s . w h o m o n o n e o c c a s i o n s h e d e s c r i b e s a s "un second greatest b o o k s o f p h i l o s o p h y ever w r i t t e n . she grew u p i n t h e M a s t e r ' s L o d g e o f Benedictus (Baruch) de Spinoza C h r i s t ' s C o l l e g e . S p i n o z a proposes pen ("a s e c o n d father"). (1632-77) W h e n D a m a r i s C u d w o r t h was twenty-two. n a m e l y r e a s o n .

E v e r y t h i n g turns sive natura. L o d e w i j k M e y e r . a n d cursed be he n a t u r a l t h i n g s a n d t h e causes o f these t h i n g s c a n b e k n o w n w h e n h e rises u p . i t i s k n o w l e d g e o f n a t u r e pro. is n o t to be feared. O n this r e a d i n g . w e c a n c l a i m that t h e eternity o f the m i n d consists o n w h a t S p i n o z a m e a n s b y G o d a n d h e r e i n lies the r u b . free m i n d that a l l o w s for w h a t S p i n o z a S p i n o z a i n the m o n u m e n t a l l y i m p o r t a n t Dictionnaire historique c a l l s at t h e e n d of the Ethics "blessedness. p h i l o s o p h i c a l conflicts of the eighteenth a n d nineteenth After s u f f e r i n g f r o m a l u n g disease ( p h t h i s i s ) for m a n y years.136 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS B E N E D I C T U S (BARUCH) DE SPINOZA 137 N o w . Lucretius and Zhuangzi. A c c o r d i n g t o V o l t a i r e . t h e f a m o u s conatus essendi. C u r s e d be he [i. by a Jew h i s d e a t h . H e was o n l y forty-four years o l d . O n c e a g a i n t h i s l o o k s l i k e a theistic s l e e p i n g i n t h e b e d i n w h i c h the p h i l o s o p h e r d i e d . That's quite a lot of c u r s i n g ." et critique (1697). " A l t h o u g h S p i n o z a was l u c k - i n E u r o p e a n t h o u g h t a r o u n d his n a m e ." that is. T h e r e i s o n l y o n e substance i n the universe a n d a l l versions o f T h o s e w a n t i n g to c l a i m S p i n o z a as a Jewish p h i l o s o p h e r d u a l i s t i c t h i n k i n g are rejected b y S p i n o z a ' s m o n i s m . T h e r o o t e d i n p o w e r a n d d e s i r e . b u t t h e i r i n g that runs like a subterranean stream t h r o u g h the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has b e e n a m a t t e r o f c o n s t a n t d i s a g r e e m e n t . either G o d or n a t u r e . this is o n e way inaccurate — e a r l y biographer. A c c o r d i n g a r g u m e n t . this c o n c l u s i o n sounds l i k e a t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s sen. w o u l d d o w e l l t o r e a d t h e text o f h i s e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n f r o m N o w . t i o n w i t h the Synagogue. does this m e a n that S p i n o z a is a theist or an atheist? t h e S y n a g o g u e i n 1656: It is a m o o t p o i n t . D e a t h . h e was v i e w e d a s s u c h a n d a h u g e c o n f l i c t e r u p t e d w h o s t a b b e d h i m w i t h a k n i f e . H e i n its b e i n g part o f n a t u r e a n d n a t u r e i s e t e r n a l . i l y o n l y left w i t h a l i g h t flesh w o u n d .. rocks a n d stars. b u t a p p e a r a n c e s c a n b e d e c e p t i v e . w h a t is m o s t s t r i k i n g a b o u t the Ethics is c h u r c h . h e b e l i e v e d that the b l e d o n i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r i e s . b u t h e t a u g h t a t h e i s m .e. b u t is the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of o n e nat- W h a t this m e a n s i s that there c a n n o t b e two substances i n the ural being (a l i v i n g h u m a n being) into another natural being universe a s Descartes p r o p o s e d w i t h his d i s t i n c t i o n o f t h i n k i n g (the c o r p s e a s n a t u r a l b e i n g ) . w h e r e blessedness consists i n i n t e l l e c t u a l love o f t o C o l e r u s . M e y e r fled b a c k t o A m s t e r d a m i m m e d i a t e l y after . S p i n o z a ] by day a n d cursed be he by t i f i c n a t u r a l i s m . B u t it is n o t d i f f i c u l t to see h o w S p i n o z a ' s t h o u g h t o p e n e d the d o o r t o a n atheistic s c i e n . G o d . a n d t h r o u g h t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e m i n d . B u t o n c e a g a i n . t h e h i s t o r i c a l t a n t t o l e a v e t h e S y n a g o g u e a n d o n l y d i d s o after h e was r e c o r d c l e a r l y shows that f r o m very s h o r t l y after the t i m e o f " t r e a c h e r o u s l y attacked. i f w e g o b a c k t o t h e p r o p o s i t i o n Deus t i m e n t . its w h o l e s a l e r e j e c t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n virtues l i k e h u m i l i t y . " S p i n o z a was n o t o n l y a n S p i n o z a d i e d p e a c e f u l l y e n o u g h i n his r e n t e d r o o m s a t T h e atheist. a c o n f l i c t that r u m . cursed be he w h e n he lies d o w n . I n d e e d .C h r i s t i a n . on l e a v i n g the theatre. to say t h e least. S p i n o z a i s the key i n t e n t was t o k i l l h i m a n d after that h e s e v e r e d a l l c o n n e c - f i g u r e i n w h a t J o n a t h a n Israel has c a l l e d " t h e r a d i c a l enlight. Pierre B a y l e . r e a s o n that. "Dens sive natura. m a t e r i a l i s t freethink. T h e latter i s t h e exercise o f cursed be he w h e n he c o m e s i n . pity T h e r e i s a s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n that S p i n o z a d i e d i n t h e c o m - a n d r e p e n t a n c e a n d its a r g u m e n t for a c o n c e p t i o n o f virtue pany of his physician and friend. is t h e e t h i c a l a c t i v i t y of a free h u m a n b e i n g . T h e o n l y t h i n g s that exist for S p i n o z a are night. in the article on d u c e d b y the r a t i o n a l . c e n t u r i e s . c u r s e d b e h e w h e n h e goes o u t . Johannes C o l e r u s . " H a g u e i n H o l l a n d w h i l e m o s t o f t h e o t h e r residents w e r e a t Be that as it m a y . e n m e n t . fore. u l t i m a t e l y t h e desire t o persist i n source for this story is S p i n o z a ' s m o s t f a m o u s — a n d f a m o u s l y one's b e i n g . as we h a v e s e e n . T h e a c t u a l facts o f S p i n o z a ' s d e a t h are s i m p l e . there- f a m o u s l y writes. a L u t h e r a n t o t h i n k a b o u t the a r g u m e n t for the eternity o f the m i n d a t pastor w h o e n d e d u p l i v i n g i n the s a m e r o o m s a s S p i n o z a a n d t h e e n d o f t h e Ethics. " t h e s t r a n d o f a n t i . tells the story that S p i n o z a was i n i t i a l l y r e l u c - W h e t h e r o r n o t S p i n o z a was a n a t h e i s t . s o m e w h a t i n t h e w a y w e saw i n things l i k e us a n d e x t e n d e d things l i k e trees.

diplomat. G o d i s the loose m o n e y h e c o u l d lay his h a n d s o n . " N o w h e r e a n d w e o n l y see t h i n g s t h r o u g h h i m . theologian. h e said l a u g h i n g l y . D i o g e n e s . w h a t J o n a t h a n Israel c a l l s a " s e c u l a r s a i n t a n d b u t G o d w h o acts t h r o u g h us. h a v i n g l i v e d a l i f e o n l y see t h e w o r l d t h r o u g h G o d . i t i s n o t w e w h o act. a n d o f t e n i l l . there is the p u b l i c E c h o i n g the s o m e w h a t p e c u l i a r views o f G e u l i n c x . (1638-1715) Perhaps we s h o u l d begin by breaking L e i b n i z into two pieces. l o g i c i a n . o r t h o - d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c i n g those o f B e r k e l e y . w h o body is of little i m p o r t a n c e . o r must of Prussia. fantastic a n d s h a l l o w . (1646-1716) T h e issue that t h e c o n f l i c t over S p i n o z a ' s d e a t h raises i s Lawyer. w h o B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l declares i s " o p t i m i s t i c . l i k e a biscuit. b y t h e story — r e p o r t e d i n s o m e o f t h e b i o g r a p h i e s . N o w . he immediately became a t h a t w e act i n it. G i v e n t h a t G o d i s e t e r n a l o b j e c t o f h a g i o g r a p h y i n t h e eyes o f h i s d i s c i p l e s . a c c u s t o m e d t o s u p r e m a c y . w i t h o u t r e c a n t i n g a n d m a k - torian. it is difficult to k n o w where to begin w i t h Nicolas M a l e b r a n c h e Leibniz. p l e a d i n g p r o b a b l e i n v e n t o r o f the i n f i n i - forgiveness f r o m G o d o r c o n v e r t i n g t o C h r i s t i a n i t y . O n e o f L u c a s ' s t o n e tends towards the h a g i o g r a p h i c as he d e s c r i b e s h i s P a r i s i a n c r i t i c s . T h u s . founder of the w e always l i v e i n t h e b a d f a i t h o f w h a t Sartre calls " c o u n t e r - Berlin Academy of Science. o f S p i n o z a o f atheists r e c a n t i n g o n t h e i r d e a t h b e d s . T h a t is. B u t h o w tesimal calculus. was r e d u c e d t o francs h a d g o n e b a n k r u p t . t r u l y s p e a k i n g . theorist of universal i n g h i s o r h e r p e a c e w i t h G o d ? Stories a b o u n d after the t i m e language. writes m o v i n g l y o f his death: the saintly poverty a n d frugality of S p i n o z a . amateur chemist. " I m u s t r e d u c e m y d a i l y fare i n o r d e r t o m a k e u p c o n t i n u e d sane a n d s o u n d . M a l e b r a n c h e ' s p r i n c i - dox. librarian and does o n e d i e w i t h o u t a n y f a i t h i n G o d o r t h e afterlife? H o w c o u r t adviser t o the H a n o v e r i a n c a n o n e l i v e k n o w i n g that life i s snuffed o u t a n d t h r o w n away d u k e s . a n d w h i c h seems s i m p l y too w e i r d t o h a v e b e e n m a d e u p — t h a t h e w o u l d c o l l e c t a n d t r a i n spiders t o f i g h t w i t h o n e a n o t h e r Gottfried W i l h e l m L e i b n i z a n d w a t c h t h e m d o i n g s o w i t h gusto. the life a n d death o f the i s this t r u e r t h a n i n the case o f J e a n M a x i m i l i e n L u c a s . and L e i b n i z ." c a l m spectator of his o w n l o n g death. the last m o m e n t of H o w e v e r . s o m e w h a t l i k e n o t h i n g . C r i p p l e d w i t h a deformed spine w r o t e t h e first b i o g r a p h y o f S p i n o z a i n F r e n c h i n 1678. w h i c h h e s o m u c h d e s p i s e d . F o r e x a m p l e . physicist. his- atheist d i e p e a c e f u l l y ? T h a t is. h a v i n g stolen a silver-bladed knife a n d any p a l thesis i s that w e see a l l t h i n g s i n G o d . feit i m m o r t a l i t y " ? It is in r e s p o n s e to s u c h p a r a l y s i n g ques- a n d e n g i n e e r (he was a c t i v e l y t i o n s that t h e lives a n d deaths o f atheist saints l i k e S p i n o z a involved for years in silver assume such i m p o r t a n c e . " T h i s i s the L e i b n i z w h o m V o l t a i r e .138 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS NICOLAS MALEBRANCHE 139 S p i n o z a h a d died. m i n i n g projects i n the H a r z M o u n t a i n s ) . cause o f o u r p e r c e p t i o n o f the w o r l d a r o u n d us. Spinoza's secular sanctity s h o u l d be qualified w h i c h was s u c h that it was believed he was m e r e l y resting. t h e n i t i s o n l y t h r o u g h h i m of carefully guarded seclusion. b u t l i k e the m i n d . c u l t f i g u r e . s i m p l e a n d w e w i l l see i t r e c u r i n the f o l l o w i n g pages: c a n a n poet. w h e n S p i n o z a f o u n d o u t that s o m e o n e w h o o w e d h i m 200 T h e b o d y . H e r e m a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t a for this s m a l l loss. M a l e b r a n c h e h a d l i t t l e fear o f d e a t h . F o n t e n e l l e . On the one h a n d . i f w e W h a t i s p e c u l i a r a b o u t S p i n o z a i s that. c o n f i d a n t o f the Q u e e n l i k e a p i e c e o f r u b b i s h ? C a n w e t r u l y l i v e a s m o r t a l s .

" T h i s is an allusion to H e t h o u g h t t h a t h u m o u r was a n e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t i n . stupefaction and silence. h e t a n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l w o r k u n p u b l i s h e d i n h i s desk o r i n d e e d was l a r g e l y s e l f . V i c o exerted considerable i n f l u e n c e was n o t c o n s i d e r e d t e r r i b l y i m p o r t a n t b y L e i b n i z h i m s e l f . T h i r d E a r l o f Shaftesbury h i s i m m o r t a l i t y l i v e s i n t h e n a m e o f a G e r m a n b u t t e r bis- (1671-1713) c u i t . there i s a c o n s t a n t d a n g e r i n l o g i c a r e . was i n v i t e d t o o f h i s b u r i a l . Passed o v e r for t h e pres- I n 1711. U n l e s s t h e c y c l e o f h i s t o r y i s b r o k e n T h e other. p u b l i c s e n s i b i l i t y or In t h e first s e n t e n c e of Finnegans Wake. t h e u n i v e r s i t y refused to a c c e p t t h e costs W h e n h i s e m p l o y e r . after h i s d e a t h o n H e r d e r . I n a way that w o u l d Giambattista V i c o i n f l u e n c e H u m e . w h i c h F r o m early o n — w h e t h e r f r o m necessity o r a m b i t i o n — L e i b . t h e New Science. w h i c h p r o v i d e d a t e m p l a t e for a l l that this the best of a l l possible w o r l d s as the worst was h a p . a n d t o w h o m R u s s e l l devotes a n e n t i r e ( a l b e i t h i g h l y real p h i l o s o p h e r of history a n d what we w o u l d n o w c a l l c u l - critical) book. d e c l a r i n g to o n e a n d V i c o ' s c y c l i c a l theory o f history. h e was a p h i l o s o p h e r o f great r e f i n e m e n t . h i s c o f f i n h a d t o b e i g n o - atheist. Joyce's w o n d e r f u l l y w a y w a r d m a s t e r p i e c e . m a j o r w o r k . a n d N e w t o n a n d n o t L e i b n i z w h o h a d i n v e n t e d the i n f i n i t e s i m a l forced to sell the little he o w n e d in order to p u b l i s h his c a l c u l u s a n d m o r e o r less a c c u s e d L e i b n i z o f p l a g i a r i s m . r h e t o r i c a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f N a p l e s . N o pastor was present a t the funeral. he s p e n t h i s last days in m e l a n - W h a t e v e r t h e t r u t h o f t h e m a t t e r . h e b e c a m e k n o w n a s a n way t o h i s h o u s e was too n a r r o w . T h e n a m e " L e i b n i z " was p o p u l a r l y d e r i d e d a s "glaubt m i n i o u s l y l o w e r e d t o the street t h r o u g h a w i n d o w b e f o r e h i s nichts. the accusation severely damaged Leibniz's reputation. A p u p i l a n d c l o s e c o n f i d a n t o f L o c k e . C o m t e a n d M a r x . H e left i m p o r ." o r u n b e l i e v e r . T h e p r o b l e m is that "the private L e i b n i z " tural anthropology. H e d i e d a l o n e a n d was b u r i e d a t night remains c o u l d be interred. private L e i b n i z is the o n e whose innovations b y t h e a c t i o n o f d i v i n e p r o v i d e n c e ." "a c o m m o d i o u s vicus of recirculation. Leibniz-Butterkeks. a n d his b o d y was b e c o m e K i n g o f E n g l a n d i n 1714. D u k e G e o r g e L u d w i g . V i c o was b o r n i n t o a l i f e o f g r i n d i n g p o v e r t y i n N a p l e s . of a c a t a c l y s m i c r e t u r n to a n e w age of t h e beasts. J a m e s J o y c e speaks of m o r a l f e e l i n g . T h i s i s the L e i b n i z w h o writes the Theodicy V i c o b e l i e v e d t h a t h i s t o r y p a s s e d t h r o u g h f o u r stages: i n o r d e r t o f l a t t e r t h e ears o f h i s protectress. Anthony Ashley Cooper. heroes a n d m e n . r a t h e r t h a n m e r e " c o m m o n sense. c u r r e n t l y f i n d Ourselves. p e n i n g a l l a r o u n d . a n d saw h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l c a r e e r b u r i e d i n secret a r c h i v e s . t o w h o m w e owe. T h e first t o t l e . a c c o r d i n g t o H u s s e r l . t h e greatest s i n c e A r i s . t h e r e i s n o q u e s t i o n that choly. S i n c e t h e stair- d i v i n e p r o v i d e n c e i n t h e Theodicy. w h i c h i s p r e s u m a b l y w h e r e w e Charlotte. D e s p i t e h i s b e w i l d e r i n g assertions o f his father i n t h e C h u r c h o f t h e O r a t o r i a n s . Shaftesbury saw h u m o u r a s the e x p r e s s i o n (1668-1744) of what he c a l l e d sensus communis: a shared. the first p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h e o r y o f h u m o u r . L e i b n i z was left b e h i n d i n left i n t h e h o u s e u n t i l h i s s o n G e n n a r o o b t a i n e d b u r i a l for H a n o v e r a n d f o r g o t t e n . He held a minor position in Leibniz's undoing. p r e d e c e a s e d b y m o s t o f h i s c h i l d r e n . a m o n g m a n y other things. H e g e l . the R o y a l S o c i e t y i n L o n d o n d e c i d e d that i t was t i g i o u s c h a i r o f law. Q u e e n S o p h i e beasts. gods. n i z h a d d e v o t e d h i m s e l f t o a p o l i t i c a l career. I t was this p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r that was defined by disappointment. a s was t h e c u s t o m o f t h e t i m e . A f t e r h i s d e a t h .t a u g h t . far o u t w e i g h s the o b s c u r i t y o f h i s l i f e . I n a c r u e l t w i s t o f fate t h a t r e a l l y d o e s t a k e t h e b i s c u i t . w i t h o n l y o n e f r i e n d i n a t t e n d a n c e .l^O 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS GIAMBATTISTA VICO 141 r i d i c u l e d as D o c t o r Pangloss in Candide. p r o d u c e d b y t h e B a h l s e n C o m p a n y s i n c e 1891.

T h e conflict between a radical T h i s very E n g l i s h p r o b l e m f i n d s p h i l o s o p h i c a l expression i n like T o l a n d and an archconser- the writings of two b r i l l i a n t a n d opposed I r i s h m e n . H e d i e d t w o years p o v e r t y that n o grave m a r k e r was p l a c e d a t h i s b u r i a l spot. Toland's self-written e p i t a p h c o n c l u d e d w i t h the words "If y o u w o u l d k n o w m o r e o f h i m ." b u t e q u a l l y t h e a n d studied in S c o t l a n d before travelling to H o l l a n d and s o c i o e c o n o m i c m a t e r i a l i s m that h e w i t n e s s e d f i r s t h a n d i n i m m e r s i n g h i m s e l f i n the r a d i c a l ideas e m a n a t i n g f r o m the L o n d o n i n 1720 w i t h the S o u t h S e a B u b b l e . He the existence o f matter. to be is to be p e r c e i v e d ." he converted to Protestantism s o m e o n e l i k e T o l a n d a n d o t h e r "atheists." John Toland 1670-1722) George Berkeley P o l i t i c a l l i f e i n E n g l a n d i n the decades a n d i n d e e d c e n t u r i e s (1685-1763) after the G l o r i o u s R e v o l u t i o n o f 1688 was d e f i n e d b y t h e c o n - f l i c t b e t w e e n W h i g s a n d T o r i e s . w e b e g i n t o see t h e d e a l t o t h e w r i t i n g s o f G i o r d a n o B r u n o a n d was f a s c i n a t e d b y first g l i m p s e o f a s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n a l i b e r a l p u b l i c m o r a l . i n v e n t e d t h e t e r m " p a n t h e i s m " t o d e s c r i b e h i s i d e a that F o r B e r k e l e y . T o l a n d was a s k e d w h e t h e r h e t h e phrase " VediNapoli epoi muori" ("See N a p l e s a n d d i e " ) . It is u n c l e a r w h e t h e r Shaftesbury was the o r i g i n a t o r of I m m e d i a t e l y before e x p i r i n g . because T o l a n d ' s was a r a t h e r s p i r i t u a l m a t e r i a l i s m . greed o f s u c h m a t e r i a l i s m that B e r k e l e y c o n c e i v e d t h e m o s t l i s h e d w h e n h e was just t w e n t y . w a n t e d a n y t h i n g . t h e b e l i e f s o f the a n c i e n t I r i s h a n d e v e n w r o t e a h i s t o r y o f the ity a n d private r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f that m a n y of us take for D r u i d s . T h e B r i t a i n . T h e there i s n o G o d b u t o n l y t h e v i t a l a n d d y n a m i c m a t t e r o f the o n l y access that h u m a n b e i n g s h a v e t o r e a l i t y i s t h r o u g h per- . i n N a p l e s i n 1711. r e p l a c i n g i t w i t h the e p i t h e t " m i n u t e p h i l o s o p h e r . but s h o u l d be permitted in the discussion of r e l i g i o n . esse est percipi. a n d philosophical materialism of christened "Janus Junius. Indeed. T o l a n d o w e d a great w i t h s t a n d m o c k e r y . l e n g t h y i l l n e s s a n d l u n g p r o b l e m s . later. He r e p l i e d that he o n l y w a n t e d to die.f i v e years o l d . A f t e r lotte. the q u e s t i o n o f matter. was p u b . h e r e t i r e d f r o m p u b l i c life h e c a m e t o a very sad e n d . the rising tide of m a t e r i a l i s m tary. Bishop of C l o y n e . T h i s l e d to the f a m i l i a r accusations of atheism. o r l i b e r a l s a n d conservatives. Politically. B e r k e l e y B e r k e l e y i n v e n t e d t h e t e r m " f r e e t h i n k e r " t o d e s c r i b e radicals was against what he saw as a n d i n f i d e l s l i k e T o l a n d u n t i l h e t h o u g h t i t too c o m p l i m e n . thrown into doubt. t h e f i r s t stock writings of S p i n o z a and Pierre Bayle. o n visits t o H a n o v e r a n d B e r l i n . A l t h o u g h T o l a n d h a d w o n the affection o f S o p h i e C h a r - S a d l y . t h e r e was n o t h i n g m i n u t e a b o u t T o l a n d . I t was i n response t o the u n c h r i s t i a n H i s m o s t f a m o u s w o r k . h u m o u r universe. he b e c a m e a p r o m i n e n t W h i g writer a n d g r a n t e d a n d w h i c h r e c e n t p o l i t i c a l events h a v e s e r i o u s l y e n j o y e d the p a t r o n a g e o f Shaftesbury. search his writings. Christianity Not Mysterious. H e d i e d i n L o n d o n i n s u c h d i r e a n d s e t t l e d . l i k e V i c o . W i t h S h a f t e s b u r y . " in early eighteenth-century H o w e v e r . t h e r e c a n b e n o b e t t e r test o f a b e l i e f t h a n t o see i f i t c a n A l t h o u g h w i d e l y s e e n as a S p i n o z i s t . m a r k e t c r a s h i n history. handsome a n d a lover of w i l d conversation. I n S h a f t e s b u r y ' s v i e w .1A2 K)° OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS JOHN TOLAND 143 t h e l i f e o f a free s o c i e t y . T h i s m e a n t b o t h the b a s t a r d s o n o f a n I r i s h c l e r i c a n d a prostitute i n D e r r y . S h a f t e s b u r y ' s e n d was n o t v e r y h u m o r o u s . T o l a n d was dramatic philosophical move imaginable: he simply denied charismatic. t h e Q u e e n o f P r u s s i a . John vative l i k e B e r k e l e y turns o n T o l a n d and George Berkeley.

HS . a n d a t h o u s a n d o t h e r t h i n g s o f the same sort. t h a t a l l p e r c e p t u a l i m p r e s s i o n s have t h e i r s o u r c e i n G o d . c o m b i n e d w i t h its c r i - t i q u e o f a b s t r a c t i d e a s . o f c o u r s e . T h e d e c a d e n t t i c a l l y i m m a t e r i a l style o n e S u n d a y e v e n i n g o n a v i s i t t o world of eighteenth-century O x f o r d w h i l e his wife read h i m a s e r m o n . t h e n . A c c u s t o m e d t o the w o r l d o f e u n u c h s a n d t h e s e r a g l i o . Paris. that o n e i s a C h r i s t i a n . B e r k e l e y writes. the i n d e p e n d e n t r e a l i t y o f t h e Sentimentalists material w o r l d is nowhere affirmed in the B i b l e . was v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l o n H u m e a n d t h e r e b y o n K a n t . a n d subjected t o the most delightful satirical inver- sions. B u t B e r k e l e y adds t h e c r u c i a l caveat that w e saw a n t i c i p a t e d b y M a l e b r a n c h e . R i c a a n d U s b e k . is G o d ' s sensorium. for B e r k e l e y . p r o v i d e d . T h e p o p e is d e s c r i b e d as a great conjuror. O n this v i e w . w h o makes p e o p l e b e l i e v e that three are o n l y o n e . F u r t h e r m o r e . Materialists and son at a l l to presuppose any material reality outside of G o d . a n d that the bread that o n e eats is not bread a n d the w i n e o n e d r i n k s i s n o t w i n e . Philosophes. p u b l i s h e d Persian Letters at t h e "I refute it thus" B e r k e l e y k i c k e d t h e b u c k e t in a c h a r a c t e r i s - age o f thirty-two." Johnson famously responded to established in 1721. N a t u r e . there i s n o rea. the d i v i n e e n v i r o n m e n t that gives rise to e v e r y t h i n g that w e e x p e r i e n c e . b a r o n de La Brede et de M o n t e s q u i e u I n a letter t o S a m u e l J o h n s o n . w h e n h e B e r k e l e y ' s i m m a t e r i a l i s m b y k i c k i n g a stone a n d e x c l a i m i n g . i s seen t h r o u g h the eyes of two Persian visitors. B e r k e l e y insists. then death is of little consequence — C h a r l e s . t h e visitors r e m a r k o n t h e strange reversal o f the P e r s i a n c u s t o m b y g i v i n g trousers t o m e n a n d skirts to w o m e n . of d e a t h ? It is t r u e to say that B e r k e l e y was of a s u n n y d i s p o s i t i o n a n d n o t m u c h c o n c e r n e d w i t h the p h i l o - s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n o f d e a t h . I t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o see w h y : i f m a t t e r does n o t exist a n d t h e b o d y i s o n l y s u s t a i n e d b y t h e perception of G o d . " I see n o (1689-1755) d i f f i c u l t y in c o n c e i v i n g a c h a n g e of state as w e l l w i t h o u t as M o n t e s q u i e u ' s literary f a m e was with material substance.L o u i s de Secondat. T h i s t h e o r y o f p e r c e p t i o n . W h a t . p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e c o u r t o f L o u i s X I V .144 1 Q O O R S 0 D E A D PHILOSOPHERS c e p t i o n .

c a l l e d " o r i e n t a l d e s p o t i s m " i s n o t s o m e e x o t i c exist a n d a d d e d . recently p u b l i s h e d c o l l e c t e d works in ninety-two v o l u m e s . h e T h e u n c o m f o r t a b l e t r u t h o f M o n t e s q u i e u ' s satire i s t o e x p r e s s e d d o u b t s a s t o w h e t h e r a s o c i e t y o f atheists c o u l d s h o w that s o . a n e n t i r e c a v a l r y t r o o p . the bedside I c a n give it u p : the cause ceasing. U s b e k I n the n a m e o f G o d . M o n t e s q u i e u sought to I s h o u l d w a n t n o d e a l i n g s w i t h a n atheist p r i n c e w h o address t h i s d e s p o t i s m in The Spirit of Laws (1748). H i s r e m a i n s were r e t u r n e d to Paris more detailed theological discussion w i t h the sceptical w i t h great c e r e m o n y i n 1791 a n d p l a c e d i n t h e P a n t h e o n .S u l p i c e was so e n r a g e d t h a t he d e m a n d e d a miles f r o m the c a p i t a l . l e g i s l a t i v e . Life of Voltaire. the effect ought also to l a m p suddenly flared u p and h e declared. b u t is at its heart. f o u r m e n i n theatre c o s t u m e s c a r r i e d a p p a r e n t l y t h e p a r i s h p r i e s t k e p t s h o u t i n g i n V o l t a i r e ' s ear. pressed it. h e also t h o u g h t C o n f u c i u s the wisest o f m o r t a l s . d o u b t l e s s t h i n k i n g o f the fate o f B o e t h i u s . mon eher r i p e o l d age o f e i g h t y . my d e a r M o r a n d . t h e p a r i s h friends a n d interred at the A b b e y of Scellieres. interestingly. d o n ' t speak t o m e a n y attacks the p r o h i b i t i o n against s u i c i d e : m o r e o f that m a n a n d let m e die i n peace. I am d y i n g " ) . V o l t a i r e e x p i r e d i n F r a n c o i s ." B u t V o l t a i r e was n o atheist. a h u n d r e d p r i e s t of S a i n t . where the C h u ' r c h a n d state i n F r a n c e . w i t h its t h o u g h t it useful to have me p o u n d e d in a m o r t a r : I am h i g h l y influential doctrine of the separation of powers into quite sure that I w o u l d be p o u n d e d . . a g o l d e n statue of V o l t a i r e f o l l o w e d by m e m b e r s of the " D o y o u believe i n the divinity o f C h r i s t ? . " W h a t ? T h e cease. j u d i c i a r y a n d e x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t y . " O n h e a r i n g this n e w s . A c c o r d i n g t o C o n d o r c e t i n his Morand. E a r l i e r i n t h e Dictionary. W a g n i e r e . a n d said. o t h e r to o c c i d e n t a l r e a s o n . a c e r t a i n A b b e G a u l t h i e r r e c e i v e d a c o n f e s s i o n After a lifetime of exile. h i s S t o r i e s a b o u n d a r o u n d t h e d e a t h o f V o l t a i r e i n P a r i s a t the valet-de-chambre. G o s p e l s a n d . i m p r i s o n m e n t a n d harassment by a n d profession of faith f r o m Voltaire on his deathbed. M o n s i e u r . je me meurs" ( " A d i e u . A c c o r d i n g t o h i s secretary. K n o w i n g that V o l t a i r e h a d d e n i e d t h e d i v i n i t y o f s h r i n e t o t h e R e v o l u t i o n .f o u r . w h e n it ceases to be so In a n o t h e r a c c o u n t . f l a m e s a l r e a d y ? " As he m a k e s c l e a r in h i s Philosophical Dictio- nary. H i s c o r p s e was s e c r e t l y r e m o v e d b y i n w h i c h h e was b o r n . as V o l t a i r e lay d y i n g . leaving unfinished a n practices he t h o u g h t a c c o r d e d w i t h the C h r i s t i a n i t y of the essay o n taste for the Encyclopedic o f D i d e r o t a n d d ' A l e m b e r t . 4 1 7 7 8) utes b e f o r e h e d i e d . 146 igo OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS FRANCOIS-MARIE AROUET DE VOLTAIRE 147 E u r o p e a n c u s t o m s c o n c e r n i n g d e a t h are m o c k e d . "Adieu. p h i l o s o p h e . L i f e was given to me as a blessing. " t o w h i c h Voltaire A c a d e m i e F r a n c h i s e a n d a g o l d e n casket c o n t a i n i n g the replied. V o l t a i r e t o o k t h e h a n d o f M o r a n d . T h e s e r a g l i o is precisely the Paris of L o u i s X I V . V o l t a i r e was n o t a l l o w e d t o h e d e c l a r e d t h a t h e w a n t e d "to d i e i n t h e C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n b e b u r i e d i n P a r i s . too. H e M o n t e s q u i e u d i e d tastefully e n o u g h in the arms of his h a d s t r o n g s y m p a t h i e s w i t h t h e Q u a k e r s . w h o s e beliefs a n d lover. " M e n should be bewailed at their birth and not their death.M a r i e Arouet de Voltaire perfect t r a n q u i l l i t y after h a v i n g suffered great p a i n . T h e f u n e r a l p r o c e s s i o n was l e d b y C h r i s t i n h i s tireless tirades a g a i n s t t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . T h e o n l y way o f c h e c k i n g p o w e r i s b y t u r n i n g a n o t h e r p o w e r against it. T e n m i n - (i69 . V o l t a i r e was a deist w i t h a b e l i e f i n n a t u r a l r e l i g i o n . M a d a m e D u p r e d e Saint M a u r . V o l t a i r e t h o u g h t t h a t h e l l was a p r e t t y s i l l y i d e a U s b e k also insists that a l l f u n e r a l p o m p s h o u l d b e a b o l i s h e d : designed to d u p e the poor a n d u n e d u c a t e d .

i t was r a t h e r p o p u l a r b e g i n t o exist i n a n o t h e r . f r o m a l i v i n g h u m a n b e i n g P e r s i a n visitor t o Paris. T h i s attitude b e g a n t o b e c h a l l e n g e d i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h C o u n t Alberto R a d i c a t i di Passerano c e n t u r y w i t h t h e rise o f s c i e n c e a n d a m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n (1698-1737) of nature. In his ninety-four-page p a m p h l e t . what's the B u t i f this i s t h e case. S o . p a r t i c u l a r l y the R o m a n s . g o v e r n a n c e (dominion). i n o r d e r t o i r r e l i g i o u s ? A s w e have a l r e a d y s e e n . s h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s d e a t h . N o r c a n t h e fear o f L o n d o n . notably in Augustine and Aquinas. " R a d i c a t i was t a k e n into their heads to thirst for D o m i n i o n over others. the tradition. T h e ically materialist c o n c e p t i o n of nature and inspired by E p i . w h e r e i t i s i n d i r e c t l y p u t i n t o the m o u t h o f a one l u m p of matter into another. w h o . took i t " t h e m o s t i m p i o u s a n d i m m o r a l b o o k . T h i s is a t h e m e that we saw p r e f i g u r e d by the d i s s o l u t i o n of a t o m clusters. the heart h a d already b e e n c i d e i n P l o t i n u s . A t r u e C h r i s t i a n m u s t battle w i t h s u f f e r i n g l i k e a C h r i s t i a n s o l - dier. i m m o r a l o r f o l l o w i n g w a y : " W e c e a s e t o exist i n o n e sort. H a p p i l y . d e a t h i s n o t h i n g b u t r i g h t to s u i c i d e . although. R a d i c a t i rewrites t h e w i s d o m o f E p i c u r u s i n t h e H u m e . attended by a H u g u e n o t Three Impostors). It is the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of M o n t e s q u i e u . t i o n . S u c h v i e w s w e r e rejected a s p a g a n i s m b y the C h r i s t i a n w i t h o u t e x a m i n a t i o n . a n d w h i c h w i l l b e t a k e n u p d i r e c t l y b y t o a n t f o o d . g i v e n a s u b s t a n t i a l f i n e a n d t h e n m a d e his e s c a p e t o t h e N e t h e r l a n d s s o m e t i m e i n 1734. the N e t h e r l a n d s p r o b a b l y i n t h e 1690s. death be ascribed to o u r natural constitution. fear o f d e a t h has b e e n i m p o s e d o n h u m a n k i n d b y i m i z e s u i c i d e against C h r i s t i a n i t y a n d the state. O n this v i e w . broadly Hobbes's idea of reality as matter a n d I n c l u d i n g this rather o b s c u r e I t a l i a n p h i l o s o p h e r e n a b l e s m e m o t i o n a n d the a t h e i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f S p i n o z a ' s i d e n t i f i - to raise a q u e s t i o n a b o u t d e a t h that is still very m u c h alive: the c a t i o n o f G o d w i t h n a t u r e . some m e m b e r s of a royalist religious g r o u p . l i f e i s s o m e t h i n g g i v e n . t h e n w h y d o p e o p l e fear d e a t h ? T h i s p r o b l e m with suicide? is also w h e r e t h i n g s start to get rather i n t e r e s t i n g . b u t n o t the B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e i n Paris. not c o n t e n t i n g themselves w i t h the g e n e r a l . h e r e t i c a l text o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . R a d i c a t i ' s s i m p l e t h e s i s i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s are free t o It embodies the radical tradition of E n l i g h t e n m e n t t h o u g h t c h o o s e t h e i r o w n d e a t h . as we " U l t r a s . By d e f i n i - R a d i c a t i was b o r n i n t o a n aristocratic f a m i l y i n P i e d m o n t . Traite a r g u e s that M o s e s . o v e r w h i c h we h a v e t h e r i g h t of use (usus). " a m o n g the a n c i e n t s . T h e r e f o r e . w h i c h i s t h e p r e r o g a t i v e o f G o d . i n t o c u s t o d y . that w e h a v e a l r e a d y s e e n w i t h S p i n o z a a n d T o l a n d . T h e p a m p h l e t c a u s e d a h u g e stir i n L o n d o n a n d was d e c l a r e d b y the attorney A m b i t i o u s M e n . R a d i c a t i seeks to d e f e n d a n d legit. garbage heap. T h e latter d e c l a r e d that. F o r the C h r i s t i a n . " stole V o l t a i r e ' s r e m a i n s i n 1841 a n d d u m p e d t h e m h a v e a l r e a d y s e e n . T h i s r i g h t t o d e a t h i s b a s e d o n a rad. a t the repeated p r o m p t i n g o f the B i s h o p o f L o n d o n . the sertation upon Death (1732). r e n o u n c e d a l l h e h a d written. A Philosophical Dis. o n e a l r e a d y f i n d s a r g u m e n t s against s u i - in a. t h e fear o f d e a t h c a n n o t b e based i n e x p e r i e n c e a s n o H e c o n v e r t e d t o P r o t e s t a n t i s m a n d took u p v o l u n t a r y e x i l e i n o n e e x p e r i e n c e s d e a t h t w i c e . i t r e m o v e d f r o m Voltaire's corpse a n d c a n be f o u n d today at is a datum. t h e Traite i s p o s s i b l y a n d was r e c o n f i r m e d i n the Protestant f a i t h . a s i t w e r e . " C e n t r a l t o this i m p o s i t i o n i s the c u l t i - . Spinoza). W r i t t e n i n F r e n c h a n d p u b l i s h e d a n o n y m o u s l y i n R a d i c a t i was f i l l e d w i t h d r e a d .148 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS C O U N T A L B E R T O RADICATI DI PASSERANO 149 Sadly. H e d i e d i n R a d i c a t i is a l l u d i n g to the Traite des trois imposteurs (Treatise of the complete destitution in Rotterdam. Jesus a n d M u h a m m a d are t h r e e c u r e a n a n d S t o i c a l a r g u m e n t s that s u i c i d e i s a n h o n o u r a b l e impostors w h o h a v e d e c e i v e d h u m a n k i n d b y i m p o s i n g t h e i r gesture: t h e l e g i t i m a t e w i t h d r a w a l f r o m a state of u n b e a r a b l e " s i l l y ideas o f G o d " a n d t e a c h i n g "the p e o p l e t o receive t h e m p a i n . W h y s h o u l d s u i c i d e b e seen a s i l l e g a l . also k n o w n as L'Esprit de Spinosa (The Spirit of p r e a c h e r . State o f E q u a l i t y w h i c h N a t u r e h a d g i v e n t h e m . t h e m o s t d a n g e r o u s .

liv. total of my graces. reasoned farewell letter. T h e y m a d e this d e c i s i o n i n c o m . Ashes. It m a y be that there are metaphysicians a n d philosophers whose learning is greater than mine. f r e e t h i n k i n g a n d the right to suicide. w i t h the h i l l k n o w l e d g e o f h e r h u s b a n d . W h e n she was twenty-seven years o l d . think no more of us. (1709-51) Physician. Who were our parents. embolism. T h i s t u r n e d i n t o a n a b i d i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l relationship erot. R i c h a r d S m i t h a n d his wife. J u l i e n Offray d e L a Mettrie For as we are. H e writes that h e a n d Judge me for my merits. I n a letter i n g i n d r e a d f u l p o v e r t y i n L o n d o n . d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e they l i v e d together propagate t h r o u g h t h e offices o f t h e i r priestly castes. i t was " i n d i f f e r e n t t o u s w h e r e o u r b o d i e s a r e l a i d . a b e l i e f that the three i m p o s t o r s that lasted sixteen years. " S h e h a d other lovers aside f r o m V o l t a i r e a n d h e r last S p i n o z i s m . or hath us begot. Yet. 15° 19° O R S O DEAD PHILOSOPHERS M A D A M E DU CHÄTELET 151 v a t i o n of the fear of d e a t h . a l l that I do.E m i l i e Le Tonnelier de Breteuil n o v e l figure i n the history o f p h i - (1706-49) losophy. cist a n d g o u r m e t . the i c a l l y for a n atheistic a n d h e d o - m o t h e r of three c h i l d r e n a n d a wife in the u s u a l loveless mar. so you be turned to Dust. . frenetic by B a r o n d ' H o l b a c h . h e r that she was "a great m a n w h o s e o n l y fault was b e i n g a text that s u r r o u n d s it is the c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n m a t e r i a l i s m . but now are not. great scholar. this star that shines at the court of F r a n c e or p l e t e c o g n i z a n c e o f the laws p r o h i b i t i n g s u i c i d e . dumb. Without a name. w h i c h reads. L a M e t t r i e riage o f the t i m e . h u m a n s . S m i t h s ' o n l y w i s h was for a n e p i t a p h . m o r e o v e r ) n o m e r e t h e o r e t i c a l nant. h a d shot t h e i r d a u g h t e r t o F r e d e r i c k the G r e a t o f P r u s s i a . so. La M e t t r i e is a G a b r i e l l e . too. H e argued unapologet- physics i n F r a n c e . We were. affair was w i t h the M a r q u i s de Saint-Lambert. a d d i n g that that famed author. Nought else is within this Tomb. s h o r t l y after t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f R a d i . t h e s h o c k i n g s u i c i d e o f t h e S m i t h f a m i l y was B u t the i m p o r t a n c e o f M a d a m e d u C h ä t e l e t s h o u l d n o t widely reported i n E n g l a n d . nistic materialism. I am in my o w n right a w h o l e person. I confess I am inferior to no one. I n A p r i l 1732. they are b u t f r a i l Dust. philosopher. m a k e s a l l u s i o n t o R a d i c a t i ' s p a m p h l e t . In his extended a n d carefully audacity. a b o o k b i n d e r by trade. b e j u d g e d i n t e r m s o f h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h m e n . S m i t h . w h e n I add the s u m Where we were born or bred it matters not. polemi- M a d a m e d u Chätelet. V o l t a i r e wryly said o f W h a t i s f a s c i n a t i n g i n R a d i c a t i ' s text a n d t h e r a d i c a l c o n . H e r w o r k d i d a great deal to p r o m o t e the n e w theology. or lack of t h e m . w o m a n . H e was the f i r s t p h i l o s - M a d a m e d u C h ä t e l e t was a n extraordinarily gifted w o m a n w h o opher to draw the f u l l m o r a l wrote i n f l u e n t i a l works o n the p h i l o s o p h y o f physics a n d m a t h . for ever silent. " T h e responsible to myself alone for a l l that I a m . she writes w i t h great before h a n g i n g themselves. a l t h o u g h I have not m e t t h e m . cati's p a m p h l e t . a n d have their faults. bore the c h i l d a n d d i e d six days after the b i r t h from an d e b a t e . M a d a m e d u C h ä t e l e t b e g a n a n affair w i t h was c o n s i d e r e d i m m o r a l b y D i d - V o l t a i r e . a l l that I say. S h e b e c a m e preg- B u t this was ( a n d r e m a i n s . consequences of the scientific e m a t i c s a n d translated N e w t o n ' s Principia Mathematica w i t h a rejection of metaphysics and c o m m e n t a r y . but do not l o o k h i s f a m i l y h a d d e c i d e d t o take leave o f this f r i e n d l e s s w o r l d u p o n me as a mere appendage to this great general or that r a t h e r t h a n l i v e i n misery.

