1

Chapter I

Introduction

A. Background of the study

Agriculture plays an important role in human survival. It is an old practice and has

been a partner of humans ever since. Farming, one aspect of agriculture, is one of the most

important economic activities on earth, with it being a basic necessity for human survival.

Farming is a practice which involves growing of crops, where the seeds are planted and

nurtured until it develops into a tree or a crop. From there, farmers can harvest the crops.

There are different factors in farming that can affect the production of crops. From bad

weather to pests, each of these factors or problems has been greatly reducing the output of a

certain farm. Due to these problems, technological innovations about farming have been

pursued by humans in order to maintain an ecological balance and a stable economy.

Time, which is an important factor in farming, needs to be properly maintained when

handling a farm. Large farms need to compensate with technologies in order for a schedule to

be followed. There are certain seeds that farmers can just dig a soil through, put the seed, and

refill it back with soil. Now, instead of doing the same process over and over again, a machine

with certain accuracy can be developed in order to plant in a more efficient manner with

reduced human work.

2

B. Review of Related Literature and Studies

Convenience of operations is a part of the most essential factors which must be

accomplished if proper utilization of farming machines is upheld. Manual planting of seeds,

brings about low seeding accuracy, spacing efficiencies and causing spinal pain for the

farmers which restricts the extent of field that can be planted. To get the best efficiency in

planting seeds, improvements of design and appropriate components of machine can be

needed to meet its requirements in planting seeds.

Adisa and Braide (2012) explained the row seeder ordinarily needs a very much

arranged seed-bed which might be narrowed or plain bed. Previously, different sorts of

configuration have been produced with various approaches. They composed and built a

flute planter distributor which was observed to be effective at 94% in seed separation, but it

could not be functional on the furrowed seed bed. It needs some time and manual changing

of seed penetration size and seed dispersion.

Abubakar (1987) applied the principle of jab planter for the application of fertilizers.

Braide and Njidda (1989) made a consolidated jab planter which was tested its efficiency at

73.4% and performed better than using hoes and cutlass in traditional planting.

Adekoya and Buchele (1987) built up a punch planter which was equipped for

planting an untilled soil can be actuated by its cam precisely.

3

Braide and Ahmadu (1990) built up a transplanter for some specific crops in Guinea

Savannah of Nigeria which exceeds the field limit of 0.19ha/h and its productivity of 20%.

The greater part of the above plans was accounted for to have very encouraging outcomes.

Kyada A et al. (2014) proposed a design of manual seed planter machine which can

put the seed and fertilizer in a row at any depth and its space between the seeds. This

machine can be adjusted based on the different climate conditions and the crop variety.

The mechanisms of machine can be acted by pushing with its wheels and can transmit its

power through the chain and sprocket to control the plunger mechanism. The cam is

mounted on sprocket shaft which push plunger towards descending bearing. When plunger

is entering in soil and amid in reverse stroke flapper is opened so seed get isolated from

plunger and embedded in burrow.

C. Statement of the problem

The old way of planting where the farmers will dig a soil, put the seed, and return the

soil can increase the time which can have a problem in the production. With the seed-planting

machine, the time of planting can be reduced in a significant amount and increase the rate of

planted seeds.

Specifically, the design aims to answer the following questions:

1.) What are the materials and dimensions to be used?

2.) What is/are the mechanisms involved in the design?

4

3.) Who will benefit from this design?

4.) What are the problems that can arise in this design?

D. Objectives of the study

The objective of this machine is to put the seed in rows at desired depth and seed to

seed spacing, cover the seeds with soil and provide proper compaction over the seed.

Specifically, it aims to:

1.) Identify if the materials used can withstand the forces surrounding it.

2.) Specify the required diameters for the shafts.

3.) Know if the product is feasible in real-world applications

E. Significance of the study

Planting seeds manually can be time consuming and can waste a lot of energy and

money. Different concepts of machines that improve the efficiency of farming have been

continuously developed up until now. Most of these machines require many parts and are too

expensive for the users to buy. Other affordable planting machines waste a lot of seeds and

are not that efficient for farming.

Through this design, farmers can efficiently plant seeds in a certain rate which can save a

lot of resources. This design can also be made with simple materials, making it affordable to

the users or farmers.

