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for

Hydraulics and Pneumatics

Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems

**Department of Management and Engineering
**

Linköping University

Revised 2008-10-27

Contents

1 Elementary Equations 1

1.1 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2 The continuity equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.3 Reynolds number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.4 Flow equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 Pipe flow 2

2.1 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

2.2 Bernoullis extended equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

2.3 The flow loss, ∆pf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

2.4 The friction factor, λ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

2.5 Disturbance source factor, ζs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

2.6 Single loss factor, ζ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

3 Orifices 6

3.1 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

3.2 The flow coefficient, Cq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

3.3 Series connection of turbulent orifices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

3.4 Parallel connection of turbulent orifices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

4 Flow forces 8

4.1 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

4.2 Spool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

5 Rotational transmissions 9

5.1 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

5.2 Efficiency models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

6 Accumulators 10

6.1 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

6.2 Calculating of the accumulator volume, V0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

7 Gap theory 11

7.1 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

7.2 Plane parallel gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

7.3 Radial gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

7.4 Gap between cylindrical piston and cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

7.5 Axial, annular gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

8 Hydrostatic bearings 13

8.1 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

8.2 Circled block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

8.3 Rectangular block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

**9 Hydrodynamic bearing theory 15
**

9.1 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

9.2 Cartesian coordinate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

9.3 Polar coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

**10 Non-stationary flow 17
**

10.1 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

10.2 Joukowskis equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

10.3 Retardation of cylinder with inertia load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

10.4 Concentrated hydraulic inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

10.5 Concentrated hydraulic capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

10.6 Concentrated hydraulic resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

**10.7 Basic differential equations on flow systems with parameter distribution in space . 18
**

10.8 Speed of waves in pipes filled with liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

**11 Pump pulsations 20
**

11.1 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

11.2 System with closed end . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

11.3 Systems with low end impedance (e.g. volume) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

**12 Hydraulic servo systems 23
**

12.1 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

12.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

12.3 The servo valve’s transfer function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

12.4 Servo valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

12.5 The hydraulic system’s transfer function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

12.6 The servo stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

12.7 The servo’s response – bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

12.8 The hydraulic system’s and the servo’s sensitivity to loading – stiffness . . . . . . . 31

12.9 The servo’s steady state error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

12.10Control technical resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

**13 Hydraulic fluids 38
**

13.1 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

14 Pneumatic 42

14.1 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

14.2 Stream through nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

14.3 Series connection of pneumatic components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

14.4 Parallel connected pneumatic components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

14.5 Parallel- and series connected pneumatic components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

14.6 Filling and emptying of volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Appendix A Symbols of Hydraulic Components 47

3 Reynolds number vdh ρ Re = (dh hydraulic diameter) η 4 × cross section area dh = (dh = d at cirkular crosssection) circumference 1. upstream p :pressure [Pa] to downstream [Pa] q :flow (volume flow) [m3 /s] η :dynamic viscosity [Ns/m2 ] qin :flow in into volume [m3 /s] ν :kinematic viscosity (= ηρ ) [m2 /s] t :time [s] ρ :density [kg/m3 ] 1.1 Nomenclature Re :Reynold’s number [-] v :(mean-) flow velocity [m/s] V :volume [m3 ] βe :effective bulk modulus d :diameter [m] (reservoir and fluid) [Pa] dh :hydraulic diameter [m] ∆p :pressure variation.2 The continuity equation dV dV V dp qin X qin = + dt βe dt p. Orifices): Laminar flow q ∝ ∆p √ Turbulent flow q ∝ ∆p 1 . 1. V Flow out from the volume is counted negative.1 Elementary Equations 1.4 Flow equations For flow through fix orifices applies (see also section 3.

For ℓ < ℓs applies ζs = 1.06dRe (Re < 2300).21 ℓs ≥ 0.2 Bernoullis extended equation At stationary incompressible flow ρv12 ρv 2 p1 + + ρgh1 = p2 + 2 + ρgh2 + ∆pf 2 2 2. ζs ≈ 1. λ 64 Re < 2300 laminar flow Re λ= 0.3 The flow loss. see diagram in figure 1 ℓx where x = dRe 2 .2 Pipe flow 2.06dRe.1 Nomenclature p :pressure [Pa] Re :Reynolds number [-] p1 :upstream pressure [Pa] d :diameter [m] p2 :downstream pressure [Pa] d1 :upstream diameter [m] r :radius [m] d2 :downstream diameter [m] v :(mean-) flow velocity [m/s] h :height [m] v1 :upstream (mean-) flow velocity [m/s] h1 :upstream height [m] v2 :downstream (mean-) flow velocity [m/s] h2 :downstream height [m] α :correction factor [-] g :gravitation [m/s2 ] ∆pf :pressure loss.4 The friction factor.44 ) ℓx < 0.316 √ 2300 < Re < 105 turbulent flow in smooth pips 4 Re 2.5 Disturbance source factor. ∆pf ℓ ρv 2 λ at a straight distance d 2 ρv 2 ∆pf = ζs after a disturbance source 2 2 ζ ρv at a single disturbance source 2 2. ζs The laminar flow is completely developed at the distance ℓs after a disturbance source.28x0. upstream ℓ :length [m] to downstream [Pa] ℓx :distance after disturbance source [m] ϕ :angle [◦ ] ℓs :distance after disturbance source λ :friction factor [-] when the flow profile is ρ :density [kg/m3 ] completely developed [m] ζ :single loss factor [-] ζs :disturbance source factor [-] 2.28 tanh(6.

30 1.04 3 .5 Slightly rounded edge tank v Pipes in the reservoir wall ζ = 0.06 ℓx Figur 1: The disturbance source factor ζs as function of .6 ζ 0. dRe The turbulant flow is completely developed at the distance ℓs after a disturbance source. ζs ≈ 0.50 0.09 ℓs ≥ 40d (Re > 2300).5 tank r Pipe in the reservoir wall with rounded edge d v r/d 0.12 0.6 Single loss factor.00 lx / d Re -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 10 10 10 10 10 10 0. For ℓ < ℓs applies r ℓx ζs = 0.00 0. ζs 1.09 ℓx < 40d 40d 2.1 0. ζ Pipe connections to reservoir tank v The pipe starts at a given distance inside the reservoir 1 Sharp edge ( ζ= 0.25 0.15 0.08 0.05 0.

25 0.50 2.51 0.13 0.14 0.91 0.9 ϕ = 180°.1 5° 0.76 0. ϕ d v ℓ/d 0. ζs .0 1. tank optimal cone angle and resistance factor is stated.5.00 d2/d1 Figur 2: The loss coefficient ζ as function of the area relationship with the angle ϕ as parameter at increase of area.6 1.00 2.3 15° 0.50 0.1 0.40 0.4 20° 0.15 0.37 0. d1 d2 v According to von Mises applies when d2 /d1 0. ϕ d v ℓ/d 0.15 0.70 0. where ζ0 for different geometries is received from section above about Pipe connection to reservoir. The pipe starts at a given distance inside the reservoir with entrance cone: For given ℓ.00 3.12 0.1 0.8 ϕ = 60° 0.90 0.7 40° 0.10 Area variations in the pipe d1 ϕ d2 v Increase of area: The loss factor is found in the figure 2 ζ 0. optimal cone angle and tank resistance factor is stated. Decrease of area: The loss factor is described by ζ = ζ0 α.18 0.25 0.6 0.0 ϕ[◦ ] 60–90 60–80 60–70 50–60 50–60 l ζ 0.5 30° 0.80 0.30 0. 4 .99 Disturbance source factor ζs applies in a similar way " 3 # d2 ζs = ζs0 1 − d1 The uncompensated disturbance source factor ζs0 is received from section 2.2 10° 0.10 Pipe in reservoir wall with entrance cone: For given ℓ.50 3. dashed 0.50 4. Disturbance source factor.19 0.10 α 0.6 ϕ[◦ ] 50–60 50–60 45–55 40–50 l ζ 0.26 0.17 0.

15 ζ = 0.13 0.10 ζ = 1.40 ϕ[◦ ] 60 70 80 90 ζ 0.60 0.20 0.5 à 3 ζ = 2.5 à 4 ζ = 0.Pipe bend ϕ ϕ For pipe bend relates: ζ = ζ90 90 where ζ90 is r d d/r 0.20 Special geometries ζ = 0.17 0.04 0.20 45˚ 45˚ Banjo- nipple ζ = 0.80 1.55 0.40 0.06 5 .21 0.90 1.27 0.50 ζ = 2.29 For pipe angle gives ζ directly by ϕ[◦ ] 10 20 30 40 50 ϕ ζ 0.70 0.50 ζ = 0.16 0.00 ζ90 0.14 0.10 0.

the value 1.115 d 3.28 tanh(6. Pipe orifice (sharp edged) p1 d p2 l Laminar flow in the orifice (Re < 2300) 1 ℓ Cq = p där x = 1.67 can be used.3 Series connection of turbulent orifices p0 p1 p2 pi pn q K1 K2 Ki Kn 6 .46 + 0.3 Orifices 3.44 ) + 64x dRe The term 1.5 + 1.2 The flow coefficient.316 ℓ 1.28x0.46 + 0.1 Nomenclature A :area [m2 ] ℓ :length [m] A1 :upstream area [m2 ] p :pressure [Pa] Cq :flow coefficient [-] p1 :upstream pressure [Pa] Re :Reynold’s number [-] p2 :downstream pressure [Pa] d :diameter [m] q :flow (volume flow) [m3 /s] p √ K :constant Cq A 2/ρ [m3 /s P a] ρ :density [kg/m3 ] p1 p2 r 2 q = Cq A (p1 − p2 ) q ρ 3. ) A1 A1 A If nothing else is stated Cq = 0. Cq Hole orifice (sharp edged) p1 p2 A Cq = Cq (Re.06. ℓ Turbulent flow in the orifice with 2 ≤ ≤ 20 d 1 s 2300 ≤ Re ≤ 2 · 104 ℓ 0.28 tanh(6.088 + √ d 4 Re d Cq = 1 2 · 104 ≤ Re r ℓ 1.44 ) agrees with ζs and can be received from the diagram in figure 1 in section Pipe flow. When x ≥ 0.21 is accepted.28x0.