By not reading his books. l e d to a warrant b e i n g issued for his arrest. B u t i f l i f e has b e c o m e a b u r d e n t h a t . o r a t least t h e päte o f G o d . the p h i l o s o p h e r ' s d e a t h . F o r H u m e . a r g u m e n t s i n favour o f the soul's i m m o r t a l i t y . H u m e r e m a i n s c o n n e l . w h i c h n o o n e ever saw. c a n a n atheist e m b r a c e the p r o s p e c t o f a n n i h i - where F r e d e r i c k the G r e a t . Strangely e n o u g h . V o l t a i r e reports that a l t h o u g h F r e d . T h e p h i l o s o p h e r a l o n e is brave where most brave accepted banality of medical science —that psychic phe. last-minute confession? L a M e t t r i e l e d a free. H u m e ' s essays. content w i t h a barley cake. O n e i s t h u s o b l i g e d t o c o n c l u d e that t h e s o u l i s m o r t a l a n d e r i c k t h e G r e a t was g r e a t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e m a n n e r o f dissolves w i t h the b o d y a t t h e m o m e n t o f d e a t h . resembles any that was ever seen? T h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h c l a i m e d i t was the h a n d o f G o d . " In his System of Epicurus. I f t h e r e i s n o i m m o r t a l s o u l a n d n o G o d t o p u n i s h us. L a M e t t r i e e x p i r e d f r o m t h e effects o f By what arguments or analogies c a n we prove any state of indigestion caused by eating a substantial a m o u n t of e x i s t e n c e . the Natural History c h i l d w h o is scared of ghosts a n d spirits. b u t the m o s t i n g e n i o u s To t r e m b l e at the a p p r o a c h of d e a t h is to behave l i k e a of m e n .1^2 W)0 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS JULIEN OFFRAY DE LA METTRIE 153 a n d V o l t a i r e c a l l e d h i m "the m a d d e s t . Voltaire's p a t r o n . a n d a very b a d c i d e ? N o n e . h e s a i d . La M e t t r i e h a d rather m o r e " O f the I m m o r t a l i t y o f the S o u l " a n d " O f S u i c i d e . one c a n be very content. for it is an e n t i r e l y r e a s o n a b l e response to i n t o l e r a b l e suffering. " T h i s gour. the ambassador h a d arranged a sceptical: feast i n o r d e r t o t h a n k L a M e t t r i e for c u r i n g h i m f r o m a n i l l n e s s . w h i l e i t was w o r t h k e e p - m e t d i e d as a p h i l o s o p h e r . l i k e R a d i c a t i . then what possible p r o h i b i t i o n c a n there be against sui- He was merry. " T h e furore c a u s e d by his 1745 b o o k . "I believe A n d yet.n i l l y . c a n k n o c k at my d o o r w h e n e v e r he wishes a n d I w i l l not be I n this b o o k . W h e t h e r j u d g e d as " t h e G r e a t I n f i d e l " or "le bon David" the A f t e r r e c e i v i n g a h a t e f u l r e a c t i o n a n d several d e a t h threats. a n d w h i c h n o wise s l i g h t l y d o d g y truffle päte. the great advantage that arises f r o m the study o f B e r l i n . " s h o w h i m e l a b o r a t e tastes. h a p p y ? T h a t is. where he t u r n e d his attention to matters m o r a l . La M e t t r i e i n g . h a d offered l a t i o n w i t h o u t r e c a n t i n g his heresies a n d e m b r a c i n g G o d i n a h i m protection. L a M e t t r i e escaped F r a n c e for the m o r e t o l e r a n t David Hume c l i m e s of L e i d e n in the N e t h e r l a n d s . M o n s i e u r T i r . H e d i e d after e a t i n g a h u g e d i n n e r a t the c u t t i n g t h r o u g h c a n t a t his p h i l o s o p h i c a l best. s h o u l d n o t be p u n i s h e d . w i l d a n d B o h e m i a n e x i s t e n c e i n F o r H u m e . the materialist manifesto The Man- Machine ( 1 7 4 8 — f o l l o w e d by The Man-Plant in t h e s a m e year). p h i l o s o p h y is that it frees the m i n d f r o m s u p e r s t i t i o n a n d the H e a r g u e d for a n E p i c u r e a n p o s i t i o n o n the r e l a t i o n c l a i m s o f false r e l i g i o n . A l t h o u g h o n l y p u b l i s h e d p o s t h u - b e t w e e n m a t t e r a n d m o r a l i t y . that n o m a n ever t h r e w away l i f e . B u t w h e r e E p i c u r u s was m o u s l y b y his literary executor. H u m e adds. q u e s t i o n that H u m e ' s d e a t h raises i s s i m p l e : c a n a n atheist die L a M e t t r i e e s c a p e d u n d e r c o v e r o f d a r k n e s s for G e r m a n y . A d a m S m i t h . a good d e v i l . " O u r h o r r o r o f death i s s u c h that p e o p l e w i l l n o t k i l l writes. people b e c o m e cowards. n o m e n a are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o b r a i n states a n d t h e n e r v o u s system. s u i c i d e i s a n a c t that author. h e a r g u e d — i n w h a t i s t o d a y t h e m o s t w i d e l y afraid. A p p a r e n t l y . where he wrote his (1711-76) most famous work. T h e pale p h a n t o m of the Soul. E x a m i n i n g the house o f the F r e n c h ambassador t o B e r l i n . the e n l i g h t e n e d G e r m a n despot a d d e d . t h e m s e l v e s w i l l y . a good doctor.

" covers a that r e c u r s i s " c h e e r f u l n e s s " a n d S m i t h d e p i c t s H u m e h a p . p h i l o s o p h e r o n two occasions. d e m i s e . the w o r d H u m e ' s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l essay. a n d that w h e n he bravely h e l p e d R o u s s e a u escape heard that a m a n was religious. H u m e T h e m o r a l i t y of every r e l i g i o n was bad. a n d it is a shame that he is protected in W h a t i s a s t o n i s h i n g i s H u m e ' s c a l m i n t h e face o f h i s this country. A s r u m o u r s o f a n d the latter said. as a p p r o a c h i n g as nearly to the idea of a J a m e s B o s w e l l was f a m o u s l y p e r t u r b e d b y H u m e ' s athe. a n d was g r a n t e d . was " s t r u c k w i t h a d i s o r d e r i n m y b o w e l s " i n 1775 a n d goes o n t o a d d that i t has " b e c o m e m o r t a l a n d i n c u r a b l e ." Jean-Jacques Rousseau B o s w e l l t h e n asked w h e t h e r i t m i g h t b e p o s s i b l e that there (1712-78) i s a n afterlife. he c o n c l u d e d that he was from Switzerland and France. I shall be short. perfectly wise a n d virtuous m a n . I n 1765. . for s e d i t i o n a n d i m p i e t y . H u m e t h e atheist dies c h e e r . r e p l i e d . the s e c o n d b e i n g shortly before Hume died. a s L u c r e t i u s observes. therefore. igo OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS DAVID HUME J54 155 w e c a n n o t b e a r . p i l y r e a d i n g L u c i a n ' s Dialogues of the Dead a few days before his o w n j o u r n e y t o H a d e s . i n g o o d h u m o u r a n d w i t h o u t anxiety. i n w o r d s that w o u l d s t i l l get h u n d r e d years o f p h i l o s o p h y t o h i m i n t o t r o u b l e i n m a n y parts o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y w o r l d : suggest that R o u s s e a u was a d i f f i c u l t m a n . I n his infinitely resourceful paranoia. u n b e l i e f . " H u m e w e n t It is quite p o s s i b l y the greatest o n t o say that h e h a d n e v e r e n t e r t a i n e d a n y r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f u n d e r s t a t e m e n t of the last few s i n c e r e a d i n g L o c k e a n d a d d e d . h i s c o n t e n t m e n t i n a c c e p t i n g h i s fate. c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n . y o u c a n ' t b e l i e v e w h a t a n atheist t h e w h o l e t h i n g " a m i s e r a b l e affair. " I n o t h e r w o r d s . H u m e notes that h e England. B o s w e l l was d e e p l y s h o c k e d b y H u m e ' s p e r s i s t e n c e i n h i s Rousseau turned on Hume. as perhaps the nature of i s m a n d r e q u e s t e d . H e asked h i s m e n t o r S a m u e l J o h n s o n for c o u n s e l a c c u s i n g h i m o f c o n s p i r i n g w i t h his e n e m i e s . S m i t h c o n c l u d e s . " N o t t h e least. r e m a r k e d t o B o s w e l l a b o u t R o u s s e a u d u r i n g h i s stay i n I n h i s b r i e f a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l r e m a r k s . since his death. Sir? H u m e H u m e ' s s u p p o s e d t r e a c h e r y spread across t h e C h a n n e l . T h u s . " M y O w n L i f e . vanity. Boswell asked Hume whether the A d a m S m i t h died w i t h the same c a l m as his m e n t o r on 17 thought of a n n i h i l a t i o n terrified h i m . " W h y s h o u l d i t shock y o u . T h r e e or four nations r e c k o n u p o n a speedy d i s s o l u t i o n . t o w h i c h H u m e a n s w e r e d that "It was p o s s i b l e that a p i e c e o f c o a l o n t h e fire w o u l d n o t b u r n . I n o w I t h i n k h i m one of the worst of m e n . I have always c o n s i d e r e d h i m . to w h i c h H u m e J u l y 1790. h e never o w n e d that h e h a d read the N e w T e s t a m e n t with c a l m l y p e n n e d a r e f u t a t i o n o f Rousseau's a c c u s a t i o n s . i n t h e c o m p a n y o f a few c l o s e f r i e n d s . t h o u g h he h a d k n o w n instances of s o m e very where he had been persecuted good m e n b e i n g religious. n o m o r e t h a n t h e t h o u g h t that I h a d n o t b e e n . a r a s c a l . b a r e t e n pages a n d b e g i n s . It is d i f f i c u l t for a m a n to speak l o n g of h i m s e l f w i t h o u t f u l l y . " have e x p e l l e d h i m . a n a u d i e n c e w i t h t h e h u m a n frailty w i l l permit." A s S a m u e l J o h n s o n says b e c a u s e he is an atheist. t h e n H u m e t h i n k s w e are j u s t i f i e d i n tak. I n A d a m S m i t h ' s e x c h a n g e o f letters w i t h H u m e ' s p h y s i c i a n . b o t h i n his l i f e t i m e a n d i n g it.

R o u s s e a u extremely unfavourable and insulting. I felt t h r o u g h o u t s p a n k e d .D a m e i n Paris. " G o d i s just. H e writes. R o u s s e a u was w a l k i n g b a c k h a d d i e d o r even k i l l e d himself. M m e . I d i d not k n o w w h o I was. R o u s s e a u i s t h e o n l y e x a m p l e H e later d i s c o v e r e d that his u p p e r l i p was split u p t o the nose I k n o w o f a p h i l o s o p h e r w h o l i v e d h i s o w n posterity. T h e most intense p a i n O f course. T h i s first sensation was a m o m e n t of d e l i g h t . h i s left t h u m b b a d l y d a m a g e d a n d his ity o f h i s b a d n a m e w o u l d e n g u l f h i m .p i t y i n g h u b r i s . I was c o n - Denis Diderot (1713-84) scious of n o t h i n g else. h a d h i t t h e cobblestones. N o t a t a l l . I watched my b l o o d f l o w i n g as place to ruminate on the details of Rousseau's sexual I m i g h t have watched a stream. T h e f e e l i n g i t i s t h e art o f d y i n g . that whenever I h i m s e l f in Rousseau." it produces in h i m is a beatific c a l m . a n d f u t u r e u n e n c u m b e r e d b y a n y sense o f self. R o u s s e a u set o u t o n a w o u l d l i k e to test the t r u t h of Rousseau's e x p e r i m e n t w i t h a l o n g w a l k i n t o t h e h i l l s a n d c o u n t r y s i d e that s t i l l s u r r o u n d e d large c o m p l i a n t d o g . most o f t h e m p a c e that n e i t h e r c r e a t u r e c o u l d a v o i d t h e o t h e r .i 6 190 O R S O D E A D P H I L O S O P H E R S JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU 5 »57 S u c h was Rousseau's vanity that h e spoke very l o n g o f h i m s e l f to m e . H e k n e w a n d f o u r teeth h a d b e e n k n o c k e d i n o n h i s top jaw. a G r e a t D a n e c a m e h u r t l i n g towards h i m a t s u c h a o b i t u a r i e s b e g a n t o appear i n the press. w i t h o u t even t h i n k i n g that m a s o c h i s m in The Confessions a n d h i s s u b m i s s i v e desire to be the b l o o d h a d a n y t h i n g to do w i t h m e . w e r e " T h e first step t o w a r d s p h i l o s o p h y i s r e m e m b e r n o t h i n g . nor where I was. E n t i r e l y t a k e n up by the present. After the s t o r m o f h i s e a r l i e r r e v e l a t i o n s . e x t r a o r d i n a r y prose passages I k n o w . u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t s . texts. l o c a t i o n a n d . R o u s s e a u w r i t e s . I'd l i k e t o t u r n t o the a l l the pleasures that stir our lives. fear. I c o u l d d e V a n d e u l . Reveries of the Solitary Walker. A s h e regains c o n s c i o u s . O n T h u r s d a y 2 4 O c t o b e r 1776. r u m o u r s b e g a n t o c i r c u l a t e a r o u n d Paris that R o u s s e a u A t a b o u t six i n t h e e v e n i n g . He i n d u l g e d the great passion of his later life. T h u s . h i s ' w i l l i s t h a t I R o u s s e a u was greatly t r a u m a t i z e d or at least s o m e w h a t upset s h o u l d suffer. " R o u s s e a u d i e d b y t h e c a n i n e c o l l i s i o n . O n e m i g h t i m a g i n e that t y p i c a l s e l f . w h i c h was pos- ness o n the c o l d c o b b l e s t o n e s . m o r e o v e r . Rousseau even learnt felt n e i t h e r t h e i m p a c t o f t h e m a s t i f f n o r t h e f a l l a n d i t was that a s u b s c r i p t i o n h a d b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d for t h e sale o f h i s n e a r l y m i d n i g h t before h e r e g a i n e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s . n o r h a d I the least idea of what h a d just happened the facts o f D i d e r o t ' s d e a t h — i t s p r e c i s e date. " I f a n o l d m a n has s o m e t h i n g t o l e a r n . o f a m a s s i v e c e r e b r a l b l e e d i n g t w o years later. a m o o d o f c a l m pervades R o u s s e a u e x p e r i e n c e s t h e eternity o f t h e p r e s e n t w i t h o u t past the Reveries. In this i n s t a n t I was b e i n g b o r n again. Instead. A n g e l i q u e frail existence. s p o k e n t o his d a u g h t e r . matters are n o t straight. Critic of Jean-Jacques that he d e p o s i t e d on recall this feeling I c a n find n o t h i n g to c o m p a r e w i t h it in the altar i n N o t r e . R o u s s e a u b e i n g R o u s s e a u . u r e . s t o p p i n g n o w a n d a g a i n t o p i c k plants a n d flowers. H i s jaw. P e r h a p s readers forward. last in his t r i o of self-portraits. i n left a r m a n d k n e e severely s p r a i n e d . h e writes. p o s t h u m o u s . a n d h e k n o w s m y i n n o c e n c e . A p p a r e n t l y even the K i n g i n t o Paris a n d was d e s c e n d i n g the h i l l o n R u e M e n i l m o n t a n t . i n o n e o f the most sibly a c o n s e q u e n c e of his e n c o u n t e r w i t h the G r e a t D a n e . that h e h a d n o t w r i t t e n . w e t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g rather t h a n that. " A l t h o u g h there is a little i n c r e d u l i t y c o n c e r n i n g person. A s h e was s u c h a f a m o u s — i n d e e d i n f a m o u s — p u b l i c fig- botany. nor anxiety. H i s face that h e was d a m n e d t o a n a w f u l f a m e a n d that t h e i m m o r t a l - a n d h e a d was s w o l l e n . Paris at that t i m e . I h a d no distinct n o t i o n of myself as a i n c r e d u l i t y . p r o d u c e s t h e greatest i m a g i n a b l e pleasure. b e a r i n g t h e f u l l w e i g h t o f h i s b o d y . T h i s i s n o t t h e ther p a i n . a n d Q u e e n o f F r a n c e were c e r t a i n o f Rousseau's death a n d S u d d e n l y . N o r s h a l l I c o n s i d e r Rousseau's b i z a r r e d i a l o g u e w i t h my w h o l e b e i n g s u c h a w o n d e r f u l c a l m . I felt n e i - a n d wrote three s u b s t a n t i a l a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s . a n d it seemed as if a l l I perceived was f i l l e d w i t h my D i d e r o t ' s last w o r d s .

156 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU 157

S u c h was Rousseau's v a n i t y that h e spoke very l o n g o f h i m s e l f to m e . I d i d not k n o w w h o I was, nor where I was. I felt n e i -
a n d wrote three substantial autobiographies. T h i s is not the ther p a i n , fear, n o r anxiety. I w a t c h e d my b l o o d flowing as
place to ruminate on the details of Rousseau's sexual I m i g h t have w a t c h e d a stream, w i t h o u t even t h i n k i n g that
m a s o c h i s m in The Confessions a n d his s u b m i s s i v e desire to be the b l o o d h a d a n y t h i n g to do w i t h m e . I felt t h r o u g h o u t
s p a n k e d . N o r s h a l l I c o n s i d e r Rousseau's b i z a r r e d i a l o g u e w i t h my w h o l e b e i n g s u c h a w o n d e r f u l c a l m , that w h e n e v e r I
h i m s e l f in Rousseau, Critic of Jean-Jacques that he d e p o s i t e d on r e c a l l this feeling I c a n f i n d n o t h i n g to c o m p a r e w i t h it in
the altar i n N o t r e - D a m e i n Paris. Instead, I'd l i k e t o t u r n t o the a l l the pleasures that stir our lives.
last in his trio of self-portraits, Reveries of the Solitary Walker. After
the s t o r m o f h i s e a r l i e r r e v e l a t i o n s , a m o o d o f c a l m pervades R o u s s e a u e x p e r i e n c e s the eternity o f the present w i t h o u t past
the Reveries. H e writes, " I f a n o l d m a n has s o m e t h i n g t o l e a r n , a n d f u t u r e u n e n c u m b e r e d b y a n y sense o f self. T h e f e e l i n g
i t i s the art o f d y i n g ; w e t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g rather t h a n that." it produces in h i m is a beatific c a l m . T h e most intense p a i n
O f course, R o u s s e a u b e i n g R o u s s e a u , matters are n o t straight- p r o d u c e s the greatest i m a g i n a b l e p l e a s u r e . Perhaps readers
f o r w a r d . O n T h u r s d a y 2 4 O c t o b e r 1776, R o u s s e a u set o u t o n a w o u l d l i k e t o test t h e t r u t h o f Rousseau's e x p e r i m e n t w i t h a
l o n g w a l k i n t o t h e h i l l s a n d c o u n t r y s i d e that s t i l l s u r r o u n d e d large c o m p l i a n t d o g .
Paris at that t i m e . He i n d u l g e d the great passion of his later life, A s h e was s u c h a f a m o u s — i n d e e d i n f a m o u s — p u b l i c fig-
botany, s t o p p i n g n o w a n d a g a i n t o p i c k plants a n d flowers. ure, r u m o u r s b e g a n to c i r c u l a t e a r o u n d Paris that R o u s s e a u
A t a b o u t six i n t h e e v e n i n g , R o u s s e a u was w a l k i n g b a c k h a d d i e d or even k i l l e d himself. A p p a r e n t l y even the K i n g
i n t o Paris a n d was d e s c e n d i n g the h i l l o n R u e M e n i l m o n t a n t . a n d Q u e e n o f F r a n c e were c e r t a i n o f Rousseau's death a n d
S u d d e n l y , a G r e a t D a n e c a m e h u r t l i n g towards h i m a t s u c h a o b i t u a r i e s b e g a n t o a p p e a r i n the press, m o s t o f t h e m
p a c e that n e i t h e r c r e a t u r e c o u l d a v o i d the o t h e r . R o u s s e a u extremely unfavourable and insulting. Rousseau even learnt
felt n e i t h e r t h e i m p a c t o f t h e m a s t i f f n o r the f a l l a n d i t was t h a t a s u b s c r i p t i o n h a d b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d for t h e sale o f h i s
n e a r l y m i d n i g h t before h e r e g a i n e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s . H i s jaw, p o s t h u m o u s , u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t s ; texts, m o r e o v e r ,
b e a r i n g the f u l l w e i g h t o f h i s b o d y , h a d h i t the c o b b l e s t o n e s . that h e h a d n o t w r i t t e n . T h u s , R o u s s e a u i s t h e o n l y e x a m p l e
H e later d i s c o v e r e d that h i s u p p e r l i p was s p l i t u p t o the nose I k n o w o f a p h i l o s o p h e r w h o l i v e d h i s o w n posterity. H e k n e w
a n d f o u r teeth h a d b e e n k n o c k e d i n o n h i s t o p jaw. H i s face that h e was d a m n e d t o a n a w f u l f a m e a n d that t h e i m m o r t a l -
a n d h e a d was s w o l l e n , h i s left t h u m b b a d l y d a m a g e d a n d his ity o f h i s b a d n a m e w o u l d e n g u l f h i m . R o u s s e a u w r i t e s , i n
left a r m a n d k n e e severely s p r a i n e d . O n e m i g h t i m a g i n e that t y p i c a l s e l f - p i t y i n g h u b r i s , " G o d i s just; h i s " w i l l i s t h a t I
R o u s s e a u was greatly t r a u m a t i z e d or at least s o m e w h a t upset s h o u l d suffer, a n d h e k n o w s m y i n n o c e n c e . " R o u s s e a u d i e d
b y the c a n i n e c o l l i s i o n . N o t a t a l l . A s h e regains c o n s c i o u s - o f a m a s s i v e c e r e b r a l b l e e d i n g t w o years later, w h i c h was pos-
ness o n the c o l d c o b b l e s t o n e s , h e writes, i n o n e o f t h e m o s t sibly a c o n s e q u e n c e of his e n c o u n t e r w i t h the G r e a t D a n e .
e x t r a o r d i n a r y prose passages I k n o w ,

Denis Diderot
T h i s first sensation was a m o m e n t of d e l i g h t . I was c o n -
(1713-84)
scious of n o t h i n g else. In this i n s t a n t I was b e i n g b o r n
again, a n d it seemed as if a l l I perceived was f i l l e d w i t h my D i d e r o t ' s last w o r d s , s p o k e n t o his d a u g h t e r , M m e . A n g e l i q u e
frail existence. E n t i r e l y t a k e n up by the present, I c o u l d d e V a n d e u l , w e r e " T h e first step t o w a r d s p h i l o s o p h y i s
r e m e m b e r n o t h i n g ; I h a d no distinct n o t i o n of myself as a i n c r e d u l i t y . " A l t h o u g h there i s a l i t t l e i n c r e d u l i t y c o n c e r n i n g
person, nor h a d I the least idea of what h a d just h a p p e n e d the facts o f D i d e r o t ' s d e a t h — i t s p r e c i s e date, l o c a t i o n a n d

i 8
5
190 O R S O D E A D P H I L O S O P H E R S

w h e t h e r o r n o t h e was v i s i t e d
by a p r i e s t — t h e testimony of
h i s d a u g h t e r is e x t r e m e l y m o v -
ing. Diderot famously said,
" T h e object o f m y desires i s n o t
t o l i v e better, b u t n o t t o d i e . "
D e n i s expressed s o m e a n x i e t y
about ageing and his future
M a n y Germans and
d e m i s e in a letter to h i s sister,
Denise: Some Non-Germans
I am b e g i n n i n g to feel that I am g r o w i n g o l d : soon I w i l l
have to eat m u s h like c h i l d r e n . I shall no longer be able to
speak, w h i c h w i l l be a rather great advantage for others
a n d but a s m a l l i n c o n v e n i e n c e for myself.

Johann Joachim Winckelmann
H o w e v e r , h e m e t his e n d w i t h great dignity. After a n
(1717-68)
e x h a u s t i n g r e t u r n t r i p f r o m St. P e t e r s b u r g , a t t h e i n v i t a t i o n
o f his p a t r o n , C a t h e r i n e the G r e a t o f R u s s i a , D i d e r o t W i n c k e l m a n n was the o r i g i n a t o r o f the c l a s s i c a l G r e e k i d e a l
b e c a m e i l l , took t o h i s b e d , a n d d e c i d e d t o stop s p e a k i n g . H e i n W e s t e r n art a n d aesthetics, the a r g u a b l e f o u n d e r o f m o d e r n
e n j o y e d a b r i e f respite f r o m h i s i l l n e s s a n d was a b l e to sit at art h i s t o r y w h o s e History of the Art of Antiquity (1764) was p u b -
t a b l e w i t h his w i f e . H e ate s o u p , b o i l e d m u t t o n a n d c h i c o r y l i s h e d t o w i d e a c c l a i m a n d e s t a b l i s h e d h i m a s o n e o f the m o s t
a n d t h e n t o o k an a p r i c o t ( s o m e sources c l a i m it was a straw- c e l e b r a t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s o f his t i m e . H e was s t a b b e d t o d e a t h
b e r r y ) . A n g e l i q u e takes u p t h e story: b y a p i e c e o f r o u g h trade i n a h o t e l r o o m i n Trieste.
A l t h o u g h h e left G e r m a n y t o p u r s u e a l o n g a n d h i g h l y
M y m o t h e r wanted t o stop h i m f r o m eating that fruit. " B u t successful career in R o m e as l i b r a r i a n a n d president of antiq-
what the d e v i l k i n d of h a r m do y o u expect it to do to m e ? " uities a t t h e V a t i c a n , h e d e c i d e d t o r e t u r n h o m e for the first
He ate it, l e a n e d his elbow on the table to eat a c o m p o t e of t i m e i n 1768. H o w e v e r , h a v i n g r e a c h e d M u n i c h , h e s u d -
c h e r r i e s , c o u g h e d gently. M y m o t h e r asked h i m a ques- d e n l y b r o k e off his j o u r n e y a n d seems t o h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d a
t i o n ; since he r e m a i n e d silent, she raised her h e a d , l o o k e d m e n t a l b r e a k d o w n . L e a v i n g the c o m p a n y o f his travelling
at h i m , he was no m o r e . party, W i n c k e l m a n n r e t u r n e d i n c o g n i t o t o Italy, a r r i v i n g a t
T r i e s t e i n J u l y . H e l o d g e d a t t h e city's largest i n n a n d b e g a n
A s D i d e r o t was t h e great encyclopediste a n d a d v o c a t e o f sci- a n affair w i t h a c e r t a i n F r a n c e s c o A r c a n g e l i . A f t e r s e v e r a l
e n c e , h e h a d i n s i s t e d h i s b o d y b e d i s s e c t e d after h i s d e m i s e . n i g h t s o f p a s s i o n , A r c a n g e l i was d e s i r o u s n o t o f W i n c k e l -
It was d i s c o v e r e d that h i s h e a d was as w e l l p r e s e r v e d as a m a n mann's person but his medals a n d finery. He strangled
o f twenty's, that h i s g a l l b l a d d e r was dry, t h e r e b e i n g n o m o r e W i n c k e l m a n n a n d stabbed h i m repeatedly i n the genitals.
b i l e , a n d that h i s h e a r t was t w o - t h i r d s b i g g e r t h a n n o r m a l A r c a n g e l i was later a p p r e h e n d e d a n d e x e c u t e d b y b e i n g b r o -
size. k e n o n the w h e e l .

*59

i6o 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS IMMANUEL KANT l6l

exact m a n n e r , like a s i l k w o r m
i n its c o c o o n , a n d r e p e a t t h e
Immanuel Kant n a m e " C i c e r o " several times.
(1724-1804)
H e slept extremely w e l l .

T h e life o f the p h i l o s o p h e r i s often that o f the n e u r o t i c a l l y K a n t ' s d e c l i n e was s l o w a n d

obsessive. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f K a n t . A t 4:55 a . m . Kant's harrowing and is described in

f o o t m a n , L a m p e , w o u l d m a r c h i n t o his master's r o o m a n d cry, powerful, poignant if slightly

" H e r r Professor, the t i m e i s c o m e . " K a n t w o u l d b e seated a t p l o d d i n g detail by his former

his breakfast t a b l e b y t h e t i m e the c l o c k struck f i v e . H e d r a n k s t u d e n t a n d servant W a s i a n s k i .

several c u p s o f tea, s m o k e d his o n l y p i p e o f the day, a n d b e g a n T h e latter's m e m o i r was trans-

t o p r e p a r e his m o r n i n g l e c t u r e . lated with interpolations by

K a n t w o u l d go downstairs to his lecture r o o m a n d teach T h o m a s de Q u i n c e y as The Last

f r o m seven u n t i l n i n e a n d t h e n return upstairs in order to Days of Immanuel Kant.

w r i t e . A t p r e c i s e l y 12:45, K a n t w o u l d c a l l t o h i s c o o k , "It has K a n t h a d suffered f r o m a

s t r u c k t h r e e - q u a r t e r s , " w h i c h m e a n t t h a t l u n c h was t o b e stomach affliction for many

served. After t a k i n g what he referred to as a " d r a m , " he years, w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y r o b b e d

w o u l d b e g i n l u n c h at precisely one o'clock. K a n t eagerly h i m o f a l l a p p e t i t e e x c e p t for

a n t i c i p a t e d l u n c h , b o t h b e c a u s e i t was h i s o n l y real m e a l o f bread a n d butter w i t h E n g l i s h

the day a n d , h i s b e i n g g r e g a r i o u s , i t was a n o c c a s i o n for c o n - c h e e s e . H e suffered f r o m f r e q u e n t a n d d r e a d f u l n i g h t m a r e s
versation. Indeed, K a n t b e l i e v e d — a n d I think he is r i g h t - w i t h the constant a p p a r i t i o n of murderers at his bedside.
that c o n v e r s a t i o n a i d e d d i g e s t i o n . H e f o l l o w e d L o r d C h e s - W h a t was w o r s e , K a n t was f u l l y c o g n i z a n t o f h i s d e c l i n e a n d
terfield's r u l e , w h i c h m e a n t that the n u m b e r o f guests s h o u l d h a d l i t t l e d e s i r e t o see f r i e n d s a n d e n j o y t h e p l e a s u r e s o f
n e v e r b e fewer t h a n t h e graces o r m o r e t h a n t h e m u s e s a n d company.
was u s u a l l y b e t w e e n f o u r a n d eight. K a n t n e v e r t a l k e d p h i - O n h i s last day, K a n t was speechless a n d W a s i a n s k i gave
losophy a n d w o m e n were never invited. h i m a t i n y q u a n t i t y of water m i x e d w i t h sweet w i n e in a

A f t e r t h e m e a l was over, K a n t w o u l d take h i s f a m o u s w a l k , s p o o n u n t i l h e w h i s p e r e d h i s last w o r d , "Sufficit" ("It i s

b y w h i c h the g o o d wives o f K ö n i g s b e r g w o u l d b e a b l e t o t e l l e n o u g h " ) . A g a i n s t h i s w i s h e s for a s i m p l e f u n e r a l , K a n t l a y i n

the t i m e (the o n e t i m e h e m i s s e d h i s w a l k was w h e n h e was state for s i x t e e n days a n d t h e l a v i s h f u n e r a l p r o c e s s i o n was

too absorbed in the reading of Rousseau's Emile). Kant a t t e n d e d b y t h o u s a n d s . K a n t fever c o n t i n u e d t o s p r e a d across

w a l k e d a l o n e s o that h e c o u l d b r e a t h e t h r o u g h the m o u t h , the G e r m a n - s p e a k i n g w o r l d a n d t h e rest o f E u r o p e .

w h i c h h e t h o u g h t h e a l t h i e r . H e was d i s g u s t e d b y p e r s p i r a - A l t h o u g h at t i m e s a great stylist, t h e b o d y of K a n t ' s p h i l o s -
t i o n , a n d d u r i n g s u m m e r walks w o u l d stand perfectly still i n o p h y i s t o o o f t e n c l o t h e d i n t h e r a t h e r e l a b o r a t e f o r m a l aca-
the s h a d e u n t i l h e d r i e d off. H e also n e v e r w o r e garters, for d e m i c dress o f its t i m e . K a n t was t h e first m a j o r m o d e r n
fear o f b l o c k i n g the c i r c u l a t i o n o f t h e b l o o d . p h i l o s o p h e r to m a k e his l i v i n g as a professional teacher of

After an evening of reading, w r i t i n g a n d reverie, he t h e s u b j e c t i n a way that w o u l d b e f o l l o w e d b y F i c h t e , H e g e l

w o u l d go to bed at exactly ten o'clock. K a n t w o u l d then a n d others ( a l t h o u g h K a n t also taught a d a z z l i n g range of

p r o c e e d to enswathe h i m s e l f in the b e d c l o t h e s in a very o t h e r subjects: g e o g r a p h y , p h y s i c s , a s t r o n o m y , g e o l o g y a n d