The design was based on a specific bean called the long bean. Geneva Wheels are mechanisms that translate continuous rotation into a rotary motion.375 inches and up but not higher than .50 inches and not lower than . shafts are used in order to transmit the motion of the Geneva Wheel to the seed dropper. and the rear wheel.50 inches in diameter. Scope and limitations The design will limit its widespread acceptance of seeds to . In this design. the Geneva Wheel is used as the control for the drop of the seeds that will fall. Shafts are rotating element used to transmit power from one part to another. Definition of terms Bearing is a machine element that allows free rotational or linear motion in a certain part or object and reduces friction. 5 F. front wheel. . This design will only focus on the aspects of small scale farming and will not be utilized in large-scale farms. Machines consist of one or more moving parts that correspond with one another in order to do a specific task for the reduction of human effort. The design uses the bearing to allow the rotational motion of the shafts in the Geneva Wheel. In the design. but can also be applied to other seeds with a diameter not higher than . G. The whole design can be classified as a machine because it is a system of moving parts.30 inches.

By using this machine. The standard diameters will be used. Methods of research The seed-planting machine is designed to plant seeds in an efficient way. In this design. achievement of flexibility of distance and depth variation for different seed plantation is possible. a seed-planting machine is used in order to minimize the efforts of human work and to minimize time delays for a certain farm. This research is a developmental research which is focuses on designing and developing a certain product that must meet the standards of the consumer. This machine has considerable potential to greatly increase productivity. Finding the required information for the soil densities. The main task now is to promote this technology and have available and at the same time affordable prices to both small scale and big scale farmers. 6 CHAPTER II METHODOLOGY A. Determining the material that will perfectly fit the design and will not cause any trouble 4. . The seed-planting machine can be readily made from local components in workshops. Specifically. 3. Designing the diameters of the shafts for the Geneva wheel. Theoretically studying and comparing the different sizes of seeds for the Geneva mechanism 2. the researchers used the processes: 1.

The tables shown below are the computed mass for each object. The total mass of the whole design can be computed by adding all the computed mass for each shaft: Total mass of the whole design = 40. say 40 kg Computation for the deflection of the chassis. in order for the deflection to be calculated . The final design of the seed-planter machine will be made in a CAD program. the volumes were acquired (only for the shafts) and the total mass of the design was computed.85683. Computations Computations on the mass of the whole object were made using the formula m=pv. where p is the density of the material that is to be used and v is the assumed volume of the material. B. Based on the prototype. 7 5. Forces on each column was analyzed and computed. with the outer part and inner part drawings.

81) W= = = 392. 8 F .50 m ๐‘š(๐‘”๐‘œ) 40(9.30 m . a free body diagram can be made in order to calculate the force needed to push the design F W=390.4 N ๐‘”๐‘ 1 Using the calculated weight.769 m .30 m .769 m .5361 N .50 m .30 m .

the calculated force can be divided in half. F = 450.55 N Side view analysis A F = 226.9352 N Since the load will split into two.55 N D B G C F E .4 F = sin 60 F = 453.9532 N F/2 F/2 F/2=226. 9 392.

55 N BD BC FV = 0 BC = -226.7358 DE DF .275 N (C) Calculating forces on joint D BD = 112. 10 Using a free body diagram. 226.55(sin(60)) BC = 195. forces on B will be calculated with the given force.55(cos(60)) BD = 113.198N (C) FH=0 BD = -226.

8966x) ๐‘‘๐‘ฅ ๐Ÿ y(x) = [75๐’™๐Ÿ‘ .8966)๐‘‘๐‘ฅ ๐‘‘๐‘ฅ 1 ฮ˜ = ๐ธ๐ผ [225๐‘ฅ 2 .22 (C) Calculating the deflection (y): ๐‘‘2 ๐‘ฆ ๐‘€๐‘ฅ = ๐‘‘๐‘ฅ 2 ๐ธ๐ผ ๐‘‘๐‘ฆ 1 ๐‘ฅ = ๐ธ๐ผ โˆซ0 (450.9523(๐‘ฅ) โˆ’ 400.18 sin(42.20) DF= 152.4483๐’™๐Ÿ ] ๐‘ฌ๐‘ฐ Calculating for EI ๐œ‹(๐ท 4 โˆ’๐‘‘4 ) ๐œ‹(.18 N (T) FV=0 DE= -152.8966x] ๐‘‘๐‘ฆ 1 ๐‘ฅ = ๐ธ๐ผ โˆซ0 (225๐‘ฅ 2 โˆ’ 400.20) DE = 102.200.400.0084 ) I= = 64 64 I = 2.283986947x10-9 m4 . 11 FH=0 DF = 112.0154 โˆ’.7358 / cos(42.