4 Parallel connection of turbulent orifices p0 q q1 q2 qi qn K1 K2 Ki Kn p1 The sum of the orifices applies: n r √ X 2 q = K p0 − p1 där K = Ki Ki = Cqi Ai i=1 ρ The flow through the i:th orifice is given by Ki qi = q K 7 .The sum of the orifices applies: r √ 1 2 q = K p0 − pn där K= v Ki = Cqi Ai u n uX 1 ρ t i=1 Ki2 The pressure after the j:th orifice is given by j X 1 pj = p0 − (p0 − pn )K 2 2 i=1 K i 3.

without pressure l relief grooves.62 ≤ Cq ≤ 0. then are: 0.67 and δ = 69◦ 8 . If the spool and bushing have sharp and right angle edges and if the gap between the spool and the bushing is small and also x ≪ d. is the area gradi- v ent: w = πd p p1 p2 x Fs = |2Cq wx(p1 − p2 ) cos(δ)| + ρℓq̇ The term with absolute value is the static part of the flow force and has a closing effect.4 Flow forces 4.2 Spool Fluidelement Fs d δ For this valve.1 Nomenclature Fs :flow force [N] q :flow (volume flow) [m3 /s] d :spool diameter [m] v :(mean-)flow velocity [m/s] ℓ :length [m] w :area gradient [m] p :pressure [Pa] x :spool opening [m] p1 :upstream pressure [Pa] δ :jet angle [◦ ] p2 :downstream pressure [Pa] ρ :density [kg/m3 ] 4.

1 Nomenclature Cv :laminar leakage losses [-] qe :effective flow [m3 /s] D :displacement [m3 /rev] ∆p :pressure difference [Pa] Min :driving torque pump [Nm] ε :displacement setting [-] Mut :output torque motor [Nm] ηhm :hydraulic mechanical efficiency [-] kp :Coulomb friction [-] ηvol :volumetric efficiency [-] kv :viscous friction losses [-] Sub index kε :displacement coefficient [-] p pump n :revs [rev/s] m motor Pump Effective flow np. Min εp qep = εp Dp np ηvolp Dp qep Torque εp Dp 1 Min = ∆p ∆p 2π ηhmp Motor Effective flow nm.2 Efficiency models Pump Volumetric efficiency Hydraulic mechanical efficiency ∆p 1 ηvolp = 1 − Cv ηhmp = np η (kε (1 − |εp |)) |εp |np η 1 + (kp + kv )e ∆p Motor Volumetric efficiency Hydraulic mechanical efficiency 1 nm η (kε (1 − |εm |)) ηvolm = ηhmm = 1 − (kp + kv )e ∆p ∆p 1 + Cv |εm |nm η 9 .5 Rotational transmissions 5. Mut 1 qem Dm εm qem = εm Dm nm ηvolm Torque εm Dm ∆p Mout = ∆pηhmm 2π 5.

1 Nomenclature V0 :accumulator volume [m3 ] p1 :minimum working pressure (absolute) [Pa] n :polytrophic exponent [-] p2 :maximum working pressure (absolute) [Pa] p0 :pre-charged pressure (absolute pressure. V0 A.5) 1 p2 n −1 p1 10 .6 Accumulators 6. ∆V :working volume [m3 ] normally ≈ 90 % av p1 ) [Pa] 6.2 Calculating of the accumulator volume.4(1.4(1. Isotherm charging and adiabatic discharging p2 ∆V p0 V0 = n = 1.5) adiabatic process 1− p2 B. Both the charging and discharging is either adiabatic or isotherm process p1 ∆V ( 1 isotherm process p0 V0 = n= 1 p1 n 1.

1 Nomenclature p :pressure [Pa] Ff :friction force [N] qℓ :leakage flow [m3 /s] Mf :friction torque [Nm] r :radius [m] Pf :power loss [W] r1 :inner radius [m] b :gap width perpendicular r2 :outer radius [m] to flow direction [m] v :relative velocity [m/s] e :eccentricity [m] ∆p :pressure difference through h :gap height [m] the gap (p1 − p0 ) [Pa] h1 + h2 h0 mean gap height ( ) [m] γ :angle [rad] 2 η :dynamic viscosity [Ns/m2 ] ℓ :length [m] ω :angular speed [rad/s] 7.4 Gap between cylindrical piston and cylinder Leakage flow relative to the fix gap wall " 2 # πrh30 ∆p e qℓ = πvrh0 + 1 + 1.3 Radial gap p0 ql r ω When h ≪ r can the equations for plane parallel gap be used with following substitution: γ h v = rω ℓ = γr p1 7.7 Gap theory 7.2 Plane parallel gap Leakage flow relative to the fix wall l vbh bh3 ∆p qℓ = + v 2 12η ℓ p1 h ql p0 Friction force ηvbℓ bh Ff = − ∆p h 2 Effect losses (flow and frictional losses) bh3 ∆p2 ηv 2 bℓ Pf = + 12η ℓ h 7.5 6η ℓ h0 r l h1 h2 v Frictional force e p0 2πrηvℓ p1 ql Ff = s 2 − πrh0 ∆p e h0 1 − h0 11 .

annular gap Leakage flow ∆pπh3 qℓ = r2 6η ln p0 ql r1 r2 Pressure as function of radius ω p1 r1 r ln r1 pr = p1 − (p1 − p0 ) r2 h ln r1 Friction moment π ηω 4 Mf = (r − r14 ) 2 h 2 Effect losses (flow and frictional losses) πh3 ∆p2 π ηω 2 4 Pf = + (r − r14 ) 6η r2 2 h 2 ln r1 12 .Effect losses (flow and frictional losses) " 2 # πrh30 ∆p2 e 2πrηv 2 ℓ Pf = 1 + 1.5 Axial.5 + s 6η ℓ h0 2 e h0 1 − h0 7.

3π 4 " r1 3 4 # r1 r1 h K2 = ηr 1 − 2 + 2 − h 2 2 r2 r2 r2 13 . K1 = 3ηr22 1− h r2 h and " 4 # 3π 4 r1 K2 = ηr 1 − 2 2 r2 p=0 If pb = 0 r2 Load r1 K2 pb F =− ḣ h3 F where .2 Circled block h = constant Flow h3 p=0 qs = pb kb r2 Load r1 F = Ae pb pb where 6η r2 kb = ln π r1 and π r22 − r12 h Ae = 2 r2 ln r1 Squeeze Pressure K1 pb = − ḣ p=0 h3 r2 Load K2 r1 F =− ḣ pb h3 where F " 2 # r1 .8 Hydrostatic bearings 8.1 Nomenclature Ae :effective area [m2 ] kb :constant [Ns/m2 ] B :bearing chamber length [m] k2 :constant [Nms] F :load [N] p :pressure [Pa] K1 :constant [Ns] pb :pressure in the bearing chamber [Pa] K2 :constant [Nm2 s] qs :flow through the bearing [m3 /s] L :bearing surface length [m] qsB :flow through ae :effective area/width [m] the bearing/width [m2 /s] f :load/width [N/m] r1 :inner radius [m] h :gap height [m] r2 :outer radius [m] ℓ :length [m] η :dynamic viscosity [Ns/m2 ] 8.

8.3 Rectangular block

h = constant

p=0 Flow

h3

L qsB = pb

kb

pb Load

f = ae p b

f

B where

kb = 6ηL

h and

L ae = B + L

Squeeze

Pressure

p=0 K1

pb = − ḣ

L h3

Load

pb k2

f =− ḣ

h3

f

B where

. K1 = 6ηL(B + L)

h

h and

4

k2 = 6ηL B 2 + 2BL + L2

L 3

p=0

L

If pb = 0

pb Load

k2

f f =− ḣ

h3

B

. where

h k2 = 2ηL3

h

L

14

**9 Hydrodynamic bearing theory
**

9.1 Nomenclature

qθ :flow/width unit in θ-axis [m2 /s]

U1 :velocity in x-axis surface 1 [m/s]

r :radius [m]

U2 :velocity in x-axis surface 2 [m/s]

t :time [s]

V1 :velocity in y-axis surface 1 [m/s]

u :flow velocity in x-axis [m/s]

V2 :velocity in y-axis surface 2 [m/s]

w :flow velocity in z-axis [m/s]

T :temperature [K]

η :dynamic viscosity [Ns/m2 ]

c :specific heat [kJ/kg K]

τx :shear stress in x-axis [N/m2 ]

h :gap height [m]

τθ :shear stress in θ-axis [N/m2 ]

p :pressure [Pa]

ρ :density [kg/m3 ]

qx :flow/width unit in x-axis [m2 /s]

ω1 :velocity in θ-axis surface 1 [rad/s]

qz :flow/width unit in z-axis [m2 /s]

ω2 :velocity in θ-axis surface 2 [rad/s]

qr :flow/width unit in r-axis [m2 /s]

θ :angle [rad]

9.2 Cartesian coordinate

y V2 U2

z x

V1 U1

Speeeds

1 ∂p y y 1 ∂p

u= [y(y − h)] + U1 1 − + U2 w= [y(y − h)]

2η ∂x h h 2η ∂z

Flows

h3 ∂p h h3 ∂p

qx = − + (U1 + U2 ) qz = −

12η ∂x 2 12η ∂z

Shear stresses

h ∂p U2 − U1 y

τx|y=0 = − +η p

2 ∂x h τx|y=h

h ∂p U2 − U1 z x

τx|y=h = +η τx|y=0

2 ∂x h

Reynolds equation

∂ ρh3 ∂p ∂ ρh3 ∂p

∂

+ = 6(U1 − U2 ) (ρh) + 12ρ(V2 − V1 )