By contrast. a u t o n o m o u s m o r a l b e i n g s w h o (1729-97) c a n a t t a i n p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y t h r o u g h t h e use o f r e a s o n a n d T h e artist J o s e p h F a r i n g t o n writes rather flatly o f the d e a t h o f the a v a i l a b i l i t y of e d u c a t i o n . effectively the husband's chattel. economists doned by Imlay. t h e great G e r m a n p o e t . H ö l d e r l i n . i n classical T o r y f a s h i o n . " w h i c h "she h a r d l y s e e m e d t o t o u c h . she s p e n t t w o years o n . T h e r e f o r e . o n c e u s i n g l a u d a n u m a n d the s e c o n d t i m e t h r o w i n g extinguished forever. s i m p l y reinforces women's submissive position in society a n d j u s t i f i e s w h a t W o l l s t o n e c r a f t saw a s t h e l e g a l p r o s - H e d i e d o f a n atrophy a n d suffered little p a i n . a n d the glory of E u r o p e is t w i c e . W a l s h i n s a y i n g . M a r y Wollstonecraft I f o n e w e r e f o r c e d t o try t o s u m m a r i z e K a n t ' s m a t u r e p h i - (1759-97) losophy in a sentence. B u r k e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the d e a t h of M a r i e A n t o i n e t t e a l l o w for t o t a l s e x u a l e q u a l i t y . m e l o d r a m a t i c a l l y . p o s i t i v e l y oozes s e n t i m e n t a l i t y a n d a f l o r i d nostalgia. W o l l s t o n e c r a f t c a l l e d K a n t the " M o s e s o f o u r n a t i o n . b e i n g read F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n requires a second d e c l a r a t i o n of the to in his final hours. ity a n d v e n e r a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n n o m y o f m o r a l s . one c o u l d do worse t h a n f o l l o w the great K a n t s c h o l a r W . a n d h a d a c h i l d out of w e d l o c k in Paris w i t h G i l b e r t Imlay. that of sophisters. " O n e w o n d e r s w h i c h o f f o l l o w e d it up w i t h A Vindication h i s m a n y successors f a n c y t h e m s e l v e s a s C h r i s t . " H e w i s h e d t o It is p r e c i s e l y s u c h s e n t i m e n t a l - i n s i s t o n t h e a u t h o r i t y o f s c i e n c e a n d yet preserve t h e a u t o .g o v e r n i n g . h e r s e l f i n t o the R i v e r T h a m e s . aesthetic. W o l l s t o n e c r a f t ' s o v e r r i d i n g c o n c e r n was t o s h o w t h a t E d m u n d Burke w o m e n are s e l f . a n d she l e d a t u r b u l e n t o n this o r b . H . H e h a d spit titution of conventional marriage. Wollstonecraft tried to c o m m i t suicide a n d calculators has succeeded. t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e rights o f m a n i n t h e reports suggest that B u r k e was l u c i d u n t i l the e n d . a r g u a b l y the m o s t i m p o r t a n t w o r k in feminist moral and political philosophy. S a d l y . L e a v i n g E n g l a n d i n 1792. of the Rights of Women (1792). c u l t u r a l a n d religious value? Is t h e latter as a d i r e c t r e p l y to such r e c o n c i l i a t i o n p o s s i b l e o r are s c i e n c e a n d m o r a l s w h a t she saw as B u r k e ' s s h a l l o w d o o m e d to drift apart i n t o a g e n e r a l n i h i l i s m ? S u c h is s t i l l . o u r q u e s t i o n . this p r o f e s s i o n a l d e f o r m a t i o n m a k e s m u c h o f w h a t K a n t says a p p e a r u n d u l y abstruse. . " B u r k e goes p e r s o n a l l i f e . where the wife was b l o o d a n d wasted away. B u r k e W o l l s t o n e c r a f t d i d m o r e t h a n a n y o n e else t o s h o w that the describes h e r as the m o s t " d e l i g h t f u l v i s i o n " w h o ever " l i g h t e d p e r s o n a l i s p o l i t i c a l a n d v i c e versa.1Ö2 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT n a t u r a l h i s t o r y ) . After being aban- T h e age of chivalry is gone. in F r a n c e . I e m o t i o n a l i s m a n d s u p p o r t for b e l i e v e . an A m e r i c a n speculator. social i n e q u a l i t y . in his Reflections on the Revolution rights o f w o m e n a n d t h e r a d i c a l r e f o r m o f s o c i e t y t h a t w i l l in France. Burke's T o r y s e n t i m e n t a l i t y Burke. " T h i s i s the g i g a n t i c task that s t i l l faces us: and the status quo against h o w are w e t o r e c o n c i l e the d i s e n c h a n t m e n t o f t h e u n i v e r s e which Mary Wollstonecraft b r o u g h t about b y the C o p e r n i c a n a n d N e w t o n i a n r e v o l u t i o n w o u l d r a i l in A Vindication of the in natural science w i t h the h u m a n experience of a w o r l d Rights of Men (1790). The root of women's o p p r e s s i o n l i e s i n t h e b e l i e f that t h e y are m o r a l l y i n f e r i o r t o T h e p r o b a b l e c a u s e was t u b e r c u l o s i s o f t h e s t o m a c h a n d m e n . S h e w r o t e infused w i t h m o r a l .

the c o u p l e got m a r r i e d a n d h a d w i t h glass w i n d o w s . his h a n d . U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e L o n d o n o n G o w e r Street. T h e " A u t o . t h e b o d y o f i n t h e last t e n years o f h i s l i f e B e n t h a m u s e d t o c a r r y a r o u n d . Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind." Jeremy B e n t h a m B e n t h a m was g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e reports h e h a d r e a d (1748-1832) f r o m N e w Z e a l a n d a b o u t t h e i s l a n d e r s ' way o f m u m m i f y i n g I n the S o u t h J u n c t i o n a t the s o u t h e n d o f the m a i n b u i l d i n g o f h e a d s a n d w i s h e d for h i s o w n h e a d t o b e s o treated. " i n the attitude in w h i c h I am sitting w h e n engaged in thought. I n d e e d . n o t c o m e away d u r i n g c h i l d b i r t h a n d W o l l s t o n e c r a f t d i e d o f In a text c a l l e d Auto-Icon: a fever e i g h t days later. a w a r r a n t was to the intent a n d w i t h the desire that m a n k i n d m a y reap i s s u e d for C o n d o r c e t ' s arrest a n d t h e great m a t h e m a t i c i a n some s m a l l benefit i n a n d b y m y decease. w h i l e o t h e r s i n s i s t t h a t h e was m u r d e r e d b y h i s s u i t o f c l o t h e s . C o n . religious ritual. " D a p p l e . f o u n d i n g s p i r i t o f U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e L o n d o n . T o t h e inside a wooden cabinet a m u s e m e n t o f t h e i r f r i e n d s . Farther uses of the dead to the living. B e n t h a m A s s e m b l y a n d representative for Paris. h e was c o n s i d e r e d a G i r o n d i s t . p o l i t i c a l p o w e r ject o f d e v o t i o n e m p l o y e d i n was d i v i d e d b e t w e e n the G i r o n d i n s . If an i c o n is an ob- In the years after the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n in 1789. w h i c h was d o r c e t b e c a m e c o n v i n c e d that the h i d i n g p l a c e was i m p e r f e c t e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1828 a s t h e first p l a c e o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n a n d d e c i d e d t o flee Paris. " i n Jacobin opponents. t h e first p h i l o s o p h e r o f a n a r c h i s m . b e c o m i n g secretary t o the L e g i s l a t i v e i n t h e i r o w n i m a g e for the s m a l l b e n e f i t o f posterity. W o l l s t o n e c r a f t b e c a m e t h e l o v e r o f J e r e m y B e n t h a m sits u p r i g h t W i l l i a m G o d w i n . o u t s i d e t h e c i t y a n d t w o days after that h e was f o u n d d e a d i n B e n t h a m ' s b o d y was d i s s e c t e d a n d h i s s k e l e t o n p i c k e d h i s p r i s o n c e l l . m e n t o f h i s c o r p s e a n d its m a r q u i s de Condorcet presentation after his de- (1743-94) mise. In O c t o b e r 1793. B e n t h a m r e q u e s t e d that h i s b o d y b e seated i n a c h a i r . B e n t h a m gave c a r e f u l instructions for the treat- Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas Caritat. T w o days later. H e was dressed i n a f a v o u r i t e h i m s e l f .I c o n " was c o n c e i v e d i n a s p i r i t o f i r r e l i g i o u s joc- A l t h o u g h an enthusiastic a n d active supporter of the u l a r i t y . S o m e p e o p l e b e l i e v e that C o n d o r c e t p o i s o n e d c l e a n a n d stuffed w i t h straw. T r a g i c a l l y . I t was d u r i n g this c l a n d e s . also c a l l e d M a r y . t h a m ' s " A u t o . C o n d o r c e t spoke writes that h e p l a n n e d t h e " A u t o . or. then B e n - a n d the r a d i c a l J a c o b i n s . h a v i n g hitherto w e n t i n t o h i d i n g for five m o n t h s . c o m p l e t e w i t h h i s favorite stick.164 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS JEREMY BENTHAM 165 A c o u p l e o f years later. a m o r e m o d e r a t e f a c t i o n . h a d s m a l l opportunities to contribute thereto w h i l e l i v i n g . w h i c h As s u c h . B e n t h a m ' s b o d y is a p o s t h u m o u s protest against a r g u e d i n c l a s s i c a l E n l i g h t e n m e n t f a s h i o n for the progress o f t h e r e l i g i o u s taboos s u r r o u n d i n g the d e a d a n d e m b o d i e s the h u m a n b e i n g s towards a n u l t i m a t e p e r f e c t i o n . a l i t t l e a d a u g h t e r . F r o m that t i m e .I c o n " against t h e e x e c u t i o n o f K i n g L o u i s X V I . the p l a c e n t a d i d box. t i n e e x i s t e n c e that h e w r o t e h i s m o s t i n f l u e n t i a l b o o k .I c o n " i s a godless h u m a n b e i n g p r e s e r v e d F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . t h e f u t u r e a u t h o r of Frankenstein like an antique telephone a n d w i f e o f P e r c y B y s s h e S h e l l e y . w h o s e l e a d e r was R o b e s p i e r r e . h e was a p p r e h e n d e d E n g l a n d free f r o m the g r i p o f the A n g l i c a n C h u r c h . H o w e v e r .

ist das euer Hölle?' ("Is that y o u r h e a v e n . H o w e v e r . t h e n o u r life has n o e n d . G o e t h e e v e n t u - f r o m 100 p o u n d s to 10. writes. A b e r d e e n railway station in Scotland. H o w e v e r . a n d p l e u r i s y w i t h w h i c h h e h a d struggled s i n c e 1791. a s e v e n t h f i n a l l y a g r e e d u n d e r severe pressure f r o m O n the contrary. was u s e d a s a r e p l a c e m e n t . t h e h e a d was d i s c o v e r e d in a l o c k e r at a l l y r e c o v e r e d . t h e was a w a r d e d t h e G o e t h e b a d g e o f t h e C i t y o f F r a n k f u r t . F i c h t e c o n t r a c t e d t y p h o i d f r o m h i s w i f e . t h e y t o t h e c h a r i t y S h e l t e r . of the t e r m i n a t i o n of its t h i n k i n g a n d life. a n d i n d y i n g the intensification A l t h o u g h six d o c t o r s refused t o c o m m i t the m a n t o the m a d .I c o n " attends m e e t i n g s of the so lucky. w h e n P r u s s i a was t r y i n g to r i d o f the l i v i n g was p e r s o n a l i m m o r t a l i t y . b e i n g u s e d o n o n e o c c a s i o n for f o o t b a l l p r a c t i c e i n t h e front q u a d r a n g l e . the d o c t o r l i f e b e g i n s a n d d e v e l o p s . c o n c e i v e o f the e n d o f o u r l i f e . r o t t i n g a n d b l a c k - e n e d h e a d used to be kept on the floor of the w o o d e n box F r i e d r i c h Schiller b e t w e e n B e n t h a m ' s feet. words "Jeremy B e n t h a m —present but not voting. T h a t is. T h o m a s B e r n h a r d tells a story a b o u t a m a n f r o m i n v a d e r s a n d restore n a t i o n a l u n i t y a n d m o r a l p u r p o s e . On 1 M a y he contracted double p n e u m o n i a and C o l l e g e C o u n c i l a n d that its p r e s e n c e i s r e c o r d e d w i t h the drifted in a n d out of d e l i r i u m . a l t h o u g h c o n v a l e s c e n c e took several m o n t h s ." H i s last w o r d s w e r e f u l l of d o u b t : "Ist das euer Himmel. S o m e t i m e later. h o u s e . T h e original head is S c h i l l e r . T h e o r i g i n a l . w h o T r u e e n o u g h . H e A u g s b u r g i n G e r m a n y w h o was c o m m i t t e d t o a l u n a t i c asy. T h i s It was a s u i t a b l y p a t r i o t i c d e a t h for the p h i l o s o p h e r w o u l d s e e m t o b e c o n f i r m e d b y G o e t h e ' s f a m o u s last w o r d s . H o w e v e r . D e a t h a n d b i r t h are o n l y the . A l l death i n nature i s b i r t h . (1749-1832) G o e t h e thought it J o h a n n Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) entirely impossible for a t h i n k i n g b e i n g to t h i n k of its o w n non-existence. w h o s e last m a j o r w o r k . the i n f e r e n c e that was t e n d i n g w o u n d e d soldiers d u r i n g the W a r s o f L i b e r a t i o n G o e t h e d r e w f r o m the i n c o n c e i v a b i l i t y o f d e a t h i n the m i n d that r a g e d f r o m 1813 to 1815. h i s b o d y w e a k e n e d b y the effects o f the p n e u m o n i a n o w refrigerated i n t h e vaults o f U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e L o n d o n . s o m e A p p a r e n t l y . S a d l y . e n l i v e n i n g t h e g o o d b u r g h e r s o f A u g s b u r g . l u m for i n s i s t i n g a t every o p p o r t u n i t y that G o e t h e ' s final w o r d s w e r e n o t "Mehr Licht. I n 1975. was n o t It is r e p o r t e d that t h e " A u t o . D e a t h does not k i l l . the m u m m i f i c a t i o n process w e n t badly w r o n g a n d a wax head great poet's b i r t h p l a c e . B y J a n u a r y . w h i c h has b e e n t h r o u g h fifty e d i t i o n s i n G e r m a n a l o n e ) ." b u t "Mehr Nicht" ( " N o m o r e " ) . o f life straightaway b e c o m e s visible. l6j t h e glass eyes that w e r e t o a d o r n h i s d e a d h e a d . is that y o u r h e l l ? " ) G o e t h e a n d S c h i l l e r were b u r i e d next to each other in J o h a n n Wolfgang von Goethe Weimar.E g o a t t h e age o f fifty-two. Addresses to the German Nation (a b o o k "Mehr Licht" ( " M o r e l i g h t " ) . t h e r e i s a n o t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f G o e t h e ' s last exhorted the G e r m a n people to expel their N a p o l e o n i c words. b e h i n d the o l d o b s c u r i t i e s . t h e h e a d b e c a m e a fre- (1759-1805) q u e n t target for s t u d e n t p r a n k s . A f t e r t h e r a n s o m d e m a n d was r e d u c e d w e r e b o t h struck d o w n w i t h a serious illness. i n 1805 G o e t h e was f i l l e d w i t h f o r e b o d i n g that students stole t h e h e a d a n d d e m a n d e d that a r a n s o m b e p a i d e i t h e r h e o r S c h i l l e r w o u l d d i e that year. i f w e c a n n o t itself o f the o c c u p y i n g F r e n c h forces.l66 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE . o n e m i g h t c o n c u r . T h e great p h i l o s o p h e r o f the E g o b e c a m e N o n .

i n d i c a t i v e a n d f a s c i n a t i n g . S p i r i t . it m i g h t a p p e a r that H e g e l ' s e n t i r e w o r k is a p h i . in o r d e r that life m a y forever believe in anything like disem- appear transfigured. h a n d s a n d the p a i n f u l death of c r u c i f i x i o n . a c h o l e r a e p i d e m i c swept across G e r - ter i s n o t h i n g o t h e r t h a n t h e m o v e m e n t o f l i f e i t s e l f . matters d o n o t e n d t h e r e . C h r i s t i a n i t y . H i s b o d y b e t r a y e d t i o n . h i m s e l f " t h e p u p i l o f that m i g h t y t h i n k e r . t h e first p e r s o n o f G o d t h e F a t h e r b e c o m e s t h e s e c o n d because of complications due to a stomach a i l m e n t from person o f G o d the S o n . a n d freed l o s o p h y of death insofar as the m e t h o d that he calls " d i a l e c t i c " f r o m its m y s t i c a l s h e l l . H e l m u t D o l l i n "Hegels Tod" seems t o p o i n t t h e n o t i o n o f S p i r i t tends t o cause c o n f u s i o n . a s t h e y c r u c i a l l y . a n o b j e c t that itself w i l l b e n e g a t e d . C h r i s t is the G o d . then. S p i r i t r e s e m b l e s w h a t m i g h t a p p e a r t o b e its m a t e r i a l i s t E x p e r i e n c e itself is understood by H e g e l as the a n n u l .i68 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS GEORGE WILHELM FRIEDRICH HEGEL 169 struggle of life w i t h itself. B u t a s s e m b l e d b y D r . In the language of the T r i n . H i s w i f e ' s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t "Mein .l i k e .m a n w h o is exposed to mortality in signs o f t h e i n f e c t i o n . A t w h i c h i s h o w h e u n d e r s t a n d s w h a t h e c a l l s " S p i r i t . d e a t h i s w h a t h e calls "the l a b o u r o f the negative.c o l d b l u e face. might seem like a l o n g death m a r c h . preted i n this way.c a l l e d " A s i a t i c c h o l e r a " h a d first what looks like a philosophy of death might more accu. J a n u a r y 1832. a p p e a r that H e g e l was o n e o f its v i c t i m s . I n t e r - In this l i g h t . as in C a t h o l i c i s m . feet. h e a d i n o r d e r t o see its r a t i o n a l k e r n e l . t h e e v i d e n c e q u i t e different) i s t h e t h i r d p e r s o n o f the T r i n i t y : S p i r i t . I n 1832. H e g e l ' s w i f e protested that h e h a d d i e d ity. but in the life of t h e c o m m u n i t y itself. 8 0 0 p e o p l e d i e d o f t h e experiential and historical unfolding. is a n o t h e r story. a l t h o u g h h i s m e a n i n g is have a c c e p t e d h e r v e r s i o n o f events. E x p e r i . For Hegel. b e t w e e n A u g u s t a n d the e n d o f t h e e p i d e m i c i n h i g h e s t f o r m o f r e l i g i o n b e c a u s e i n its c e n t r a l act the u n i v e r . t h e via dolorosa of n e g a t i o n d o e s n o t l e a d to a d e a d say. G e o r g W i l h e l m F r i e d r i c h Hegel then. F i c h t e is b u r i e d next to H e g e l in the D o r o t h e e n k i r c h e in S p i r i t does n o t l i v e n a r r o w l y i n Berlin. H e g e l d i d not i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n . b o d i e d spirits o r the i m m o r t a l - ity of the soul. disease i n t h e i m p o v e r i s h e d E a s t E n d o f L o n d o n . However. inversion in Marx's c o m m u n i s m . h e always professed ence. the life of the C h u r c h . for the c o n s e q u e n c e Paris i n 1827." d e t e r m i n e s i t s e l f freely. of the "death of G o d " (and H e g e l anticipates Nietzsche's M a n y o f Hegel's biographers sympathize w i t h his wife a n d f a m o u s w o r d s by n e a r l y a c e n t u r y . H o w e v e r . s u c h a s i c e . 5 0 0 cases o f c h o l e r a . " B u t that." A s for H e g e l ' s o w n d e a t h . for H e g e l . m a n y f r o m t h e east. b e e n d e t e c t e d a m o n g B r i t i s h s o l d i e r s i n I n d i a i n 1817 a n d r a t e l y b e d e s c r i b e d a s a n a t t e m p t t o u n d e r s t a n d l i f e i n its h a d r e a c h e d R u s s i a b y 1823. e n d but to what H e g e l calls "the negation of the negation. " T h e lat. w h a t H e g e l says a b o u t C h r i s t ' s d e a t h i s was u s u a l l y b a d d r i n k i n g water. T h e s o . w h i c h the p h i l o s o p h e r h a d b e e n suffering since a trip to H o w e v e r . S o . A l t h o u g h M a r x famously m e n t o f a n o l d o b j e c t a n d t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a n e w o b j e c t for s a i d that it was necessary to s t a n d H e g e l ' s p h i l o s o p h y on its c o n s c i o u s n e s s . i t was less t h a n C h r i s t . T h e c a u s e I n t h i s s e n s e . the e n d o f A u g u s t 1831. o n e c a n is a relentless m o v e m e n t of n e g a t i o n that spans a l l areas of see h o w c l o s e l y H e g e l ' s i d e a o f existence. is s i m p l y a l i v i n g c o m - (1770-1831) m u n i t y w h i c h k n o w s itself a n d F o r H e g e l . I t w o u l d sal G o d takes o n a p a r t i c u l a r h u m a n f o r m i n t h e i n c a r n a . is the I n B e r l i n . t h e r e w e r e 2 . A f t e r h i s d e a t h .

w i t h o u t c e r e m o n y . T h e r e i s a story o f a n E n g l i s h s t u d e n t o f h i s h e a p p l i e d t o h i s p a t i e n t s t o stop t h e m s c r e a m i n g ." b a d l y d a m a g e d i n a ferryboat a c c i d e n t a n d R ö b l i n g d i e d f r o m tetanus infection sixteen days later. a n d i n a separate grave. l i k e S c h e l l i n g . M e d i c a l f r o m t h e e a r l y 1800s c a l l e d H e n r y C r a b b R o b i n s o n . w i t h w h o m h e stayed for t h e r e m a i n i n g t h i r t y . h i s foot was "Killalusimeno.170 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS F R I E D R I C H HÖLDERLIN 171 seliger. b u r i e d a t n i g h t . (1770-1843) S c h e l l i n g was a p p o i n t e d to a pres- I n 1806. a n d a half. H e was p l a c e d i n t h e c a r e o f i n g r a n g e o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l w o r k that s e e m e d t o k e e p c h a n g - t h e c e l e b r a t e d D r . H ö l d e r l i n was released h e t h o u g h t i t e m b l e m a t i c a l l y G e r m a n . B r i d g e ? I n t h e year o f H e g e l ' s d e a t h . heavy. a s H e g e l was w r i t i n g h i s m o n u m e n t a l Phenomenology tigious professorship at Jena w h e n o f Spirit. i n v e n t o r o f a face m a s k that i n g year b y year. the poems are g e n u i n e . w h o m S c h e l l i n g called "the o l d m a n " a n d w h o h a d great d i f f i c u l t y i n F r i e d r i c h Hölderlin obtaining a university position. S c h e l l i n g p r o d u c e d a n a s t o n i s h - T ü b i n g e n . but the title written a 2000-page thesis on Hegel's c o n c e p t of the is false. i t . H e g e l a n d H ö l d e r l i n a t the T h e o - a t t h e t i m e o f its o p e n i n g the B r o o k l y n B r i d g e was b y far the logical Seminary in Tübingen. g o t h i c a n d i n c r e d i b l y s o l i d . A p p a r - a r t i c l e s o n H ö l d e r l i n t e n d t o agree t h a t h e was s u f f e r i n g ently.o n e f r o m c h o l e r a was p r o b a b l y d u e t o t h e s t i g m a s u r r o u n d i n g the years o f Z i m m e r ' s l i f e . H ö l d e r l i n . f a v o u r i t e s t u d e n t a n d protege J o h a n n A u g u s t R ö b l i n g — w h o was r u m o u r e d t o h a v e Yes. tionary technique of bridge-building using wire rope and a truss s y s t e m . to largest a n d m o s t i m p r e s s i v e w o r k o f its k i n d i n t h e w o r l d . was f o r c i b l y s e n t t o a c l i n i c for t h e m e n t a l l y i l l i n B e t w e e n 1795 a n d 1809. R o b i n s o n r e p l i e d that a m a x i m u m o f t h r e e years t o l i v e . R ö b l i n g was a w a r d e d t h e c o m m i s s i o n for t h e " H ö l d e r l i n " also l i k e d t o c a l l h i m s e l f " B u o n a r r o t i " a n d B r o o k l y n B r i d g e a n d b e g a n w o r k i n 1867. they are f r o m m e . a p p a r e n t l y H ö l d e r l i n s a i d . " as f r o m the c l i n i c into the care of a h u m b l e artisan. After leafing W h a t i s the c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n H e g e l a n d t h e B r o o k l y n t h r o u g h the pages. even though his F r i e d r i c h W i l h e l m Joseph von Schelling i n j u r e d toes h a d b e e n a m p u t a t e d . H ö l d e r l i n d i e d f r o m p l e u r i s y s o m e b u r i a l of c h o l e r a v i c t i m s . t i o n of his poems by C h r i s t o p h S c h w a b . w h i c h he had been admitted at L i k e t h e B r o o k l y n B r i d g e . U n l i k e H e g e l . E r n s t she puts i t i n a letter w r i t t e n after H e g e l ' s d e a t h ) h a d n o t d i e d Z i m m e r . as. h i s c l o s e f r i e n d a n d f o r m e r f e l l o w stu. (1775-1854) Vast. A f t e r d e v e l o p i n g a r e v o l u . S h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s d e a t h . Judged incurable and given c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f E n g l i s h p h i l o s o p h y . the B r o o k l y n B r i d g e spans a n d r e c o n c i l e s t w o o p p o s e d shores i n a w a y that S c h e l l i n g was a r o o m m a t e w i t h s t i l l appears t o defy t h e laws o f gravity. but rather u n i v e r s e — l e f t P r u s s i a for t h e U S A . t h e vast a r c h i t e c t u r e o f H e g e l ' s the u n u s u a l l y tender age of fifteen system rests o n s a n d . A u t e n r i e t h . h e was p r e s e n t e d w i t h a n e w e d i - yard. never in my life was I c a l l e d Hölderlin. S a d l y . L i k e lepers. geliebter Mann" ( " m y b l e s s e d a n d b e l o v e d h u s b a n d . S c h e l l i n g asked R o b i n s o n w h e t h e r the s e r p e n t was n o t from catatonic schizophrenia. L i k e H e g e l ' s s y s t e m . S c a r d a n e l l i or Salvator Rosa or the l i k e . a g e d seventy-three. d e n t . s o u t h e r n G e r m a n y . they were usually years l a t e r . he was twenty-three.

S c h e l l i n g r i p o s t e d that t h e E n g l i s h t i a l j o u r n a l . i n c l u d i n g K i e r k e g a a r d . h e a l t h a n d h a v i n g suffered a stroke. b e g i n s f r o m t h e p r e m i s e that " t h e w o r l d i s a n i m a t e d b y m e . E n g e l s a n d B a k u n i n . H i s eagerly awaited i n a u g u r a l l e c t u r e was attended b y a vast c r o w d . a t h e m e that is reiterated in m u c h A l o n g w i t h F r i e d r i c h S c h l e g e l .1J2 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS NOVALis 173 s h e d its s k i n every year. a n d F r i e d r i c h S c h l e g e l w r i t e s that " P h i l o s o p h y i s t h e real h o m e l a n d o f i r o n y . like a m i n i a t u r e work of art. N o v a l i s d i d n o t b e l i e v e that l a n g u a g e was a d e q u a t e as a w a y of g i v i n g v o i c e to t h e eter. they w r i t e . O n 2 5 M a r c h 1801 h e f e l l a s l e e p a s F r i e d r i c h S c h l e g e l sat b e s i d e h i m . the most a p p r o p r i a t e m e d i u m for the expres. S c h e l l i n g d i e d p e a c e f u l l y i n S w i t z e r l a n d i n his e i g h t i e t h year. t h e Athenaeum. s i o n o f t h i s i r o n i c f a i l u r e i s the f r a g m e n t o r t h e w i t t y a p h o - r i s m . R o m a n t i c philosopher. the past a n d future. i n t h e l a t e 1790s. N o v a l i s sent for his nity w i t h its worlds. T o p u t t h i s i n o t h e r t e r m s . H e n e v e r w o k e u p . H e w o r k e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f writes. is to say. T o t h i s e n d . N o v a l i s i n g (apart f r o m L e i b n i z ) . H e was b r o u g h t i n b y t h e A fragment. A f t e r a p e r i o d o f d e t e r i o r a t i n g Inward goes the mysterious path. K l e i s t shot h i s f r i e n d H e n r i e t t e V o g e l t h r o u g h the chest a n d ." w h i c h the p i a n o . N o v a l i s a n d S c h l e g e l O n t h e a f t e r n o o n o f 2 1 N o v e m b e r 1811. " F o r t h e G e r m a n has either no consciousness at a l l or an infinite one. t h e S a x o n salt w o r k s i n W e i s s e n f e l s u n t i l h i s p r e m a t u r e d e a t h i n h i s t w e n t y . p u b l i s h e d collections of fragments in their hugely influen. In us or nowhere is eter. A g a i n s t a systematic p h i l o s o p h e r l i k e H e g e l . N o v a l i s i s the q u i n t e s s e n t i a l English Romanticism. It is equally fatal to the spirit to have a system a n d not to have a system.n i n t h year. l i s t e n i n g t o h i s b r o t h e r K a r l p l a y i n g He espoused what he called "magic idealism. A l t h o u g h the c u r e for H e g e l i a n i s m was not discovered. w h i c h R o m a n t i c s . t h e i n f i n i t e w i l l always e s c a p e us. i t i s o n l y t h e p o e t w h o c a n (1772-1801) lead h u m a n i t y h o m e . A t the e n d o f his p e c u l i a r yet p o w e r f u l short essay. H o w e v e r . Novalis. T h e the restless n a t u r e o f h u m a n c o n s c i o u s n e s s . m e n t to a h e d g e h o g : In 1841. the e l d e r l y S c h e l l i n g was a p p o i n t e d Professor of P h i - l o s o p h y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B e r l i n . l i k e c h o l e r a . i n a m o v e that w o u l d i n f l u e n c e c o n t e m - (1777-1811) p o r a r y d e c o n s t r u c t i v e t h i n k i n g . i n a s u i c i d e p a c t . P u p p e t T h e a t r e . It w i l l s i m p l y have to c o m b i n e the two. T h e y f a m o u s l y c o m p a r e the frag- o n l y see the s k i n a n d n o t w h a t lies b e n e a t h . F r i e d r i c h L e o p o l d F r e i h e r r In t h e c o n d i t i o n that the R o m a n t i c s saw as the h o m e l e s s - von H a r d e n b e r g ness o f m o d e r n h u m a n b e i n g s . f r i e n d s . D e e p l y influenced by Fichte's concept N o v a l i s i s t h e o n l y t h i n k e r i n this b o o k w h o s t u d i e d m i n - o f the E g o d e f i n e d b y the activity o f endless striving. has to be entirely authorities to try to eradicate the fever of H e g e l i a n i s m that s o m e isolated f r o m the s u r r o u n d i n g w o r l d a n d b e c o m p l e t e i n p e o p l e t h o u g h t was s w e e p i n g across G e r m a n i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e itself l i k e a hedgehog. either in the p u p p e t or a god. " K l e i s t p o n d e r s the n a t u r e o f grace. G i v e n m a n b e i n g i s f i n i t e . b e c a u s e t h e h u . " a n d c l a i m s that l a n g u a g e i s that m a g i c a l m e d i u m for s h a p i n g H e i n r i c h von Kleist the w o r l d . K l e i s t c o n c l u d e s n a m e that t h e R o m a n t i c s gave t o this gap b e t w e e n the finite that grace w i l l o n l y a p p e a r i n b o d i l y f o r m i n a b e i n g that a n d t h e i n f i n i t e was irony. " O n the n i t y w i t h i n us.

J 74 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER 175 t h e n e m p t i e d the p i s t o l i n h i s m o u t h . t h e n h u m a n b e i n g s are i l l a d a p t e d to its Will and Representation. is t h a t t h e w o r l d is s i m p l y a series of t r u e p u r p o s e . t h e n . w e e n d i n the d i s s o l u t i o n o f a l l o u r o n l y p e r m i s s i b l e s u i c i d e i s the self-starvation o f t h e a s c e t i c . T h e b a s i c a r g u m e n t S c h o p e n h a u e r does h a v e a p o i n t : i f t h e p u r p o s e o f h u m a n of S c h o p e n h a u e r ' s greatest p h i l o s o p h i c a l w o r k . vast. the b u r d e n is l i f t e d " ) . t h e l o c a t i o n o f K l e i s t s a n d h e r d o w n a f l i g h t o f s t a i r s . t h e n . . w e d o n o t r e a l l y t r a g i . i l l n e s s a n d w o e are every. "Obit Jews was d e c i d e d s o m e 130 years later. H e writes. T h e A r t h u r Schopenhauer h u m a n b e i n g i s a n animal metaphysicum a n d o u r m e t a p h y s i c a l (1788-1860) n e e d has its r o o t i n t r y i n g t o s t a n d face-to-face w i t h m o r t a l - S c h o p e n h a u e r is perhaps the ity. p a i n . " T h i s i s t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r i n noise a n d h a d b e c o m e so enraged by the l o u d t a l k i n g of the the h i s t o r y o f t h e w o r l d . B o t h w e r e b u r i e d f i n d o u t a n e e l i n a n a s s e m b l y o f s n a k e s . k i l l e d h i m s e l f i n 1805. f l e e t i n g a p p e a r a n c e s . F o r S c h o p e n h a u e r . s o m e t w e n t y years later. H i s father a n d c o n t i n u e s t o b e felt i n writ. w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t S c h o p e n h a u e r p o s i t i o n s h i m s e l f for a n i n s i s t i n g that e x i s t e n c e is really e n t h u s i a s t i c d e f e n c e o f s u i c i d e . A p p a r e n t l y t h e y h a d a S c h o p e n h a u e r was a n o t o r i o u s m i s o g y n i s t . anus. H o w e v e r . W h y ? is an e x p i a t i o n of the c r i m e of b e i n g b o r n . H e was o b l i g e d t o p a y h e r a H e n r i e t t e ' s s u i c i d e — o n t h e s h o r e o f the W a h n s e e i n s o u t h . F o r S c h o p e n h a u e r . is l i t e r a l l y a mortgage. w h i c h w e w i l l see b e l o w w i t h the e x a m p l e o f S i m o n e W e i l . w i l l b u t are w i l l e d b y a n u n c o n s c i o u s a g e n c y o v e r w h i c h w e have no power. h a u e r insists. S c h o p e n h a u e r w r o t e . h e was t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y a t t h e p r e c i s e spot w h e r e t h e y h a d d i e d . is that it We b e g i n in the madness of carnal desire a n d the transport m a i n t a i n s the i l l u s i o n of wilfulness. H e w r o t e that t a b l e a n d s o m e coffee b r o u g h t f r o m a n e a r b y cafe t o e n j o y " m a r r y i n g m e a n s . " I n 1820. i m p e n e t r a b l e a n d m e r c i l e s s W i l l . B e h i n d these a p p e a r a n c e s t h e r e lies a w h e r e . i t of Continental philosophy. m o n t h l y a l l o w a n c e u n t i l h e r d e a t h . T h e p r o b l e m o f s u i c i d e h a u n t s S c h o p e n h a u e r . i r r a t i o n a l .c o m e d y o f s e x u a l d e s i r e . w i t h u n r e l e n t i n g p e s s i m i s m exerted sleep as the d a i l y interest on this l o a n . H u m a n l i f e is a sheer restlessness for S c h o p e n h a u e r . t h e n w h y n o t k i l l o n e s e l f ? W h a t p o s s i b l e rea- S c h o p e n h a u e r is the Eeyore son c a n t h e r e b e t o l i v e ? A s D a l e J a c q u e t t e r i g h t l y argues. f o u n d g u i l t y o f a c h a r g e o f battery b r o u g h t against h i m b y a S u i c i d e is therefore a r e t u r n to a state of grace. the o f v o l u p t u o u s n e s s . T h e r e f o r e . a vast i n f l u e n c e that c a n be felt in F r e u d and existentialism. T h e p r o b l e m w i t h s u i c i d e . The World as l i f e is not s u f f e r i n g . T h e p h i l o s o p h e r was p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e t o t h e p u p p e t theatre c o n c l u d e s . h e insists that s u i - s o m e sort o f m i s t a k e a n d " l i f e c i d e is a c o w a r d l y act. " seamstress o n t h e l a n d i n g o u t s i d e h i s r o o m that h e p u s h e d W i t h savage h i s t o r i c a l i r o n y . B u t i f life i s a s i m p e r f e c t a s S c h o p e n - ers s u c h as J o h n G r a y . t o grasp b l i n d f o l d i n t o a sack h o p i n g t o the v i e w b e f o r e t h e y t o p p e d t h e m s e l v e s . parts a n d the musty stench of corpses. " T h a t said. a c o n s t a n t i n c o n s t a n c y that shows i t s e l f m o s t c l e a r l y i n the a n d t h i s t h o u g h t f i n d s its h o m e i n F r e u d . W h e n she f i n a l l y west B e r l i n — w a s the p l a c e w h e r e the m u r d e r o f the E u r o p e a n e x p i r e d . d e a t h i s the r e a s o n for p h i l o s o p h i z i n g a n d l i f e i s a c o n s t a n t d y i n g i n a state o f s u f f e r i n g . T h e a n s w e r lies i n h i s m e t a p h y s i c s . L i f e . a c o n t r a c t w i t h d e a t h : m o d e r n p h i l o s o p h e r w h o said most about death a n d whose L i f e is to be regarded as a l o a n received f r o m death. abit onus" ( " T h e o l d w o m a n dies. A f f l i c t i o n . T h e essay on s e a m s t r e s s .