0(50) = 100 N .889) = [75๐‘ฅ(. and moments as shown Computations for the shaft driver: A D B C For flat belt pulley: 2๐‘‡ 2(3) FN = F1-F2 = ๐ท = .4483(. it is important to analyze the stresses.200.bending force . forces.7853 N-m2 1 y(.net driving force .22399m In order to check for the safe diameters of the shaft. 12 E=207 GPa EI = 472.12 FA = 2.889)3 .889)2 ] 472.7853 y=-.0(FN) = 2.

603 N For D: 2๐‘‡ 2(3) FD = = = 50 N ๐ท .1) .1) + RCx(.50(.1 m .1 m RBx RCx Solving for the reactions at bearings: โˆ‘M at A= 0 50(.2) = 0 .12 Solving for all the reactions on all support bearings in each plane: For horizontal: FAx = 50 N FDx = 50 N .1 m . 13 Assuming 60o for flat belt pulley FAx = FA(cos 60o) = 100 (cos 60o) = 50 N FAy = FA(sin 60o) = 100 (sin 60o) = 86.

603 N FDy = 50 N .397 N .1) .1 m .50(.2) = 0 RCx = 13.1 m .1 m .603(. 14 RCx = 50 N Fv=0 -50 + RBx + 50 .1 m 0 RBy RCy Solving for the reactions at bearings: โˆ‘M at A= 0 86.50 = 0 RBx = 50 N FAx = 50 N FDx = 50 N .1) + RCy(.1 m .1 m 50 N 50 N For vertical: FAy = 86.

397 .206 N 50 N 36.603 N Shear force diagram 0 -86.603 N FDy = 50 N RCx = 13.6603 . 15 Fv=0 -86.206 N FAy = 86.603 + RBy + 13.603 N Moment diagram 0 -5 -8.50 = 0 RBx = 123.397 N RBx = 123.

81) = 162 MPa Let the factor of safety (N) = 2.8. The shaft size should be short.81.99. the tensile strength and yield strength of AISI 1040 cold-drawn steel: Sy= 490 MPa and from table 5.13 mm .5 At point A: Torque = 3 N-m. Sn= 200 MPa Using a reliability of 0.66032 ) = 10 N-m MC = โˆš(52 ) + (52 ) = 7. M=0 1 1 32๐‘ 3 ๐‘‡ 32(2.13 x 10โˆ’3 m or 5.5) 3 3 D1= [ ๐œ‹ โˆš4 [๐‘†๐‘ฆ]2 ]3 = ๐œ‹ โˆš [ 4 490 ๐‘ฅ 106 ]2 ]3 D1 = 5. 16 Calculating the bending moment for B and C: MB = โˆš(52 ) + (8.071 N-m Calculating for the actual endurance strength (Snโ€™) Snโ€™= Sn(Cs)(Cr) From the design properties of carbon and alloy steel table. so we can assume CS=1.0 Snโ€™= 200(1)(0. the Cr = 0.

5(7.87067mm D7 = D1 = 5.0643mm 1 1 32๐‘ 3 ๐‘‡ ๐พ(๐‘€) 2 32(2. Kt = 2.0133171 m or 13.071) 2 D5 = [ ๐œ‹ โˆš4 [๐‘†๐‘ฆ]2 + [ ๐‘†๐‘›โ€ฒ ] ]3 = [ ๐œ‹ โˆš [ 4 490 ๐‘ฅ 106 ]2 + [ 162 106 ] ]3 D5 = .0157836 m or 15.071) 2 D6 = [ ๐œ‹ โˆš4 [๐‘†๐‘ฆ]2 + [ ๐‘†๐‘›โ€ฒ ] ]3 = [ ๐œ‹ โˆš [ 4 490 ๐‘ฅ 106 ]2 + [ 162 106 ] ]3 D6 = .5) 3 3 2.7836 mm D4 > D5 1 1 32๐‘ 3 ๐‘‡ ๐พ(๐‘€) 2 32(2. 17 At point B to the left: 1 1 32๐‘ 3 ๐‘‡ ๐พ(๐‘€) 2 32(2.5(7.5) 3 3 1.5(10) D3= [ ๐œ‹ โˆš4 [๐‘†๐‘ฆ]2 + [ ๐‘†๐‘›โ€ฒ ] ]3 = [ ๐œ‹ โˆš [ 4 490 ๐‘ฅ 106 ]2 + [162 106 ]2 ]3 D3 = .5) 3 3 1.3171 mm At point B.5) 3 3 2.13 x 10โˆ’3 m or 5.13 mm .0140643m or 14.01187067m or 11.5(10) D2= [ ๐œ‹ โˆš4 [๐‘†๐‘ฆ]2 + [ ๐‘†๐‘›โ€ฒ ] ]3 = [ ๐œ‹ โˆš [ 4 490 ๐‘ฅ 106 ]2 + [162 106 ]2 ]3 D2 = .5 (right) 1 1 32๐‘ 3 ๐‘‡ ๐พ(๐‘€) 2 32(2.