∂x η ∂x ∂z η ∂z ∂x

**Adiabatic energy equation
**

" 2 #

2

h3

∂T ∂T ∂T η 2 ∂p ∂p

ρc qx + qz +h = (U1 − U2 ) + +

∂x ∂z ∂t h 12η ∂x ∂z

9.3 Polar coordinates

y ω2 V2 w u

x y θ r

ω1 V1

15

Velocities

1 ∂p 1 ∂p y y

u= [y(y − h)] w= [y(y − h)] + rω1 1 − + rω2

2η ∂r 2η r∂θ h h

Flows

h3 ∂p h3 ∂p rh

qr = − qθ = − + (ω1 + ω2 )

12η ∂r 12η r∂θ 2

Shear stresses

h ∂p r(ω2 − ω1 ) y

τθ|y=0 = − +η p

2 r∂θ h τθ|y=h

h ∂p r(ω2 − ω1 ) θ

τθ|y=h = +η τθ|y=0

2 r∂θ h

Reynolds equation

∂ ρh3 r ∂p

3

∂ ρh ∂p ∂

+ = 6r(ω1 − ω2 ) (ρh) + 12ρr(V2 − V1 )

∂r η ∂r r∂θ η ∂θ ∂θ

**Adiabatic energy equation
**

" #

2 2

r2 η h3

∂T ∂T ∂T 2 ∂p 1 ∂p p ∂p

ρc qr + qθ +h = (ω1 − ω2 ) + + 2 +

∂r ∂θ ∂t h 12η ∂r r ∂θ r ∂r

16

inductance [kg/m4 ] q :flow in point of operation [m3 /s] L0 :conc.2 Joukowskis equation ∆p = ρav0 Reduction due to valve closing time.10 Non-stationary flow 10.) [Ns/m6 ] α :dimensionless area [-] R0t :conc. res.enh.enh. capacitance [m5 /N] 1 p :downstream pressure [Pa] C0 :conc.3 Retardation of cylinder with inertia load v0 V2 V1 FL m Pressure difference for retardation (v0 → 0) p2 p1 r 2βe m p1max − p2min = v0 V1 ps = const pT = 0 10.unit. hydr.) [Ns/m5 v] v :flow velocity [m/s] RHt :conc.1 Nomenclature p :pressure [Pa] A :line sectional area [m2 ] p :pressure in point of operation [Pa] B :constant (L0 a) [kg/s m40 ] p :upstream pressure [Pa] CH :conc. hydr. hydr. res./l.4 Concentrated hydraulic inductance dq ρℓ p1 − p2 = L H were LH = dt A 10. hydr. hydr. capacitance/l. [m4 /N] 2 ps :supply pressure [Pa] F :force [N] q :flow (volume flow) [m3 /s] LH :conc. resistance (turb.unit. hydr. 2ℓ 2ℓ ∆pred = ∆p for tv > atv a 10. resistance (lam. hydr. [kg/m ]0 5 s :Laplace operator (iω) [1/s] P :pressure (frequency dependent) [Pa] t :time [s] Q :flow (volume flow) (frequency dependent) [m3 /s] t :valve closing time [s] RHℓ :conc.5 Concentrated hydraulic capacitance dp Aℓ q1 − q2 = CH were CH = dt βe 17 . (lam.) [Ns/m5 ]0 :velocity of cylinder [m/s] R0ℓ :conc. hydr. (turb.) [Ns/m6 ] 3 βe :effective bulk modulus [Pa] V1 :volume [m ] 3 ∆p :change in pressure due to pressure peek [Pa] V2 :volume [m ] η :dynamic viscosity [Ns/m2 ] Z0 :impedance [Ns/m5 ] λ :friction coefficient [-] a :speed of sound [m/s] :parameter [1/m] d :diameter [m] ρ :density [kg/m3 ] ℓ :length [m] ζ :single resistant loss [-] m :mass [kg] 10. inductance/l./l.

25 A1.1582 η 0.8 Speed of waves in pipes filled with liquid s 1 βe a= √ = L0 C0 ρ Graphical solution F-wave f-wave F f ∆p = B∆q ∆p = −B∆q were B = L0 a 18 .75 10. ℓ ρq0 RHt = λ d A2 with linearization around the working point with the flow q0 10.6 Concentrated hydraulic resistance 128ηℓ RHℓ = For laminar flow πd4 p1 − p2 = RH q were RH = For turbulent flow.10.7 Basic differential equations on flow systems with parameter dis- tribution in space ∂p ∂q ∂q ∂p + L0 + R0 q|q|m = 0 + C0 =0 ∂x ∂t ∂x ∂t Parameter values (per length unit) independent of flow regime A ρ C0 = L0 = βe A with laminar flow 128η R0ℓ = m=0 πd4 with turbulent flow 0.25 ρ0.75 R0t = m = 0.75 d1.

x) − Z10 sinh(λx) cosh(λx) Q(s. 0) = Q(s. ℓ) − Z10 sinh(λℓ) cosh(λℓ) Q(s. ℓ) = 1 Q(s. 0) Z0 sinh(λℓ) cosh(λℓ) Q(s. x) cosh(λ(ℓ − x)) Z0 sinh(λ(ℓ − x)) P (s. 0) cosh(λℓ) Z0 sinh(λℓ) P (s. ℓ) r p L0 s + R0 were λ= (L0 s + R0 )C0 s Z0 = C0 s 19 . x) cosh(λx) −Z0 sinh(λx) P (s. At a pressure source with concentrated friction loss ℓ ρq 2 p = p0 − ζ + λ d 2A2 Solution with impedance method Transfer matrices P (s. ℓ) = 1 Q(s. x) Z0 sinh(λ(ℓ − x)) cosh(λ(ℓ − x)) Q(s. 0) = Q(s. ℓ) P (s. q0 is stationary state. 0) P (s. 0) P (s. ℓ) cosh(λℓ) −Z0 sinh(λℓ) P (s.Boundary conditions: At a valve q p r =α q0 p0 were α = dimensionless area and p0 .

Flow disturbance from the pump rises at following frequencies: ω = 2πnzj j = 1. 3. 2. 2. free flow spectrum [-] τ :dim. .2 System with closed end Resonances in a pipe system with closed end are obtained at following frequency/-ies: πk ω= k = 1. . . can the resulting pressure amplitude at this frequency be calculated with following equation: . T where s L β T = a= a ρ Figur 3: Amplitude for the resonances k = 1.free cylinder volume [-] P :pulsation amplitude [N/m2 ] β :bulk modulus [Pa] V :volume [m3 ] ε :the pump’s displacement [-] a :wave propagation speed [m/s] γ :dim.free charging time [-] n :pump speed [rev/s] ω :angular frequency [rad/s] 11. 3 and 4 in a system with closed end.free dead volume [-] d :pipe diameter [m] ρ :density [kg/m3 ] fp :dim. 2.11 Pump pulsations 11. . 3. . Under condition that the pumps flow disturbance frequencies coincide with the pipe system’s resonances.1 Nomenclature A :the pipe’s cross-sectional area [m2 ] ps :static pressure level [Pa] T :wave propagation time [s] z :the pump’s piston number [-] D :pump displacement [m3 /varv] η :dynamic viscosity [Ns/m2 ] L :pipe length [m] αp :dim. .

.

.

P .

2fp αp D ρn r .

.

.

ps .

Anti-resonances are received in a pipe system with closed end at following frequencies: π(k + 21 ) ω= k = 0. = 3 max dL π ηzj where 2 1+ε fp = αp = +γ 1 + (τ j)3 2 The dimensionless charging time τ is the relationship between the time you. T Under condition that the pump flow disturbance frequencies coincide with the pipe system’s anti-resonances.3. . 2.e. The higher values are referred to pumps designed for low flow pulsations for example pumps with pressure relief grooves. The dead volume γ has often the magnitude of 0. due to the oil’s compressibility. . and the total time period.05 till 0. i. the time between two volumes in succession are charged. 1. can the resulting maximum pressure amplitude at this frequency be calculated with following equation: . that is 20% of the effective cylinder volume. This parameter is very difficult to decide. a typical value of τ is between 0.2. . receive a back flow into a cylinder.

.

.

P .

4fp αp Dn .

.

= .

ps .

max πd2 a 20 .

volume) Resonances in a pipe system with low end impedance is obtained at following frequencies: π(k + 21 ) ω= k = 0. 1.05 6 1350 0.05 0.18 (0. 6.Example: The above equations are used for following example. .91 m L = 2. Following data is obtained: d = 38 · 10−3 [m] γ = 0.00) 0. .g. . the amplitudes at these frequencies are relative small because they don’t coincide with any of the pipe’s resonances.90 m Gives resonance for j = 1. . 21 . . . In the table below. .01) (0. . . .15 m can some disturbance harmonics not be analysed with the equations above.45 (0. 2. 2 and 3 for a system with low end impedance. . . 2. these values are in parenthesis.00 0.22 3 675 0. 6.12 0. .00 0. 3.3 Systems with low end impedance (e. However. .5 · 109 [Pa] τ = 0. since they don’t coincide with any of the pipe’s resonances or anti-resonances. no anti-resonance L = 2.01) 0.00 (0. Anti-resonances in a pipe system with low end impedance is obtained at following frequencies: πk ω= k = 1.01) 0. anti-resonances for j = 2.09 5 1125 0.01) 0.01) 0. 3. L = 1.03 11. . . .14 4 900 0. L = 2.45 m Gives resonances for j = 2.91 m Gives resonance for j = 3.91 m and L = 2. . T The same equations as in previous section can be used here for calculation of maximum pressure amplitude for the pulsations. Relative pulsation amplitude |P/ps | j f [Hz] L = 1.45 m L = 1. 1.90 m 1 225 0. A constant pressure pump presumed work against a closed valve. T Figur 4: Amplitude for the resonances k = 0.15 m L = 2. 2. anti-resonances for j = 1. .2 n = 25 [rev/s] ε=0 z=9 η = 0. . 4.01 (0. for L = 1. 5.35 2 450 0.15 m Gives resonance for j = 4. .00) (0.25 Four different pipe lengths between pump and valve is analysed: L = 1. Note. . . no anti-resonance In the table below shows the obtained relationship between pulsation’s pressure amplitude and the system’s pressure level for respective disturbance harmonic.02 [Ns/m2 ] D = 220 · 10−6 [m3 /rev] ρ = 900 [kg/m3 ] βe = 1.22 (0. . 6.00 0.07 0. 3.