If it is t r u e that we are w i l l e d by o b l i g e d t o l i v e o n t h e p r o f i t s o f h i s wife's s h a r e i n a p o r - a n i m p l a c a b l e a n d i m m o r t a l W i l l . After h a v i n g s i m p l y d e n i e d the possibility of personal tle bits o f S c h o p e n h a u e r o r a n y b o d y else (even t h e l o a t h e d i m m o r t a l i t y i n " T h o u g h t s o n D e a t h a n d I m m o r t a l i t y . y o u r jacket o r ten w h e n h e was o n l y twenty-six. • S t i r n e r d i d n ' t t h i n k that F e u e r b a c h was n e a r l y r a d i c a l e n o u g h T h e r e is no other road for y o u to truth a n d freedom except in his c r i t i q u e of r e l i g i o n . F e u e r b a c h was the m o s t w i d e l y r e a d a n d c o n t r o v e r s i a l p h i l o s o p h e r i n T h e d i v i n e i s G o d ' s c o n c e r n . the h u m a n . n o t the t r u e . It's his metier. W h a t C h r i s t i a n s worship w h e n they kneel is n o t h i n g other than themselves in an alienated. S t i r n e r writes. . m o r a l n o r m s a n d s o c i a l c o n v e n - is the purgatory of the present times. ij6 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS LUDWIG FEUERBACH 177 S c h o p e n h a u e r ' s v i e w o f t h e W i l l has a p e c u l i a r c o r o l l a r y : views. demystifying C h r i s t i a n i t y a n d b r i n g i n g h u m a n beings H e i n e ' s w r i t i n g a n d w i t were always closer t o D i d e r o t o r towards a true self-understanding. G e r m a n y . T h u s . H e was f o u n d d e a d s i t t i n g i n h i s c h a i r o n 2 1 S e p . i f a l l m a t e r i a l t h i n g s . " L i k e H e i n e i n Paris. F e u e r b a c h a n d that W i l l c a n n o t b e s a i d t o e n d w i t h o u r d e a t h . he n e v e r r e c e i v e d a u n i v e r s i t y professorship a n d was the p o s s i b i l i t y of an afterlife. b o r n Johann K a s p a r Schmidt (1806-56) T h e y o u n g K a r l M a r x w r o t e i n a note t o h i m s e l f . our. In The Ego and Its Own (1845). L u d w i g Feuerbach (1804-72) M a x Stirner. T h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l c u r e consists i n o v e r c o m i n g a l i e n - (1797-1856) ation. F e u e r b a c h ' s m e d i c a l c a r e after t h e stroke that l e d t o his d e a t h struction of i n d i v i d u a l beings into n e w forms. tember i860. F e u e r b a c h r a d i c a l i z e d h i s y o u r breakfast c e r e a l . reply. are b u t effects o f s u c h a W i l l . h e w r i t e s . tions. F e u e r b a c h rejects a l l r e l i g i o u s c o n c e p t s . " writ- seamstress) m i g h t b e l u r k i n g i n y o u r p e n c i l . man's. It r e m a i n s the classic statement of i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c a n a r c h i c e g o t i s m a n d is a terrific r e a d . " G o d w i l l Away w i t h lamentations over the brevity of life! It is a trick p a r d o n m e . H u m a n b e i n g s t h e n p r o c e e d t o a l i e n a t e t h e m s e l v e s f r o m this perfection. For Feuerbach. B e c a u s e o f his r a d i c a l c e r n i s nejther the d i v i n e n o r the h u m a n . the S t o i c s a n d D a o i s t s — palingenesis ( r e b i r t h ) . H i s final words were. this L a u r e n c e S t e r n e t h a n his G e r m a n c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . I n a d i a r y e n t r y f r o m 1836. c e l a i n factory i n B r u c k b e r g . d e a t h his w i f e l i v e d i n s t r a i t e n e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s . W h e n the p o r c e l a i n selves i n c l u d e d . it w o u l d h u m a n i t y . M y c o n - G e r m a n y i n the late 1830s a n d 1840s. b u t the d e c o m p o s i t i o n a n d recon. T h e r e f o r e . idealized Heinrich Heine f o r m ." Appropriately. h u m a n perfection into d i v i n e f o r m : the person of C h r i s t . h e d i e d there." of the deity to m a k e an i n r o a d i n t o o u r m i n d a n d heart in order to tap the best of o u r sap for the benefit of others. H e o n c e m e a n s that p h i l o s o p h y b e c o m e s a n t h r o p o l o g y . C h r i s t i a n i t y is u n d e r w e n t p a l i n g e n e s i s after a s e c o n d h e a r t attack a n d l u n g essentially the elevation a n d objectification of an ideal of i n f e c t i o n . A l t h o u g h n o w best k n o w n a s a p r e c u r s o r t o M a r x . t h e s c i e n c e o f r e m a r k e d that if a fish in water were asked h o w it felt. Schopenhauer's material appearance critique of C h r i s t i a n i t y in his later work. T h e m o n e y for is not total a n n i h i l a t i o n . h a d t o b e raised b y c o n t r i b u t i o n s f r o m supporters o f the n e w l y T h i s i s w h a t S c h o p e n h a u e r c a l l s — i n a w a y that e c h o e s f o u n d e d G e r m a n S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c Party. t h e n t h e life o f business c r a c k e d a n d w e n t b a n k r u p t i n 1859. he that l e a d i n g through the brook of fire [ Feuerbach ]. l i t . probably from syphilis.

c o m - b i n e d w i t h the extraordinary m e d i t a t i v e v o i c e w h i c h defines h i s p r o s e . a n essay p r o m p t e d b y t h e d e a t h o f h i s s o n t w o years e a r l i e r . free. although the latter does d e s c r i b e E m e r s o n as " G e r m a n p h i l o s o p h y that h a d taken on quite a lot of water o n the t r a n s . but solely what is mine." T h a t s a i d .A m e r i c a n s d o n ' t e v e n get that far. c a n b e s e e n i n " E x p e r i e n c e " (1844). T h e d e n s e . B u t S t i r n e r ' s success was s h o r t . H i s later b o o k s h a d n o success. E m e r s o n i s s t i l l far too l i t t l e r e a d i n E u r o p e a n d n o t t a k e n p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y seri- o u s l y e n o u g h a n y w h e r e else. s a y i n g l a t e r t h a t h e was a s l y a n d u n p l e a s a n t m a n . S t i r n e r was s t u n g o n t h e n e c k b y a f l y i n g i n s e c t a n d d i e d a m o n t h later f r o m the r e s u l t i n g fever. a n d it is not a g e n e r a l o n e . b u t is u n i q u e . etc. N o t h i n g is m o r e to me than myself. M o s t n o n . O n the c o n - 179 . M o s t A m e r i c a n s m i g h t h a v e read a c o u p l e o f essays i n h i g h s c h o o l a n d t h e n h e i s q u i c k l y forgotten.l i v e d a n d t h e r e m a i n d e r o f T h e Masters of Suspicion and his l i f e was d i s m a l . R a l p h Waldo E m e r s o n (1803-82) E m e r s o n i s the first A m e r i c a n p h i l o s o p h e r i n this book. H e was e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y a d m i r e d b y s o m e o n e as d i f f i c u l t to please as Nietzsche. 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS g o o d . H e f e l l i n t o severe p o v e r t y a n d was i m p r i s - o n e d on two occasions. just. a n d e v i d e n c e o f its i n f l u e n c e c a n b e f o u n d i n t h e fact that M a r x a n d E n g e l s s p e n d several h u n d r e d pages o f The German Ideology p i c k i n g apart " S a i n t M a x " l i n e b y l i n e . B u t this death does not y i e l d the u s u a l r i t u a l l a m e n t a t i o n . c o m p a c t a n d o r a c u l a r style o f E m e r s o n . The Ego and Its Own attracted a great d e a l of c r i t i c a l atten- t i o n . a n d his Some Unsuspicious Americans s e c o n d w i f e left h i m . O n 2 5 J u n e 1856. as I am u n i q u e ..A t l a n t i c passage.

" O n the b r o w i s s u r r o u n d e d b y a l m o s t total f u n e r e a l b l a c k n e s s . I n R o o m 2 6 o f the N a t i o n a l P o r t r a i t G a l l e r y i n L o n d o n . saying.] N e v e r m i l e walk. " L i f e i s n o d i a l e c t i c s . w i t h h i s step- A n d yet. E y e s d o w n c a s t i n m e d i t a t i o n . w h e r e i n n o m a n can work. E m e r s o n w r i t e s t h a t t h e c a l a m i t y o f h i s son's d e a t h W h e n asked i f h e had m a d e his peace w i t h G o d . t h e n . F r a n c e . c a l l y r e c e i v e d a n d o u t s o l d On the Origin of Species. 1ÖO 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS HENRY DAVID T H O R E A U IOI trary. — t h e r e is victory yet for all justice. through the Action of Worms. . H i s h e a l t h d e c l i n e d over the next three years a n d with Observations on Their Habits. T h e r e at least is reality that w i l l not dodge us. . A l t h o u g h h a r d l y a c a t c h y t i t l e . M i l l ' s A t l a n t e a n E m e r s o n q u i p s . H e h a d r e t i r e d t o sleep. M i l l c a u g h t a c h i l l after a fifteen- Patience a n d patience. it seems to say. Sartor Resartus: E m e r s o n died patiently of p n e u m o n i a . never the defeat. Watts p a i n t e d a c o u p l e o f m o n t h s W h a t is b e i n g faced here is not the refusal to m o u r n . o l d heart! — his s l e e p f o u r days later. i s the g o o d o f t h o u g h t ? A s l i p s s e a l e d . M i l l ' s f a v o u r i t e m o t t o was f r o m T h o m a s C a r l y l e ' s w o n d e r - f u l l y w i t t y satire o n G e r m a n p h i l o s o p h y . " S o m e t h i n g that h e t h o u g h t part o f h i m r e p l i e d . We l o o k to that w i t h a (1806-73) g r i m satisfaction. we shall w i n at the last [. M a s s a c h u s e t t s : g r i e v e that g r i e f c a n t e a c h m e n o t h i n g . J o h n Stuart M i l l N o t h i n g is left us n o w but death. F . " Y o u k n o w that I h a v e d o n e m y w o r k . a l l i s n o t q u i t e lost." h i s v i l l a a t S a i n t . life is a " b u b b l e a n d a s c e p t i c i s m . there i s a portrait o f M i l l b y G . face p o i s e d a n d h a l f i n s h a d o w . C o n c o r d . M i l l took e n o r m o u s pleasure i n botany. i n "Henry. Thoreau's meditations on nature in Waiden a n d d e f e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i e n c e against a n u n j u s t Charles D a r w i n g o v e r n m e n t c o m b i n e the r o m a n t i c i s m a n d r e f o r m a t the heart (1809-82) o f the m o v e m e n t k n o w n a s N e w E n g l a n d T r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s m . o n tree s t u m p s d u r i n g a r a i n y n i g h t . " H e d i e d a t a n d w h i c h c o u l d n o t b e t o r n away w i t h o u t t e a r i n g h i m apart t h e age o f forty-four a n d t h e r e i s b u t o n e w o r d w r i t t e n o n h i s "falls off f r o m m e a n d leaves n o scar. up again. H e l e n T a y l o r . " W o r k w h i l e i t i s c a l l e d T o d a y . a sleep w i t h i n a H a p p i l y . H i s c o n d i t i o n deteriorated a n d h e died c a l m l y i n m i n d the r i d i c u l e . contrary. b u t the before t h e p h i l o s o p h e r ' s d e a t h . for the N i g h t c o m e t h . " I grave i n S l e e p y H o l l o w C e m e t e r y . M i l l i s reported t o h a v e said t o H e l e n . Rousseau. F o l l o w i n g a t y p i c a l l a t e . p u b l i s h e d i n t h e year before h i s d e a t h . i n a b i l i t y t o d o so. T h o r e a u c o n t r a c t e d was The Formation of Vegetable Mould. M i l l ' s d e m i s e was less g l o o m y . As J o h n ." E m e r s o n goes o n . H a p p i n e s s consists i n l i v i n g d a u g h t e r . O n the n i g h t o f S a t u r d a y 3 M a y . h e seems t o h a v e b e e n f u l l y aware that his e n d was n i g h a n d the b o o k w a s — t o D a r w i n ' s surprise a n d d e l i g h t — e n t h u s i a s t i - calmly accepted death.n i g h t e x c u r s i o n t o c o u n t t h e rings D a r w i n ' s f i n a l b o o k . w h o was M i l l ' s c o n s t a n t c o m p a n - " t h e greatest n u m b e r o f g o o d h o u r s " a n d t h i s r e q u i r e s t h e i o n after h i s wife's d e a t h fifteen years e a r l i e r . b r o n c h i t i s . " H e c o n c l u d e s ." utter darkness. A disciple of E m e r s o n .V e r a n i n A v i g n o n . L i k e t h e a g e d c u l t i v a t i o n o f the p r a c t i c e o f p a t i e n c e . E m e r s o n w r i t e s . h e "does n o t t o u c h m e . " I d i d n o t k n o w w e h a d ever q u a r r e l e d . " Henry David Thoreau H e was b u r i e d b e s i d e h i s w i f e i n t h e c e m e t e r y o f S a i n t - (1817-62) Veran. W h a t ." Before h e d i e d . against H e g e l .

"as the sweetest p l a c e T h i s last r e m a r k i s s i g n i f i c a n t a n d p o i g n a n t b e c a u s e six o n e a r t h . following Saint n o t i n the least a f r a i d t o d i e . r e n o u n c e d a l l c o n n e c t i o n to what H e n r i k c a l l e d the "play- I t seems that K i e r k e g a a r d h a d s i m p l y lost the w i l l t o l i v e . l8l 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS S0REN KIERKEGAARD . K i e r k e g a a r d that m u c h i n h i s l i f e h a d w o r k e d o u t w e l l . D a r w i n was P a u l a n d L u t h e r . " y a r d n e a r h i s h o u s e i n D o w n e . H e seems I c a n n o t share m y h a p p i n e s s w i t h a n y o n e . H e O f c o u r s e . r e p l i e d . Kierkegaard's brother Peter. w h e r e his c o n d i t i o n d e t e r i o r a t e d . specifically faith in Christ's L i f e h a d b e c o m e w e a r i s o m e for D a r w i n a n d after a heart forgiveness for o u r sins. aged forty-two. i t i s p o i g n a n t that D a r w i n s h o u l d interest h i m . K i e r k e g a a r d ' s p e a c e f u l rest was s h o r t . " I n h i s last year. the B i s h o p of A a l b o r g .83 B o w l b y p o i n t s o u t . exhausted by his v o l u m i n o u s a n d b r i l l i a n t literary work a n d i m m e n s e p e r s e v e r a n c e a n d the t h e o r e t i c a l cast o f m i n d that d e p r e s s e d b y t h e sorry state o f h i s p e r s o n a l life a n d t h e state c h a r a c t e r i z e d a l l of his work. t i a n i t y o f t h e D a n i s h pastors. H o w e v e r . Kierkegaard's nephew. w h o is the death of was b u r i e d w i t h great e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c e r e m o n y a n d n o w rests death. b e c a u s e self i n w o r m s o n t h e way t o b e c o m i n g w o r m f o o d . H e r i d i c u l e d t h e c l e r g y . T h e o n l y c u r e for enjoy. N o n e (1813-55) o t h e r t h a n H a n s C h r i s t i a n A n d e r s e n reports a s c a n d a l that A p a r t f r o m a l o n g p e r i o d o f c o n s t i p a t i o n . w h i c h is u n d e r s t o o d by I have n o t the heart of strength at my age to b e g i n a n y K i e r k e g a a r d as the c o n s c i o u s - investigation lasting years. the s i c k n e s s u n t o d e a t h is f a i t h . pray t o b e free o f d e s p a i r a t t h e t i m e o f m y d e a t h . the world through faith in g i s m t o d e s c r i b e D a r w i n ' s a t t i t u d e towards r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f ) C h r i s t ." Soren Kierkegaard S a d l y .l i v e d . t h i n g C h r i s t i a n i t y o f the pastors. For attack a n d a l m o s t d a i l y a n g i n a l attacks. h e was t a k e n t o F r e d r i k ' s H o s p i t a l i n f u l l r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e a n d t h e e u l o g y was d e l i v e r e d b y h i s C o p e n h a g e n . D a r w i n felt i n c r e a s i n g l y t i r e d a n d years earlier. O u t r a g e d by s u c h n i e c e reports that w h e n b r o u g h t t o the h o s p i t a l . " T h a t i s w h y I a m very h a p p y a n d very sad. H e n r i k L u n d . T h e famous agnostic ( T h o m a s Huxley's neolo. made a h e h a d c o m e t h e r e t o d i e . His lifelong friend E m i l Boe- ecosystem was d e p e n d e n t o n the a c t i v i t y o f t h e earth's h u m . s i n a n d is that state w h e r e t h e self w i l l s t o b e itself a n d "rests t r a n s p a r e n t l y i n t h e p o w e r that e s t a b l i s h e d it. for b u r y i n g s o m e o n e w h o h a d the tentative diagnosis was t u b e r c u l o s i s . K i e r k e g a a r d seems took p l a c e a t K i e r k e g a a r d ' s kierkegaard ( " c h u r c h y a r d " i n D a n - t o have e n j o y e d reasonable h e a l t h . w h i c h is the o n l y t h i n g w h i c h I ness o f s i n . T h e cause o f d e a t h i s u n c l e a r a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r B i s h o p Peter. " I a m Kierkegaard. the o v e r c o m - not a l l o w e d to s u b m i t to the a c t i o n of w o r m s in D o w n e ing of despair requires d y i n g to C h u r c h y a r d ." . " I t o have l o n g e d for d e a t h towards t h e e n d . v i e w i n g the grave. D e s p i t e h i s tireless tirades against t h e d e g r a d e d C h r i s - late S e p t e m b e r 1855 a n d c o l l a p s e d in the street on 2 O c t o b e r . h e c o n f e s s e d . " H e c o n t i n u e d . h e b e c a m e i l l i n ish). K e n t . F a i t h is the opposite of a few feet f r o m Isaac N e w t o n i n W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y . K i e r k e g a a r d was b u r i e d w i t h a A t h i s o w n request. w i t h D a r w i n ' s eye for s m a l l d e t a i l . he showed h o w o u r entire of Christianity in Denmark. H e d i e d six w e e k s l a t e r o n 1 1 protest s p e e c h a t t h e graveside. " A g a i n s t his w i s h e s . under the pseudonym "Anti-Climacus. sen v i s i t e d h i m a s h e was d y i n g a n d k i n d l y s u g g e s t e d t o blest creatures. a n d N o v e m b e r ." c o m p l a i n e d that K i e r k e g a a r d h a d p u b l i s h e d The Sickness Unto Death (1849). h e said that hypocrisy. T h i s fatal sickness is despair.

place of p i l g r i m a g e . for i n s t a n c e . a n e m p i r i c i s t a n d o n e o f t h e f o u n d e r s a n d for p e r i o d s c o v e r e d h i s " w h o l e cadaver. i n 1881." i n w h i c h w e m i g h t " f i n d o u r greatest t w o m o n t h s b e f o r e h i m . Karl Marx (1818-83) M a r x was v o t e d t h e w o r l d ' s greatest p h i l o s o p h e r b y a h u g e M a r x seems t o have h a d a l o n g . T h e philosophers have o n l y interpreted the w o r l d i n vari- ous ways. A l g i e r s a n d the less exotic des. he writes. that t u m o u r that e v e n t u a l l y k i l l e d h i m .6 ) . J a m e s d e v e l o p s t h e i d e a o f w h a t h e c a l l s T h i s t o o k h i m for l o n g p e r i o d s t o v a r i o u s resorts i n A u s t r i a . In its o p e n i n g pages. F r a n c e . p a i n f u l affair w i t h illness. I n p u r e e x p e r i e n c e . a n d endless travel i n search o f a c u r e for his m a n y a i l m e n t s . .v o m i t i n g . it is clear that James's curiosity about such realms of experience was not s i m p l y theoretical. M a r x was bro. James h a d a l i f e l o n g f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t i c u l a r l y v i r u l e n t o n his g e n i t a l s . w h i c h has l o n g b e e n a very shortly before his d e a t h . p u r e e x p e r i e n c e i s a n a p p r e h e n s i o n o f the p r e s e n t t i n a t i o n s o f V e n t n o r o n the Isle o f W i g h t . I n h i s late essays. vigorous h i k i n g i n the m o u n t a i n s . the C h a n n e l Islands. P e t e r K i e r k e . s n e e z i n g . M a r x seems t o have b e e n f o l l o w e d o r s u b j e c t a n d object. a f i c t i o n . T h i s l e d h i m to distress. H o w e v e r . h e c l a i m e d . persistent c o u g h i n g . T h i s i s w i t h o u t m e n t i o n i n g p l e u r i s y a n d t h e l u n g e x p e r i m e n t w i t h v a r i o u s drugs. H i s t o m b . o f s c i e n t i f i c p s y c h o l o g y . t h e p r e s e n t i s s i m - by rain wherever he went." As s o m e o n e w h o h a d suffered f r o m what he c a l l e d "anhe- e n o u g h . b i l e . " p u r e e x p e r i e n c e . the greatest l i v i n g t h i n k e r ceased to t h i n k . " larger t h a n ourselves. d i z z i n e s s . f a l l i n g asleep i n a n easy c h a i r . h i s e n d was p e a c e f u l peace. " D i s r e g a r d i n g the i d e a o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s a s G e r m a n y . take care o f his affairs. h e suffered f r o m w h a t h e describes i n v a r i o u s letters a s " a b o m i n a b l e c a t a r r h . James d i e d o f a n e n l a r g e d heart. i t was o n l y u n d e r the i n f l u e n c e o f n i t r o u s o x i d e that h e was T h e last d e c a d e o f M a r x ' s life was o n e o f c o n s t a n t illness able t o u n d e r s t a n d H e g e l . J e n n y . ply there to be l i v e d . William James eye i n f l a m m a t i o n . at a quarter to three in the after. w h o m h e n i c k n a m e d " J e n n y c h e n . w i t h u n i n t e n d e d b a t h o s . his favourite m e a n s o f r e l a x a t i o n . w h i c h c a u s e d h i m o b v i o u s psychical research a n d mystical experience. It is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of James's b o u n d l e s s i n t e l l e c t u a l M a r x was b u r i e d i n the s a m e grave a s his wife i n H i g h g a t e energy that h e was w r i t i n g a n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o p h i l o s o p h y u n t i l C e m e t e r y i n n o r t h L o n d o n . h e was i n c r e a s i n g l y p o l i t i c a l l y c r o t c h e t y James h a d an agnostic position on issues like the i m m o r t a l i t y a n d too d e p r e s s e d t o engage i n s e r i o u s w o r k . he is w i l l i n g to a c c e p t the possibility of " s o m e t h i n g first a n d f a v o u r i t e c h i l d . w h i c h i n c l u d e d l o n g periods o f depression his f u n e r a l o r a t i o n . I n h i s last years. H e e n d e d h i s days i n s a n e i n 1888." T h e y w e r e par. On the 14th of M a r c h . In his Varieties of Religious k e n b y the deaths o f his b e l o v e d w i f e . T h e point however is to change it. A s E n g e l s puts i t i n d o n i a " i n earlier life. " T h e c a r b u n c l e s c a u s e d the m o s t " f r i g h t f u l p a i n s " A l t h o u g h a pragmatist. m a r g i n on B B C R a d i o 4 in July 2005. S w i t z e r l a n d . of the s o u l a n d the existence of G o d . a c u t e l i v e r (1842-1910) p a i n s . a n d dangerous c a r b u n c l e s . is a d o r n e d in gold w i t h the famous gaard resigned his b i s h o p r i c a n d r e n o u n c e d his legal right to e l e v e n t h thesis o n F e u e r b a c h . r h e u m a t i s m . a n d his Experience. w i t h o u t r e g a r d for d i v i s i o n s o f past a n d f u t u r e E a s t b o u r n e a n d Ramsgate. a s i t s i m p l y is. w h i c h was b r o u g h t o n b y n o o n . 184 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS KARL MARX 185 I n t h e years f o l l o w i n g h i s b r o t h e r ' s d e a t h . and even attempted suicide. D u r i n g the w r i t i n g o f Das Kapital ( 1 8 6 0 . even in Algiers and M o n t e C a r l o .

E l i s a b e t h never b e e n preceded by one or two p r e m o n i t o r y ones. f r o m h i s f i r s t i n c a p a c i t a t i o n s i n 1871 t o h i s w a t c h e d for its first symptoms. Freud continues. No p a i n at the last a n d no c o n s c i o u s n e s s . S h e A passionate anti-Semite. d i e d six years later c o n c e a l m e n t of her brother's i n 1916. of Nietzsche's work a n d the W i l l i a m ' s b r o t h e r . E l i s a b e t h ' s h u s b a n d c o m - J a m e s d i e d c r a d l e d i n t h e a r m s o f h i s w i f e . I n the year before h i s d e a t h . it sche's c o l l a p s e a n d d e a t h .N i e t z s c h e . t h e s y p h i l i t i c i n f e c t i o n t h a t he c o n t r a c t e d as a s t u d e n t in a scious m i n d to register it. She returned to a p p r o a c h i n g death. is able to i m a g i n e everything different f r o m what it is. " H i s son pleasant person a n d her role B i l l y p h o t o g r a p h e d h i s father's c o r p s e l y i n g i n r u m p l e d in the e d i t i n g a n d distortion w h i t e sheets o n h i s i r o n b e d a n d m a d e a d e a t h mask. G e r m a n y after t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a c o l o n y o f A r y a n s i n P a r a g u a y c a l l e d Nueva Germania. istic not to be r e c o r d e d . prose. T h e f i n a l stroke h a d about by excessive i n t e l l e c t u a l l a b o u r . not his o w n . A g o o d d e a l of t h e He d i e d of that disease a year later. faced it. that in the very act of f a l l i n g (he was dressing at the T h e o n l y p e c u l i a r i t y is the length of t i m e between N i e t z - time) he heard in the r o o m a voice w h i c h was distinctly. as Plato and Aristotle t i n g u i s h e d t h i n g ! " T h e phrase is too beautifully character- said. t h e n o v e l i s t H e n r y . w h e n she saw h i m after the first nineteenth century). . a n d the strange as if c o m i n g . a c c e p t e d that N i e t z s c h e ' s c o l l a p s e was t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f i n g a d i m i n u t i o n just m a r k e d e n o u g h for the s t i l l c o n . " W i l l i a m d i e d just b e f o r e 2:30 i n m y E l i s a b e t h was clearly not a a r m s .1. f o r w h i c h h e was t r e a t e d i n must have b e e n tragically intensified to a m a n like James. w h e n s u d d e n l y James h a n d e d h i m his b a g a n d asked h i m t o w a l k o n u n t i l h e got t h r o u g h his attack M u c h — p e r h a p s too m u c h — h a s b e e n w r i t t e n a b o u t N i e t z - of angina. a t the m i t t e d s u i c i d e i n 1889 a n d the f a m i l y h o m e i n C h o c o r u a . H e t o l d his wife colony foundered financially. a n d received it w i t h words worthy of a l l it were familiar. n o t e s i n h e r d i a r y . F r e u d r e c a l l s w a l k i n g a n d (1844-1900) t a l k i n g w i t h James. F o r t h e p a i n e d a n d u t t e r l y h o n e s t b e a u t y o f h e r m e d i c a l history is revealing. saying: " S o here it is at last. the dis.86 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS WILLIAM JAMES 187 Philosophy. a n d I have always speculation about Nietzsche's madness turns on the role of w i s h e d that I m i g h t be as fearless as he was in the face of his sister. H o w e v e r . R i c h a r d W a g n e r seemed. N e w H a m p s h i r e . so intently i s e n t i r e l y t y p i c a l . sche's c o l l a p s e i n T u r i n i n early J a n u a r y 1889. E l i s a b e t h F ö r s t e r . L e i p z i g i n 1867. I'd l i k e t o cite E d i t h W h a r t o n ' s t e s t i m o n y o f t h e death S h e always insisted that h e r of H e n r y J a m e s f r o m A Backward Glance (1934): b r o t h e r ' s m a d n e s s was d u e t o mental exhaustion brought H i s d y i n g was slow a n d h a r r o w i n g . that h e l o n g e d t o d i e a n d asked h e r t o r e j o i c e for h i m . his subsequent " m a d n e s s " a n d his death e l e v e n years later. He is said to have t o l d his c o l l a p s e i n 1889 (tertiary s y p h i l i s was t h e A I D S o f t h e late o l d f r i e n d L a d y Prothero. . stroke. his dealings w i t h life. A l i c e . J a m e s w e n t t o h e a r F r e u d l e c - F r i e d r i c h Nietzsche t u r e o n his first v i s i t t o t h e U S A . He saw the d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h i n g It sees the f a m i l i a r as if it were strange. e a c h caus. t h o u g h t that the c a u s e o f N i e t z s c h e ' s sickness was excessive . ( I n c i d e n t a l l y . t h e c o u r s e o f N i e t z s c h e ' s s y p h i l i s w h o h a d so often a n d deeply p o n d e r e d on it. a n d the sense of disintegration b r o t h e l i n C o l o g n e i n 1865. b e g i n n i n g in wonder.

N i e t z s c h e serious C h r i s t i a n — h a s w r i t t e n a p o e m o n N i e t z s c h e ' s " m a d - seems t o have b e e n c o p r o p h a g i c . w i t h his t o n g u e f i r m l y i n h i s c h e e k . N i e t z s c h e was d e l i v e r e d i n t o egoism so far as to neglect the creation of the w o r l d . just a little? i n g . the w o r d s that P o n t i u s P i l a t e said I n a letter w r i t t e n i n his f i n a l year. but I d i d not dare to p u s h my private A f t e r his r e t u r n t o G e r m a n y . that is. g i v e m e s o m e Swollen. a n d w r i t e a n d w h i c h h e n e v e r gave u p . R o w a n W i l l i a m s — a very m e d i c a l file reveal some rather nastier details." " W h y I W r i t e S u c h Excellent Books. T h e cause was h i s p r o l i f i c cigar s m o k - a l i v e . L i k e N i e t z s c h e s a i d . w h o w o u l d b e greatly S o m e t h i n g similar might be speculated about Nietzsche's i n f l u e n c e d b y H e i d e g g e r . " T h e m o s t s e r i o u s C h r i s t i a n s h a v e Binswanger diagnosed Nietzsche's condition diplomati. there is a deeply poignant exchange At night he roared. t r u t h a b o u t h e r b r o t h e r t h a t i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t she a r r a n g e d t o h a v e N i e t z s c h e ' s m e d i c a l f i l e s t o l e n a n d its c o n . he stud. l i t t l e a s p i r i n . m e r c o l l e a g u e at B a s e l . Ecce Homo. White. O t t o B i n s w a n g e r was c l e a r l y a attitude towards C h r i s t i a n i t y . " (Hitler attended her funeral).i88 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE 189 m a s t u r b a t i o n ." His breath. tents o n l y b e c a m e k n o w n i n the years after h e r d e a t h i n 1935 " S o m e m e n are b o r n p o s t h u m o u s l y . jaw a n d palate. " P l e a s e .) professor t h a n G o d . he would whisper." and a n d his d e a t h ." B e t w e e n A p r i l 1923 am So Clever. at the end. " " W h y I s h a r i n g m y e x i s t e n c e for sixteen years. a l t h o u g h N i e t z s c h e was d r a m a t i c words. during the day. his skull drowned him like a stone. the sound S u c h was E l i s a b e t h ' s o b s e s s i o n w i t h c o n c e a l i n g t h e nasty Of footsteps on broken glass. w i t h o u t w h i c h h e was u n a b l e t o t h i n k In t h e letter of 6 J a n u a r y 1889 that l e d to his f r i e n d a n d for. b u t the o n l y d r u g h e ever took h i m f r o m T u r i n . On one occasion. u p t o t w e n t y a day. N i e t z s c h e writes t o the h i s t o r i a n Jakob p r i o r t o t h e very e n d was a . "I prefer to t h i n k in tor- . a n d t h e great c o m p o s e r was k i n d e n o u g h t o D e a r Professor. My voice between Nietzsche and Binswanger. W h a t i s often u n d e r e s t i m a t e d i n the works o f N i e t z s c h e ' s Sigmund Freud " m a d n e s s " is their l a c e r a t i n g i r o n y a n d self-parody. F r a n z O v e r b e c k . E s t i m a t e s vary f r o m twenty-two t o d e a r l y for b e i n g i m m o r t a l : o n e has t o d i e several t i m e s w h i l e thirty-three o p e r a t i o n s . " H a v e I b e e n understood?—Dionysos against the v i r t u a l l y u n r e c o g n i z e d as a p h i l o s o p h e r at the t i m e . c o m i n g to fetch F r e u d l i v e d i n constant p a i n . w h o also spoke at his f u n e r a l . F r e u d h a d n u m e r o u s o p e r a t i o n s for c a n c e r o f " W h y I a m a D e s t i n y " ? W h e n N i e t z s c h e writes. c a l l y a s "progressive p a r a l y s i s . F r e u d speaks o f " a n e w to the flogged a n d h u m i l i a t e d C h r i s t ? Is there n o t the slight. " T h e c o n t e n t s o f N i e t z s c h e ' s the present A r c h b i s h o p o f C a n t e r b u r y . u l t i m a t e l y I w o u l d m u c h rather be a Basel c o m m u n i c a t e his diagnosis to Nietzsche's doctor. " O n e pays the m o u t h . Z w e i g . Is one (1856-1939) m e a n t to take seriously the title of N i e t z s c h e ' s pseudo- a u t o b i o g r a p h y . H e w r o t e t o S t e f a n Burckhardt. r e c u r r e n c e o f m y d e a r o l d c a n c e r w i t h w h i c h I have b e e n est levity i n c h a p t e r titles l i k e " W h y I a m S o W i s e . the care o f O t t o B i n s w a n g e r . where the former Is not nice. health.d i s p o s e d towards m e . u n c l e o f t h e f a m o u s e x i s t e n t i a l psychologist L u d w i g B i n s w a n g e r . s m i l e s a t t h e l a t t e r a n d asks h i m . always b e e n w e l l . Crucified!' B u t N i e t z s c h e ' s l o n g war o n C h r i s t i a n i t y s h o u l d n o t ied N i e t z s c h e ' s work in order to better u n d e r s t a n d his l e a d C h r i s t i a n s t o see h i m a s s o m e sort o f satanic apostate. O n patient. h e n o t e s . Ecce Homo ends w i t h the s e e m i n g l y r e m a r k a b l y a s s i d u o u s d o c t o r a n d . t o have b e e n p a r t i a l ness" a n d death. " is o n e n o t m e a n t to s m i l e . It ends w i t h the f o l l o w i n g words: t o e a t i n g his o w n faeces a n d d r i n k i n g his o w n u r i n e . " A s i f t o p r o v e his point. the c o n t r a r y .

M a x S c h u r . a few weeks peared f r o m the p h i l o s o p h i c a l after the o u t b r e a k o f the S e c o n d W o r l d W a r . H o w e v e r . a c c o m p a n y it. e r n m e n t after F r a n c e ' s defeat b y N a z i G e r m a n y i n 1940. w h i c h If ever m a n c a n be said to have c o n q u e r e d death itself. b u t a c c e p t e d it a n d was r e s i g n e d to his fate. T h e r e receive the N o b e l Prize for i s s i m p l y a l u c i d a c c e p t a n c e o f reality a n d the p a i n that c a n L i t e r a t u r e . It is o n l y torture n o w a n d it has no longer any sense. w h o received every conceiv- i n M u n i c h i n 1912. o n 3 J a n u a r y h e c h o s e t o s t a n d i n l i n e w i t h the o n . B e r g s o n refused to c o n v e r t . S c h u r gave F r e u d m o r p h i n e a n d h e f e l l i n t o p e a c e f u l sleep. a c h o w (and (1859-1941) F r e u d was u n u s u a l l y f o n d o f dogs). F r e u d ' s response to his p h y s i c a l suffering shows a a n c e o f Creative Evolution i n 1907. y o u m a y n e v e r see u p o n the w o r l d . w h e r e F r e u d c l a i m s . U n d e r eaten t h r o u g h his c h e e k a n d his b o d y h a d a t r o p h i e d because o f the racist laws i m p l e m e n t e d b y the c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t V i c h y gov- his i n a b i l i t y to eat. 1913 a n d h e was t h e f i r s t o f M u c h closer t o E p i c u r u s o r M o n t a i g n e than Schopenhauer. F r e u d d e v e l o p e d a c a n c e r o u s g r o w t h on his c h e e k that created H e n r i Bergson s u c h an u n p l e a s a n t o d o u r that his favourite d o g . to is largely d u e to the i n f l u e n c e live on in spite of the K i n g of Terrors. After the growth h a d Bergson died a genuinely heroic philosophical death. y o u r e m e m b e r our first talk. Y o u p r o m i s e d A l t h o u g h a n e x e m p t i o n h a d b e e n granted t o B e r g s o n b e c a u s e m e t h e n y o u w o u l d h e l p m e w h e n I c o u l d n o longer carry o f his f a m e . scene u n t i l the recent renewal o f interest i n his work. F r e u d ' s first w o r d s after r e g a i n i n g c o n ." W i t h o u t e n t e r i n g into discussions of the death t o m o r r o w were to be persecuted. he said to his trusted p h y s i c i a n . T h e first r e c o r d e d traffic c o m p l e t e a b s e n c e o f self-pity a n d a n a c c e p t a n c e o f reality. h a d I n o t foreseen for t h o u g h t o f d e a t h every day.S e m i t i s m a b o u t to break o f s a y i n g t o d e p a r t i n g f r i e n d s . H i s f a m e was s u c h sciousness w e r e " H o w sweet i t m u s t b e t o d i e . " that t h e F r e n c h s p o k e of "le Bergson boom" after t h e a p p e a r - H o w e v e r . . in a way that is e x p l i c i t l y i n - d e b t e d t o S c h o p e n h a u e r . w h o h e l d no terror that B e r g s o n exerted o n G i l l e s for h i m . I w a n t e d t o r e m a i n a m o n g those w h o me again. A f t e r a f a i n t i n g attack sopher d u r i n g his l i f e t i m e . o t h e r Jews a n d d i e d f r o m t h e e n s u i n g c h i l l . d y i n g the f o l l o w i n g day. A s E r n e s t Jones p u t i t i n his f u n e r a l o r a t i o n i n after h i s d e a t h B e r g s o n d i s a p - G o l d e r s G r e e n C r e m a t o r i u m i n n o r t h L o n d o n . Deleuze. Jews w e r e r e q u i r e d t o l i n e u p t o register w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . the very few philosophers to there i s n o c e l e b r a t i o n o r evasion o f suffering i n F r e u d . that the g o a l o f h u m a n s t r i v i n g i s an i n e r t state w h e r e a l l a c t i v i t y ceases. refused t o stay w i t h h i m a n d c o w e r e d instead i n the c o r n e r o f the r o o m . that m a n was F r e u d . F r e u d h a d a rather m o r b i d d i s p o s i t i o n a n d said that he I w o u l d have b e c o m e a c o n v e r t . saying. " I n his last m o n t h s . 191 190 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS HENRI BERGSON m e r i t t h a n n o t t o b e a b l e t o t h i n k a t a l l . d r i v e . there is also e v i d e n c e B e r g s o n was a w i d e l y r e a d a n d h u g e l y i n f l u e n t i a l p h i l o - of a l o n g i n g for d e a t h on F r e u d ' s part. i n 1928. able l i t e r a r y a n d a c a d e m i c h o n o u r . A l t h o u g h h e was s p i r i t u a l l y attracted to C h r i s t i a n i t y . H e also h a d t h e d i s t u r b i n g h a b i t years a f o r m i d a b l e wave of a n t i . M y dear S c h u r . j a m o n B r o a d w a y i n M a n h a t t a n was c a u s e d b y B e r g s o n ' s F r e u d s h o w e d n o s i g n o f c o m p l a i n t o r i r r i t a b i l i t y w i t h his inaugural public lecture in p a i n f u l c o n d i t i o n . " G o o d b y e .

D e w e y ' s w o r k b e l o n g s t o n e i t h e r o f these p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e n d e n c i e s . H u s s e r l ' s J e w i s h o r i g i n s l e d t o h i s e x c l u s i o n f r o m the d e m o c r a c y . after his d e a t h . a s t h e l i g h t s w e r e g o i n g o u t a l l o v e r o f the sciences. T h e behaviour of H e i d e g g e r — H u s s e r l ' s former student and a n i s m . the greatest d a n g e r fac- a n d later a t C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y i n N e w York. discussion of p l u r a l i s m i n p h i l o s o p h y . T h e i n f l u e n c e o f the h u g e b o d y o f w o r k w r i t t e n d u r i n g his l o n g life was e c l i p s e d . F o r H u s s e r l . i o n a n d n o t k n o w l e d g e t o N i e t z s c h e ' s l a m p o o n i n g o f egalitari. L o c k e a n " u n d e r . D e w e y sees e d u c a t i o n a s the t o g i v e t h e l e c t u r e s that w e r e d e v e l o p e d i n t o h i s f i n a l . what i s h e d b o o k . the elderly H u s s e r l travelled to V i e n n a a n d Prague democracy and education. T h e r e is m u c h . a n d D e w e y d i d i m p o r t a n t w o r k i n l o g i c a n d the p h i l o s o p h y o f sci- e n c e . he even d e n i e d his former m e n t o r o p h e r s w i l l b e P l a t o n i c k i n g s . T h i s doesn't m e a n that p h i l o s . t h e n as n o w . U n i v e r s i t y o f F r e i b u r g after H i t l e r ' s s e i z u r e o f p o w e r i n 1933. the refusal to take up H e d i e d f r o m p n e u m o n i a after s u f f e r i n g a f r a c t u r e d h i p i n the p h i l o s o p h i c a l battle o f reason against b a r b a r i s m . D e w e y got there first a n d a l o n g t i m e (1859-1938) ago. " H e set h i s i n f l u e n t i a l views o n e d u c a t i o n t o w o r k o f s p i r i t " a n d r e n e w p h i l o s o p h y t h r o u g h " a h e r o i s m o f rea- a t t h e n e w l y e s t a b l i s h e d U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o after 1894 s o n .A m e r i c a n p h i l o s o p h y i n the 1950s a n d a c o m p e n s a t - i n g t e n d e n c y towards phenomenology and Marxism in Philosophy in Wartime C o n t i n e n t a l thought d u r i n g the same period. 1951 f r o m w h i c h he was n o t a b l e to recover. A l t h o u g h he c o n v e r t e d to L u t h e r a n P r o t e s t a n t i s m as a y o u n g P h i l o s o p h y has a r g u a b l y always h a d a n a l l e r g i c r e a c t i o n t o m a n . " H e c o n c l u d e s b y asserting that the k n o w i n g and defined p h i l o s o p h y as "the general theory of duty of the philosopher is to confront "the barbarian hatred e d u c a t i o n . " At a t i m e of c r i s i s . D e w e y saw l e a r n i n g a s m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n servant o f h u m a n i t y . D e w e y shows t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n that p h i l o s o p h y c a n successor t o his C h a i r o f P h i l o s o p h y a t the u n i v e r s i t y — w a s m a k e t o d e m o c r a t i c life. p a r t i c u l a r l y H e g e l . 102 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS J o h n Dewey (1859-1952) D e w e y is an unjustly under-appreciated figure in c o n t e m - p o r a r y p h i l o s o p h y . b u t e m b r a c e s b o t h of their c o n c e r n s . The Crisis of the European Sciences and Transcendental h e c a l l e d " r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . " a n d r i g h t l y b e l i e v e d that society Phenomenology. A c c o r d i n g t o his f o r m e r assistant a n d d e v o t e d d i s c i p l e 193 . b y two factors: the e m e r g e n c e o f a n i n c r e a s i n g l y scientistic t r e n d T h e L o n g Twentieth Century I: i n A n g l o . u n f i n - d y n a m i c a n d c o n t i n u o u s d e v e l o p m e n t o f d e m o c r a t i c life. It is o p e n to the i n f l u e n c e o f C o n t i n e n t a l t h o u g h t . particularly shameful. p h i l o s o p h y i s t h e f r e e d o m o f c a n n o t transform itself w i t h o u t p a y i n g s c r u p u l o u s attention absolute self-responsibility a n d the p h i l o s o p h e r is "the c i v i l t o p e d a g o g y . b u t n e i t h e r are t h e y s i m p l y library privileges.l a b o u r e r s " o r janitors i n t h e C r y s t a l P a l a c e I n 1935 a n d 1936. A l l turns here o n the r e l a t i o n between E u r o p e . i n g " g o o d E u r o p e a n s " is weariness. sometimes flatulent. p a r t i c u l a r l y o n the i n f l u e n c e o f D a r w i n i s m o n p h i l o s o - E d m u n d Husserl phy. f r o m Plato's r i d i c u l i n g o f a p o l i t i c s based o n o p i n .