. a more correct analyze of the disturbance harmonic which can not be calculated with the equation given in this handbook.00 22 . 6.00 6 1350 0. 4. which size is not infinite.01) 0. . other parameters are the same as the previous example except for the length of the line.54) 0. 3. ”‘passningsräkning”’ has to be used. . Note. .00 m Gives no resonance anti-resonance for j = 1. 4. . is connected to the pipe system is a dislocation of the line’s resonances from the values in above equations obtained. if a finite volume is used the resonance frequency is increased.00 m 1 225 (0. 4. .14 0. . 6. . 5.00 0.00 (0. a high pressure filter is placed before the valve in the example with the constant pressure pump.If a volume. . Relative pulsation amplitude |P/ps | j f [Hz] L = 1.00 3 675 0. L = 3. . .87 m L = 3. As example on this section.01 2 450 0.47 m and k = 1. anti-resonance for j = 2. the volume is relative small and therefore the dislocation equation has to be used. anti-resonance for j = 3. as in previous example.00 0.87 m Gives resonance for j = 1. The method is shown bellow for L = 1.01) (0. When the new resonance frequency is calculated. ∆ω = 430 rad/s ω = 1810 rad/s ∆ω = 340 rad/s ω = 1720 rad/s π k + 21 ω= = 1350rad/s ⇒ ∆ω = 350 rad/s ω = 1730 rad/s T The size of the pulsation amplitude in relation to the static system pressure is shown in the table below. L = 1. 2.00 5 1125 0. The valve is closed in this example too. . 6. This dislocation can be calculated according to following equation 1 π Vω ∆ω = − arctan T 2 Aa I. The volume of the filter is 2 liters.47 m L = 1.e.47 m Gives resonance for j = 3. . The values in parenthesis show.00 0.00 0.00 4 900 0.00) 0. 5.11 (0. . . The following line lengths are analysed: L = 1.28 0.

(servo valve) [m /Ns] ωc :crossing-out frequency [rad/s] Kp :pressure gain (servo valve) [Pa/m] ωh :hydraulic eigen frequency [rad/s] Kq :flow gain (servo valve) [m2 /s] Re :real part Kreg :control gain Im :imaginary part Kv :loop gain Mt :total mass (cylinder piston and load) [kg] Tilläggsindex 0 :working point Np :pump speed [rad/s] e :effective S :stiffness m :motor TL :external (load-)moment on motor [Nm] p :cylinder (piston).1 Nomenclature Vh :control volume (3-port valve) [m3 ] Vt :total volume [m3 ] A :piston area [m2 ] e :control error Ah :control piston area (3-port valve) [m2 ] kp :displacement gradient (pump) [m3 /rad2 ] Am :amplitude margin [dB] p :pressure [Pa] Ar :piston area. (motor) [Nms/rad] qc :centre flow [m3 /s] Bp :viscous friction coeff. pump U :under lap [m] v :valve V :volume [m3 ] t :total L :load 23 . t :time [s] (cylinder/motor/pump) [m5 /Ns] xv :position (servo valve) [m] Ci :internal leakage flow coeff. [-] δh :hydraulic damping [-] D :displacement (motor/pump) [m3 /rad] ε0 :control error (stationary) FL :external (load-) force on cylinder [N] ρ :density [kg/m3 ] Gc :the closed system’s transfer function θm :angular position (motor) [rad] Go :the open system’s transfer function φp :displacement angle (pump) [rad] Greg :controller transfer function ϕm :phase margin [◦ ] Jt :total moment of inertia 2 ω :angular frequency [rad/s] (motor and load) [kg m ] 5 ωb :bandwidth [rad/s] Kc :flowpressure coeff. rod side pc :control pressure (3-port valve) [Pa] (3-port valve) [m2 ] ps :supply pressure [Pa] Au :the open system’s transfer function q :flow (volume flow) [m3 /s] Bm :viscous friction coeff. xp :position (cylinder piston) [m] (cylinder/motor/pump) [m5 /Ns] 5 w :area gradient [m] Ct :total leakage flow coeff. [m /Ns] βe :effective bulk modulus [Pa] Cq :leakage flow coeff.12 Hydraulic servo systems 12. (cylinder) [Ns/m] s :Laplace operator (iω) [rad/s] Ce :external leakage flow coeff.

See figure 5. In this example is the servo valve a 4-port valve with negligible dynamic and the cylinder is symmetric.2 Introduction The servo technical section discusses following system: • valve controlled cylinder • valve controlled motor • pump controlled cylinder • pump controlled motor As example in this section will a position servo of the type valve controlled cylinder in a constant pressure system be used. The direction 24 . out as follow: ∆FL (∆TL) ∆Xp ref (∆Θm ref) + ∆E ∆X v (∆Φp) ∆Xp (∆Θm) Controller Hydraulic system - The special case when the hydraulic system consists of a valve controlled cylinder becomes the block diagram as: ∆FL ( Kce Vt Hydraulic A2p 1+ 4βeKce s ) system ∆Xp ref + ∆E ∆X v Kq . A position servo looks.3 The servo valve’s transfer function All the transfer functions in this section are applied when the load spring constant K is negligible and its viscous friction Bp and Bm respectively is small (can often be set to 0). in general.12. Ap + s ωh2 + 2δh s + 1 ωh ) 12. xv + Greg xp ref pT = 0 ps = constant Figur 5: Lägesservo: ventilstyrd cylinder i konstanttryckssystem. xp V1 A1 A2 V2 FL Mt p1 p2 Bp . 1 ∆Xp ( Controller s2 .

5. 25 . Following is valid for the servo valve (see also section 12.4): 4-ports servo valve 3-ports servo valve ∂qL ∂qL Kq = Kq = the servo valve’s flow gain ∂xv ∂xv ∂qL ∂qL Kc = − Kc = − the servo valve’s flowpressure coefficient ∂pL ∂pc Kq ∂pL Kq ∂pc Kp = = Kp = = the servo valve’s pressure gain Kc ∂xv Kc ∂xv The load flow and load pressure through a 4-port valve controlled symmetric cylinder/motor is defined according to following expression: qL = (qL1 + qL2 )/2 pL = p1 − p2 Pump controlled systems The dynamic of the pump in the pump controlled systems is assumed to be negligible compared to the system. The pump’s ideal flow is: qp ideal = εp Dp Np = kp φp Np Linearised and Laplace transformed equations which describes the dynamic of the following hy- draulic systems are presented in section 12. Valve controlled systems The dynamic of the servo valve in the valve controlled systems is assumed to be negligible compared to the system.dependent friction coefficient Cf is neglected also in the motor case.

xp xp V1 A1 A2 V2 FL Mt Vh Ah Ar FL p1 p2 Mt pc q1 q2 Bp Bp xv xv ps = const pT = 0 ps = const pT = 0 a. Valve controlled motor d. Valve controlled asymmetric cylinder (3-port valve) TL Bm TL B m Jt Jt θm xp θm Dm V1 A1 A2 FL p1 p2 Mt Dm p1 V1 V2 Bp p1 p2 = q1 q2 const p2 = const V1 φ φ xv ps = const pT = 0 M M c. Pump controlled cylinder e. 12. pump controlled motor (transmission) Figur 6: Different types of servo systems.4 Servo valve 4-port zero lapped valve s 1 xv Load flow: qL = Cq wxv ps − pL ρ |xv | Centre flow: qc = 0 ideal ps r Zero coefficients: Kq0 = Cq w Kc0 = 0 ideal Kp0 = ∞ ideal ρ qL0 = 0 pL0 = 0 xv0 = 0 26 . Valve controlled symmetric cylinder (4-port valve) b.

4-port under lapped valve r r ps − pL ps + pL Load flow: qL = Cq w (U + xv ) − (U − xv ) for |xv | ≤ U ρ ρ ps r Centre flow: qc = 2Cq wU ρ r ps 1 2ps r Zero coefficients: Kq0 = 2Cq w Kc0 = Cq wU Kp0 = ρ ps ρ U qL0 = 0 pL0 = 0 xv0 = 0 3-port zero-lapped valve r 2 C wx (ps − pc ) då xv ≥ 0 q v ρ Load flow: qL = r 2 Cq wxv pc då xv ≤ 0 ρ Centre flow: qc = 0 ideal ps r Zero coefficients: Kq0 = Cq w Kc0 = 0 ideal Kp0 = ∞ ideal ρ ps qL0 = 0 pc0 = xv0 = 0 2 3-port under lapped valve r r 2(ps − pc ) 2pc Load flow: qL = Cq w (U + xv ) − (U − xv ) for |xv | ≤ U ρ ρ ps r Centre flow: qc = Cq wU ρ r ps 1 ps r Zero coefficients: Kq0 = 2Cq w Kc0 = 2Cq wU Kp0 = ρ ps ρ U ps qL0 = 0 pL0 = xv0 = 0 2 12.5 The hydraulic system’s transfer function Valve controlled symmetric cylinder with mass load (4-port valve) Kq Kce Vt ∆Xv − 2 1 + s ∆FL Ap A 4βe Kce ∆Xp = 2p s s s + 2δh +1 ωh2 ωh s 4βe A2p if V1 ≈ V2 Vt Mt Kce r βe M t Bp r Vt where ωh = s δh = + βe A2p 1 1 Ap Vt 4Ap βe M t + if V1 6= V2 Mt V1 V2 Cep Kce = Kc + Cip + Vt = V1 + V2 Ap = A1 = A2 2 27 .