H e l i v e d m o n k i s h l y i n but not without ambivalence. and. intercession of his c h u r c h . U n l e s s it was r a i n i n g heavily.) i n the E t e r n a l C i t y . S a n t a y a n a — a l r e a d y a i n R o m e . R e f u s i n g the b e y o n d care a n d regret. S . C r o c e was asked a b o u t w r i t e s in a letter. After h a v i n g b e e n o r p h a n e d b y the earth- S a n t a y a n a h a d l i t t l e p a t i e n c e for w h a t d i d n o t give p l e a s u r e . " I a m d y i n g a t m y work. we w o u l d w a l k to a nearby S a n t a y a n a d i e d after a p a i n f u l s t r u g g l e w i t h c a n c e r . a n d here Santayana w o u l d order A couple o f days before his death. an (1866-1952) a r t i c l e o n S a n t a y a n a a p p e a r e d i n Life m a g a z i n e after U ." . a b l e t o d i e i n a w a y w o r t h y o f a p h i l o s o p h e r . the that w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y k i l l h i m . W h e n h e was a s k e d b y a Your dozing in the depths of wakefulness. " Santayana c o u n t e d a m o n g his H a r v a r d students s u c h i m p o r t a n t poets a s R o b e r t Frost. his h e a l t h . h a l f of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y a n d a s y m b o l for o p p o s i t i o n to Santayana said. t h e r e are n o m o r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s drank three glasses of w i n e — n e a r l y a mezzo-litro—with his whatsoever. most penitent. A s i f s u c h w a n t o n h e d o n i s m was n o t e n o u g h t o i n f u r i a t e A m e r i c a n P u r i t a n g o o d taste. (It always astonished me the way he p o u r e d any left. S . " T o a n O l d P h i l o s o p h e r After the d e a t h of his m o t h e r in 1912. alive k n o w w h e t h e r t o get m a r r i e d o r b u y a d o g . H u s s e r l said. a n d t h e latter's verse i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p r e g n a n t w i t h George Santayana the philosopher's i n f l u e n c e . 194 1 9° O R S O DEAD PHILOSOPHERS G E O R G E SANTAYANA 195 L u d w i g L a n d g r e b e . I live in the E t e r n a l . restaurant for l u n c h e o n . his life b e c a m e his work. h i s v i e w s o n p o l i t i c s w e r e Benedetto Croce wonderfully non-committal. w h e n H u s s e r l was assailed b y the illness T h e s o l u t i o n w o u l d be a sort of E p i c u r e a n i s m . t h e n . "I k n o w n o t h i n g . " M u s s o l i n i ' s F a s c i s m . According to Todd C r o n a n . Impatient for the grandeur that you need. B u t m y Indian curry or an elaborate doke to cap the feast. writes o f a t y p i c a l scene As to one. S h o r t l y I f w e a c c e p t that t h e s p i r i t i s r o o t e d i n t h e f l e s h . t h e C o n v e n t o f the B l u e N u n s off the C a p i t o l i n e H i l l . appropriately. T . he was asked by a dish that struck me as b e i n g rather r i c h ." food. B e r n a r d W i l l i a m s e n d e d h i s days i n R o m e i n 2 0 0 3 . S a n t a y a n a r e p l i e d . m y f r i e n d . "I have l i v e d as a p h i l o s o p h e r a n d I w a n t to d i e as a p h i l o s o p h e r . E l i o t a n d W a l l a c e S t e v e n s . s u c h as a spicy C o r y w h e t h e r h e was s u f f e r i n g . as to one. h e h a d o n l y o n e w i s h : t o b e e n j o y m e n t o f life f r o m m o m e n t t o m o m e n t i n its purity. A n d he a n g u i s h i s e n t i r e l y p h y s i c a l . w i t h S a n t a y a n a i n the last years. quake of C a s a m i c c i o l a in 1883. impenitent a n d f o r m e r assistant. " T h e d y i n g Stevens's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e d e a d a t H a r v a r d a n d t r a v e l l e d t o E u r o p e . D a n i e l C o r y . a s h e before h i s death at the age of eighty-six. Stevens wrote one of his f i n a l (1863-1952) p o e m s after t h e d e a t h o f S a n t a y a n a . D y i n g o f t e r m i n a l cancer. soldiers discovered h i m i n R o m e d u r i n g the l i b e r a t i o n o f C r o c e was the most i m p o r t a n t I t a l i a n p h i l o s o p h e r o f the f i r s t I t a l y i n 1944. at the edge of your chair. A s k e d h i s o p i n i o n o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r . R o m e b e c a m e his a d o p t e d h o m e . S a n t a y a n a was n o t the o n l y p h i l o s o p h e r t o c h o o s e t o die over w i n e on his cake. w i t h obvious w a r m t h U S A . "Yes. " H i s conservator Yet living in two worlds. " where h e i s p i c t u r e d " O n the t h r e s h o l d o f c e l e b r a t e d a n d i n f l u e n t i a l p h i l o s o p h e r — r e s i g n e d his p o s i t i o n h e a v e n . H e r e p l i e d . t h o u g h h e n e v e r c o n v e r t e d t o C a t h o l i c i s m . n e v e r t o r e t u r n t o the p h i l o s o p h e r is obvious a n d he writes. " I d o n ' t In the warmth of your bed. f r i e n d w h y h e h a d never m a r r i e d . that is.

i d e o l o g y . R u s s e l l d i e d after s u f f e r i n g f r o m a c u t e b r o n c h i t i s i n t h e trary. e x p l a i n e d i n t e r m s o f t h e i r e c o n o m i c causes. is not religious d o g m a but an attitude of scientific I n G r a m s c i ' s h a n d s . less true happiness because it must c o m e to an e n d . H e d i e d o n 2 7 A l t h o u g h C r o c e was a f r i e n d o f G e n t i l e a n d t h e y e d i t e d the A p r i l following a cerebral haemorrhage. t h o u g h t a n d l o v e lose t h e i r v a l u e b e c a u s e they are not the p r o s e c u t i n g attorney said of G r a m s c i . T h e p o s i t i o n as a " p h i l o s o p h y of praxis. E d i t h . G r a m s c i was sen. G r a m s c i ' s b r a i n k e p t w o r k i n g both iniquitous. H a p p i n e s s is nonethe- 1924. a l a s t i n g d i s a g r e e m e n t arose b e t w e e n t h e m o v e r G e n t i l e ' s B e r t r a n d Russell embrace of Fascism. On 15 A p r i l 1944. 197 196 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS ANTONIO GRAMSCI i s m expands to take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the spheres of p o l i - tics. W h a t the w o r l d needs. in breach of ego w i l l survive. R u s s e l l writes. f i n i t u d e . G r a m s c i b e c a m e (1875-1944) l e g a l l y free i n 1937. b u t i s t h e o r e t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n w i t h p r a c t i c a l life i n the way d e s c r i b e d a m i x t u r e o f m u d d l e a n d a c c i d e n t . Described by himself and M u s s o l i n i as (1872-1970) "the p h i l o s o p h e r of Fascism. M a r x i s m i s n o t r e d u c e d t o s o m e sort i n q u i r y that m a y e n a b l e u s t o m a k e a l i t t l e sense o f the m u d - o f h i s t o r i c a l d e t e r m i n i s m w h e r e a l l aspects o f life have t o b e dle a n d a c c i d e n t . c o m p a n y of his fourth wife. G r a m s c i was i m p r i s o n e d b y the y o u n g a n d I love life. c o n c e i v e d a s a p h i l o s o p h y o f p r a x i s . F o l l o w i n g a s p e c i a l t r i b u n a l in 1928. G r a m s c i ' s M a r x . Party. because it is untrue. after the l i b e r a t i o n of Italy. w h i c h r e q u i r e s that w e a c c e p t o u r w h i c h offer a p o w e r f u l l y c o n s e q u e n t c r i t i q u e a n d r e c o n s t r u c . m u s t stop this b r a i n f r o m w o r k i n g . and destructive of the a n d he p r o d u c e d the p o s t h u m o u s l y p u b l i s h e d Prison Notebooks p o s s i b i l i t y o f h a p p i n e s s . He insisted that there . h i g h l y i n f l u e n t i a l p e r i o d i c a l La Critica b e t w e e n 1903 a n d 1922. Giovanni Gentile A f t e r h i s h e a l t h was b r o k e n i n p r i s o n . B u t I s h o u l d scorn to shiver w i t h ter- Fascists after he h a d b e e n e l e c t e d a p a r l i a m e n t a r y d e p u t y in ror at the t h o u g h t of a n n i h i l a t i o n . " A l t h o u g h i n very p o o r h e a l t h a n d i n i t i a l l y f o r c e d t o share a A n y c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e i m m o r t a l i t y o f t h e s o u l i s therefore c e l l w i t h five o t h e r p r i s o n e r s . in words that echo Epicurus and Lucretius. above i n M a r x ' s e l e v e n t h thesis o n F e u e r b a c h . O n t h e c o n . I am not p a r l i a m e n t a r y i m m u n i t y . A p p a r e n t l y . p r o b a b l y u n d e r orders f r o m the I t a l i a n C o m m u n i s t rather tattered blue cover. n o r do t e n c e d t o twenty years a n d eight m o n t h s i n p r i s o n ." G e n t i l e b e c a m e minister of T h e first h a r d b a c k b o o k that I e d u c a t i o n a n d h e l d several i n f l u e n t i a l p o l i t i c a l posts i n the r e m e m b e r b u y i n g was a first 1920s a n d 1930s. On t h e F l o r e n c e . A s s u c h . Antonio G r a m s c i (1891-1937) I b e l i e v e that w h e n I die I s h a l l rot. a n d n o t h i n g o f m y W h i c h b r i n g s u s t o the greatest c o m m u n i s t p h i l o s o p h e r i n Italy or arguably a n y w h e r e else. b u t was t o o i l l t o m o v e . " F o r twenty years we everlasting. then. R u s s e l l t h o u g h t that a l l t h e great r e l i g i o n s o f t i o n o f the basic c o n c e p t s o f M a r x i s m . In 1926." w h i c h m e a n t the u n i t y of w o r l d that w e i n h a b i t i s n o t s h a p e d b y s o m e d i v i n e p l a n . e d i t i o n of R u s s e l l ' s Why I Am G e n t i l e was assassinated b y p a r t i s a n s o n t h e o u t s k i r t s o f Not a Christian (1957). r e l i g i o n a n d c u l t u r e i n t h e b r o a d e s t sense. G r a m s c i d e s c r i b e d his the w o r l d were b o t h fallacious a n d m o r a l l y h a r m f u l .

has s h o w n . m u r d e r e d b y a m e n t a l l y d e r a n g e d s t u d e n t o n the steps o f t h e t i o n s h o u l d n o t b e m a d e p u b l i c . U n i v e r s i t y of V i e n n a in 1921. R u s s e l l ' s ashes w e r e scattered over w i t h G e r m a n y i n 1938 a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g m e m b e r s o f t h e the W e l s h h i l l s a n d his g r a n d d a u g h t e r L u c y wrote t o Rus. a m o n g the m a g n i f i c e n t m o u n t a i n s . V i e n n a C i r c l e g r a d u a l l y left f o r E n g l a n d a n d t h e U S A . the V i e n n a C i r c l e d i s p e r s e d after S c h l i c k was L u k ä c s was n o t a great a d m i r e r o f t h e w o r k o f F r a n z K a f k a . (1885-1971) S c h l i c k b e c a m e t h e f i g u r e h e a d for a h u g e l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n t e l l e c t u a l g r o u p that b e c a m e k n o w n i n 1929 a s the V i e n n a L u k ä c s was b u r i e d i n B u d a p e s t w i t h C o m m u n i s t Party h o n - C i r c l e . " A s R u s s e l l ' s b i o g r a p h e r . b e l i e v e d that a l l t r u t h was e i t h e r l o g i c a l l y v a l i d o r e m p i r i . T h e s t u d e n t w o u l d f o l - estranged s c h i z o p h r e n i c son a n d three g r a n d d a u g h t e r s l o w S c h l i c k a n d his w i f e i n t o the c i n e m a . l e t t h e m b e l a i d . there are h a p p y a n d u n h a p p y acci. T h e r e b y be eliminated from philosophy. R o u g h l y a n d readily. in b l a n k e t s a n d sacks to p u t out the flames. for n o t h i n g is easier than to describe a w o r l d w h i c h differs f r o m o u r o r d i n a r y w o r l d o n l y i n the c o m p l e t e M o r i t z Schlick absence of a l l data w h i c h I w o u l d c a l l parts of my body. w h e r e t h e y w r a p p e d her death. H a p p i l y . V i e n n e s e logical positivism ours after r e g a i n i n g p o l i t i c a l f a v o u r i n H u n g a r y i n the 1960s. T h e p a i n was too i n t e n s e a n d she ran In a p a p e r f r o m t h e Philosophical Review in t h e year of h i s s c r e a m i n g t o the b l a c k s m i t h ' s s h o p . M o n k writes. h e h a d n a r r o w l y escaped e x e c u t i o n i n 1956 w h e n h e c a l l y v e r i f i a b l e . a l o n g w i t h o u r c h i l d h o o d s . U n h a p p i l y . S c h l i c k writes. personal grudge because S c h l i c k h a d rejected his doctoral thesis. A u s t r i a d r i f t e d t o w a r d s t h e Anschluss there s h o u l d b e n o m u s i c ." as aisle i m m e d i a t e l y i n front of the S c h l i c k s a n d s p e n d the Russell had described his family back in 1893. take a seat i n t h e w h o felt themselves h a u n t e d by the "ghosts of maniacs. of professional philosophy. d o u s e d h e r s e l f i n p a r a f f i n a n d set her. b u t B u r y a n i n C o r n w a l l . a l l traces o f m e t a p h y s i c s c o u l d was minister of culture in the government of Imre Nagy. I t was also s t i p u l a t e d that U n i v e r s i t y o f V i e n n a . a n several w e e k s before h e k i l l e d h i m . . (1882-1936) In the history of p h i l o s o p h y . " I f t h e r e are where they h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e on the d e v e l o p m e n t ghosts t o lay. h i s l i f e was d e f i n e d b y t h e ghost o f Party. A m e r i c a n o c c u p a t i o n . It is n o t k n o w n w h e t h e r S c h l i c k was a b l e to e m p i r i c a l l y verify dents. I c a n easily i m a g i n e w i t n e s s i n g the f u n e r a l o f m y o w n body. t h e s t u d e n t h a d b e e n s t a l k i n g S c h l i c k for A t his death R u s s e l l left two e m b i t t e r e d ex-wives. I n t h i s way. S c h l i c k ' s other students a n d friends F i v e years after Russell's d e a t h . l o o k i n g S c h l i c k straight i n the face. hangs a d a r k l y f u n n y story. H o w e v e r . the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. D o r a .ig8 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS MORITZ SCHLICK 199 s h o u l d be no f u n e r a l service a n d the p l a c e of his c r e m a . S h e lost conscious- ness a n d d i e d before r e a c h i n g h o s p i t a l . A l t h o u g h the student b e c a m e a m e m b e r of the N a z i R a y M o n k . A p p a r e n t l y . M o r i t z S c h l i c k took a c h a i r in p h i l o s o p h y at the this r e m a r k . a d v i s e d h i m t o get t h e p o l i c e t o p u t a stop t o t h e s t a l k i n g . S c h l i c k — a d e v o t e d l i b e r a l — r e f u s e d t o get t h e p o l i c e t o s e l f a l i g h t l i k e a B u d d h i s t m o n k i n V i e t n a m d u r i n g the intervene. w h o l e t i m e t u r n e d a r o u n d i n h i s seat. sell's s o m e w h a t r e s e n t f u l s e c o n d w i f e . the same year as the p u b l i c a t i o n of a short a n d difficult b o o k by a y o u n g V i e n n e s e p h i l o s o p h e r . L u c y got off t h e b u s i n St. t h e m u r d e r seems t o have b e e n t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f a m a d n e s s a n d these ghosts s u r v i v e d his d e a t h . György Lukäcs L u d w i g W i t t g e n s t e i n .

p h i l o s o p h y i s a In 1919. " T h e l i f e o f t h e a n d a l i e n a t i o n w h e r e i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e a r r e s t e d for Jew. D u r i n g t h e Y o m rosis i n 1922 ( t h e s a m e d e g e n e r a t i v e d i s e a s e t h a t a f f l i c t s K i p p u r service o n 1 1 O c t o b e r . must precisely not lead h i m out of himself. T r u e h u m o u r consists i n l a u g h i n g a t oneself. death is n o t h i n g because we have an understanding of (1886-1929) r e a l i t y i n its entirety. " R o s e n z w e i g b e g i n s The Star of Redemption by c l a i m i n g t h a t T h e b l e a k b e a u t y o f this joke i s that i n this p e r i l o u s situa- t i o n . " L i f e becomes i m m o r t a l . S i x years have to learn to walk h u m b l y w i t h G o d a n d look at a l l things e a r l i e r . K a f k a was a realist after a l l . s u b m i t t e d t o a b s u r d trials a n d c o n d e m n e d w i t h o u t reason. L u k ä c s t u r n e d t o o n e o f the other V i o l e n t l y rejecting his earlier attachment to Hegel. R o s e n z w e i g s a i d s o m e years l a t e r t h a t i f h e h a d b e c o m e t h e t i c r e a l i s m t h a t r e j e c t e d t h e K a f k a e s q u e w o r l d o f Angst C h r i s t i a n h e w o u l d h a v e left h i m s e l f b e h i n d . " i n r e d e m p t i o n ' s e t e r n a l h y m n o f praise. s o m e t h i n g w h i c h he admits w i l l . t h r o u g h to Hegel's idea of A b s o l u t e K n o w i n g . R o s e n z w e i g c o u l d o n l y g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e that l e d h i m t o r e c o m m i t t o J u d a i s m . L u k ä c s i r o n i z e s h i m s e l f . a l t h o u g h d e c a d e n t a e s t h e t i c m o d e r n i s m . d e t a i n e d m i n i s t e r s a n d s a i d . to rob death of its poisonous sting. T h e c o m m u n i c a t e b y h i s w i f e r e c i t i n g letters o f t h e a l p h a b e t u n t i l . c o n s p i r e d t o b r i n g a b o u t a s i t u a t i o n that d i r e c t l y c o n t r a d i c t s his aesthetic j u d g e m e n t . A s s u c h . R o s e n z w e i g was d i a g n o s e d w i t h a m y o t r o p h i c l a t e r a l scle- g o g u e i n B e r l i n u n t i l the t i m e o f b a p t i s m . p h i l o s o p h y has a t t e m p t e d t o k n o w t h e w h o l e a n d thereby d e n y the singular reality of death. R o s e n z w e i g argues t h a t w e c o m m u n i s t g o v e r n m e n t o f B e l a K u n i n H u n g a r y . Rosenzweig I t i s o n l y i n this w a y that w e are a b l e t o w a l k . h e d e c l a r e d that w o r d s o f The Star of Redemption. u n k n o w n c r i m e s . d u r i n g R o s e n z w e i g writes. h e u n d e r w e n t a r e l i . I n h i s f i n a l years. H u n g a r i a n u p r i s i n g . " B y contrast. L u k ä c s a d v o c a t e d a n aes. R o s e n - d i s a p p e a r e d i n t o t h e o b s c u r i t y o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e for a n z w e i g b e g a n to w r i t e h i s m a s t e r p i e c e . " S o . " I N T O L I F E . F o r the philoso- Franz Rosenzweig pher. F r o m T h a l e s ' a t t e m p t t o grasp the p r i n c i p l e b e h i n d the w h o l e i n g l y . for R o s e n z w e i g . " a rather different k i n d . T h e h u m o u r consists i n the P h i l o s o p h y takes i t u p o n itself t o t h r o w off the fear o f fact that L u k ä c s finds h i m s e l f r i d i c u l o u s b e c a u s e r e a l i t y has things earthly. a p p o i n t m e n t w i t h a n u n k n o w n b u t p r o b a b l y u n s a v o u r y fate. T h e l o r r y t h e n a r m y o n the B a l k a n front d u r i n g the F i r s t W o r l d W a r . d e t a i n e d . The Star of Redemption. " h e " c o u l d t u r n C h r i s t i a n o n l y qua J e w " a n d a t t e n d e d syna. i n t h e f i n a l d e c i d e d t o c o n v e r t t o C h r i s t i a n i t y . S t e p h e n H a w k i n g ) . he must rather A f t e r t h e S o v i e t tanks m o v e d i n t o B u d a p e s t t o c r u s h the live his way even deeper into himself. h o w e v e r . H o w e v e r . R o s e n z w e i g h a d e x p e r i e n c e d a c o n v e r s i o n o f from the standpoint of redemption. 200 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS FRANZ ROSENZWEIG 201 w h o m he declared to be "idealist" and a bad example of precise nature of this experience is not k n o w n . D u r i n g the n i g h t of 7 July. of reality ("all is water")." intense discussion w i t h his friend Rosenstock." h e writes. S o the story goes. o n a r m y postcards (it s h o u l d b e r e m e m b e r e d that W i t t g e n - L u k ä c s was t a k e n t o a vast c a s t l e i n T r a n s y l v a n i a a n d stein w r o t e t h e first draft of t h e Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus on wasn't t o l d w h e t h e r h e was g o i n g t o b e freed o r p e r m a n e n t l y the R u s s i a n a n d I t a l i a n fronts i n 1917-18). i n 1913. ' N a g y was e x e c u t e d a n d L u k ä c s was arrested i n the m i d d l e o f the n i g h t a n d t h r o w n i n t o a m i l i t a r y After serving i n a n anti-aircraft g u n u n i t i n the G e r m a n l o r r y a l o n g w i t h o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t officials. L u k ä c s e x p e r i e n c e d s o m e t h i n g c l o s e to a r e l i g i o u s d i s a v o w a l o f d e a t h a n d " i t p l u g s u p its ears before t h e c r y o f c o n v e r s i o n t o B o l s h e v i s m a n d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e short-lived t e r r o r i z e d h u m a n i t y .

S h e p r e s e n t e d h i m w i t h a n e l e c t r i c b l a n k e t o n h i s limits. w h i c h the L o r d has truly revealed to me in my sleep. U n d e r instructions from his doctor. t h e w r i t i n g was i n t e r r u p t e d b y a d o c t o r ' s visit. the p o i n t of a l l points W i t t g e n s t e i n was w r i t i n g p h i l o s o p h y u n t i l the e n d a n d for w h i c h there .s e c o n d derful life. i f M o o r e d i d e x p i r e d u r i n g s u c h d i s c u s s i o n . Sadly. it has l i c e n s e d a trip to the U S A . n e w s that h e a p p a r e n t l y greeted w i t h R o s e n z w e i g d i e d d u r i n g the n i g h t . I never find myself t h i n k i n g about a "future life. After h e h a d b e e n d i a g n o s e d A p p a r e n t l y . H e h a d d e v e l o p e d a e n c e d e a t h . h e s a i d t o h e r . w i t h t e r m i n a l c a n c e r . t h e n that w o u l d b e a very d e c e n t w a y t o d i e . W i t t g e n s t e i n m o v e d i n w i t h D r . . birthday and said. my interest is still on this life a n d the w r i t i n g I am still able to d o . W i t t g e n s t e i n was t h e o n l y p e r s o n to resent lack his b r i l l i a n c e . just after h i s s i x t y ." Wittgenstein replied. u n t i l i t h a d r e a c h e d its p r o p e r e n d . s i g n i f i c a n t stretches o f the T h e r e i s a story o f W i t t g e n s t e i n v i s i t i n g t h e p h i l o s o p h e r history of p h i l o s o p h y was leg. "Is s o m e r i d d l e s o l v e d b y m y s u r v i v i n g for n i g h t a n d w h e n she t o l d h i m that h i s f r i e n d s w o u l d b e vis- ever?" i t i n g t h e n e x t day." I n t h e r e m a i n i n g two m o n t h s o f L u d w i g Wittgenstein his life h e w r o t e the e n t i r e s e c o n d h a l f o f the m a n u s c r i p t that (1889-1951) was p u b l i s h e d as On Certainty. W i t t . M o o r e i n 1944 after M o o r e h a d suffered a stroke d u r i n g endary. W i t t g e n s t e i n was g i v e n a C a t h o l i c f u n e r a l i n to his friend M a u r i c e D r u r y : C a m b r i d g e ." A l l a n u n f i n i s h e d s e n t e n c e that reads. A l t h o u g h very far f r o m b e i n g C a t h o l i c . were live. c l a i m i n g that a d i s c u s s i o n s h o u l d n o t b e b r o k e n off Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. " D e a t h i s not a n event i n l i f e : w e d o not l i v e t o e x p e r i . W i t t g e n s t e i n d i e d w i t h his boots o n . T h e last f r a g m e n t of On Certainty Wittgenstein's ignorance of is d a t e d 27 A p r i l . 202 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS LUDWIG WITTGENSTEIN 203 h e a s k e d h e r t o stop a n d she w o u l d guess a t t h e i n t e n d e d Isn't it c u r i o u s that. the point o f a l l points. F u r t h e r m o r e . the d a y before his d e a t h .. W i t t g e n . W i t t g e n s t e i n a m p l i f i e d this remark in a c o m m e n t P e c u l i a r l y . B e v a n . e x p e r i e n c i n g a n eternity that was n o t h a u n t e d b y the p r o s p e c t o f a n n i h i l a t i o n o r the afterlife. " w i t h h i s boots o n ." In the next proposition. staring back at her. they w o u l d go to the p u b t e m p o r a l d u r a t i o n b u t t i m e l e s s n e s s . I f w e take e t e r n i t y t o m e a n n o t i n f i n i t e f r i e n d s h i p w i t h M r s . A n d n o w i t comes. slightly closer to L u c r e t i u s . H e r e m a r k e d t o t h e latter that " I a m g o i n g t o w o r k n o w a s I have n e v e r w o r k e d before. " M a n y happy returns. B e v a n . B e v a n s t a y e d w i t h W i t t g e n s t e i n d u r i n g t h e last g e n s t e i n a d d s . a n d M r s . M r s . G . E . t h e r e i s . w e f i n d a possibly u n w i t t i n g e c h o o f E p i c u r u s ' v i e w o f death: stein a d d e d . " T e l l t h e m I've h a d a w o n - A f e w days b e f o r e h i s d e a t h . w r i t t e n i n this l a b o r i o u s m a n n e r . who h o u r a n d a half. I n the this r u l e . H i s f i n a l w o r d s . a l t h o u g h I k n o w I have not l o n g to w o r d . m u c h relief. t h e n e t e r n a l life together every e v e n i n g a t six o ' c l o c k w h e r e she w o u l d d r i n k belongs to those w h o live in the present. ." birthday. " T h e r e w i l l be no returns. a similar ignorance amongst M o o r e ' s w i f e i n s i s t e d that h i s f r i e n d s l i m i t t h e i r visits t o a n m a n y of his followers. O u r life has no port a n d W i t t g e n s t e i n w o u l d e m p t y h i s glass i n t o a n aspidis- e n d i n just the same way i n w h i c h o u r visual f i e l d has n o tra p l a n t .

In his view. we want to u n d e r s t a n d what it means to be an authentic A s Petzet was a b o u t t o l e a v e . by m a k i n g a m e a n i n g out of our (1889-1976) finitude. it is t h r o u g h the relation a n d utter e t h i c a l earnestness. b r e a k i n g w i t h w h a t h e c a l l e d " t h e dog. It is d e f i n e d by austerity. argues that the o n l y a u t h e n t i c d e a t h i s one's o w n . t h e n what it means to be W i t t g e n s t e i n p u t h i m s e l f i n t o s i t u a t i o n s o f reckless danger h u m a n consists i n g r a s p i n g this f i n i t u d e . H o w e v e r . like Lukäcs a n d Rosenzweig. Therefore. the q u e s t i o n o f G o d ' s e x i s t e n c e o r n o n . b u t m y sense o f the F i r s t W o r l d W a r . I s e c o n d a r y t o m y d e a t h . "being-towards-death. H e s h o w e d r e m a r k a b l e c o u r a g e i n c o m b a t a n d was rapidly H o w e v e r . w h i c h i s p r i m a r y . as R a y M o n k c l a i m s . w h e r e a s plants a n d a n i m a l s s i m p l y p e r i s h . e n g a g e d i n t h e d a n g e r o u s b u s i n e s s o f w e a t h e r fore. w h e n H e i d e g g e r h a d t u r n e d eighty- t i m e is finite. H e i d e g g e r r a i s e d h i s h a n d a n d . o n l y h u m a n G e r m a n y . w o u l d s i m p l y b e t o " s a c r i f i c e o n e - self. W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s l i f e a n d d e a t h resem. for t h i n k e r s l i k e P a u l . w h e t h e r as close as a par- M a r n e . W h e n W i t t g e n s t e i n was first shot a t b y R u s s i a n sol. if six. s u c h a c o n c e p t i o n o f d e a t h i s b o t h false a n d m o r a l l y B y contrast. the basic idea have a n e x p e r i e n c e o f m o r t a l i t y . T h e self c a n o n l y b e c o m e w h a t i t t r u l y i s t h r o u g h the M a r t i n Heidegger confrontation with death. first i n B e r l i n a n d later o n the w o r l d t h r o u g h the deaths of others. F o r H e i d e g g e r . I was scared! I was afraid of death. H e i d e g g e r p r o m o t e d ." T o that extent. t o G o d that t h e self finds itself. p a r t n e r or c h i l d or as far as the u n k n o w n v i c t i m of a dis- casting. L u t h e r a n d Kierkegaard. e l e p h a n t s . assigned t o a f i g h t i n g u n i t o n the R u s s i a n front. b u t e m p i r - Time in 1926. ent. t h e deaths o f others are Yesterday I was shot at. fru. w h e n a p p o i n t e d A l s o . a d e e p l y t r o u b l e d r e l a t i o n t o sexuality. I c a n ' t a n d s e m i n a r s that c u l m i n a t e d i n the c o m p l e t i o n o f Being and speak w i t h a n y expertise a b o u t the d e a t h o f p l a n t s . his f r i e n d H e i n r i c h Petzet v i s i t e d h i m for the last t i m e . m a t i c s y s t e m o f C a t h o l i c i s m .e x i s t e n c e has n o p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e l - evance. t h e n i t i s essential that w e c o n s t a n t l y p r o j e c t d e v o u t l y r e l i g i o u s l i f e . being u n d o n e by the experience of grief a n d m o u r n i n g . At the c e n t r e of this b o o k is a h i g h l y i n f l u e n t i a l i c a l r e s e a r c h w o u l d c e r t a i n l y s e e m t o s h o w that t h e h i g h e r meditation on death. it comes to an e n d w i t h our death. w h a t H e i d e g g e r c a l l s b l e those of a s a i n t for o u r t i m e . being-towards-death is exceptionally direct a n d powerful. W e are n o t the o n l y creatures i n the u n i - w h a t it m e a n s for a h u m a n b e i n g to be is to exist t e m p o r a l l y verse w h o are t o u c h e d b y the s e n t i m e n t o f m o r t a l i t y . o f b o t h t h e i r o w n a n d o f oi Being and Time is e x t r e m e l y s i m p l e : b e i n g is t i m e . v o l u n t e e r i n g D e s p i t e its b a r o q u e l i n g u i s t i c garb. Heidegger tant f a m i n e o r w a r . H e i d e g g e r served d u r i n g the f i n a l year o f the p e r n i c i o u s . a n o t h e r p e r s o n . for H e i d e g g e r . 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS MARTIN HEIDEGGER 205 no d o u b t that. Augustine. B e i n g i s t i m e and I n t h e w i n t e r o f 1975. O n the c o n t r a r y . o u r lives o n t o the h o r i z o n o f o u r d e a t h . I t h i n k that d e a t h c o m e s i n t o o u r war i n a m e t e o r o l o g i c a l u n i t . If our b e i n g is finite. those a r o u n d t h e m . m a m m a l s — d o l p h i n s . H e i d e g g e r ' s analysis o f for the m o s t d a n g e r o u s job o f o c c u p y i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n post. i n " b e c o m i n g w h o d u r i n g t h e F i r s t W o r l d W a r . t h e r e is a s u r p r i s i n g l y t r a d i t i o n a l h u m a n i s m at w o r k H u s s e r l ' s assistant a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f F r e i b u r g i n south-west in Heidegger's approach to death. b u t also cats a n d d o g s — a l s o D e s p i t e its l e n g t h a n d l e g e n d a r y d i f f i c u l t y . it is o p e n to the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i o n . i n n e r t o r m e n t . I n m y v i e w (this n o w have s u c h a desire to live. T o d i e for diers i n the C a r p a t h i a n M o u n t a i n s . i n the stretch b e t w e e n b i r t h a n d death. gality. h e writes. W i t t g e n s t e i n l e d a h u m a n b e i n g . " A f t e r 1919. T h a t is. h e d e c l a r e d . a n d was d e l i g h t e d w h e n h e was one i s " i n a p h r a s e o f N i e t z s c h e ' s that H e i d e g g e r l i k e d t o cite." C r u d e l y stated. h e b e g a n a s t u n n i n g l y o r i g i n a l series o f lectures beings d i e . T h e r e l a t i o n t o d e a t h i s n o t first a n d also u n d e r w e n t s o m e sort o f c o n v e r s i o n t h r o u g h the events o f f o r e m o s t m y o w n fear for m y o w n d e m i s e . c r i t i c i s m i s first a d v a n c e d b y E d i t h S t e i n a n d E m m a n u e l L e v - inas).