The open loop transfer function become: Kv Au = Greg Go = 2 s s s + 2δ h + 1 ωh2 ωh 28 .Valve controlled asymmetric cylinder with mass load (3-port valve) Kq Kce Vh ∆Xv − 2 1 + s ∆FL Ah A βe Kce ∆Xp = 2h s s s + 2δ h + 1 ωh2 ωh s βe A2h r r Kce βe Mt Bp Vh where ωh = δh = + Kce = Kc + Cip Vh Mt 2Ah Vh 2Ah βe Mt Valve controlled motor with moment of inertia Kq Kce Vt ∆Xv − 2 1 + s ∆TL Dm D 4βe Kce ∆Θm = 2m s s s + 2δ h + 1 ωh2 ωh s 2 r r 4βe Dm Kce βe Jt Bm Vt where ωh = δh = + Vt Jt Dm Vt 4Dm βe Jt Cem Kce = Kc + Cim + Vt = V1 + V2 . V1 = V2 2 Pump controlled cylinder with mass load kp Np Ct V0 ∆φp − 2 1 + s ∆FL Ap A βe Ct ∆Xp = 2 p s s s 2 + 2δh +1 ωh ωh s βe A2p r r Ct βe M t Bp V0 where ωh = δh = + V0 Mt 2Ap V0 2Ap βe Mt V0 = V1 Ap = A1 = A2 Ct = Cit + Cet = Cip(iston) + Cip(ump) + Cep(iston) + Cep(ump) Pump controlled motor with moment of inertia (transmission) kp Np Ct V0 ∆φp − 2 1 + s ∆TL Dm D βe Ct ∆Θm = 2 m s s s + 2δ h + 1 ωh2 ωh s 2 r r βe D m Ct βe Jt Bm V0 where ωh = δh = + V0 Jt 2Dm V0 2Dm βe Jt V0 = V1 Ct = Cit + Cet = Cip + Cim + Cep + Cem 12.6 The servo stability Feedback systems can become instable if the feedback is incorrect dimensioned. In this case we study a position servo with proportional feedback Greg = Kreg .

If the phase intersects −180◦ more than one time the Nyquist diagram is needed. (dashed line) 180 0 10 |Au| = 1 Am |Au| [-].where Go is the transfer function which describes the hydraulic system’s output signal (cylinder position) as function of the hydraulic system’s input signal (valve position) when the disturbance signal (∆FL ) is zero. for the hydraulic. The steady state loop gain Kv (also called the velocity coefficient) is: Kq Kv = Kreg valve controlled symmetric cylinder (4-port valve) Ap Kq Kv = Kreg valve controlled asymmetric cylinder (3-port valve) Ah Kq Kv = Kreg valve controlled motor Dm kp Np Kv = Kreg pump controlled cylinder Ap kp Np Kv = Kreg pump controlled motor Dm Then. Figure 7 shows that the stability condition becomes Kv <1 2δh ωh Stability margins Position servo (with Bode-diagram according to figure 7) amplitude margin can be written as: . It means that a stable system needs the open loop gain |Au | to be <= 1 (0 dB) when the phase shift is <= −180◦. 1 10 270 ωc ≈ Kv phase(Au) [degrees]. For a proportional position servo with a feedback is. • the phase margin ϕm > 0◦ at 0 dB amplitude. Stability condition A stable system is obtained when • the amplitude margin Am > 0 dB at −180◦ phase shift. Amplitude. (dashed). the amplitude margin the critical stability margin. If the amplitude curve intersects 0 dB more than one time the Nyquist diagram is needed. the open system’s Bode-diagram for a position servo become as figure 7. (solid line) 90 Kv / 2δhωh -1 10 0 ωh -90 -2 10 ϕm -180 -3 10 -270 -1 0 1 2 10 10 10 10 Angular frequency [rad/s] Figur 7: The open system’s transfer function for a position servo. (solid line) and phase.

.

.

Kv .

Am = −20 10 log .

.

.

[dB] −2δh ωh .

29 . The following margins should be used when the control parameters shall be dimensioned in a hydraulic system with a feedback.

Kce and consequently δh is minimised. √ • Cylinder piston is out balanced.71 ⇔ -3 dB phase(Gc) [degrees]. i.e. 1. amplitude margin: Am ≈ 10 dB phase margin: ϕm ≥ 45◦ The system’s critical working condition Since hydraulic systems are non-linear systems. which is proportional to ∆ps − ∆pL . With similar discussion.1 |Gc| = 0. ωh is minimised. 30 . Kq .2 -2 10 -270 -1 0 1 2 10 10 10 10 Angular frequency [rad/s] Figur 8: The closed loop system’s transfer function for a position servo. From the figure for the open system’s transfer function Au the stability margin become worst when both ωh and δh are low and steady state loop gain Kv is big. the critical working condition can be decided for other systems. ∆Xp ref 1 10 270 ωb.e. i. the stability margin will become different in different working condition. In practical dimensioning. (dashed line) 180 |Gc| [-]. 12. the hydraulic damping is often set to δh ≈ 0. when pL = 0. This happened for a valve controlled symmetric cylinder when Vt • Cylinder piston is centered (xp = 0). • The servo valve is closed (xv = qL = 0).e. V1 = V2 = 2 . when the disturbance ∆FL = 0. when Kc = Kc0 .3 %) • or the phase shift become more than −90◦ If the feedback is −1. i.7 The servo’s response – bandwidth The bandwidth (ωb ) for the closed loop system specifies how high frequency the servo’s output signal can follow a sinusoidal input signal. is maximised and consequently also Kv (proportional to Kq ). Amplitude (solid) and phase (dashed). the closed loop system’s transfer function for a position servo with any of the earlier described hydraulic systems becomes: Au 1 Gc = = 1 + Au 1 3 2δh 2 1 s + s + s+1 Kv ωh2 K v ωh Kv ∆Xp where Gc = for a position servo with a valve controlled cylinder. (solid line) 0 10 |Gc| = 1 90 0 -1 10 -90 -180 ωb. without: • the gain lowers more than 3 dB (29.

respective motor position sensitivity to disturbance force ∆FL or a disturbance torque ∆TL is described with its stiffness S. the stiffness for the valve controlled cylinder is calculated as 2 s s s + 2δ h + 1 ∆FL 1 ωh2 ωh S= = =− ∆X ∆Xp p Kce s 1 + ∆FL A2p ωs where 4βe Kce ωs = = {if Bp isneglected} = 2δh ωh Vt The transfer function for the stiffness is shown in figure 9.The closed loop system’s transfer function can also be written as 1 Gc = s2 s s +1 2 + 2δ nc + 1 ωb ωnc ωnc If δh and Kv /ωh is small ωnc ≈ ωh ωb ≈ K v Kv 2δnc ≈ 2δh − ωh 12. System without feedback For a hydraulic system without feedback. When the stiffness is studied is all other input signals assumed to be constant (∆Insignal = 0). As example on a system without respective with a feedback. The stiffness is defined as ∆FL ∆TL S= or S= ∆Xp ∆Θm The hydraulic system’s transfer function can be found in section 12. the stiffness for the valve controlled (4-port valve) symmetric cylinder is decided.5. 31 . The same approach is used when the stiffness is decided for the other hydraulic.8 The hydraulic system’s and the servo’s sensitivity to loading – stiffness Cylinder . 10 10 9 10 |S| [N/m] 8 10 qh!h Ap!h 2 2 2 7 Kce 1+ (! ) s 10 ωs ωh 6 10 -1 0 1 2 10 10 10 10 Angular frequency [rad/s] Figur 9: The transfer function for the stiffness for the non-feedback valve controlled cylinder.

10 10 9 10 |S| [N/m] 8 10 2 KvAp / Kce 7 10 ωs ωh 6 10 -1 0 1 2 10 10 10 10 Angular frequency [rad/s] Figur 10: The transfer function for the stiffness for the valve controlled cylinder with proportional feedback.System with feedback For a system with feedback with the feedback −1 and proportional gain of the control error is following stiffness obtained for a valve controlled cylinder(∆Xp ref are set to 0). 1 2δh 2 1 s3 + s + s+1 ∆FL 1 Kv ωh2 K v ωh Kv S= = = −Kv ∆Xp ∆Xp Kce s 1+ ∆FL A2p ωs where 4βe Kce ωs = = {if Bp isneglected} = 2δh ωh Vt The transfer function for the stiffness in the position servo is shown in figure 10. 32 .

see section 12. . For all systems can the transient be studied in the time domain (inverse transformation. 33 .xn0 ) where the working point is assumed to have stationary working conditions. The input signal is a ramp If the input signal ∆Xpref respective ∆Θmref is a ramp A · t (i.9 The servo’s steady state error The control error e(t) in a servo system is defined as the difference between the output value and the input value when ∆Disturbance signal = 0. the steady state control error will be: ε0 = lim e(t) = lim s∆E(s) t→∞ s→0 where the error gets the following expression if the feedback is −1: 1 ∆E(s) = ∆Xpref − ∆Xp = ∆Xpref 1 + Au The end value theorem is only usable on an asymptotic stable system. According to end value theorem.. . . xn0 ) = ∆xj 0 j=1 ∂xj (x10 . .. the speed A is desired). becomes the input signal A/s2 . if the output signal has a finite limit value. The steady state position error becomes A 1 A ε0 = lim s =→ s→0 s2 1 + Au Kv 12. the steady state error does never become 0. x2 . . The input signal is a step If the input signal ∆Xpref respective ∆Θmref is a step with the amplitude A becomes the input signal A/s in frequency domain. . x20 .e.12. The end value theorem becomes A 1 A A ε0 = lim s = → =0 s→0 s 1 + Au 1 + lim Au ∞ s→0 Practical.e... xn ) ∆f = ∆f (x10 .10).10 Control technical resources Linearize Non-linear differential equations are linearized around a working point with the first term of the Taylor series according to n X ∂f (x1 . i. because of the components which are included in the control loop do not have ideal characteristic.x20 . . .

. 2. . 1. b constants aF (s) + bG(s) f (t − a) a≥0 e−as F (s) 1 s f (at) a>0 F a a tn f (t) n = 0. 2. . 2. Re(s) > 0 sn+1 1 eat a constant Re(s) > Re(a) s−a n! tn eat n = 0. sn F (s) − sn−k f (k−1) (0) k=1 Rt F (s) 0 f (u)du s Z t Z t f (t) ∗ g(t) = f (u)g(t − u)du = g(u)f (t − u)du F (s)G(s) 0 0 Function in time domain Transform to frequency domain n! tn n = 0.Laplace transformation The following Laplace transformation table translates equations in the time domain to equations in frequency domain (rad/s) and vice versa. . . . 2. (−1)n F (n)(s) Z ∞ f (t) f (t) lim exists F (u)du t t→0+ t s e−at f (t) a constant F (s + a) 0 then t < 0 f (t − a)H(t − a) a > 0. H(t) e−as F (s) 1 otherwise f ′ (t) sF (s) − f (0) n X f (n) (t) n = 0. 1. Re(s) > Re(a) (s − a)n+1 s cos at Re(s) > |Im(a)| s2 + a 2 a sin at Re(s) > |Im(a)| s2 + a 2 s−a eat cos bt Re(s) > |Im(a)| (s − a)2 + b2 b eat sin bt Re(s) > |Im(a)| (s − a)2 + b2 s2 − a 2 t cos at Re(s) > |Im(a)| (s2 + a2 )2 2s3 2 cos at − at sin at Re(s) > |Im(a)| (s2 + a2 )2 2as2 sin at + at cos at Re(s) > |Im(a)| (s + a2 )2 2 2a3 sin at − at cos at Re(s) > |Im(a)| (s2 + a2 )2 34 . . . . . 1. . Z ∞ Definition L{f (t)} = F (s) = e−st f (t)dt 0 Function in time domain Transform to frequency domain f (t) F (s) af (t) + bg(t) a. 1. .

Parallel connection G+H + H u y u y G G 4. Move summation point G − in front of a block − 1 z z G y u + + + u + y −z − y z u + + u + y −z 8. Shift summation order y − u + + + u + y −z z − z 35 . Series connection u y u y G H GH u G + y u y 3. Move branch point after a block u 1 u G u y u y G G 5. Feedback ± 1 GH H 2.Block diagram reduction Reduction System Equivalent system u + y ± G u G y 1. Move branch point in front of a block y y G u y u + y 6. Move summation point + G G − after a block − z z G u + y u + y G 7.

Bode diagram For the transfer functions s s s 1+ 1+ ··· 1+ K z1 z2 z 1. G(s) = δ0 < 1 (complex numbers) s2 s + 2δ0 +1 ω02 ω0 the amplitude curve becomes . G(s) = p m (real numbers) s 1+ s s s 1+ ··· 1+ p1 p2 pn 1 2.

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iω .

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iω .

log |G(iω)| = log K − p log |ω| + log . 1.

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+ log .

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1 + .

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+ · · · z1 z2 .

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iω .

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1 + iω .

− log .

1 + iω .

− · · · − log .

1 + iω .

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· · · + log .

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1 + − log zm .

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p1 .

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p2 .

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pn .

the Nyquist diagram is obtained which is more usable than the Bode diagram. 1 2. From the Bode diagram can Nyquist diagram be constructed in following way: 36 . arg G(iω) = −p90◦ + arctan + arctan + · · · + arctan − z1 z2 zm ω ω ω arctan − arctan − · · · − arctan p1 p2 pn ω 2δ0 ω0 − arctan då 0 ≤ ω ≤ ω0 ω2 1 − ω02 2. arg G(iω) = −90 ◦ då ω = ω0 ω 2δ0 ω0 −180◦ + arctan då ω > ω0 ω2 − 1 2 ω0 Nyquist diagram If the transfer function is plotted direct in the complex domain. |G(iω)| = s 2 2 ω2 ω 1− 2 + 2δ0 ω0 ω0 and the phase becomes ω ω ω 1.

00 0. A analyse method for investigation of the stability is the descriptive functions where the open loop system’s transfer function is divided in a linear part and a non-linear part according to Au = Glinear Gnon−linear which results in the stability condition Glinear Gnon−linear = −1 By plotting Glinear and (−1/Gnon−linear) in the Nyquist diagram can the stability be investigated.linearized system Under presumption that Au does not have poles in the right side are following valid: • For a feedback system shall be stable must not the open loop system’s transfer function enclose Re(Au ) = −1 in the Nyquist diagram. If Re(Au ) = −1 follows .50 -1.25 -0.50 -1. See other literature for determination of the non-linear transfer function. • Mnemonic rule: Pull the ”rope” downward.50 0.50 Re(Au) Linear systems . (dashed line) 180 0 10 |Au| [-].the system is instable! Non-linear systems With non-linear systems can a host of phenomenon occur due to occurrence of play.00 -0.25 Im(Au) 0. (solid line) 90 |Au(iωi)| -1 10 0 -90 -2 arg(Au(iωi)) 10 -180 ωi -3 10 -270 -1 0 1 2 10 10 10 10 Angular frequency [rad/s] 0. 37 .00 |Au(iωi)| arg(Au(iωi)) -0. hysteresis in the system etc despite the system is seemingly stable. 1 10 270 phase(Au) [degrees].50 0. The intersection point gives in many cases the frequency and the amplitude for the self oscillation.

13 Hydraulic fluids 13. 2500 ASME-36 Naften based oil ASME-31 Paraffin based oil T = 0° Bulk modulus. is used at small changes dp βt = −V dV βt is shown in figure 11. Most of the normal hydraulic oils have bulk modulus between the Naften based oil and Paraffin based oil.1 Nomenclature V :volume [m3 ] x0 :amount of air in the oil V1 :start volume (secant) [m3 ] (gas volume/total volume at V2 :end volume (secant) [m3 ] normal state. 38 . η dynamic viscosity du τ =η for Newton fluid dy x η Kinematic viscosity ν= ρ Bulk modulus for oil with no air Tangent value. NTP) [-] Vc :volume (reservoir) [m3 ] ν :kinematic viscosity [m2 /s] Vg :volume (gas) [m3 ] ρ :density [kg/m3 ] Vℓ :volume (fluid) [m3 ] βe :effective bulk modulus [Pa] Vt :total volume [m3 ] βc :bulk modulus (reservoir) [Pa] p :absolute pressure [Pa] βg :bulk modulus (gas) [Pa] p0 :absolute pressure at NTP (= 0. tangent [MPa] 25° 2000 50° 75° 100° 1500 1000 0 10 20 30 40 50 Pressure [MPa] Figur 11: Tangent value of the bulk modulus for oil with no air.1 MPa) [Pa] βℓ :bulk modulus (fluid) [Pa] p1 :start pressure (secant) [Pa] βt :bulk modulus with no air in the oil (tangent) [Pa] p2 :end pressure (secant) [Pa] βs :bulk modulus with no air in the olja (secant) [Pa] u :flow velocity in x-led [m/s] βbt :bulk modulus with air in the oil (tangent) [Pa] n :polytrophic exponent [-] βbs :bulk modulus with air in the oil (secant) [Pa] ys :correction coefficient (secant) [-] τ :skjuvspänning [N/m2 ] yt :correction coefficient (tangent) [-] η :dynamic viscosity [Ns/m2 ] y u(y) Definition.

5p MPa 0. tangent value. 2500 ASME-36 Naften based oil ASME-31 Paraffin based oil Bulk modulus. at the special case: polytrophic exponent n = 1. 1 βbt = yt βt där yt = 1 x0 βt p0 n 1+ np (1 − x0 ) p yt is shown in figure 13 for different amount of air in the oil. Bulk modulus for oil with air Tangent value Simplified model and can be used when x0 ≤ 0.6 x0 = 0.4 x0 = 0.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Pressure [MPa] Figur 13: Correction for the air included in oil. 39 . secant [MPa] T = 0° 2000 25° 50° 1500 75° 100° 1000 0 10 20 30 40 50 Pressure [MPa] Figur 12: Secant value of bulk modulus for oil with no air.4 βt = 1500 + 7.5∆p [MPa] 1. V1 ) till (p2 .005 p0 = 0.Secant value.8 Compensator factor yt x0 = 0. x0 .2 n = 1.01 0.1 0.4 βt = 1500 + 7.1.1 MPa 0.05 x0 = 0. Most of the normal hydraulic oils have bulk modulus between the Naften base oil and Paraffin base oil.02 0. is used at big changes from normal pressure (p1 = 0. V2 ) p2 βs = −V1 V2 − V1 βs is shown in figure 12.0 x0 = 0.