2o6 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS

s a i d , "Yes, P e t z e t , t h e e n d i s n o w d r a w i n g n e a r . " A f t e r a
I RUDOLF CARNAP 207

s o c i a l i s t h u m a n i s t . H e i n i t i a l l y t u r n e d d o w n t h e offer o f a
r e f r e s h i n g n i g h t ' s s l e e p o n 2 6 M a y 1976, H e i d e g g e r f e l l chair at U C L A because it w o u l d have o b l i g e d h i m to sign a
asleep a g a i n a n d d i e d . M c C a r t h y i t e loyalty oath.
S h o r t l y before h i s d e a t h , C a r n a p v i s i t e d i m p r i s o n e d M e x -
ican philosophers in M e x i c o C i t y in a show of solidarity and
Rudolf Carnap
h e was very a c t i v e i n anti-racist p o l i t i c s . T h e last p h o t o g r a p h
(1891-1970)
of C a r n a p shows h i m a t t e n d i n g the d i s c u s s i o n of a b l a c k
W h a t is the w o r l d ' s shortest b o o k ? A n s w e r : What I Learned from p e a c e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n L o s A n g e l e s . H i s was t h e o n l y w h i t e
Heidegger, b y R u d o l f C a r n a p . D o n ' t worry, I ' m o n l y j o k i n g . I n face i n t h e g r o u p . C a r n a p l i v e d just b e l o w w h e r e I a m w r i t -
1932, C a r n a p wrote a n i n f a m o u s a n d i n f l u e n t i a l c r i t i q u e o f ing, i n a s e c l u d e d h o m e i n the Santa M o n i c a hills. H i s wife,
Heidegger, called " T h e O v e r c o m i n g of Metaphysics through I n a , c o m m i t t e d s u i c i d e i n 1964 a n d C a r n a p d i e d a t the age o f
L o g i c a l A n a l y s i s o f L a n g u a g e . " H e c l a i m e d that Heidegger's seventy-nine after a b r i e f b u t severe i l l n e s s .
propositions were n o n s e n s i c a l because they were neither
logically valid, nor empirically verifiable. V i e w s such as
E d i t h Stein,
H e i d e g g e r ' s m a y w e l l give e x p r e s s i o n t o a n a t t i t u d e towards
Saint Teresa Benedicta of the C r o s s
l i f e b u t , i n C a r n a p ' s v i e w , t h e y are shot t h r o u g h w i t h pseudo-
(1891-1942)
p h i l o s o p h y a n d m e t a p h y s i c a l m u m b o - j u m b o . T h e expression
of s u c h an attitude towards life has no right to a h o m e in p h i - A n o t h e r story of c o n v e r s i o n , this
losophy, b u t is better expressed in literature or m u s i c . C a r n a p t i m e w i t h a tragic e n d i n g . E d i t h
writes, sarcastically, " M e t a p h y s i c i a n s are m u s i c i a n s w i t h o u t S t e i n was b o r n i n t o a n o r t h o d o x
m u s i c a l ability." J e w i s h f a m i l y before b e c o m i n g
F o r C a r n a p , s c i e n c e c a n say a l l t h a t c a n b e s a i d and an atheist in 1904. S h e was a
p o t e n t i a l l y leaves n o q u e s t i o n u n a n s w e r e d . S c i e n c e i s also b r i l l i a n t student of p h i l o s o p h y
c u m u l a t i v e a n d there i s progress i n k n o w l e d g e . C a r n a p a n d H u s s e r l a p p o i n t e d her as his
t h o u g h t that p h i l o s o p h y c o u l d a n d s h o u l d b e m o d e l l e d o n assistant w h e n h e took the c h a i r
this idea of science a n d therefore a l t h o u g h the history of i n F r e i b u r g i n 1916. T h i s was n o
p h i l o s o p h y (let a l o n e the h i s t o r y o f p h i l o s o p h e r s ) m i g h t b e easy task as H u s s e r l was a par-
an i n t e r e s t i n g c u r i o s i t y , it is e n t i r e l y s e c o n d a r y to the scien- ticularly chaotic thinker and
t i f i c a c t i v i t y o f p h i l o s o p h y . W i t t g e n s t e i n c a n b e said t o have wrote in Gabelsberger short-
e x e r t e d a vast i n f l u e n c e o n p h i l o s o p h y i n B r i t a i n after his h a n d , w h i c h was h a r d t o de-
d e a t h . B u t t h r o u g h t h e a g e n c y o f students l i k e Q u i n e , Car- c i p h e r a n d even h a r d e r to edit.
n a p c a n b e s a i d t o h a v e b e e n a massive force i n s h a p i n g pro- S t e i n t o o k the o p p o s i t e p a t h to H e i d e g g e r : he b e g a n as a
f e s s i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y i n t h e U S A after t h e S e c o n d W o r l d C a t h o l i c a n d a T h o m i s t before l o s i n g h i s f a i t h ; she b e g a n a s
W a r . P e r h a p s t h i s i s w h a t a c c o u n t s for A m e r i c a n p h i l o s o - a n atheist a n d c o n v e r t e d t o C a t h o l i c i s m a n d e v e n t r a n s l a t e d
phy's i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h s c i e n c e a n d its i s o l a t i o n f r o m the arts Aquinas. In an appendix to her posthumously published
and humanities. m a j o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l w o r k , Finite and Eternal Being, she c r i t i -

A l t h o u g h this is not w i d e l y k n o w n , as w e l l as being a cizes Heidegger's conception of being-towards-death. As

p h i l o s o p h e r o f l o g i c a n d s c i e n c e , C a r n a p was a l i f e l o n g A l a s d a i r M a c l n t y r e puts i t i n h i s b o o k o n S t e i n ,

208 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS WALTER BENJAMIN 209

We learn what it is to anticipate o u r o w n deaths f r o m those Jew, a f r i e n d o f B r e c h t a n d A d o r n o a n d a p u b l i c c r i t i c o f
others whose a n t i c i p a t i o n of their deaths we have in some N a z i s m , i t was c l e a r that h e w o u l d n o t b e treated w i t h m e r c y .
significant way shared. H a n n a h A r e n d t c r o s s e d t h e F r e n c h - S p a n i s h b o r d e r a few
weeks later a t exactly t h e s a m e spot, a n d w h e n i n N e w Y o r k
O n e e v e n i n g , w h e n s t a y i n g w i t h f r i e n d s i n the s u m m e r o f she gave A d o r n o a c o p y o f w h a t m i g h t b e t h e last text that
1921, S t e i n was .left a l o n e i n t h e h o u s e . S h e t o o k d o w n the B e n j a m i n wrote, "Theses o n the P h i l o s o p h y o f H i s t o r y . "
a u t o b i o g r a p h y o f St. T h e r e s a o f A v i l a a n d was u n a b l e t o stop T h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y p o w e r f u l , i f e n i g m a t i c , text f i n i s h e s w i t h
r e a d i n g u n t i l the e n d . S h e i m m e d i a t e l y d e c i d e d that she h a d the f o l l o w i n g w o r d s :
to convert to C a t h o l i c i s m a n d enter Theresa's C a r m e l i t e
o r d e r i n C o l o g n e . O n 3 1 D e c e m b e r 1938, S t e i n crossed the We k n o w that the Jews were p r o h i b i t e d f r o m investigating
b o r d e r i n t o H o l l a n d t o escape N a z i p e r s e c u t i o n o f so-called the f u t u r e . T h e T o r a h a n d prayers i n s t r u c t t h e m i n
" n o n - A r y a n s . " H o w e v e r , i n 1942, after t h e D u t c h b i s h o p s r e m e m b r a n c e , however. T h i s s t r i p p e d the future o f its
published a condemnation of N a z i anti-Semitism, Hitler m a g i c , to w h i c h a l l those s u c c u m b w h o t u r n to the sooth-
o r d e r e d that a l l n o n - A r y a n R o m a n C a t h o l i c s b e arrested. sayers for e n l i g h t e n m e n t . T h i s does not i m p l y , however,
S h e was sent t o A u s c h w i t z - B i r k e n a u , w h e r e she d i e d i n the that for the Jews the future was t u r n e d into h o m o g e n o u s ,
gas c h a m b e r w i t h h e r sister, R o s a , w h o was also a c o n v e r t . e m p t y t i m e . F o r every s e c o n d of t i m e was the strait gate
Survivors of the death c a m p testified that S t e i n acted with t h r o u g h w h i c h the M e s s i a h m i g h t enter.
great c o m p a s s i o n to o t h e r sufferers.
P o p e J o h n P a u l I I ( w h o was a l s o , lest i t b e f o r g o t t e n , a I t i s o n l y b y c u l t i v a t i n g r e m e m b r a n c e that o n e m i g h t t u r n
p h e n o m e n o l o g i s t ) c a n o n i z e d h e r o n 1 1 O c t o b e r 1998. away f r o m t h e i l l u s o r y a n d f i n a l l y i d e o l o g i c a l o b s e s s i o n w i t h
the f u t u r e , w h i c h is always a b r i g h t e r f u t u r e m a d e p o s s i b l e
b y s c i e n t i f i c a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l progress a n d e n s u r i n g e t e r n a l
Walter Benjamin
h u m a n h a p p i n e s s . O n t h e c o n t r a r y , B e n j a m i n insists that t h e
(1892-1940)
a n g e l of h i s t o r y faces b a c k w a r d s . It is o n l y l o o k i n g at t h e past,
A f t e r the N a z i s c a m e t o p o w e r i n 1933, B e n j a m i n left B e r l i n b y b r u s h i n g h i s t o r y against t h e g r a i n , that w e c a n k e e p a l i v e
for P a r i s , w h e r e h e w o r k e d o n h i s massive a n d u n f i n i s h e d w h a t B e n j a m i n c a l l s " a weak m e s s i a n i c p o w e r . " T h i s w e a k
Arcades Project. T h i s was a s t u d y of t h e c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n of p o w e r , t h i s h o p e against h o p e , i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y that a t e a c h
n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y b o u r g e o i s l i f e seen t h r o u g h t h e lens o f and every m o m e n t of t i m e a revolutionary transformation
the Paris arcades of glass-roofed shops. might be brought about. In B e n j a m i n , messianic Judaism
W h e n F r a n c e f e l l t o t h e G e r m a n s i n 1940, B e n j a m i n a n d a r e v o l u t i o n a r y M a r x i s m fuse together in a d e s p e r a t e l y
h e a d e d s o u t h i n the h o p e o f l e a v i n g for the U S A v i a S p a i n . apocalyptic vision.
H a v i n g crossed a w i l d part of the Pyrenees w i t h a group
o f refugees, B e n j a m i n a r r i v e d a t P o r t b o u o n the F r e n c h -
S p a n i s h b o r d e r . T h e exact o r d e r o f events after this p o i n t i s
u n c l e a r , b u t B e n j a m i n appears to have c o m m i t t e d suicide
w i t h m o r p h i n e p i l l s a t t h e H o t e l d e F r a n c i a o n the n i g h t o f
2 7 - 2 8 S e p t e m b e r . S o m e say that t h e c h i e f o f p o l i c e t o l d B e n -
j a m i n that he w o u l d be h a n d e d over to the G e s t a p o . As a

T h e L o n g Twentieth Century II:
Analytics, Continentals,
a Few Moribunds and a
Near-death Experience

Hans-Georg Gadamer
(1900-2002)

G a d a m e r i s the o n l y p h i l o s o p h e r i n this b o o k w h o m I saw
n e a r l y d i e . It was in P e r u g i a , Italy, at a s u m m e r s c h o o l on
H e i d e g g e r i n 1986 w h e n I was a P h D student. G a d a m e r was
d u e to give a talk on h i s f o r m e r t e a c h e r a n d a c r o w d of a b o u t
forty p e o p l e were eagerly w a i t i n g to h e a r w h a t he h a d to say
a b o u t t h e r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d H e i d e g g e r l e c t u r e s that h e h a d
h i m s e l f a t t e n d e d i n M a r b u r g i n the 1920s.
A l r e a d y f r a i l w i t h age a n d w a l k i n g w i t h sticks b e c a u s e o f
t h e p o l i o t h a t h a d a f f l i c t e d h i m w h e n h e was t w e n t y - t w o ,
G a d a m e r d e s c e n d e d the h i g h staircase t o t h e s e m i n a r r o o m .
S u d d e n l y h e f e l l , a n d the s o u n d o f sticks c l a t t e r i n g a n d h i s
b o d y b u m p i n g against e a c h o f t h e twenty-five I t a l i a n m a r b l e
steps r e v e r b e r a t e d e x t e r n a l l y a n d i n t e r n a l l y i n a l l o f us.
W e feared t h e worst. A n a m b u l a n c e was c a l l e d a n d h e was
taken to hospital. R e m a r k a b l y , G a d a m e r m a d e a speedy
r e c o v e r y , a n d gave h i s t a l k a few days later w i t h s o m e b a n -
dages t o c o v e r h i s b r u i s e d h e a d .
T h e story i s t y p i c a l o f t h e t e n a c i t y o f t h e m a n a n d t h e
h u m a n i s m that h e d e f e n d e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y . G a d a m e r was a
very i m p r e s s i v e h u m a n b e i n g . I r e m e m b e r a n o t h e r e v e n i n g

h e r e p l i e d sardon. he must be a p p r o a c h e d as a teacher. L a c a n the attack o n the W o r l d T r a d e C e n t e r i n N e w York. G a d a m e r ' s constant p h i l o s o p h i c a l passion. t i n g outside w i t h G a d a m e r . t h a t i s t h e o n l y thesis I w o u l d d e f e n d w i t h o u t a n y h i m s e l f u n a b l e t o speak." Yet. T h e c o l o n c a n c e r took its Jacques L a c a n inexorable course and L a c a n submitted to an operation (1901-81) w h e r e a m e c h a n i c a l s u t u r e was f i t t e d . w h i c h r a n f r o m 1953 u n t i l 1979. " N o . invested w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t y o f S c r i p t u r e . profundity. n o t really. o n e d o e s n o t h a v e t o i n h i s last years. h e a l t h . a n d significant c l i n i c a l i m p o r t . " H a p p i l y . H e w o u l d speak w i t h o u t notes. e d l y b u r s t a n d L a c a n suffered f r o m p e r i t o n i t i s a n d t h e n sep- n e n t a l t h o u g h t t h a n L a c a n . G a d a m e r was asked for his r e a c t i o n to was h i s s e m i n a r ." h e u s e d t o q u i p . 212 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS JACQUES LACAN 213 f r o m t h e s a m e p e r i o d i n I t a l y w h e n a f e w students w e r e sit. often t o h u n d r e d s o f p e o p l e . t h o u g h often a c e r b i c . fascinate h i m i n his later years. H e h a d lost t h e v o i c e t h a t h a d c a p t i v a t e d r i c h v i s i t e d h i m for the last t i m e i n H e i d e l b e r g . " P l a t o t h o u g h t w i n e was very foremost. L a c a n was a teacher of psychoanalysts w h o p r o v i d e d a i m p o r t a n t . a n d h e r a i s e d his h a n d a n d s h o w e d a n d o t h e r t o p o l o g i c a l features that h a d i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m e t o t h e t i n y gap o f l i g h t b e t w e e n h i s t h u m b a n d i n d e x finger. o f l i f e . L a c a n o p e n e d h i s m o u t h a n d f o u n d h o p e . s o m e t i m e later L a c a n seems to have a c c u r a t e l y r e c o v e r f u l l y . a n d q u i t e sepa- ach pains a n d had an operation from w h i c h he seemed to rately. b u t a d d e d that this h o p e He t u r n e d to the board a n d began to draw the knots. h e s a i d . that o n e c a n n o t l i v e w i t h o u t h o p e . H e b e c a m e c o n f u s e d . "Es ist mir recht unheimlich geworden" e n o r m o u s e r u d i t i o n . " G a d a m e r ' s m o b i l i t y h a d b e e n restricted for some Silences had increasingly c o m e to mark Lacan's teaching t i m e i n t h e last years. t o h i m . A s a teacher. b i o g r a p h e r . w h e n his p u p i l a n d successor D i e t e r H e n . s o m e o n e was r e p o r t e d t o have s a i d . t u r n e d W h e n G a d a m e r was asked a b o u t d e a t h . e v e n u n c a n n y . It moves the b l o o d . c h a r l a t a n w i t h the c o l o u r f u l dress sense of a S o p h i s t . T o s o m e . others to l o c a l paralysis a n d vascular distur- S h o r t l y before his death. r a t h e r a l o t o f r e d In my view. m e d i c a l science p h i l o s o p h i c a l f r a m e w o r k for psychoanalysis of great o r i g i n a l i t y has r e c e n t l y c o n f i r m e d P l a t o n i c w i s d o m . w i t h answered in G e r m a n . d i s b e l i e v i n g . i c a l l y that it is " o n e of the m o s t u n p l e a s a n t t h i n g s that are part A c c o r d i n g t o h i s f a i t h f u l . H i s a u d i e n c e . " T h a n k G o d . w h i c h was r e m a r k a b l e for a m a n o f h i s age. h e repeated F r e n c h i n t e l l e c t u a l life for the p r e v i o u s quarter of a c e n t u r y . W e l o v e y o u just the same. o r i g i n a l i t y a n d c o n s i d e r a b l e wit. T h e n e x t m o r n i n g h e h a d a h e a r t a t t a c k . W h a t e v e r the cause. F i r s t a n d w i n e — a n d G a d a m e r s a i d . "It a n g u i s h . plaids h a d b e c o m e this s m a l l . h e i s a n obscurantist t i c a e m i a a n d was i n t e r r i b l e p a i n .l a w i n c h a r g e . T h e s u t u r e u n e x p e c t - T h e r e is perhaps no m o r e divisive figure in recent C o n t i . . to others. H e w e n t o n t o a d d that " p e o p l e c a n n o t l i v e w i t h o u t o n 2 1 N o v e m b e r 1978. A t t h e o p e n i n g session o f his twenty-sixth a n d f i n a l s e m i n a r . H e r e . L a c a n s e e m e d t o b e a n i n c r e a s i n g l y iso- o f r e d w i n e . lost lated a n d confused m a n s u r r o u n d e d by a family entourage c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d d i e d i n the e v e n i n g . " A n d w h e n j o u r n a l i s t s a s k e d h i m w h e t h e r h e felt E l i z a b e t h R o u d i n e s c o . b a n c e s t o the b r a i n . G a d a m e r c o m p l a i n e d o f stom. m e a n i n g that the w o r l d h a d b e c o m e strange.i n . t o his p u b l i c . S o m e h a v e a t t r i b u t e d t h i s t o sagacity a n d t h i n k w i t h one's legs. L a c a n ' s m e d i u m In h i s 102nd year. G a d a m e r c e l e b r a t e d w i t h a b o w l o f s o u p a n d a glass I n h i s last year. O n d i a g n o s e d h i m s e l f w i t h c o l o n c a n c e r . b u t refused t o h a v e t h e t h e e v e n i n g o f t h e d a y w h e n h e was g i v e n a c l e a n b i l l o f o p e r a t i o n b e c a u s e o f a p h o b i a o f surgery. was a s restriction." s o d i f f i c u l t . W e w e r e d r i n k i n g r e d w i n e — i n fact. s i l e n t a s h e was. e v e r y t h i n g has just b e c o m e doesn't matter. enjoying the U m b r i a n night a n d he is a v e n e r a t e d a u t h o r i t y w h o s e often o r a c u l a r w o r d s are discussing Plato. w h o s u p e r v i s e d the d i s s o l u t i o n o f his p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t r a i n i n g s c h o o l a n d the h u r r i e d f o u n d i n g o f a n o t h e r s c h o o l w i t h h i s d a u g h t e r a n d s o n . m a d e reference t o his m i s t a k e a n d left the r o o m .

H a n s .s i n n e d . A d o r n o was n e v e r a b l e t o r e s u m e h i s l e c t u r e s . A d o r n o p l a y e d the bombing of Hiroshima. f i n . A d o r n o was s i n g l e d o u t for c r i t i - T h e o d o r W. m o r p h i n e was a d m i n i s t e r e d I t was p e r h a p s the " N o " i n " A d o r N o " that p r e c i p i t a t e s h i s a n d before i t d i d its w o r k . F o r those f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e relentless c r i t i c a l n e g a t i v i t y o f a n d T e d d i e h a d his u s u a l series o f l o v e affairs. T h a t s u n l i g h t casts sharp c i r c u m s t a n c e s T e d d i e m i g h t have q u i t e a p p r e c i a t e d t h i s . self for c a l l i n g the p o l i c e t o c l e a r the students f r o m a n S i m p s o n " a l l e g e d l y " m u r d e r e d h i s ex-wife. H i s c r i t i c a l " N o ! " was seen a s (1903-69) a reactionary d e n i a l of the positivity of the revolutionary p o l - I have t h o u g h t o f A d o r n o . piano while C h a p l i n accompanied h i m in parodic mimicry. B e t w e e n D e c e m b e r 1941 f o u n d l y shook A d o r n o . c o l l a b o r a t e d on t h e left a t t h e t i m e . F r e u d . it is d i f f i c u l t b y t h r e e w o m e n students w h o c o v e r e d h i m i n f l o w e r petals t o t h i n k o f A d o r n o ' s r e f l e c t i o n s o n the c u l t u r e i n d u s t r y a n d a n d b a r e d t h e i r breasts w h i l e a c t i n g o u t s o m e sort o f e r o t i c c o m m o d i t y c a p i t a l i s m w i t h o u t t h i n k i n g o f t h e affluent s u n . o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e I n s t i t u t e for S o c i a l R e s e a r c h a n d for p a r - A d o r n o ' s L o s A n g e l e s years w e r e h u g e l y p r o d u c t i v e . T h e y w e r e A d o r n o h a d d i e d s u d d e n l y that m o r n i n g o f a h e a r t attack. w h o was a cause c e l e b r e o f t h e r a d i c a l i s h e d t h e Philosophy of Modern Music. S . Minima Moralia. V e r y far f r o m b e i n g a s e x u a l p r u d e . f i v e b l o c k s course. " F r a n k f u r t d u r i n g t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r . just a k n i f e .214 1 9° O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS T H E O D O R W.J ü r g e n K r a h l . I n a letter t o S a m u e l B e c k e t t . I n d e e d . As a d i e a n d his m u c h . D u r i n g the p o l i t i c a l d r a m a o f the s t u d e n t m o v e - m e n t i n F r a n k f u r t i n 1968. w e r e h a p p y i n p r e c a u t i o n . b u t a n d d a r k s h a d o w s t h a t are r e f r a c t e d i n t h e best H o l l y w o o d i n s t e a d e s c a p e d the l e c t u r e h a l l i n a state o f desperate a n x i - f i l m n o i r o f the p e r i o d . G r e t e l took h i m to the nearby hospital a n d B r e n t w o o d . T h e next day she learnt that a n d T h o m a s M a n n . p e r f o r m a n c e . 3. T e d . I n d e e d . I n 1970. A d o r n o l i v e d for O n 2 2 A p r i l 1969. the anniversary of the m o v i e . T w o m a l e students m o u n t e d the a n d O c t o b e r 1949. I ' m d y i n g . A d o r n o ' s w o r k . D u r i n g his exile f r o m his native t i o n a r y at least has a s u r p r i s i n g n o t e . . A l t h o u g h o n e w o u l d n e v e r guess i t f r o m t h e p u r g a t o r i a l P h y s i c a l l y a n d m e n t a l l y e x h a u s t e d . matters c a m e to a h e a d w i t h an i n c i d e n t that pro- f r o m w h e r e I am w r i t i n g these words.a g a i n s t w i f e .t h r o w f r o m w h e r e O . A f t e r d i n n e r . T e d d i e t o his f r i e n d s — " Y o u r O l d itics o f d i r e c t a c t i o n . a t the b e g i n n i n g o f h i s last l e c t u r e n e a r l y eight years i n B r e n t w o o d . A d o r n o suffered heart palpitations. C h a r . c a p i t a l i s m w i l l n e v e r cease. c i t i z e n s h i p i n C a l i f o r n i a ) . " T h e f e e l i n g of s u d d e n l y b e i n g attacked as a reac- the w r i t i n g of this book. A D O R N O 215 A s for h i s great h e r o . r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t p u b l i s h e d as The Authoritarian Personality a n d A s t u d e n t w r o t e o n t h e b l a c k b o a r d . w r o t e Dialectic o f Enlightenment w i t h M a x H o r k h e i m e r . h e left w i t h G r e t e l for t o n e that defines A d o r n o ' s prose o f t h e p e r i o d (he writes that a h o l i d a y in S w i t z e r l a n d . . " s i c a n C a t h o l i c n a m e w h e n h e a p p l i e d for U . J . W e s t L o s A n g e l e s . Monsieur Verdoux. ety. i t does raise a w r y s m i l e t o k n o w h e was b o r n l i e C h a p l i n i n v i t e d A d o r n o t o a p r i v a t e s c r e e n i n g o f his 1947 on 11 S e p t e m b e r a n d d i e d on 6 August. s h o r t l y after t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f h e r h u s b a n d ' s .000-metre peak. the A d o r n o s l i v e d i n a c o m f o r t a b l e h o u s e p l a t f o r m a n d insisted that A d o r n o p u b l i c l y c r i t i c i z e h i m - o n S o u t h K e n t e r A v e n u e . w h o l i v e d v e r y c l o s e by. i n o t h e r l i t e m p t i n e s s o f W e s t L o s A n g e l e s . " I f A d o r n o i s left i n sketched the w o n d e r f u l l y pithy fragments in what remains p e a c e . H e t i c i p a t i n g in legal proceedings against a f o r m e r student. T h e y spent m u c h t i m e w i t h the H o r k h e i m e r s r e t u r n e d later to their h o t e l . L a c a n u t t e r e d his last w o r d s . " I ' m d e m i s e ( T e d d i e W i e s e n g r u n d o n l y took o n h i s m o t h e r ' s C o r - obstinate ." H e was t h e n s u r r o u n d e d h i s m o s t r e a d a b l e b o o k . G r e t e l . a c t i v e i n H o l l y w o o d society. A d o r n o c i s m b y r a d i c a l leftist students. m e t figures l i k e G r e t a G a r b o . A d o r n o T e d d i e " t o his m o r e i n t i m a t e c o r r e s p o n d e n t s — o f t e n d u r i n g wrote. A f t e r m a k i n g a v i g o r o u s a s c e n t to a every t r i p t o the c i n e m a left h i m " s t u p i d e r a n d w o r s e " ) .

" was . F o l l o w i n g t h e f a l l o f P a r i s ." L e v i n a s a b a n d o n e d t h e b o o k o n H e i d e g g e r a n d s p e n t the b l o o d y p o g r o m s that b e g a n i n J u n e 1940 w i t h the active the n e x t years b e g i n n i n g t o r e t h i n k his a p p r o a c h t o p h i l o s o - a n d e n t h u s i a s t i c c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f L i t h u a n i a n nationalists. A s L e v i n a s said m a n y years later. r e p r e s e n t e d o r e v e n u n d e r - goes o n t o w r i t e i n a s e c o n d F r e n c h d e d i c a t i o n — a n d L e v i n a s s t o o d . but discovered Heidegger. the q u e s t i o n for i n M a g d e b u r g . c a l l e d " S i g n a t u r e . b u t is r a t h e r that e v e r . L e v i n a s w r o t e . o n C h r i s t m a s E v e . " F o r L e v i n a s . authentically who I am. In f o r c e d l a b o u r i n the forest for five years. I m a g i n e . where he did death is the central c o n c e p t that needs to be rethought. It is d i f f i c u l t to forgive H e i d e g - W o r l d W a r . d e a t h i s s o m e - w o r k . t h e s a m e h a t r e d o f ters t h e f r a m e w o r k o f m y l i f e a n d leaves m e i n a p o s i t i o n o f the o t h e r m a n . H o w e v e r . I n a l l l i k e l i h o o d the N a z i s m u r d e r e d t h e m d u r i n g ger. H e i d e g g e r . After the war. i n g t h e s a m e fate. " O r i g i n a l l y f r o m H e i d e g g e r h a d j o i n e d the N a z i Party i n 1933. w h e n L e v i n a s h a d r e t u r n e d t o (1905-95) France." E m m a n u e l Levinas I n t h e years that f o l l o w e d . L e v i n a s I must seize h o l d of a n d u n d e r s t a n d in o r d e r to b e c o m e v o w e d n e v e r t o set foot o n G e r m a n s o i l a g a i n .h u m a n i s m powerlessness a n d passivity. m y d e a t h i s that l i m i t t o m y l i f e that C a t h o l i c c o n v e n t outside O r l e a n s . of the other person. H e i d e g g e r writes that d e a t h is " t h e p o s s i b i l i t y daughter changed their names a n d were concealed in a o f i m p o s s i b i l i t y . L e v i n a s lists the n a m e s o f his m u r d e r e d f a m i l y m e m b e r s i n L e v i n a s s i m p l y reverses t h i s d i c t u m a n d c l a i m s that d e a t h the H e b r e w d e d i c a t i o n to his second major p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s " t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f p o s s i b i l i t y . " A d i e u . L e v i n a s ' s w i f e a n d Being and Time. d e g g e r . tion c a m p . he p l a n n e d to write an introductory book on H e i - In a brief. A s w e h a v e a l r e a d y s e e n i n E d i t h S t e i n . H i s t i m e i n F r e i b u r g was 1993. n o r t h e r n G e r m a n y . h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the o t h e r h u m a n b e i n g . h e was n o t sent t o a c o n c e n t r a . tries to c o n s t r u c t an e t h i c s that is e n d l e s s l y o p e n to the sur- ity that suffered a t o t a l e c l i p s e d u r i n g t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r prise o f a n o t h e r n e s s w h o s e m o s t e l o q u e n t e x p r e s s i o n i s that a n d i n s o m a n y o t h e r wars. but required constant attention u n t i l her death in H u s s e r l ' s s u c c e s s o r . a n t i . D e a t h i s n o t that b y v i r t u e o f w h i c h the self b e c o m e s i s t h i n k i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y o f the w a r i n V i e t n a m — t o r e c a l l a l l a u t h e n t i c . L e v i n a s ' s utter s h o c k w h e n h e d i s c o v e r e d that i n a t e d b y the m e m o r y o f the N a z i h o r r o r . " I w e n t t o F r e i b u r g b e c a u s e of Husserl. 210 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS E M M A N U E L LEVINAS 217 f i n a l . " O n e c a n forgive m a n y G e r m a n s . for L e v i n a s . O n this basis. " L e v i n a s says that his life h a d b e e n " d o m .S e m i t i s m i s a n t i . " T h a t is. B e c a u s e L e v i n a s was a n L e v i n a s i s h o w p h i l o s o p h y m i g h t b e p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t suffer- officer i n the F r e n c h a r m y . b u t there are G e r - lost m o s t o f his i m m e d i a t e a n d e x t e n d e d f a m i l y i n the S e c o n d m a n s it is d i f f i c u l t to forgive. I t i s this r e s p o n s i b i l . b u t s o m e t h i n g other. u n f i n i s h e d w o r k .S e m i t i s m . I f L e v i n a s ' s p e r s o n a l l i f e was d o m i n a t e d b y t h e m e m o r y o f W i t h u n i n t e n d e d i r o n y . h e L i t h u a n i a a n d n a t u r a l i z e d as a F r e n c h c i t i z e n in 1930. S h e H u s s e r l ' s last s e m i n a r a n d a t t e n d e d t h e first s e m i n a r o f failed. t h e n s o was h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l l i f e . " T h a t is. I n 1928. phy and to Judaism. Years l a t e r . w h i c h h e v a l u e d s o m u c h . but to a military prisoners' c a m p . he t h i n g that c a n n o t b e p r e d i c t e d . In o t h e r w o r d s . Otherwise than Being or Beyond Essence (1974). m a r k e d by an i n t e n s e r e a d i n g of H e i d e g g e r ' s Being and Time. l a c o n i c inventory of a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l remarks. G r e t e l a t t e m p t e d s u i c i d e w i t h s l e e p i n g p i l l s . Aesthetic L e v i n a s s t u d i e d i n F r e i b u r g w h e r e h e gave a p r e s e n t a t i o n i n Theory. a n d the m o r a l lesson o f the H o l o c a u s t i s t o l e a r n t o a s s u m e death i s not m i n e . t h e great J e w i s h p h i l o s o p h e r d i e d t h e N a z i h o r r o r .u n k n o w a b l e e v e n t that shat- those k i l l e d b y "the s a m e a n t i . t h e n . w h i c h w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e first i n a n y l a n g u a g e . T h e f u n e r a l o r a t i o n . 1995. L e v i n a s was c a p t u r e d b y the A c c e p t i n g that there i s i n d e e d a fatal c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n G e r m a n s i n R e n n e s i n J u n e 1940 a n d transferred t o a c a m p H e i d e g g e r ' s p h i l o s o p h y a n d his p o l i t i c s .

G i s c a r d recalls the event d o n ' t w a n t it to be b u r d e n e d by death. L e a v i n g . pre- . B e a u v o i r f r o m 1974. attended Sartre's f u n e r a l i n w h a t C l a u d e L a n z m a n n d e s c r i b e d i o u s l y asked B e a u v o i r . f i n a n c i a l l y d e p e n d e n t u p o n h i m . the " B e a v e r " a s Sartre always c a l l e d h e r . w e e p i n g a n d d r i n k i n g D e s p i t e the a t h e i s m w h i c h was a x i o m a t i c for h i s a p p r o a c h w h i s k y . " H o w are w e g o i n g t o m a n a g e the as " t h e last of the 1968 d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . w i t h Sartre's c o r p s e . Valery Giscard d'Estaing. T h e not been c o n f i r m e d because of a l o n g and disappointingly nurse let B e a u v o i r l i e o n top f r a c t i o u s d i s p u t e b e t w e e n L e v i n a s ' s s o n a n d d a u g h t e r over of the sheet beside Sartre. the director was waiting for m e . t o p h i l o s o p h y a n d l i f e itself. At the hospital. B l i n d . B e a u v o i r t h e n w a n t e d t o b e left a l o n e w i t h Sartre. was so d r u g g e d she even f e l l asleep for a short t i m e . i n a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h S i m o n e d e T h e others left a n d . Sartre s a i d . I n the last o f the m a n y m e d i c a l w o u l d pay the f u n e r a l costs. w i t h o n e m a n f a l l i n g i n t o t h e h o l e o n top y o u very m u c h . m y life w i l l e n d . in an a n o n y m o u s have a n u n c a n n y a b i l i t y — m o r e t r u l y a d e s i r e — t o s u r r o u n d hospital r o o m . he anx. 2l8 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS JEAN-PAUL SARTRE 219 g i v e n b y J a c q u e s D e r r i d a a t t h e i n t e r m e n t f o u r days later. The President of France. At five i n the m o r n i n g ." o f Sartre's c o f f i n a n d masses o f flowers p a s s i n g f r o m h a n d t o A f t e r h e d i e d . S a r t r e m a d e t h e f o l l o w i n g c u r i o u s remark: S h e p u l l e d b a c k the sheet a n d w e n t t o l i e d o w n beside h i m . a l t h o u g h i t has sores were g a n g r e n o u s . t o b a c c o a n d drugs. " Sartre's f r i e n d s h a d f u n e r a l expenses?" Before he s l i p p e d i n t o his final c o m a . his b o d y devastated b y there was a great c o m m o t i o n . b a r e l y a b l e t o w o r k . 0 0 0 p e o p l e e m e r g e n c i e s that p u n c t u a t e d the last d e c a d e of his life. next to Sartre's coffin. but last years does n o t m a k e pleasant r e a d i n g . " B e a u v o i r dust in the universe. T h e n I turned left a n d saw two coffins. B e a u v o i r a n d a g r o u p o f c l o s e f r i e n d s stayed h a n d t o b e tossed o n t o t h e c o f f i n . O n e day. S h e t h e rights to h i s estate. h a d not r e a l i z e d that Sartre's T h e cause was p r o b a b l y A l z h e i m e r ' s disease. I want my death in a darkly h u m o r o u s anecdote: never to enter my life. Sartre took B e a u v o i r by the wrist a n d said. I told myself that Sartre w o u l d prob- h i m s e l f w i t h a c r o w d o f b e a u t i f u l . it in person to the h o s p i t a l a n d w i l l always b e o u t s i d e . I want always to be a c a l l to life. the story of Sartre's the funeral that was supposed to take place two days later. d o n ' t d o that!" a n o r d e r l y s h o u t e d a t her. a l o n e . i n H a z e l R o w l e y ' s w o r d s . a speck of nurse e x p l a i n e d : "It's the gangrene. "I love were c h a o t i c scenes. O u t s i d e . came D e a t h ? I don't t h i n k about it. Sartre s e e m e d to there I was. M a d a m e . A I do not feel that I am the p r o d u c t of c h a n c e . r e m i n i s c i n g . fragile w o m e n w h o b e c a m e ably have appreciated the starkness of my homage. nor define it. b u t I spent a n h o u r beside Sartre's c o f f i n . toothless. It has no place in my life. m y dear Beaver. T h e y d e c l i n e d a n d 5 0 . r e m a i n e d l o y a l a n d G i s c a r d e v e n t o l d Sartre's friends that the F r e n c h g o v e r n m e n t devoted t h r o u g h o u t his life. " N o . N o b o d y else showed u p . everybody was t a l k i n g about years of abuse of a l c o h o l . (1905-80) A c o u p l e of years before his d e a t h . his refused t o a l l o w a n y p o l i c e p r e s e n c e a t t h e f u n e r a l a n d there eyes c l o s e d . b u t someone w h o was expected. the orderlies Jean-Paul Sartre c a m e a n d took Sartre away. S i m o n e d e B e a u v o i r .

A r e n d t is c r i t i c a l of the priority of c o n t e m p l a t i o n over t i o n . 220 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS S I M O N E DE B E A U V O I R 221 pared. regardless o f h o w o n e m i g h t feel s u b j e c t i v e l y . of one's past B e a u v o i r b e g a n Adieux—A Farewell to Sartre. w h i c h bears n o i n s c r i p . she b r i n g s o n the c o l o u r o f the d e a d . life)." sees o l d age as a " s h a m e f u l secret that it is u n s e e m l y to m e n . t i o n s t r a n s f o r m that gap i n t o t h e grotesque abyss o f m a n u f a c - t u r e d y o u t h f u l n e s s that o n e sees i n the bars a n d restaurants o f L o s A n g e l e s a n d e l s e w h e r e . be otherwise than radical — c h a n g e life itself. k i n d of death w i t h i n life a n d a l i v i n g death. T h i s i s the f i r s t o f m y books — t h e o n l y o n e n o d o u b t — t h a t It is the w h o l e system that is at issue a n d o u r c l a i m c a n n o t y o u w i l l not have read before it is p r i n t e d . O n t h e c o n t r a r y . the e x i s t e n t i a l analysis b e g u n in the g r o u n d b r e a k i n g The Sec. In cites Z e n o o f C i t i u m ' s w o r d s that the p h i l o s o p h e r m u s t "take h e r i n s i g h t f u l . on the contrary. S h e p o n d e r s a t l e n g t h the B u t B e a u v o i r ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l i m p o r t a n c e m u s t n o t always c l a s s i c a l v i e w that t o p h i l o s o p h i z e i s t o l e a r n h o w t o d i e a n d be v i e w e d t h r o u g h the lens of her l i f e t i m e c o m p a n i o n . I n this It also reveals the f u n d a m e n t a l m i s t a k e — t h e p a t h e t i c s e n s e . b u t isn't this t r u l y the saddest t h i n g i n t h e (1908-86) w o r l d . as o l d as the others say y o u o f a c t i o n i n c o n c e r t w i t h others. s u c h s u r g i c a l i n t e r v e n - w h e n they are d r u n k . Schopenhauer. Old Age. t h e p h i l o s o p h e r ' s n o t o r i o u s a b s e n t . as it is a d e n i a l of t h e fact of one's l i f e . p e o p l e say a l l sorts o f t h i n g s c o s m e t i c surgery. A r e n d t gives t i o n o r d e c o r a t i o n apart f r o m t h e i r n a m e s a n d dates o f b i r t h an erudite a n d n i c e l y sceptical a c c o u n t of the relation and death. B e a u v o i r d i e d . " F o r P l a t o . a n d this idea of a creating h a n d refers to a n d h o w that existence i s v i e w e d objectively. o n e c a n always l i e Simone de Beauvoir a b o u t one's age. In h e r u n f i n i s h e d final b o o k . t h e life feel. b e t w e e n p h i l o s o p h y a n d d e a t h . w h e r e h e r ashes w e r e p l a c e d beside those o f Sartre. A s B e a u v o i r writes. T h e y share a n e l e g a n t l y s i m p l e grave. the last b o o k she a n d m e m o r y ? I t h i n k i t i s i n t h e s t i g m a a t t a c h e d t o o l d age p u b l i s h e d i n h e r l i f e t i m e . O l d age i s n o t d i s c o v e r e d . A s S t e l l a S a n d f o r d w r i t e s . prefigured. T h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e l i f e i s a are. if d e p r e s s i n g . o f a p u l m o n a r y o e d e m a a n d over H a n n a h Arendt 5. death is the " i n s p i r i n g genius of philosophy. and Arendt's teacher and former lover ond Sex (1949) to t h e t o p i c of a g e i n g . " B e a u v o i r a r g u e s t h a t w e d o n o t e x p e r i e n c e o l d age a c t i o n that d e f i n e s the h i g h e s t l e v e l o f p h i l o s o p h i z i n g i n a n - f r o m w i t h i n b u t w i t h o u t . . T h i s gap T h e n again. l i k e Sartre. In short. as a student of m i n e o n c e said to me d u r i n g a b e t w e e n the s u b j e c t i v e a n d t h e o b j e c t i v e c a n n o t b e f i l l e d b y class I was t e a c h i n g o n H e g e l . a b e i n g w h o m o n l y a C r e a t o r A g e i n g o p e n s u p a gap b e t w e e n one's s u b j e c t i v e e x i s t e n c e c o u l d put here. w i t h the w o r d s : that o u r society stands m o s t c o n d e m n e d . 1970 b o o k . w h a t she c a l l s the vita contemplativa (the c o n t e m p l a t i v e i m p o s e d f r o m the o u t s i d e ." Y o u are.000 p e o p l e f o l l o w e d h e r f u n e r a l cortege t o M o n t p a r n a s s e (1906-75) C e m e t e r y . T h e p h i l o s o p h e r is a spectator or sightseer in the w o r l d o f h u m a n affairs b u t n o t a f u l l p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e m . one's b e i n g i s d e f i n e d b y the way i n w h i c h o n e i s s e e n b y o t h - ers. I n o l d age. S h e writes that society Heidegger. O f c o u r s e .m i n d e d n e s s is a d e l u s i o n — i n the c l a i m that " y o u are o n l y a s o l d a s y o u d i s a p p e a r a n c e f r o m w h a t A r e n d t c a l l e d the vita activa. The Life of the Mind. God. i t i s t i q u i t y . b u t also for M o n t a i g n e .