In general. x0 .01 0.02 x0 = 0. βe The effective bulk modulus.7p MPa x0 = 0.4 0. is defined as 1 ∆Vt Gas = βe Vt ∆p Vg Total initial volume: Vt = Vℓ + Vg At compression: ∆Vt = −∆Vℓ − ∆Vg + ∆Vc Fluid Vl where ℓ.4 x0 = 0.005 p0 = 0. secant value.8 Compensator factor ys n = 1.1.6 x0 = 0.1 MPa 0.1 0. 1 βbs = ys βs där ys = 1 βs x0 p0 n 1 − x0 + 1− (p − p0 ) p ys is shown in figure 14 for different amount of air in the oil. g och c refer to fluid.2 x0 = 0.7∆p [MPa] 1.0 βs = 1500 + 3.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Pressure [MPa] Figur 14: Correction for the air included in oil. Effective bulk modulus.05 0. βe . the bulk modulus is calculated as (secant value) 1 Vg 1 Vℓ 1 1 Gas = + + ∆Vt βe Vt βg Vt βℓ βc −∆Vg For oil with no air: Fluid 1 1 1 = + ∆Vc βe βℓ βc 40 .4 βs = 1500 + 3. gas respective reservoir.Secant value Simplified model and can be used when x0 ≤ 0. at the special case: polytropexponent n = 1.

13 880 900 920 0.12 940 960 0.11 0 50 100 150 Temperature [degrees C] 41 .Specific heat capacity 2500 3 ρ20 = 840 kg/m 2300 Specific heat [J/kg K] 860 880 2100 900 920 940 960 1900 1700 0 50 100 150 Temperature [degrees C] Thermal conductivity ability 0.14 3 ρ20 = 840 kg/m Thermal conductivity [W/m K] 860 0.

1 MPa) [Pa] pv :atmospheric pressure in volume [Pa] p Kt :temperature correction ( T0 /T1 ) [-] q :volume flow [m3 /s] N :parameter [-] t :time [s] R :gas constant (287 for air) [J/kg K] α :parameter [-] T0 :reference temperature (NTP) [K] κ :isentropic exponent [-] T1 :upstream total temperature [K] ω :parameter [-] T3 :downstream total temperature [K] √ Tv :total temperature i volume [K] τ :dimension free time (= RT V At ) [-] 14. the mass flow ṁ through a nozzle can be written as v κ + 1 u u p1 Cd A0 KN tκ 2 κ−1 u ṁ = √ where K= T1 R κ+1 ∗ p2 p2 1 for ≤ p1 p1 v 2 κ + 1 u uu p2 κ p2 κ N= u − ∗ u p1 p 1 p2 p2 u for > κ + 1 u p1 p1 u κ − 1 2 t κ−1 2 κ+1 ∗ κ critical pressure ratio: p2 2 κ−1 b= = p1 κ+1 With b.and C-value hold for volume flow q following expression at NTP q = p1 Kt Cω p2 1 for ≤b p1 uv p 2 2 ω= u −b u p1 p2 t1 − 1 − b for >b u p1 42 . cross-section area of the orifice [m2 ] b :critical pressure ratio [-] A12 :effective entrance area [m2 ] bi :b-value for component i [-] A23 :effective exit area [m2 ] bs :b-value for system [-] Ae :effective orifice area (Cd A0 ) [m2 ] ṁ :mass flow [kg/s] Cd :flow coefficient [-] p1 :upstream total absolute pressure Ci :C-value for component i [-] (= static + dynamic pressure) [Pa] Cs :C-value for system [-] p p2 :downstream static absolute pressure [Pa] K :constant [ kgK/J] p3 :atmospheric pressure (0.2 Stream through nozzle According to the thermodynamic.1 Nomenclature A0 :min.14 Pneumatic 14.

α12 = 1 Both components is critical at the same time α12 > 1 Critical pressure drop only in component 2 C1 s for α12 ≤ 1 2 1 − b1 α12 b1 + (1 − b1 ) α212 + −1 C12 = b1 C α 2 12 2 for α12 > 1 1 − b1 α212 + b1 43 . the components’ characteristics show large divergence. and because of the decrease of pressure ratio as well in component 2. the components sequence have to be considered (gradual reduction) Calculation sequence: C1 α12 = C2 b1 α12 < 1 Critical pressure drop first over component 1.and C-value is known for every component • absolute static pressure after one component is equal to the absolute total pressure before the next component • the entrance temperature holds for all system • every component have the same mass flow (q1 = q2 = · · · = qn ) r T0 qs = p1 Kt Cs ω med Kt = T1 pn+1 1 för ≤ bs p1 v p 2 n+1 u ω= u − bs u 1 − p1 u pn+1 för > bs 1 − b p1 t s Case A If b.Cs Figur 15: Series connection of pneumatic components with b.and C-value is about the same n n 1 X 1 X 1 − bi = bs = 1 − Cs2 Cs3 i=1 Ci3 i=1 Ci2 Case B In cases of.3 Series connection of pneumatic components p1 b1 p2 b2 p3 bi bn pn+1 q1 C1 q2 C2 q3 Ci Cn qn+1 T1 bs .14.and C-values On condition that • every component can be described with q = p1 Kt Cω • b.

C3 b12 14. = 0.Cs T1 C1 C2 Cn p2 Figur 16: Parallel connected pneumatic components with b. =0 dt dt dt dt dt • p3 = atmospheric pressure • p1 and pv are absolute pressure • A12 and A23 are effective areas 44 . . 14. 2 1 − b1 1 − b2 b12 = 1 − C12 + C12 C22 C12 α13 = osv .5 Parallel.4 Parallel connected pneumatic components p1 q1 b1 b2 bn bs . = 0.and series connected pneumatic components For system with separate further lines are dealt as series links.6 Filling and emptying of volumes Assumptions • isotherm process (T = T1 = Tv = T3 ) dT dAe dV dp1 dp3 • stationary conditions = 0. = 0.and C-values r T0 qs = p1 Kt Cs ω med Kt = T1 p2 1 forr ≤ bs p1 v p 2 2 u ω= u − bs u u1 − p1 p2 for > bs 1 − bs p1 t For systems with the same further line (see figure 16) relates to n n X Cs X Ci Cs = Ci √ = √ i=1 1 − bs i=1 1 − bi 14. after which the total flow is obtained as the sum of all the partial flows in every series links. .

5 2.0 2. A12 0.0 0.6 0.7 1.2 A23/A12 = 0.0 0.5 Pressure pv [MPa absolute] 1.0 0.8 Pressure pv [MPa absolute] Pressure pv [MPa absolute] 0.0 0.0 2.0 0.6 1. 0.5 tao [-] (b) The upstream pressure p1 = 0.1 2.1 MPa (absolute) (d) The upstream pressure p1 = 2.0 1.0 0.1 0.0 A12 A23 0.8 0.0 2.5 0.0 2.5 2.8 1.4 0.5 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.5 0.6 MPa (absolute) 1.2 0.0 0.5 0.0 2.0 0.3 0.5 tao [-] tao [-] (c) The upstream pressure p1 = 1.2 0.4 1.5 1.2 2. 45 .4 0.6 A23/A12 = 0.5 1.0 0.2 (a) The downstream pressure p3 = 0.0 1.5 2.0 0.4 1.5 1.Charging a volume √ RT A12 t The diagrams below shows pv as a function of dimensionless time τ = with the area V A23 relation of as parameter.5 1.0 0.0 V T1 Tv T3 0.5 1.0 1.1 MPa absolute.5 0.1 0.1 MPa (absolute) Figur 17: Charging of the volume V .6 1.5 0.3 p1 pv p3 2.0 A23/A12 = 0.

0 5.4 1.6 0.0 0.4 0.4 V T1 Tv T3 0.4 0.Discharging a volume √ RT A23 t The diagrams below shows pv as a function of dimensionless time τ = with the area V A12 relation of as parameter.6 1.0 tao [-] (b) The upstream pressure p1 = 0.3 0.5 0.0 A12/A23 = 1.0 0.0 2.0 2.4 0.6 0.7 0.1 0.1 MPa (absolute) Figur 18: Discharging the volume V .1 2.1 MPa absolute.1 MPa 46 .6 0.8 0.6 A12/A23 = 1.0 5.2 0. For both charging and discharging a volume If p1 is between the assumed levels in the diagrams can the time be calculated with linear inter- polation of the two diagram according to the equation below ((p1 in MPa)).0 4.0 0.5 Pressure pv [MPa absolute] 0. A23 0.1)(t20 − t10 ) for 1.8 A12 A23 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.9 1.0 (a) The downstream pressure p3 = 0.0 1.1 0.0 A12/A23 = 1.0 0.8 0.8 Pressure pv [MPA absolute] Pressure pv [MPa absolute] 0.2 0.6 ≤ p1 ≤ 1.0 2.0 3.0 0.1 ≤ p1 ≤ 2.1 MPa t= 0.0 3.6 (t10 − t5 ) for 0.0 1.6 MPa (absolute) 1. t5 + p1 − 0.6 1.0 0. 0.0 0.3 p1 pv p3 0.0 tao [-] tao [-] (c) The upstream pressure p1 = 1.8 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.1 MPa (absolute) (d) The upstream pressure p1 = 2.0 2.0 4.0 3.8 1.0 5.0 4.0 0.0 1.5 t10 + (p1 − 1.2 0.2 1.6 0.0 0.

......... filtering...................................... 48 Mechanical elements.......................... 48 Control systems..... General symbols.............................................................................................. 54 Flow control valves................................ 57 Measurement equipments..... 49 Pumps and Motors............................................ 48 Pipes and connections. energy storage etc..............´.............................. 53 Pressure control valves.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... It is specified when the two standards differ....... 51 Directional control valves........ 57 47 .................................................................. 56 Energy sources.... 55 Components for cooling. 49 Cylinders....................................Appendix A Symbols for hydraulic diagrams Correspond to the international standard CETOP RP3 and the Swedish SMS 712......................................... 52 Check valves or non-return valves......................................................