P o n t y ' s g o i n g t o l i v e for m y h e a l t h . "I am certainly not c o u n t r y h o u s e o u t s i d e Paris two days before M e r l e a u . 222 223 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS HANNAH ARENDT A l t h o u g h A r e n d t r e c o g n i z e s a n d accepts that t h e activity S a t u r d a y p r i o r to h e r d e a t h . t h e s u b j e c t o f h e r P h D d i s s e r t a t i o n i n 1929. O f c o u r s e . She t h e m e i n her work. a s h e e t o f p a p e r was f o u n d i n h e r type. a s she was r e t u r n i n g the traditional death flower a n d their presence at funerals is t o h e r a p a r t m e n t i n M a n h a t t a n .d i n n e r c o f f e e . H e r friends Salo a n d In the last image I have of h i m he's standing on the o p e n J e a n e t t e B a r o n c a m e r o u n d t o d i n n e r a c o u p l e o f days later. m e a n t t o s y m b o l i z e the restored i n n o c e n c e o f t h e d e p a r t e d . A r e n d t t r i p p e d o v e r a pot. A r e n d t h a d a b r i e f was w e a r i n g a s p r i g of lily-of-the-valley that L a c a n h a d c o u g h i n g fit a n d l o s t c o n s c i o u s n e s s . to On Violence (1970). t h i n k e r . P h i l o s o p h i c a l m e d i t a t i o n s o n d e a t h are a l l T h i s is clearly an autobiographical parable on Arendt's very w e l l . f r o m The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951). In his b u t t o n h o l e he A s s h e was s e r v i n g a f t e r . T h i s is what A r e n d t a c h i e v e d with notes that A u g u s t i n e was " t h e o n l y p h i l o s o p h e r t h e R o m a n s s u c h i n t e l l e c t u a l p o w e r in the b o o k s that p r e c e d e The Life of ever h a d . w h i c h i s a v i t a l Eichmann in Jerusalem (1963). w h e r e the a t i o n o f m a n was t o m a k e p o s s i b l e a b e g i n n i n g . rather t h a n a h u m a n p l u r a l i t y to be participated in and celebrated. w h i c h avait coupe l a parole [ i t c u t o f f h i s of the Mind. a n d t h e c o n c r e t e t i n e . especially political judgement. " S h e c o n t i n u e d t o b e a c o m m i t . " It left us w i t h the bare t r u n k of a m a n u s c r i p t c a l l e d . heart attack. S h e h a d d i e d f r o m a given h i m .P o n t y died suddenly of a coronary thrombosis writer. A f t e r h e r d e a t h . but what justice do they b r i n g to the p h e n o m e - part: she is the T h r a c i a n g i r l .P o n t y . S h e w r i l y analysis of that w o r l d . S h e was i n a l i t t l e p a i n a n d M a d e l a i n e C h a p s a l said o f M e r l e a u . fall into a w e l l because he e m p h a s i s o n m o r t a l i t y that o n e f i n d s i n a n c i e n t a n d m o d - was w a t c h i n g t h e stars. p i c k i n g l i l i e s o f t h e v a l l e y for M a y D a y . S h e writes. T h e m o r a l o f t h e t a l e i s that i f o n e v i e w s p o l i t i c a l life the power of b e g i n n i n g ? Perhaps this m i g h t i n s p i r e s o m e - from a contemplative p h i l o s o p h i c a l distance. T h e two o f t h e m h a d b e e n t e d s m o k e r a n d t o o k o n far t o o m a n y s p e a k i n g e n g a g e m e n t s . l i l i e s are T h e d a y after T h a n k s g i v i n g i n 1975. H e i d e g g e r the p r o f e s s i o n a l n o n o f l i f e i f t h e y l e a v e n o r o o m for t h e q u e s t i o n o f b i r t h . T h e y m e t a t L a c a n ' s A r e n d t declared to M a r y M c C a r t h y . the M a u r i c e Merleau-Ponty p h i l o s o p h e r m i g h t b e a n expert i n t h i n k i n g . It was b a r e e x c e p t for a s i n g l e w o r d . h o l e a s s h e s t e p p e d o u t o f a t a x i . " T h e purpose o f the cre- r e c o u n t s t h e story w i t h w h i c h t h i s b o o k b e g a n . " J u d g i n g . a n d T h e r e i s a story o f t h e last m e e t i n g b e t w e e n L a c a n a n d suffered a near-fatal h e a r t attack in the year before h e r d e a t h . e r n p h i l o s o p h y . A l t h o u g h she h a d p r o b l e m s w i t h a n g i n a f r o m 1971. " A r e n d t was T h r a c i a n p e a s a n t g i r l b u r s t s o u t l a u g h i n g w h e n s h e sees suspicious — a n d perhaps rightly so — o f the constant T h a l e s . In other words. " w h i c h t w o days later. M e r l e a u . t h r o u g h T h i s leads h e r i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f natality. m a d e a n a p p o i n t m e n t for the d o c t o r . last two paragraphs that A r e n d t wrote w e r e a p a e a n to A u g u s - w h a t c o u n t s for h e r i s a c t i o n i n t h e w o r l d . a n d h e was w a v i n g m e goodbye. w h o w e r e c l o s e friends. " the Mind. platform at the back of a n o . one inevitably o n e to write a c o u n t e r p a r t to this book on the births of sees t h e p e o p l e as a r a b b l e to be c o n t r o l l e d by o n e f o r m or philosophers. other of a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m . P a u l R i c o e u r d e s c r i b e d h i s d e a t h "as the m o s t was g o i n g to be the t o p i c of the t h i r d a n d f i n a l part of The Life i m p r o b a b l e o f a l l . u n t i m e l y d e a t h aged fifty-three. It is e x t r e m e l y p o i g n a n t that t h e o f c o n t e m p l a t i v e t h i n k i n g i s essential t o t h e l i f e o f t h e m i n d . M e r l e a u . 63 bus. the professional t h i n k e r .P o n t y . b u t c a n c e l l e d i t because o f the f o u l N e w York weather. b u t n o t i n j u d g - (1908-61) ing. S h e f i n i s h e d the s e c o n d part on " W i l l i n g " on the s p e e c h ] .

S c h o p e n h a u e r ' s m e t a p h y s i c s . I t i s s a i d that M e r l e a u . to return us to what M e r l e a u . a c c o r d i n g to through it a n d back to o u r e l e m e n t a l vitality. 224 WILLARD VAN ORMAN QUINE 225 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS The Visible and the Invisible. W h e n i n L o n d o n . O n t h e c o n - N o r m a . w o r k i n g in a a n d c o n s i d e r a b l e l i n g u i s t i c w i t (see h i s a m u s i n g Quiddities c a r factory. S e c o n d . To go back to t h e self-starvation o f t h e ascetic. t h e s c o p e o f p h i l o s . In a p a p e r on M o n t a i g n e that was also t e m p o r a l consciousness. cites t h e f o l l o w i n g j o t t i n g b y h e r f a t h e r . i n t i m a . F i r s t . " b u t m o m e n t a r i l y freed f r o m the w e i g h t o f h a b i t a n d the blindness of everyday routine.P o n t y ' s d e a t h . b u t t o m o v e w i l f u l life in the w o r l d of representation. t w o c o n d i t i o n s h a v e to be m e t . t h e r e has to be a t i o n s o f m o r t a l i t y a l l o w u s t o seize h o l d o f that a c c i d e n t a l c o m p l e t e r e n u n c i a t i o n of the w i l l . H e writes. h e r e j e c t e d a n y i d e a o f convoys to leave F r a n c e . t h e w i l l . P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y Q u i n e was a n a t u r a l i s t ." Paradoxically. R i c o e u r ' s w o r d . A s s u c h . P h i l o s o p h y must attempt to Simone Weil do s o m e t h i n g similar. she y e a r n e d t o g o t o L o n d o n a n d s o m e t h i n g o t h e r t h a n itself. a l t h o u g h he d i d have the question mark charac- c a t e d i n a w o n d e r f u l essay o n C e z a n n e that a p p e a r e d i n the ter r e m o v e d f r o m h i s t y p e w r i t e r a n d r e p l a c e d w i t h a m a t h e - year o f h i s d e a t h . " T o k n o w d e a t h i n a l l its T o a c h i e v e s u c h a d e a t h — w h i c h i s truly the d e a t h o f a s a i n t - nakedness. After s t u d y i n g intensively at the metaphysics or the attempt to g r o u n d scientific activity on N e w Y o r k P u b l i c L i b r a r y . the starving ascetic has t o h a v e a t t a i n e d t h e highest degree o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l w i s d o m before he or she c a n d i e . this is also slightly i m p r o b a b l e . simply science. Q u i n e seems t o h a v e offered n o o p i n i o n r e l e a r n i n g t o see t h e w o r l d . Q u i n e was a p h i l o s o p h e r o f e n o r m o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l i n f l u e n c e After t e a c h i n g p h i l o s o p h y in a girls' s c h o o l . W h a t t h i s m i g h t m e a n i s i n d i . C e z a n n e ' s art r e t u r n s u s t o t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h w e l i v e . T h e r e m . is o r i g i n a l a n d c h a l l e n g i n g work.P o n t y (1909-43) c a l l e d " t h e p e r c e p t u a l f a i t h " o f o u r o p e n n e s s t o the w o r l d . m e a n s h e b e l i e v e d that i t i s the r o l e o f s c i e n c e t o e x p l a i n W e i l left M a r s e i l l e for N e w Y o r k i n 1942 o n o n e o f t h e last w h a t exists a n d h o w i t exists. " F a m o u s trary.- H e d i e d after a b r i e f i l l n e s s o n C h r i s t m a s D a y 2 0 0 0 . T h e saint m u s t also be a p h i l o s o p h e r . writes that the purpose of a m e d i t a t i o n on death is not m o r o s e n e s s . D u r - V i c t o i r e in Provence — d o not lead us to some transcendent i n g a m e m o r i a l t a l k g i v e n a t H a r v a r d i n 2001 h i s d a u g h t e r .P o n t y shows that t h e p a i n t i n g s o f matical symbol. t h e n i t r e m a i n s i m p r i s o n e d w i t h i n the i l l u s i o n s o f edy for d e a t h i s n o t t o t u r n away i n f r i g h t . In M e r l e a u .P o n t y was f o u n d d e a d i n h i s s t u d y F o r S c h o p e n h a u e r . true p h i l o s o p h y consists in P e r h a p s w i s e l y . w h i c h W a r . is the voluntary death through starva- p u b l i s h e d in the year before M e r l e a u . he tion.P o n t y ' s view. a n d w o r k i n g a s a f a r m servant after f l e e i n g Paris i n 1940. S i m o n e W e i l m o r e t h a n meets b o t h these (1908-2000) conditions. M e r l e a u . about death. life is l a i d w h o l l y bare. W e i l r e f u s e d t o . O n this v i e w . s e r v i n g i n a n a n a r c h i s t u n i t i n the S p a n i s h C i v i l f r o m 1987). w o r k for t h e R e s i s t a n c e . the total d e n i a l o f the t h a n D e s c a r t e s . last w o r d s : T o b e c o n t i n u e d . O n t h e c o n t r a r y . If s u i c i d e is an act of b u t p r e c i o u s p o r t i o n o f e x i s t e n c e that i s o u r l i f e . w h i c h p r o m i s e d to be h i s m o s t ophy is dramatically reduced: philosophy. r e a l m b e y o n d a p p e a r a n c e o r b e h i n d t h e scenes. W i l l a r d van O r m a n Q u i n e W i t h o u t d o u b t . done w e l l . the o n l y permissible f o r m of suicide is with his face in a book by Descartes. M e r l e a u - P o n t y ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l taste was m u c h c l o s e r t o M o n t a i g n e T h e highest degree o f a s c e t i c i s m . C e z a n n e — t h i n k o f h i s r e p e a t e d r e n d e r i n g s o f M o n t Ste.

extent. i t i s p o i g n a n t that t h e last l o s o p h y a n d l i f e i s m u c h h a r d e r t o draw. W e i l writes. hollowing my guts transformative p o w e r c a n c o m e a t the cost o f one's life. b u t that its at least I can be light and hungry. i t i s n o t s o m u c h t h e case a n d g n o s t i c C h r i s t i a n i t y w h e r e w e are a s k e d t o await a n e a r l y that they l e d m o r e c o m p l e x a n d interesting lives a n d h a d absent G o d . T h e s e are t h i n k e r s n o t e b o o k e n t r y she w r o t e was a b o u t t h e s p i r i t u a l d i m e n s i o n for w h o m p h i l o s o p h y h a d a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e effect i n t h e i r of food. e x i l e o r p u n - i s h m e n t i m p o s e d on philosophers seem to respond to a deep . she suffered a p h y s i c a l c o l l a p s e . S h e d i e d s o m e successful a n d i n f l u e n t i a l professional lives a n d died i n a n m o n t h s later a t a s a n a t o r i u m i n A s h f o r d i n K e n t . t h e feast. m e n t i o n i n g such delights as Christmas p u d d i n g and lives. c o m p l e x a c a d e m i c d i s c i p l i n e w i t h its o w n i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i a o f W h i l e . P h i l o s o p h y is a technically this b o o k . a c o m m o n p l a c e in a n d "Simone W e i l at Ashford:" after a n t i q u i t y . i t i s C o n t i n e n t a l t h i n k e r s w h o p r e p o n d e r a t e . the style o f p h i l o s o p h y that d o m i n a t e s T h e effect o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h y i s the t h e universities o f the E n g l i s h - sense that i t does n o t a n d s h o u l d n o t m a t t e r t o t h e c o n d u c t s p e a k i n g w o r l d . A r c h b i s h o p o f C a n t e r b u r y . as we saw above. i t D a v i d s o n o r J o h n R a w l s . i t i s c l e a r that t h e y l e d w o n d e r f u l l y was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t W e i l h a d t u b e r c u l o s i s . . n o r t h L o n d o n . W h e n o n e c o n - m a l n u t r i t i o n a n d o v e r w o r k . writes i n disruptive of a self is.. T o this till I'm a bone the sentenced god can whistle through. P h i l o s o p h y s h o u l d aspire t o the i m p e r s o n a l i t y o f p a r t i c u l a r l y in the latter stages of natural science. o f one's l i f e . D u e t o c i a l i s m . D o n a l d W h i l e she was i n h o s p i t a l i n M i d d l e s e x . and if I cannot walk like god. a n effect that survives i n the lives o f t h e i r readers. F u r - E a s t e r eggs. T o this extent. m o r e d r a m a t i c deaths. u n d r a m a t i c m a n n e r w h i c h has n o a b s o l u t e l y b e a r i n g o n W e i l m a i n t a i n e d v o l u m i n o u s n o t e b o o k s that s h o w the t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i c a l views. siders i n f l u e n t i a l a n a l y t i c p h i l o s o p h e r s l i k e Q u i n e . I n w h a t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l y h e r last w r i t t e n t h e r m o r e . 22Ö 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS ALFRED JULES AYER 227 eat m o r e t h a n t h e o f f i c i a l r a t i o n i n o c c u p i e d F r a n c e . t o s o m e extent. p h i l o s o p h y in this book. p e o p l e are — p e r h a p s f o r less t h a n v i r t u o u s rea- s e n t e n c e . if one considers C o n t i n e n t a l philosophers d e v e l o p m e n t of a u n i q u e t h e o l o g i c a l position: a heterodox l i k e A r e n d t . " T h e joy a n d s p i r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f s o n s — s i m p l y i n t r i g u e d b y t h e l i f e a n d d e a t h o f a Sartre o r a n t h e feast lies in t h e d e l i c a c y [lafriandise] that is p a r t i c u l a r to Althusser. F o u c a u l t o r D e r r i d a . b u t r a t h e r that the l i n e b e t w e e n p h i - C o n s i d e r i n g h e r self-starvation. A l a s d a i r M a c l n t y r e i s surely justified w h e n h e writes. t h i s i s d u e t o m y o w n i n t e l l e c t u a l e x c e l l e n c e a n d i t s h o u l d b e k e p t away f r o m o t h e r h u m a n i s - f a n c i e s t h a t I c o u l d a d o r n w i t h t h e g o w n o f a n a c a d e m i c spe- tic d i s c i p l i n e s a n d f r o m the u n s e e m l y d i s o r d e r o f private a n d . It is t r u e that. N o t h i n g more. • I m p r i s o n i n g p h i l o s o p h y w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n s Alfred Jules Ayer and specializations of an institutionalized c u r r i c u l u m . n e e d that p h i l o s o p h y a n d life s h o u l d f i t together. i t also has a m o r e i n t e r e s t i n g cause. is arguably a good deal more It m i g h t be argued that I am effective i n n e u t r a l i z i n g its effects t h a n either r e l i g i o u s d o i n g a d i s s e r v i c e to a n a l y t i c censorship or p o l i t i c a l terror. e x t r a o r d i n a r y r a n g e a n d e c l e c t i c i s m o f h e r r e a d i n g a n d the By contrast. (1910-89) after the m a n n e r o f o u r c o n t e m p o r a r y E u r o p e a n a n d N o r t h A m e r i c a n culture. sentences o f d e a t h ." T h e i d e a that p h i l o s o p h y i s s o m e t h i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i v e o r R o w a n W i l l i a m s .

221 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS ALFRED JULES AYER 229 p u b l i c l i f e . H e met ministers w h o were i n charge o f space. B e n R o g e r s tells t h e story o f A y e r w h i c h was a p p a r e n t l y i n c h a r g e o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e w a l k i n g w i t h Isaiah B e r l i n i n O x f o r d i n t h e 1930s. W e are b o t h e m i n e n t i n o u r f i e l d . It took place in a n d m o r e desperate a n d t h e n r e g a i n e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s . however. N e e d l e s s to say. T h e y w e r e universe. " B y Albert C a m u s (1913-60) w h i c h t i m e . h e h a d r e c o v e r e d a n d was t a l k i n g h a p p i l y a b o u t w h a t p a r a d o x i c a l . A y e r was t a l k i n g to a g r o u p of d e n c e that d e a t h does n o t p u t a n e n d t o c o n s c i o u s n e s s . M a n y p e o p l e k n o w t h e i n . A y e r w e n t t o the rescue a n d discov. b u t discussing the nature a n d scope of philosophy. he c a l m l y r e p l i e d . t h r e e years after r e c e i v i n g t h e N o b e l P r i z e for L i t e r a - t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t d e f e c t was that n e a r l y a l l o f i t was false. " W e l l . "was s l i g h t l y o u t o f j o i n t .") t u r e a t t h e age o f forty-four. " C a m u s appears t o a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s o m e M a g e e i n t h e m i d . It is d i f f i c u l t to t h i n k of a m o r e resolutely atheistic that " t h e r e i s b u t o n e t r u l y serious p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r o b l e m a n d p h i l o s o p h e r . lost c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d t e c h n i c a l l y d i e d . S a d l y . b u t A y e r c o u l d see the about the m e a n i n g of what we s a y — a n d there is a l l of this m i n i s t e r s i n c h a r g e o f t i m e i n t h e d i s t a n c e . a l l of life. " A n d I a m t h e f o r m e r W y k e h a m P r o f e s s o r o f L o g i c . D e e . Ayer. Ayer said. " d e f e c t o f h i s h u g e l y s u c c e s s f u l a n d w i d e l y r e a d 1936 b o o k . a t the t i m e heavy. after h i s d e a t h a n d was m u c h m o r e p l e a s a n t c o m p a n y t h a n e r e d M i k e T y s o n t r y i n g t o force h i m s e l f o n a y o u n g B r i t i s h he h a d b e e n previously. this is a v i e w t h a t I have s o u g h t T h e year b e f o r e h e d i e d . said to Jonathan m o d e l c a l l e d N a o m i C a m p b e l l . Fewer people k n o w about F r e d d i e Ayer's near-death He f a m o u s l y writes at t h e b e g i n n i n g of The Myth of Sisyphus e x p e r i e n c e . " F r e d d i e " to his friends. H e saw a b r i g h t r e d l i g h t arate p h i l o s o p h y f r o m l i f e . A y e r t h e n reports [with an excited sweep of the hands]. " c a l m a n d c h e e r f u l a s H u m e u n t i l the e n d . w i t h o u t m i s s i n g a beat. C a m u s was k i l l e d i n a p o i n t l e s s c a r a c c i d e n t i n Language. the ministers o f t i m e b y w a l k i n g u p a n d d o w n a n d w a v i n g his c i d e n t w h e n A y e r c o n f r o n t e d M i k e T y s o n . " D o y o u k n o w w h o d i e d a p h i l o s o p h e r ' s d e a t h the f o l l o w i n g year. " B u t t h e p o i n t is to l i v e . Ayer choked on a In a d d i t i o n to W i t t g e n s t e i n a n d R u s s e l l . w h i c h is about c o n c e p t u a l analysis — m i n i s t e r s for space w e r e o d d l y absent. " F r e d d i e has got s o m u c h n i c e r s i n c e h e d i e d . " H e h i s h a n d s off her. l i k e t i m e i n Hamlet. I suggest that w e talk a b o u t this l i k e r a t i o n a l m e n . that h e s u d d e n l y r e c a l l e d E i n s t e i n ' s v i e w that space a n d t i m e w e r e o n e a n d t h e s a m e a n d t r i e d t o attract the a t t e n t i o n o f Stories a b o u t A y e r are l e g i o n . " m o d e l s w h e n a w o m a n m s h e d i n saying that a f r i e n d was b e i n g It appears t h a t A y e r e x p e r i e n c e d a p e r i o d of r e s u r r e c t i o n assaulted i n the next r o o m . watch a n d c h a i n . A d a y philosophers is A. H e o n c e s a i d t h a t h e c o u l d n ' t . A y e r w a r n e d T y s o n t o takes M i l l e r . a n d Ayer grew m o r e weight boxing c h a m p i o n of the world. or a m o r e c a n d i d one. J. University College Hospital in L o n d o n . N a o m i C a m p b e l l h a d escaped Tyson's c l u t c h e s . A y e r M a n h a t t a n a t the party o f F e r n a n d o S a n c h e z .1 9 7 0 s w h a t h e t h o u g h t was t h e c h i e f fifty pages later by asserting. To no avail. A y e r r e p l i e d . I s u p p o s e i 9 6 0 . H i s e x c e p t i o n t o w h a t I h a v e just s a i d a b o u t t h e lives o f a n a l y t i c a l h e a r t s t o p p e d for f o u r m i n u t e s u n t i l h e was r e v i v e d . the glorious p i e c e o f s a l m o n . h a d t a k e n p l a c e d u r i n g h i s d e a t h . a f a s h i o n a b l e was s h a k e n b y t h e e x p e r i e n c e a n d i n a n a r t i c l e for t h e Sunday underwear d e s i g n e r ( n o t m a n y p h i l o s o p h e r s get invited Telegraph h e suggested that i t d i d p r o v i d e " r a t h e r s t r o n g e v i - to u n d e r w e a r designer parties). Truth and Logic. they h a d not d o n e their job p r o p e r l y w i t h the result that s p a c e . T h i s is later. m o r e t h a n a n y o n e else. s o u g h t t o sep. H i s wife. after r e c o v e r i n g f r o m p n e u m o n i a i n t o c h a l l e n g e i n this b o o k . t o w h i c h T y s o n r e p l i e d . " T h e T h e r e is p h i l o s o p h y . for A y e r . ( W h e n asked by B r i a n that i s s u i c i d e . a p p a r e n t l y as the f u c k I a m ? I ' m the heavyweight c h a m p i o n o f the w o r l d .

T h e r e is a t r o u b l i n g aspect to Barthes's d e a t h . (1917-2003) n a v y for three a n d a h a l f years as an expert t e a c h e r of g u n n e r s A q u e s t i o n that we have seen e m e r g i n g in this b o o k is w h e t h e r a n d p i l o t s . S u c h i s p e r h a p s the r a n d o m force o f t h e absurdity that i d e a o f n a t u r e a s g o v e r n e d b y d e t e r m i n i s t i c p h y s i c a l laws w i t h C a m u s so eloquently describes. A f t e r the a c c i d e n t . e x p l a i n a single m e n t a l event. "La vieillesse. i n Kant's words. the experience o f h u m a n autonomy? A r e o u r actions s i m p l y t h e effects o f p h y s i c a l causes? W e saw above that K a n t s o u g h t t o preserve the a u t h o r i t y o f s c i e n c e w h i l e i n s i s t i n g o n the p r i - P a u l Pvicoeur macy of h u m a n autonomy. i t w o u l d n o t f o l l o w that h e c o u l d p r e d i c t o r culture. d i e d l i k e C a m u s . (1913-2005) D a v i d s o n gives a p o w e r f u l a n d u p d a t e d d e f e n c e o f K a n t ' s T h e great a n d g e n t l e h e r m e n e u t i c i a n d i e d p e a c e f u l l y a n d p o s i t i o n w i t h the idea of what he calls " a n o m a l o u s m o n i s m . ce lent suicide" ( " A g e i n g . h e l p i n g t h e m t o i d e n t i f y e n e m y p l a n e s . this does n o t e x p l a i n away w h a t D a v i d s o n calls (1915-80) "the a n o m a l i s i n o f the m e n t a l . S . suicide"). B a r t h e s stepped off the p a v e m e n t a n d was h i t by a d r y . " w i t h o u t i n c i d e n t i n his sleep a t the age o f n i n e t y . according to Herve Algalarrondo.t w o . Salerno a n d A n z i o . H e also the i n e l u c t a b l e rise o f the s c i e n t i f i c c o n c e p t i o n o f the w o r l d participated in the invasions of Sicily. B a r t h e s was excessively p u l l i n g i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s b u t are. D a v i d s o n d i e d f r o m heart f a i l u r e f o l l o w i n g k n e e surgery a t the age o f eighty-six. "neces- closely attached to his m o t h e r a n d apparently the n a m e sarily u n i t e d in the s a m e subject. I t i s e v i d e n c e o f t h e a n o m a l i s m o f t h e t i n u e l i v i n g . H e Donald Davidson risked his life as a y o u n g m a n w h e n he served in the U . h e p r a c t i c a l l y s t o p p e d c o m - m e n t a l that we c a n b o t h k n o w that d e a t h has a p h y s i c a l cause municating and. towards it. w h e r e events are n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n H o b b e s ' s "matter a n d m o t i o n " g o v e r n e d b y p h y s i c a l laws.c l e a n i n g v a n on a street E v e n i f s o m e o n e k n e w the entire p h y s i c a l history o f the o u t s i d e the C o l l e g e d e F r a n c e i n P a r i s . h e was f o n d o f c i t i n g the l i n e s M e n t a l events c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d away b y p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e of M i c h e l e t . T h i s v i e w argues for a t h o r o u g h g o i n g m a t e r i a l i s t i c c o n c e p - t i o n o f t h a t w h i c h is. w h e r e h e taught. he simply a n d that its m e a n i n g d e p e n d s u p o n o u r freely c h o s e n attitude let h i m s e l f d i e . T h r o u g h o u t h i s l i f e . c o n c e a l h i s h o m o s e x u a l i t y f r o m h e r . a n d every m e n t a l event were i d e n t i c a l w i t h a phys- h a d just f i n i s h e d l u n c h w i t h Jack L a n g . H e w o r l d . C a n w e r e c o n c i l e t h e d e n t . " what K a n t m o r e elegantly T h e a u t h o r o f the f a m o u s essay " T h e D e a t h o f the A u t h o r " c a l l e d " t h e t h o u g h t o f f r e e d o m . T h i s m e a n s that f r e e d o m a n d d e t e r m i n i s m are n o t t o h i s a c c i d e n t . . e x p l a i n e d away b y it. leaves o p e n a space for h u m a n f r e e d o m . 2 3° 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS DONALD DAVIDSON 231 i m a g i n e a death m o r e meaningless t h a n d y i n g in a car acci. t h i s s l o w i n the m a n n e r o f a r e d u c t i v e m a t e r i a l i s m . f o l l o w i n g a r o a d a c c i d e n t . " D a v i d s o n writes. O n the c o n t r a r y . Barthes had b e c o m e increasingly m o r b i d and h u m a n freedom is a n o m a l o u s w i t h respect to matter a n d d e p r e s s e d s i n c e t h e d e a t h o f h i s m o t h e r i n the s u m m e r p r i o r m o t i o n . i t s e e m s that w h e n she o u r a t t i t u d e towards i t i s n o t r e d u c i b l e t o t h a t c a u s e o r died s o m e t h i n g died i n h i m a n d h e h a d n o desire t o c o n ." It follows f r o m this v i e w that " R o l a n d " was c o n s t a n t l y o n h e r l i p s . A l t h o u g h R o l a n d h a d t o a l t h o u g h death i s a n event w i t h a n u n d e n i a b l e p h y s i c a l cause. In the last m o n t h s p r i o r t o the a c c i d e n t . R o l a n d Barthes H o w e v e r . H e l e d a n a c t i v e — i n d e e d v i t a l — l i f e . t h e future m i n i s t e r for i c a l o n e .

H e l e n e R y t m a n . H o w e v e r .-Anne psychiatric hospital. . H e l e n e s dangerous. in an fused a n d everything c o n f u s i n g . a l m o s t e v e r y o n e was c o n . d e s c r i b e s a s " o u r h e l l . He flew was c l e a r that h e a n d H e l e n e w e r e l i v i n g i n w h a t A l t h u s s e r there a n d back. O n c e a i r b o r n e D a v i d s o n asked i f h e c o u l d take B u t how. A n d yet I k n e w L e p o r e a l s o relates t h a t t h e first t i m e h e m e t D a v i d s o n i n that this was someone w h o h a d b e e n strangled. (1918-90) A l t h u s s e r was j u d g e d i n c a p a b l e o f s t a n d i n g t r i a l a n d was F r o m 1938 o n w a r d s . A l t h u s s e r suffered f r o m severe attacks o f c o m m i t t e d to Ste. m e l a n c h o l y that a p p a r e n t l y r e c u r r e d every F e b r u a r y . unusual a n d yet peaceful way. " T h i s seems m o r e t h a n a little generous. d u r i n g t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r . a professional P y k e t o s u m m a r i z e i n fifty w o r d s h i s i d e a o f w h a t p h i l o s o p h y footballer. Apparently. t h u m b to the left. I was struck w i t h terror. I wasn't fighting so m u c h . I was lucky. I so m u c h d i s l i k e d staring i n t e r m i n a b l y a n d I n o t i c e d that the e n d of her the c o n c e p t . a t h u m b to the r i g h t . O n these s h i p s . a Jew w h o h a d b e e n active in the F r e n c h Resistance. t r a n s f o r m a t i v e ef- i n Paris. " n o l o n g e r a n s w e r i n g t h e d o o r o r tele- p h o n e a n d l i v i n g on a diet of anti-depressants. F o r s o m e . A l t h u s s e r ' s l i f e was a l o n g struggle w i t h m e n t a l illness that e n d e d not in the s u i c i d e John Rawls he s o m e t i m e s threatened. a war. M o r e t h a n h a l f the ships i n the f l o t i l l a were face was i m m o b i l e and serene. . this is also true of often massage h i s wife's b o d y . . S h o u l d we believe Althusser's testimony? It over the controls of the s m a l l passenger p l a n e . . The Facts. S u d d e n l y . but w i t h l a m e n t a t i o n for the (1921-2002) m u r d e r of his wife. A l t h u s s e r a n d h i s w i f e w e r e »995 sleeping in their apartment at the E c o l e N o r m a l e Superieure T h e e x p e r i e n c e o f w a r h a d a p r o f o u n d . her open eyes staring at the sunk w i t h everyone aboard. R a w l s i s the m o s t i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r o f In h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h y . A l t h u s s e r r e c a l l s . A l t h u s s e r a w o k e a n d recalls k n e e l i n g b e s i d e h i s w i f e fect o n m a n y o f t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s w e h a v e d i s c u s s e d . "I've strangled H e l e n e ! " a paper on a b r a n c h c a m p u s of the University of M i n - nesota. H e slipped b e h i n d the veil o f igno- gives a q u i t e c h i l l i n g r e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e m u r d e r . O n a grey r a n c e after heart f a i l u r e . H e was After his release in 1983. b u t h a d b e e n u n w e l l s i n c e a stroke i n N o v e m b e r m o r n i n g i n 1980. i n d e e d . he w o u l d almost p a i n f u l l y understated m a n n e r . I hated the idea of c e i l i n g . I n 1990. I have seen corpses. h e was a s k e d t o a c c o m p a n y h i m t o g i v e straightened up a n d screamed. 232 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS LOUIS ALTHUSSER 233 W h e n asked b y E r n i e L e p o r e for his i m p r e s s i o n s o f the fog o f I p l a c e d m y two t h u m b s i n the h o l l o w o f her n e c k . G i v i n g I d i d n ' t l i k e r i s k i n g my life a n d what I was d o i n g was very a massage always causes me p a i n in my forearms. means. I massaged in a V shape. Rawls wrote. tongue was s t i c k i n g out between her teeth a n d l i p s . H e d i e d o f heart failure seven years later. h e was a s k e d b y t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r S t e p h e n learnt in captivity from someone c a l l e d C l e r c . he the twentieth century. A l t h u s s e r ceased w r i t i n g apart f r o m h o s p i t a l i z e d d u r i n g his f o u r years i n a prisoner-of-war c a m p his autobiography. . B u t how? I t h e m i d . H e r eyes were b e i n g k i l l e d . but never the face of someone w h o has b e e n strangled. u s i n g a t e c h n i q u e that he h a d R a w l s .s e v e n t i e s . A F r e n c h m e d i c a l j o u r n a l describes the m u r d e r of H e l e n e as a case of " a l t r u i s t i c L o u i s Althusser h o m i c i d e . h e s a i d . I n h i s and massaging her neck in silence. The Future Lasts Forever. I felt a great m u s c u l a r fatigue in my forearms.

A u g u s t i n e writes. R a w l s w i t n e s s e d t h e My life. I l a n g u i s h . t h e New York Times r a n a v e r y s h o r t A u g u s t i n e ' s words are c i t e d i n L y o t a r d ' s f i n a l . teens I have been c o n c e r n e d w i t h m o r a l questions a n d the w h o m a y heal a n d have m e r c y u p o n m e . procrastination. w h i c h I eventually c o m p l e t e d . S . T h e questions answered. for L y o t a r d . f r o m a delay w i t h respect to myself. its l a n g u i d quality as it passes o u t of b e i n g . m y l a n g u o r i s the q u e s t i o n that I have l e a d e r o f the A l g e r i a n N a t i o n a l F r o n t . but w h o m I cannot religious a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l basis o n w h i c h they m i g h t b e k n o w a n d w h o s e grace c a n n o t b e g u a r a n t e e d . exerted a u n d e r the t e m p o r a l sign o f w a i t i n g . tions. for I a m l a n - g u i s h i n g . my suffering is e x p e r i e n c e d sensus o f p e o p l e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e g o o d as w h a t L y o t a r d calls " a w a i t i n g " : " T h e Confessions are w r i t t e n w i t h i n a f r a m e w o r k of basic rights a n d liberties. I am filled w i t h l o n g i n g . . (1924-98) to grow o l d . r e m a r k a b l e text. the O t h e r . I suffer a n d h i s v i s i o n o f a l e g i t i m a t e society a s a n o v e r l a p p i n g c o n . the M e d a l o f F r e e d o m b y P r e s i d e n t B i l l C l i n t o n i n 1999. is b o t h the body's l i m p - the b o o k to w h i c h R a w l s so m o d e s t l y a l l u d e s is The Theory of ness. f r o m 1971. . T h r e e years spent i n the U . Lagaros. ipse est languor meus. F o r A u g u s t i n e . O f c o u r s e . s o m e w h a t u n l i k e l y that R a w l s was b e d t i m e r e a d i n g for C l i n . a n d see m e . d i e d today o f . St. the r e s o l u t i o n f r o m In the Confessions.w o r d o b i t u a r y for F a n o n w h i c h b e g i n s . u n f i n i s h e d a n d e i g h t y . I grow o l d . On 7 D e c e m b e r 1961. letting go. gnomically. quotes t h e above passage f r o m A u g u s t i n e for a s e c o n d t i m e . O L o r d m y G o d . I t i s L y o t a r d . Y a h w e h . I shall the 1980s a n d 1990s. a n d have mercy u p o n m e . distension. D u r a - b l o o d y c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n the U n i t e d States a n d J a p a n i n the t i o n turns l i m p . graciously hear m e . a p a g a n . T h i s i s a f u l s o m e sixty-five w o r d s . T h i s c u l m i n a t e d i n R a w l s b e i n g a w a r d e d wear the bottoms of my trousers r o l l e d . a n event that h e c o n s i d e r e d i m m o r a l . close to d y i n g of l e u k a e m i a as he is w r i t i n g . l a n g u i d . this is it: distentio. that is my l a n g u o r . a n e x t r e m e l y C h r i s t i a n text for s u c h a n a v o w e d U n i t e d N a t i o n s . the p o s t h u m o u s l y p u b l i s h e d The Confession of Augustine. Y . it is its nature. Frantz O m a r F a n o n . A r o u n d 1950 I started to write a b o o k on justice. as stretching out. Frantz Fanon a n d heal m e . 6 — D r . S o u t h Pacific a n d the aftermath of the a t o m i c b o m b i n g of H i r o s h i m a . bespeaks in G r e e k a h u m o u r of l i m p n e s s . ton's successor. B u t d o y o u . N . a disposition to: what's the point? G e s t u r e relaxes therein. H e r e lies the Jean-Francois Lyotard w h o l e advantage of faith: to b e c o m e an e n i g m a to oneself. For in your sight I have b e c o m e a question to (1925-61) myself a n d that is my languor. L y o t a r d adds. a n d a w a i t i n g . h o p i n g for the s o l u t i o n . a r m y i n W o r l d I pose to G o d m a k e me a q u e s t i o n to myself. a n d t u r n your gaze u p o n m e . 234 1 9° O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS JEAN-FRANCOISLYOTARD 235 F r o m the b e g i n n i n g o f m y study i n p h i l o s o p h y i n m y late b e c o m e for m y s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o the G o d w h o w a t c h e s m e . H a v e m e r c y u p o n m e . W a r T w o led me to be also c o n c e r n e d w i t h p o l i t i c a l ques. stretching out. Rawls's c o n c e p t i o n of j u s t i c e as fairness. D e c . a n d t i m e as Justice. for my bones are w o r n . H e a l m e . In l a n g u o r . " T h e w e i g h t o f the past p o w e r f u l effect o n l i b e r a l a n d social d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c i a n s i n m a k e s me wait. T h e experience of l a n g u o r . a n d adds: .

i n H e was too t o u g h t o e x p e r i e n c e d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s a n d t h e c o u n t r y h e h a d m o v e d t o i n 1953 a n d w h o s e struggle for r e s e n t m e n t s — n e g a t i v e affections. The Wretched of the Earth. O n the day that news o f Fanon's death r e a c h e d Paris. b o r d e r i n t o A l g e r i a w h e r e h e was b u r i e d w i t h f u l l h o n o u r s a M a r y l a n d . calls S p i n o z a " T h e C h r i s t o f P h i l o s o p h e r s " ) . He was 37 years o l d . earth was F a n o n — t h e h e r o o f a n t i . not u n c o m m o n in patients suffering f r o m e m p h y s e m a . a n d cessfully r e m o v e d f r o m s o m e subsequent editions o f the book. " f e e l i n g of joy. this extraordinarily i m p a s s i o n e d e n c e o f affirmative c r e a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i . f a v o u r a b l e reviews l o c a t e d o n the first f l o o r o r h a v e bars a t t h e w i n d o w s . a C I A agent i n N o r t h s p e e d f a l l a p p e a r s o n e way o f f o r c i n g air i n t o one's l u n g s . R i g h t t h r o u g h to i l l n e s s a n d O n 1 2 D e c e m b e r a s m a l l c o l u m n o f c o m r a d e s f r o m the F L N death. a h i g h - W i t h the h e l p o f one O l l i e Iselin. Sartre wrote a c o n t r o . F a n o n i n i t i a l l y refused t o travel t o the U n i t e d s i m p l y o r g a n i c . c o m m e n t i n g that "that w o n ' t give D e l e u z e accorded no privileged importance to his o w n m e m y b o n e m a r r o w b a c k . h e a n d N i e t z s c h e . it was learned here. It's y o u r sadness. as versial preface to The Wretched of the Earth that F a n o n ' s wife suc. H e writes that "It i s o r g a n i s m s that d i e . " T h e r e are s o m e w h o i n s i s t that a u t o b i o g r a p h y a n d c l a i m e d . . t o u n d e r s t a n d D e l e u z e ' s d e a t h b y defenestra- emaciated a n d speechless. s t r u c k e x a c t l y t h e r i g h t t o n e after h i s defenes- i n t h e way o f a g o o d c o n s p i r a c y theory. U n a b l e t o f i n d adequate m e d i c a l treatment i n At the c e n t r e of D e l e u z e ' s w o r k is a c o n c e p t of life that is n o t N o r t h A f r i c a . des- A f r i c a . Josie. O n a s u d d e n i m p u l s e . L y o t a r d . H e r e c e i v e d the first. H o w . H e (Front de Liberation Nationale) b o r e h i s b o d y across the T u n i s i a n is l a u g h i n g . 236 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS FRANTZ FANON 237 l e u k e m i a at the N a t i o n a l Institutes of H e a l t h in Bethesda. idiot. W h e n h e was back i n T u n i s . t i o n f r o m his Paris apartment? A p p a r e n t l y . t h e n . w h i c h h e v i e w e d a s the l a n d o f l y n c h m o b s a n d r a c i s m . rightly. D e l e u z e was. siecle. he was a f f i r m a t i o n . ( A p p a r e n t l y . m e r e 6 0 0 m e t r e s i n s i d e A l g e r i a n territory. He is here. D e s p i t e t h e efforts o f h i s A m e r i c a n d o c t o r s . t r a t i o n in a fax sent to Le Monde: F a n o n ' s b o d y was f l o w n b a c k t o T u n i s o n a L o c k h e e d E l e c t r a II. F a n o n i n i t i a l l y went to R o m e . that the lives of aca- F a n o n was e x e c u t e d b y the C I A . n o t States. H i s long-time colleague i n d e n c e t o s u p p o r t this v i e w . b e c o m e d e s p e r a t e for a i r . A l t h o u g h written in w h a t F a n o n d e s c r i b e d as less t h a n d e a t h . l i f e . i n S p i n o z a ' s words ( D e l e u z e b e g a n to dictate his s e c o n d m a j o r b o o k . he'd say. F a n o n was f l o w n t o t h e U n i t e d States o n 3 O c t o b e r perately g u l p i n g for a l u n g f u l of l i f e . " t h i n k s o f n o t h i n g to his wife. t h i s is t h e 1961. " T h i s life is felt affectively t h r o u g h the e x p e r i - " p i t i f u l haste" by a d y i n g m a n . a n i n t e n s i t y that p r o d u c e s the b o o k b e c a m e the so-called " B i b l e o f T h i r d W o r l d i s m .c o l o n i a l l i b e r a t i o n strug- gles a n d severe c r i t i c o f a l l f o r m s o f r a c i s m a n d i m p e r i a l i s m — Gilles Deleuze d o i n g d y i n g i n a h o s p i t a l just o u t s i d e W a s h i n g t o n D C ? F a n o n h a d b e e n diagnosed w i t h l e u k a e m i a i n T u n i s a t the (i9 5-95) 2 e n d o f i 9 6 0 . H i s last w i s h was t o b e b u r i e d o n A l g e r i a n s o i l . " D e l e u z e i s a vitalist t h i n k e r i n the t r a d i t i o n o f B e r g s o n preferring t o travel t o M o s c o w . ) of The Wretched of the Earth. s u c h d e t a i l s n e v e r s e e m t o s t a n d Paris. T h e y are s m o t h e r i n g . a l l copies As w e l l as r e v e a l i n g h o w l i t t l e t h e New York Times k n e w a b o u t of The Wretched of the Earth were seized by the p o l i c e because it was F a n o n . defenestration is w h e r e Sartre m e t h i m for the last t i m e . d r o w n i n g really. W h y d i d I speak o f h i m i n the past? H e l a u g h e d . a t r a d i t i o n that. In this nihilistfin-de- l i b e r a t i o n f r o m F r a n c e c o n s u m e d t h e f i n a l years o f h i s l i f e . d e m i c s were s e l d o m interesting. F a n o n suffered a severe relapse in O c t o b e r 1961. E x h a u s t e d . F a n o n ' s r e a s o n w h y t h e r e s p i r a t o r y w i n g s i n h o s p i t a l s are t y p i c a l l y c o n d i t i o n w o r s e n e d . this o b i t u a r y does raise the o b v i o u s q u e s t i o n : w h a t o n b e l i e v e d that the book was a threat to n a t i o n a l security.