General symbols 1) 2) 1)Hydraulic Flow direction 2)Pneumatic Variability Joined compo. rod piston Rod piston can be drawn with a single line Rotational shaft One respective two rotational directions Spring Pipes and connections Solid line = main pipe Dotted line with L>10E = control pipe E Dotted line with l<5E = drain pipe L<10E E Line (E = line width) L<10E Flexible pipe. Components belonging to one assembly or nents functional group Mechanical elements D Shaft. (Nor- 1) 2) Connection mally is the connection plugged. 1) Quick connect fitting without valve (inter- connected) 1) 2) 2) Quick connect fitting with valve (intercon- 3) 4) nected) Quick connect 3) Half of a quick connect fitting without valve fittings 4) Half of a quick connect fitting with valve Rotatable con- nection Can rotate during operation. lever arm. with one line 48 . hose The symbol is used mainly for movable parts d Pipe connection d = 5E (E = line width) 1) Air-drain for hydraulic pipe 1) 2) 3) Air-drain and 2) Air outlet without possibility of connection air outlet 3) Air outlet with possibility of connection 1) Plugged connection 2) Connection with connected pipe.) Enable connection of pipes without tools. D<5E bar.

Combined con. 1) Control with electromagnetic controlled pre-control valve. Control at pressure rise respective pressure re- sure control duction.Control systems 1) General symbol 1) 2) 2) Control with push button 3) Control with lever arm 3) 4) Manual controls 4) Control with pedal 1) Plunge Mechanical con. 1) One flow direction placement 2) Two flow directions Pump with 1) 2) variable dis. Indirect pres. Internal control line Control line is inside the valve. 2) Roll 1) 2) 3) trols 3) Spring 1) Electromagnetic with one winding 2) Electromagnetic with two winding (active in two directions) 1) 2) 3) M Electric controls 3) Control with electric motor Pressure control through pressure rise respec- Pressure control tive pressure reduction Pressure control Direct control through differential pressure Simplified symbol for pre-controlled valve. 1) One flow direction placement 2) Two flow directions 49 . 2) Control with electromagnetic or pre-control 1) 2) trols valve. Pumps and Motors Pump with 1) 2) constant dis.

displacement 3) Shifted flow direction and pressure side. shifted pressure 1) 2) 3) with constant side. 1) One flow direction placement 2) Two flow directions Motor with limited angle of twist Component working as pump/motor at: 1) Shifted flow direction. Example of con- 1) 2) trols for variable 1) Manual control pump 2) Pressure control via control valve Compressor with one flow direction The two distorted lines is not included in SMS Vacuum pump Motor with 1) 2) constant dis. 1) One flow direction placement 2) Two flow directions Pneumatic motor with constant dis. 50 . maintained pressure side. Hydrostatic Pump and motor together as one unit without gear external pipe system. 1) One flow direction 1) 2) placement 2) Two flow directions Motor with 1) 2) variable dis. Pump/motor 2) Maintained flow direction.

cushion 2) Double acting cushion.Cylinders Single-acting The fluid pressure exercises a force in one di- cylinder rection only. 2) variable cushion 2) Double acting cushion. 2) x y x y sifiers 2) For two mediums (air and oil). 1) Cylinder with 1) Single acting cushion. Unit converting a pressure X into a higher 1) x y x y pressure Y. 51 . Double-acting symmetric cylinder Double-acting cylinder where the area differ- Differential ent between the both sides are essential for the cylinder function. Double-acting The fluid operates alternatively in both direc- cylinder tions. The fluid pressure exercises a force in one di- Single-acting rection only and the return stroke by return cylinder spring. 2) 1) Cylinder with 1) Single acting cushion. 1) For one medium (air). Pressure inten. Unit converting a pneumatic pressure into an Air-oil actuators equal hydraulic pressure.

1) Valve with two distinct positions. Pilot ports are not included. but between the distinct positions 2) Non-throttling the valve passes a central position with directional essential function. 3) 4) 5) Four connections where all are tied to each Example of other. the second the number of positions. Other positions can be shown by displacement of the squares until the external flow lines are situated at the corresponding square. 1) 3) Valve with two distinct positions (outer squares). 2) Electro hy- draulic servo valve with pilot and mechanical Combined with solenoid operated pilot valve feedback. 1) Control by pressure from both ends. Symbols with several squares. with return spring. control valve with transient intermediate position. 3) 4) Four connections and free throughflow. 1) 3/2 directional 2) Control by solenoid against return spring. The external flow lines are normally situated at the square which indicates the neutral or normal position. 7) Five connections were one is closed. 5/2 directional valve Control by pressure in both directions.Directional control valves Opening and closing of one or more flow paths. 1) 2) 2) Two connections that are closed. Representation 4/2 directional 1) detailed control valve 2) simplified. 1) Two pipe connections and free throughflow. 7) paths. Several service positions each shown by a square. 5) 6) squares with 6) Four connections were two are closed and different flow two are tied together.g. 52 . 2) Valve with three distinct positions. 1) 1) manual 2/2 directional 2)by pressure against return spring (unloading 2) control valve valve). Con- trol e. 3) control valve First number in the description denotes the number of ports.

2) higher than the outlet pressure 1) 2) Check valve plus spring pressure. Two end positions and intermediate throttling positions. 2) with back pressure. Opening if inlet pressure is 1) higher than the outlet pressure. without pilot operation. Four throttling Tracer valve. Two stage electro- hydraulic servo valve with mechanical feedback Two stage electro- hydraulic servo valve with hydraulic feedback Check valves or non-return valves 1) without. 2) Shows the end positions and the centre 1) Throttling di. 53 . plunger operated against return orifices (4 ports) spring. Single stage electro. plunger operated against return orifice (2 ports) spring. Amplification of infinitely variable electrical hydraulic servo input signals transformed onto hydraulic out- valve put. rectional control All valve symbols have parallel lines outside 2) valve the envelope. Two throttling Pressure controlled against return spring in orifices (3 ports) two directions. Pilot controlled Pilot controlled 1) Opening can be prevented 1) 2) check valve 2) Closing can be prevented The inlet under pressure is automatically con- nected to the common outlet and the other Shuttle valve inlet is closed. One throttling Tracer valve. (neutral) position. 1) Shows only the end positions.

normally closed. Arrows with or 2) without tails. Proportioning pressure relief Inlet pressure is limited to a value propor- valve tional to the pilot pressure. the valve opens permitting Sequence valve flow through the outlet port. Inlet pressure is controlled by opening the ex- haust port to the reservoir or the atmosphere against an opposing force. One way restric. the right has vari- valve able. Quick exhaust When pressure falls at the inlet connection. Pressure control Pictures in the right column are not according 3) valves to SMS standard. In the right valve figure it acts together with the spring force. valve the outlet is automatically opened to exhaust. In the left figure pilot pres- pressure relief sure acts against the spring force. The left valve has Pressure relief fixed preloaded spring force. 54 . Pressure control valves Automatic control of pressure. When the inlet pressure exceeds the opposing force of the spring. Inlet pressure is controlled by spring force or by a value determined by the pressure in a Pilot controlled outer pilot port. 1) without. 1) 2) One throttling orifice. tor 2) with unloading device. normally open. With varying inlet pressure the outlet pressure remains substantially constant. Valve which allows free flow in one direction tor and restricted flow in the other direction. Inlet pressure 1) must however remain higher than the selected outlet pressure. 3) Two throttling orifices. 1) One throttling orifice. 2) 3) Pressure regula.

Outlet port pressure proportional to pilot tor pressure. Regulator with fixed setting. Proportioning pressure regula. Pilot controlled pressure regula. The outlet pressure is reduced by a fixed ratio tor with regard to the inlet pressure. without exceed- 1) 2) ing oil bleed off. Series flow con. Flow control valves Manual controlled throttle valve. 1) Detailed trol valve 2) Simplified Regulator with fixed setting. with exceeding 1) 2) oil bleed off. By-pass flow 1) Detailed control valve 2) Simplified The flow is divided into two fixed flows sub- Flow divider stantially independent of pressure variations. Shut-off valve Simplified symbol. The outlet pressure is reduced by a fixed tor amount with regard to the inlet pressure. 1) Detailed 1) 2) 2) Simplified Mechanical controlled throttle valve. Differential pressure regula. 3) Variable flow 3) Mechanical controlled against spring (brak- control valve ing valve). 55 .

the fluid is subjected to pressure from a spring. 4) The flow line flow connected Reservoirs under the reservoir. strainer 1) Manual control of draining. energy storage etc. 2) automatic 1) 2) Water trap draining.3) The flow line flow into the reservoir above the the fluid level. 1) Apparatus comprising filter. Acc. 1) Hydraulic. Desiccator Air drying by chemicals. 1). and 4) Reservoirs with atmospheric pressure.Components for cooling. pressure regula- Maintenance tor and lubricator assembled as a unit. SMS: 1) 2) 3) 1) General symbol Orifices 3) Viscosity dependent (pipe orifice) 1). Filter with wa. The apparatus is a combination of filter and 1) 2) ter trap water trap. CETOP: 1) Viscosity dependent (pipe orifice) 2) 1) Viscosity dependent (sharp edged) Acc. nitrogen.2). weight or gas (air. For lubrication of apparatus small quantities of oil are added to the air which is flowing Lubricator through the lubricator. 2) 56 . 3) Pressured reservoir. etc) 1) 2) Accumulators 2) pneumatic (receiver) Filter. 1) de- unit tailed 2) simplified. filtering. 2) The flow line flow into the reservoir below the 1) 2) 3) 4) the fluid level..

The fluid temperature is controlled between Temperature two predetermined values. The arrows indi- controller cate both heat introduction and dissipation. Flow rate meter Measure flow (volume per time unit) Integrated flow Σ meter Measure the total volume which is passed. 1) According to CETOP 1) 2) Μ gine 2) According to SMS Measurement equipments Manometer (Pressure trans- ducer) Thermometer The symbol can be placed arbitrarily. Silencer Energy sources Pressure source Μ Electric motor Combustion en. Pressure switch The symbol shows a switching contact. 1) Without 2) with indication of the flow lines of the coolant. The arrows in the square indi- 1) 2) Cooler cate the heat dissipation. Heater The arrows indicate introduction of heat. 57 .

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