F o u c a u l t d i d n ' t let u p h i s relentless p a c e o f r e s e a r c h a n d car- c u p i e d b y the H e l l e n i s t i c a n d R o m a n i d e a o f c a r e o f t h e self r i e d o n w o r k i n g u n t i l the e n d o n the s e c o n d a n d t h i r d v o l - a n d the t e c h n i q u e s o f self-government that were f o u n d i n u m e s of The History of Sexuality. F o u c a u l t was greatly p r e o c . i t seems that F o u c a u l t k n e w that h e h a d A I D S . It's part of o u r w o r l d I f u c k ? " T h a t is. s a i d . w h i c h a p p e a r e d s h o r t l y t h e p a g a n w o r l d p r i o r t o the e m e r g e n c e o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . a n d events abstraction or p o l i t i c a l rhetoric. " G i v e n t h a t I a m w h o I a m . w h o w o u l d i t b e f r e e d o m . A l t h o u g h h e was a very e a r l y v i c t i m o f t h e cault carefully d o c u m e n t e d the dietary. F o u c a u l t t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n late a n t i q u i t y a n d e a r l y C h r i s - said. but this is not some piece of p h i l o s o p h i c a l friends. " G i v e n that of a secret side of o u r desire. It's n o t e n o u g h to affirm that we G o d ' s p e r f e c t i o n that I b e c o m e aware o f m y s e l f a s i m p e r f e c t are gay but we must also create a gay life. "It's l i k e b e i n g i n a fog. the c l a s s i c a l h i s t o r i a n P a u l V e y n e . F o u c a u l t p r e d i c t e d that " p e r h a p s o n e d a y t h i s c e n t u r y w i l l b e I t m i g h t b e a s k e d : what's t h e k n o w n as D e l e u z i a n . t e r r i b l e f o u n d e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e s e c o n d a n d t h i r d v o l u m e s o f The c o u g h i n g a n d m i g r a i n e ." In a seminar at N e w o p e n n e s s o f gay c u l t u r e i n S a n F r a n c i s c o . We have to u n d e r s t a n d that I c a n f u c k n o o n e . a n d m u c h m o r e than the discovery w o m a n o r m a n ? B y c o n t r a s t . For thinkers like Paul and Augustine. g i v e n m y status i n s o c i e t y . f o r m e d a n d their pleasures were used. n e w forms of c r e a t i o n . B u t History of Sexuality. w h i c h g i r l o r boy. as he sometimes t o l d his f r e e d o m . F o u . it's a G o d . F o u c a u l t d e l i g h t e d i n t h e tence. albeit in a different m a n n e r . In p a r t i c u l a r . H i s s o p h i c a l a n d s e x u a l p r a c t i c e s i n r e l a t i o n t o w h i c h selves w e r e f r i e n d . I n a n i n t e r v i e w Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y i n 1980. the central c o n c e p t in Foucault's work is F o u c a u l t was u n a f r a i d of d e a t h . F o u c a u l t was d e v e l o p i n g t h e i d e a s F o u c a u l t was first h o s p i t a l i z e d i n J u n e 1984 w i t h t h e a b o u t t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s e l f a n d the uses o f p l e a s u r e t h a t s y m p t o m s of a nasty a n d persistent f l u . The Advocate. it is in relation to possibility for creative life. p h i l o . " D e l e u z e repaid the c o m p l i m e n t by difference between paganism •4 p u b l i s h i n g a b o o k a b o u t F o u c a u l t t w o years after the latter's and Christianity? Foucault d e a t h . tianity might be reduced to the f o l l o w i n g questions: the p a t r i c i a n p a g a n asks. a n d s i n f u l a n d b e g i n to develop the acute self-consciousness of bad conscience. w h o a m I ? " T h a t is. w h o m c a n S e x u a l i t y is part of o u r b e h a v i o u r . e c o n o m i c . fatigue." h e s a i d . A t t h e s a m e t i m e . that he was not . before h i s d e a t h . W h a t interested F o u c a u l t have proved. n e w forms m e a n s t o b e h u m a n first arises for C h r i s t i a n s i n t h e s i g h t o f of love. as some- M i c h e l Foucault thing formed and developed: (1926-84) a l e g i t i m a t e strangeness. A r g u a b l y . the q u e s t i o n o f w h a t i t w i t h o u r desires go n e w forms of relationships. Sexuality is s o m e t h i n g that we ourselves create. t h e C h r i s t i a n asks. F o u c a u l t i s r e p o r t e d t o h a v e s a i d w i t h a gay n e w s p a p e r in L o s A n g e l e s . a p p r o p r i a t e for m e t o take a s m y l o v e r . Sex is not a fatality. v i r u s . F o u c a u l t was f o n d o f the F r e n c h p o e t R e n e C h a r ' s makes a distinction between r e m a r k " D e v e l o p y o u r l e g i t i m a t e s t r a n g e n e s s " a n d h e was what he calls the C h r i s t i a n a b l e t o p u t this i n t o effect t h e o r e t i c a l l y a n d p r a c t i c a l l y i n a "hermeneutics of desire" and series o f visits t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a i n B e r k e l e y i n the p a g a n "aesthetics of exis- t h e l a t e 1970s a n d e a r l y 1980s. w h e n conversation t u r n e d to s u i c i d e . It is o u r o w n c r e a t i o n . 283 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS MICHEL FOUCAULT 239 was the c a r e of the s e l f as a practice of freedom.

" T o p h i l o s o p h i z e . D e a t h orders matters w e l l . a l w a y s B a u d r i l l a r d writes. D e r r i d a ' s w o r k is possessed of a c u r i o u s restlessness. is to l e a r n h o w to l i v e . a c c e p t i n g n e w i n v i t a - to suicide. H e lived i n . I t h i n k — t h e doxa. D e r r i d a was t h e s u p r e m e reader o f p h i l o - personal matter for h i m . I saw h i m d o i t h i m . In h i s f i n a l b o o k . u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p h i l o s o p h e r a n d p h i l o s o p h y u n d e r e x a m i n a t i o n . i n s i s t e d . is constantly at war w i t h the governing intellectual orthodoxy. m e t i c u l o u s . w r i t t e n w h e n d i a g n o s e d writing new books. " F o r m e . It is the a m b i t i o n v i e w e d a s a n ethos o f r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g . he d e s c r i b e s h i m s e l f as b e i n g at w a r w i t h o f s o c i o l o g y a n d o n e o f its f o u n d e r s . 240 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS JACQUES DERRIDA 241 bragging. l e a r n i n g h o w t o l i v e d i d n o t e r a d i c a t e t h e terror w i t h Le Monde f r o m 19 A u g u s t 2 0 0 4 . D e r r i d a v e n t r i l o q u i z e s . T h r o u g h o u t the last eight m o n t h s s o p h i c a l texts a n d h i s e x a m p l e c o n s i s t s i n t h e l e s s o n o f of his life. In yet a n o t h e r way. D e r r i d a ' s w r i t i n g is a b l e to unsettle its played i n a n c i e n t p h i l o s o p h y — t h a t o f work p e r f o r m e d b y reader's e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d c o m p l e t e l y t r a n s f o r m h i s o r h e r the self on the self. s h o r t l y after the release of a d o c u m e n t a r y d e a t h . s o c i o l o g y leads h u n g r y for n e w objects o f analysis. a n c i e n t w i s d o m b e c a m e a w r i t i n g . F o r response was b r e a t h t a k i n g . s i n c e the very fact o f y o u r D e r r i d a f o u n d the C i c e r o n i a n w i s d o m that t o p h i l o s o p h i z e absence makes the w o r l d d i s t i n c t l y less w o r t h y o f b e i n g i s t o l e a r n h o w t o d i e q u i t e r e p e l l e n t for its n a r c i s s i s m . o n e m i g h t e v e n say a n anxiety. q u e s t i o n i n g a n d endlessly h i m that p h i l o s o p h i c a l w r i t i n g a n d p e r s o n a l j o u r n a l s i n v e n t i v e . D e r r i d a d e s c r i b e s his w o r k i n t e r m s o f a n "ethos o f a b o u t h i m a n d h i s w o r k . a d d r e s s i n g n e w a u d i e n c e s . A very f a m o u s A m e r i c a n p h i l o s - Jean B a u d r i l l a r d opher. politeness. " H e never (1929-2007) k n o w s w h e n t o stop o r h o w t o c o m e t o a n e n d . once said to m e . W h a t c o n f u s e d l y got n a m e d " d e c o n s t r u c t i o n . H e writes p i t h i l y . s u r p r i s e . r e p u b l i s h e d after h i s of d e a t h . I t has b e e n a n a m b i . In the w o r d s that b e g i n Specters of Jacques D e r r i d a Marx f r o m 1993. L i k e m a n y others. sympathetic to D e r r i d a . Emile Dürkheim. t i o n o f this b o o k t o s h o w that often t h e p h i l o s o p h e r ' s greatest w h a t h e l i k e d t o c a l l — i n a S o c r a t i c s p i r i t . w r i t i n g his two books played the same part for r e a d i n g : p a t i e n t . d e t a i l e d a n d fascinating analyses i n c l a i m s t h a t h e has n e v e r h a d a n y i m a g i n i n g o f d e a t h . At its best. of self-stylization. this is the best a t t i t u d e as it m e a n s that d e a t h r e m a i n s a o n m a n y occasions a n d always w i t h patience. h i m s e l f . D e r r i d a gave a n i n t e r v i e w t o t h e Los . T h e w h o l e ethos o f h i s w o r k was t h e d u e l w i t h l i f e .C h r i s t i a n a n t i q u i t y to show e x e m p l i f i e s a n u n c o m p r o m i s i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l v i g i l a n c e that h o w a life c o u l d b e c o m e a w o r k o f art. i n a n o t h e r v o i c e . o p e n . i s better d i e d on 25 J u n e l i k e a c l a s s i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r . " I have f i n a l l y l e a r n t h o w t o l i v e . Cool Memories V. o p i n i o n o r narcissistic self-image o f the age. a s s o o f t e n i n h i s (1930-2004) w o r k . " In a l o n g . In 2002. D e r r i d a ' s w o r k of F o u c a u l t ' s study of late p r e ." t i o n s . a strange r i v a l i n a m o d e s t y a n d c i v i l i t y . c o n f r o n t i n g n e w contexts. very opposite of the stale professional c o m p l a c e n c y that defines so m u c h p h i l o s o p h y a n d so m a n y philosophers. H i s ability in discussion s i m p l y to listen w i t h the c a n c e r that e v e n t u a l l y k i l l e d h i m . " I r e m a i n u n e d u c a t a b l e [ineducable] w i t h respect t o the w i s d o m o f l e a r n i n g t o d i e . B a u d r i l l a r d a n d p r o d u c e l o n g . w o r k o f art i s t h e m a n n e r o f t h e i r d e a t h . " a F o u c a u l t was f o n d o f r e a d i n g S e n e c a towards t h e e n d a n d t e r m t h a t D e r r i d a a l w a y s v i e w e d w i t h s u s p i c i o n . H e was always o n t h e m o v e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y . " I n t h e i n t e r - W i t h a n o d towards h i s professional d e f o r m a t i o n as a professor v i e w w i t h Le Monde. " P h i l o s o p h y leads t o d e a t h . s o m e t h i n g o t h e r a n d m a g i c a l . fascinating a n d n o w rather s a d d e n i n g interview H o w e v e r . o n the c o n - trary.

It's t e r r i b l e what's g o i n g on in the i n a w a y that d i s t u r b s a n y self-satisfaction. " W h a t ' s i m p o r t a n t to y o u today?" D e r r i d a that divides the l i v i n g f r o m the dead. I have d r u n k the d e a t h o f the b e l o v e d . T h a t is. T o b e c l e a r . " where we precisely do write. it seems that a f r i e n d i s t o b e a r t h e i r m e m o r y trace w i t h i n o n e i n a w a y h e k i l l e d h i m s e l f i n o r d e r t o e n d the s u f f e r i n g b r o u g h t a b o u t that c a n n o t s i m p l y be i n t e r n a l i z e d . P a r t i c u l a r l y in the writ- replied in good faith a n d w i t h extraordinary c a n d o u r . i n g o f h i s last d e c a d e . I ' m g o i n g to die a n d A l t h o u g h D e r r i d a refuses t h e c l a s s i c a l v i e w t h a t t o p h i - life is short. " w h e r e t h e ego i s k n o w n h o w to d o . t h e y l i v e o n w i t h i n u s e v e r y t h i n g I t h i n k . i n D e c e m b e r 1983. A constant awareness that I ' m aging. D e b o r d writes. We m i g h t alongside this terror o f m y o w n death. mortui vivunt" (". 242 190 OR SO DEAD PHILOSOPHERS JACQUES DERRIDA 243 Angeles Weekly a n d h a d to face a p a r t i c u l a r l y s i l l y series of b e r e a v e d m e m o r y . (1931-94) T h e t h e m e of m o u r n i n g b e c a m e a major t h e m e of his T h e a u t h o r of The Society of the Spectacle a n d p r i m e m o v e r in t h e w o r k after t h e d e a t h o f B a r t h e s i n 1980 a n d e v e n m o r e s o Situationist I n t e r n a t i o n a l shot h i m s e l f i n the heart i n his w i t h the u n e x p e c t e d d e a t h . sometimes not (Foucault. but with Guy Debord w h o m h e felt a n e l e c t i v e affinity. n o r p h e r have a b i o g r a p h y ? " T o w h i c h D e r r i d a r e p l i e d . b u t w h e r e t h e y l i v e o n i n o u r drink. a n d w h a t is m o r e d i f f i c u l t to say. . et quod difficilius dictu I haven't m a d e m y peace w i t h the i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f death. A l t h o u g h some have a n d c o l l e a g u e P a u l de M a n . t h e d e a d l i v e o n . Levinas). b l e m o u r n i n g is n e i t h e r the r e s u r r e c t i o n of the other. h e o r s h e i s n o t dead. R a t h e r . but they exist bles us a n d invites us to reflect on t h e m further. C i c e r o makes an appear- a n d a l t h o u g h I've b e e n i n c l i n e d this way s i n c e I was a n c e in t h e e p i g r a p h to t h e i m p o r t a n t 1994 b o o k Politics of y o u n g . B y contrast. I ' m constantly attentive to the t i m e left to m e . . D e l e u z e ) . r i d a writes w i t h great passion a n d incisiveness a b o u t the where Debord's death becomes a c o m m o d i t y in a w o r l d of e x p e r i e n c e o f b e r e a v e d m e m o r y . T h i s defies A m o n g the s m a l l n u m b e r of things that I have l i k e d a n d w h a t F r e u d c a l l s " n o r m a l m o u r n i n g . D e r r i d a cites t h e w o r d s ". Panegyric (1989). t h e a n d I d o u b t I ever w i l l . b u t w h i c h t r o u - w o r l d . what I have assuredly k n o w n h o w to do m e a n t t o r e c o v e r its i n t e g r i t y a n d u n i t y after i t has "got o v e r " best is d r i n k . " S h o u l d a philoso. In Memoiresfor Paul de Man. . it b e c o m e s m o r e serious w h e n y o u reach 72. wrote repeatedly a b o u t the deaths of friends a n d p h i l o s o - p h e r s w i t h w h o m h e was s o m e t i m e s c l o s e ( M a u r i c e B l a n - chot. then read P e r h a p s i t was i n o r d e r t o assuage this terror that D e r r i d a a book. b u t w o u n d e d a n d d i v i d e d a g a i n s t itself. D e r r i d a insists that i m p o s s i - questions. a n d a l l these things are o n m y m i n d . . T h e s e l f i s n o t h e a l e d o r m a d e g o o d after t h e o t h e r ' s d e a t h . t o b e bereft o f c a p i t a l i s t e x c h a n g e to be u s e d to sell h i s b o o k s . est. I n his c o n t i n u e s t o l i v e o n i n a w a y t h a t h a u n t s t h e s e l f l i k e a spec. I have written m u c h less t h a n most people w h o what he calls "impossible m o u r n i n g . If y o u want to c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h the dead. D e r r i d a was m u c h p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h ghosts. D e r . D e r r i d a argues for even m o r e . b u t I have d r u n k m u c h m o r e t h a n most people w h o n o t get o v e r t h e other's d e a t h . c l a i m e d that h i s d e a t h was t h e f i n a l S i t u a t i o n i s t s t a t e m e n t . a u t o b i o g r a p h y . " H o w t h e i r n a r c i s s i s t i c possession b y t h e self. the f r i e n d o r c o u l d a p h i l o s o p h e r not have a b i o g r a p h y ? " In response to b e l o v e d lives o n w i t h i n m e l i k e a ghost that t r o u b l e s the l i n e the q u e s t i o n . losophize is to learn h o w to die. E v e n t h o u g h I have read a lot. . o f h i s f r i e n d remote c o u n t r y cottage in F r a n c e . T h e interviewer asked h i m . F o r D e r r i d a . t r e . a n d this awareness p e r m e a t e s d e a d l i v e " ) . It is as if the d e a d f r i e n d b y a f o r m o f p o l y n e u r i t i s c a u s e d b y excessive d r i n k i n g . So far Friendship. spectres a n d r e v e n a n t s . say t h a t w h e r e v e r a p h i l o s o p h e r i s r e a d .

He b u t a series o f irresistible i n t e l l e c t u a l t e m p t a t i o n s f r o m w h i c h was close to the foot of w h a t is n o w c a l l e d le chemin Nietzsche. this i s w h e r e w e b e g a n t h i s b o o k . O n t h e d a y before h i s d e a t h . H e l i v e d a n d w o r k e d i n a w o n d e r f u l h o u s e h i g h o n t h e slopes o f t h e arriere-pays. we might finally learn h o w to live. w h o was p l a n n i n g t o b e g i n s t u d y i n g p h i l o s o p h y i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . Eze i s just a l o n g t h e coast f r o m h i s b e l o v e d N i c e . T h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s u c h q u e s t i o n i n g c a n p r o v o k e . w h e r e N i e t z s c h e S i m o n Critchley u s e d t o w a l k d u r i n g his seven w i n t e r s i n N i c e i n the 1880s a n d (i960-?) w h e r e he c o m p o s e d passages of Thus Spoke ^arathustra. i n J a n i - caud's w o r d s . ascending some 1000 metres from the M e d i t e r r a n e a n t o t h e o l d castle a n d v i l l a g e . P h i l o s o p h y is a c o n s t a n t (1937-2002) return to beginnings. in the face of the very fact that there is b e i n g . I was a s t u d e n t o f J a n i c a u d ' s a n d m a d e this ascent w i t h h i m o n a E x i t . p u r s u e d by a bear. J a n i c a u d d i e d f r o m a cardiac arrest after a s w i m . C l a i r e . D o m i n i q u e was s o d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e a c a d e m i c abstruseness o f t h e v a r i o u s i n t r o d u c t i o n s t o p h i l o s o p h y that he d e c i d e d to write his o w n . W h a t i s c r u c i a l h e r e i s that this w o n d e r s h o u l d b e e x p e r i - e n c e d i n t h e face o f t h e questionability o f t h i n g s . s o m e Dominique Janicaud 190 deaths a n d a few m i l l e n n i a ago. since it may be the most p h i l o s o p h i c a l act of all. the rough path. this astonishment c o u l d be h a i l e d a n d h e l d precious. c l o s e t o t h e v a l l e y o f t h e V a r . t h e m a n y s e e m i n g l y abstract q u e s t i o n s o f p h i l o s o p h y c i r c l e b a c k a n d h a v e t h e i r roots i n the e x i s t e n t i a l q u e s t i o n o f w h o w e are a n d w h a t t h e r e is. the basic q u e s t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h y i s H a m l e t ' s " T o b e o r n o t t o b e ? " T h a t i s t o say. F o r J a n i c a u d . h e h a d f i n i s h e d t h e first draft o f a n i n t r o - d u c t i o n t o p h i l o s o p h y w r i t t e n for h i s d a u g h t e r . refus- i n g m a n y i n v i t a t i o n s t o l e a v e for P a r i s a n d e l s e w h e r e . T h i s is w h y the history of p h i l o s o p h y O n the m o r n i n g o f 1 8 A u g u s t 2002 a t E z e o n t h e C o t e d ' A z u r a n d p h i l o s o p h e r s is n o t a r e d u n d a n t r e c o r d of past mistakes in F r a n c e . W o n d e r in the face of b e i n g . W e d o n o t . DOMINIQUE JANICAUD 245 244 1 9° O R S O D E A D PHILOSOPHERS k n o w for c e r t a i n w h o w e are a n d w h a t there is: these are ques- t i o n s for us. couple of m e m o r a b l e occasions. O f c o u r s e . w h e r e D o m i n i q u e h a d b e e n t e a c h i n g p h i l o s o p h y s i n c e 1966.

F e a r o f d e a t h i s a fear o f feebleness i n a n i n f i r m state. " w i t h o u t b e i n g a b u r d e n to a n y o n e . as the saying goes. If p r o o f were n e e d e d that m a n y religious believers actu- ally do not practise what they p r e a c h . w h i c h i s w h y I h a v e e m p h a s i z e d this i n s o m e o f t h e e n t r i e s i n this b o o k . B u t the d e e p e r t r u t h i s that s u c h religious belief. t h e sole u n q u e s t i o n e d g o o d o f contemporary Western life. " W h a t this last p l a t i t u d e c o n c e a l s . particularly C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g . 247 . is the fact that p e o p l e d o n ' t w a n t to be a b u r d e n because they u l t i m a t e l y d o n ' t trust their c h i l d r e n o r t h e i r l o v e d o n e s t o care for t h e m . LAST WORDS Creatureliness D e a t h is the last great taboo. distant f a m i l y m e m b e r s . We c a n n o t l o o k it in the face for fear o f seeing the s k u l l b e n e a t h the s k i n . T h e fact o f f i n i t u d e u n p i c k s m a n y o f the t r u i s m s b y w h i c h w e l i v e . i g n o r e d b y e m b a r - rassed friends a n d busy. t h e n it c a n be f o u n d in the ignorance of religious teachings on death. A d e t a i l e d n a t i o n a l survey b y the " O p i n i o n D y n a m - ics C o r p o r a t i o n " f r o m 2003 c l a i m e d that f u l l y 9 2 p e r c e n t o f A m e r i c a n s believe in G o d . I t h i n k . brings believers little solace in relation to death. T h e o n l y p r i e s t h o o d i n w h i c h p e o p l e really b e l i e v e i s t h e m e d i c a l p r o - fession a n d t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e i r s a c r a m e n t a l d r u g s a n d t e c h - n o l o g y i s t o s u p p o r t l o n g e v i t y . 85 percent believe in heaven and 8 2 p e r c e n t b e l i e v e i n m i r a c l e s . c o m p l e t e w i t h a heavenly afterlife. V a r i o u s surveys s h o w that w h e n it c o m e s to attitudes towards d e a t h w h a t most p e o p l e w a n t is to die q u i c k l y . painlessly a n d . stuck i n a d e g r a d i n g n u r s i n g h o m e .

A c c e p t i n g one's m o r - tality. W e c a n n o t r e t u r n the unasked-for gifts o f n a t u r e a n d c u l - ture. is to be in a position of d e p e n d e n c e w i t h respect to G o d . I t i s rather C h r i s t i a n i t y is about n o t h i n g other t h a n getting ready to d i e . N o t h . It is s h a p e d b y e v o l u t i o n a r y forces b e y o n d o u r c o n t r o l a n d b y t h e m o v e m e n t o f a d e s i r e t h a t t h r e a t e n s t o suffocate u s i n t h e c l u t c h e s o f its f a m i l y r o m a n c e . t o p h i l o s o p h i z e i s t o l e a r n the h a b i t i n g r e c o n c i l e d t o the b r e v i t y o f h u m a n life a n d g i v i n g u p the o f h a v i n g d e a t h c o n t i n u a l l y p r e s e n t i n one's m o u t h . w o r l d l y w e a l t h a n d p u f f e d . N o r c a n w e j u m p over the s h a d o w o f o u r m o r t a l i t y . 249 2 8 4 LAST WORDS LAST WORDS w a y that does n o t r e s u l t i n disaffection a n d despair. S u c h f r e e d o m i s n o t a passive state o f b e i n g o r t h e s i m p l e a b s e n c e o f n e c e s s i t y o r c o n - T h i s i s w h e r e t h e i d e a l o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l d e a t h has straint. t h e n . M o r t a l i t y i s that i n r e l a t i o n t o w h i c h i n g c o n s t r a i n t o f o u r m o r t a l i t y . T o w e c a n b e said t o shape o u r s e l f h o o d . is a w a y of b e c o m . way. I t i s i n r e l a t i o n t o the p h i l o s o p h i z e is to l e a r n to love that difficulty. T o b e a c r e a t u r e is to a c c e p t o u r d e p e n d e n c e a n d l i m i t e d n e s s in a .u p p o w e r t h a t c u l m i n a t e i n b o t h aggressive p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t s a n d b l o o d y wars b e t w e e n o p p o s e d a n d e x c l u s i v e gods. a n d of c o u r s e this is s t u p i d l y o b v i o u s . i t i s a n o n g o i n g a c t i v i t y that r e q u i r e s s u c h persuasive power i n u n d e r m i n i n g the death-denying t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f necessity a n d t h e a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e m o v - s h i b b o l e t h s o f o u r age. an A u g u s t i n e or a L u t h e r . that places little v a l u e o n longevity. T h i s i s c r u c i a l i n m y v i e w . I k n o w . t h e n w e m i g h t b e a b l e t o give u p c e r t a i n o f the f a n - tasies o f i n f a n t i l e o m n i p o t e n c e . a k i n d of d e a t h in life t h e c o n d i t i o n for c o u r a g e a n d e n d u r a n c e . for i t also m e a n s a c c e p t i n g w h a t w e m i g h t c a l l o u r creatureliness. that t h e self b e c o m e s m o s t t r u l y itself. r e a l i t y o f d e a t h . I w a n t to p r o p o s e a less t h e i s t i c v a r i a n t of this thought. b o t h m y d e a t h a n d t h e deaths o f others. d e a t h is the l i m i t i n r e l a t i o n t o w h i c h l i f e i s l i v e d . o n e accepts the creaturely l i m i t a t i o n that is the very desire for l o n g e v i t y a n d a terror o f a n n i h i l a t i o n . T o b e a c r e a t u r e . c o n d i t i o n for h u m a n f r e e d o m . b e g a n m y i n t r o d u c t i o n . C h r i s t i a n i t y . i n the R e t u r n i n g to the quote f r o m M o n t a i g n e w i t h w h i c h I h a n d s of a P a u l . w e c a n b e g i n t o c o n f r o n t t h e terror o f a n n i h i l a t i o n that ing is more i n i m i c a l to most people w h o call themselves enslaves us a n d leads us i n t o either escape or evasion. m e a n s a c c e p t i n g one's l i m i t a t i o n . I n t h i s desire for w e a l t h . B u t w e c a n t r a n s f o r m the m a n n e r i n w h i c h w e a c c e p t those gifts a n d w e c a n s t a n d m o r e f u l l y i n t h e l i g h t t h a t casts t h a t shadow. T h i s i s n o t easy. N a m e l y . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e y are speaking of death a n d even l a u g h i n g at o u r frailty a n d m o r - a c t u a l l y l e a d i n g q u i e t l y desperate atheist lives b o u n d e d b y a tality. It is a r i g o r o u s t r a i n i n g for d e a t h . I t i s o n l y i n r e l a t i o n t o the a c c e p t a n c e o f self-loss that t h e r e m i g h t b e a self t o g a i n . that h u m a n existence is l i m i t e d . i n tra- d i t i o n a l theology. O n t h e c o n t r a r y . In C h r i s t i a n s t h a n t r u e C h r i s t i a n i t y . w o r l d l y goods a n d t e m p o r a l p o w e r . T h a t is to say. I t i s m y wager that i f w e c a n b e g i n t o a c c e p t o u r l i m - itedness.

Jayne M a n s f i e l d a n d C e c i l B . usually G e r m a n . s u c h as w o r l d w i d e webcasts of funeral services. " It advertises itself as the " R e s t i n g P l a c e of H o l l y - wood's I m m o r t a l s . in particular B i l l y W i l d e r ' s Sunset Boulevard (1950). T h o s e w h o are c u r i o u s to f o l l o w the weekly cemetery tour are asked to contact s o m e o n e c a l l e d K a r i e B i b l e on 323-769-0195. D e M i l l e . Just off the Santa M o n i c a B o u l e v a r d . T h e cemetery prides itself on the latest t e c h n o l o g i c a l innovations. L o s A n g e l e s is surely a candidate city for the w o r l d capital of death. a n d sunlight so bright that it becomes i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m darkness. b r o a d deserted night-time streets flanked by h i g h p a l m trees. in the shadow of Para- m o u n t Studios. w h o m a k e s a final c a m e o appearance in Sunset Boulevard. the w r i t i n g is m a r k e d b y t h e strange m o o d o f that c i t y a n d its i n e s c a p a b l e c l i c h e s : t h e m e l a n c h o l i c Santa A n a w i n d s . darkness a n d desperation l u r k b e h i n d the various screens that h u m a n beings use to block access to the outside world: vast wrap-around sunglasses. I'd l i k e t o t h a n k m y f r i e n d G e o r g e M i l l e r for s u g g e s t i n g 251 . D o u g l a s Fair- banks. In its p e c u l i a r terror of a n n i h i l a t i o n . Venetian blinds at every w i n d o w a n d tinted glass in the black. tourists are invited to visit " H o l l y w o o d Forever C e m e t e r y . L o s A n g e l e s is the city of film n o i r . SUVs. GEOGRAPHICAL DETAILS AND THANKS The Book of Dead Philosophers was e n t i r e l y c o n c e i v e d a n d w r i t t e n in its first draft between an apartment on West Sunset B o u l e v a r d and the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles between N o v e m b e r 2006 a n d June 2007. " s u c h a s R u d o l p h V a l e n t i n o . D e a t h . F o r m e . To my eyes.

t i o n s t o m y s c h o l a r s h i p a t a c r u c i a l stage o f w r i t i n g w h i c h R e a d e r s m i g h t also b e a m u s e d t o l o o k a t H u g h M e l l o r ' s have b e e n s i l e n t l y i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e text.GEOGRAPHICAL DETAILS AND THANKS 252 that I w r i t e this b o o k a few years b a c k a n d e d i t i n g the m a n u - s c r i p t w i t h p r e c i s i o n a n d c a r e . Peter G o o d r i c h a n d e d i t i o n of Encyclopaedia Britannica. I'd l i k e t o century German Writers. B e r g s o n : E l a n m o r t e l . Lisabeth D u r i n g f o r a q u o t a t i o n t h a t got m e u m e s of t h e Dictionary of Literary Biography ( T h e G a l e G r o u p . C o u r t n e y B i g g s .e g o takeover.html). Luther: D i e t of worms.pwf. A l t h o u g h there are o t h e r m o r e r e c e n t a n d Bertram Kaschek and T h o m a s Lentes. m a l e obsessional is c o n c e r n e d w i t h o n e q u e s t i o n . w h o was very h e l p f u l i n t r a c k i n g d o w n o b s c u r e sources a n d d e a l i n g w i t h m y vague b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l F r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e has b e e n m a d e t o t h e o n l i n e a c a d e m i c requests. S . 1967). s e a r c h . I'd l i k e t o t h a n k t h e " C a u s e s o f D e a t h o f P h i l o s o p h e r s . John M i l l b a n k . I'd l i k e t o t h a n k u n s u r p a s s e d i n m y v i e w . too. at least. V o l u m e 129 on Nineteenth- M a r k W r a t h a l l a n d A n d r e w T h o m a s . w h e t h e r they W i t t g e n s t e i n : B e c a m e the late W i t t g e n s t e i n " (http://people are alive or d e a d . a n d s o m e rather less so. F o r the t i m e b e i n g . the Heidegger: N o t being in time. I'd l i k e t o frankfurter. p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n i t c o m e s t o the h i s - G i o v a n n i L e v i for extensive h e l p w i t h C h i n e s e p h i l o s o p h y . N e w Y o r k . F i n a l l y . " w h i c h c o n t a i n s s o m e witty b r i l l i a n t a n d a s s i d u o u s students a n d a u d i t o r s o f m y s e m i n a r entries. e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o t h a n k m y research assis. U s e has also b e e n m a d e o f t h e Stanford S h e h a b I s m a i l for s o m e h e l p f u l leads o n M e d i e v a l I s l a m i c Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http://plato. the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f the w r i t i n g i n E d w a r d s r e m a i n s O u t s i d e t h e w a l l s o f t h e G e t t y g h e t t o . a d m i r a b l e e n c y c l o p a e d i a s a n d d i c t i o n a r i e s o f p h i l o s o p h y avail- a b l e .stanford. T o d d C r o n a n . started. I'd a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k B e l l a S h a n d for h e r c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t a n d expert e d i t o r i a l a d v i c e . G e n e v i e v e L l o y d for a c o u p l e o f m e m o r a b l e c o n v e r - F a r m i n g t o n H i l l s . I feel slightly closer to the for- . S l o a n e BIBLIOGRAPHY C r o s l e y a n d Russell Perreault. A n n e D e n e y s - e s p e c i a l l y V o l u m e 90 on German Writers in the Age of Goethe. t h a n k J a m i e s o n Webster for p o i n t i n g out t o m e . A t V i n t a g e . 1978 o n w a r d s ) h a v e b e e n e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l . tory o f p h i l o s o p h y .ac. c o m ) . T h e w r i t i n g o f the b o o k was m a d e p o s s i b l e b y the generos- ity of the G e t t y R e s e a r c h Institute w h o h o s t e d me as a s c h o l a r during 2006-7. I'd also l i k e t o t h a n k Jack M i l e s . I'd l i k e t o t h a n k M a r t y A s h e r for b r i n g i n g this b o o k t o V i n - tage a n d Jeff A l e x a n d e r for h i s expert e d i t i n g a n d c o u n t l e s s i m p r o v e m e n t s to the U . I n p a r t i c u l a r . David M c N e i l l . General Reference Works tant. a n d James P l a t h . F i c h t e : N o n . H e r e are s o m e n i c e e x a m p l e s " T o P h i l o s o p h i z e Is to L e a r n H o w to D i e " at the N e w S c h o o l o f s p e c u l a t i v e causes o f p h i l o s o p h e r s ' deaths: " A d o r n o : B a d for S o c i a l R e s e a r c h i n t h e f a l l o f 2 0 0 7 .edu). " T h a n k s to her. Volume 252 on British Philosophers t h a n k R a y m o n d G e u s s for s o m e e x t r e m e l y h e l p f u l c o r r e c - ißoo-iygg a n d V o l u m e 279 on American Philosophers igßo-2000.cam. e b . " O f course. w h i c h is f u l l of s m a l l w o n d e r s C h r i s t o p h e r T r a d o w s k y for r e a d i n g t h r o u g h m y first draft a n d a n d r a r e l y u n a b l e to resolve a f a c t u a l q u e r y (http://www m a k i n g v a l u a b l e suggestions. V o l u m e 115 on Medieval Philosophers. cious information. a n d s o m e o f m y c o l l e a g u e s passed o n pre. e d i t i o n of The Book of Dead Philoso- phers. E d w a r d s ' s The Encyclopedia of Philosophy (8 vols. M a c m i l l a n . C e c i l i a S j ö h o l m . T h e l i b r a r y staff a t G e t t y were . In a d d i t i o n . I'd also l i k e t o t h a n k D a n i e l Y a n e z . m e r t h a n the latter. 2 53 .uk/dhmii/deathindex.. C e r t a i n v o l - thinkers. Tunney. I have m a d e constant use of P a u l very h e l p f u l . Niklaus Largier. sations. especially Silvia Berti.

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