12 For G: 2๐‘‡ 2(0.75 N-m 4 For E 2๐‘‡ 2(0.5 N ๐ท .75) FE = = = 12.75) FG = = = 12. 18 Computations for the Maltese Cross shaft T = 3 N-m Since 4 turns = 1 revolution (for Maltese cross) 3 ๐‘โˆ’๐‘š T= = 0.5 N ๐ท .12 .

25 .5 = 0 RFx = 25 N 12.12.1 m RFx FV = 0 RFx .5 N Moment diagram 0 -1. 19 Calculating the reaction for the bearing (For horizontal) FEx = 12.5 N 0.12.5 N Shear force diagram 0 -12.5 .5 N FGx = 12.1 m 0.

252 ) + (1.252 ) = 1.5 N FGy = 12.5 N Moment diagram 0 -1.1 m 0.25 Calculating the moment at point F MF =โˆš(1.5 N Shear force diagram 0 -12.5 . 20 For the vertical side: FEy = 12.12.5 = 0 RFy = 25 N 12.12.77 N-m .1 m RFy FV = 0 RFy .5 N 0.

77) D2 = [ ๐œ‹ โˆš4 [๐‘†๐‘ฆ]2 + [ ๐‘†๐‘›โ€ฒ ] ]3 = = [ ๐œ‹ โˆš [ 4 490๐‘ฅ 106 ]2 + [162๐‘ฅ 106 ]2 ]3 D3 = 8.8637 x 10โˆ’3 m D2 > D3 and D1 .78 x 10โˆ’3 m At point F (right) 1 1 32๐‘ 3 ๐‘‡ ๐พ(๐‘€) 2 32(2. 21 Calculating the diameters At point F (left) 1 1 32๐‘ 3 ๐‘‡ ๐พ(๐‘€) 2 32(2.5) 3 0.5(1.75 1.77) D1 = [ ๐œ‹ โˆš4 [๐‘†๐‘ฆ]2 + [ ๐‘†๐‘›โ€ฒ ] ]3 = = [ ๐œ‹ โˆš [ 4 490๐‘ฅ 106 ]2 + [162๐‘ฅ 106 ]2 ]3 D1 = 7.5) 3 0.5(1.75 2.

8292ฯ€ A = ( 2 )(180 .8)2 82.8192) 2 180 A = .sinฮธ) = ( )( .6 m h = .sin82.2 m ๐‘‘ . R = .12 N/m2 F = PA The area of the soil that is to be dug can be calculated using the formula for the circular segment.8192o R2 ฮธฯ€ (.81 m/s2)(. P = pgh = 1760 kg/m3(9.8 ) ฮธ = 82. 22 The calculation of the force that is needed to exert by the digger can be calculated by getting the pressure first with the given height and the clay density.2) P = 3453. The computed area will be used to calculate the force needed to exert by the digger.8 m d = .1450595 m2 F = PA .6 ฮธ = 2(cos-1 ๐‘… ) = 2(cos-1 .

81) F= = ๐‘”๐‘ 1 F = 392.4(.4 N T = F x r = 392.with a .06) .12(. 23 = 3452.908 N Computations for the front wheel shaft: Computations for the front wheel Calculating for torque: Assuming the mass of the whole object to be 40 kg ๐‘š(๐‘”๐‘œ) 40(9.1450595) F = 500.12 m diameter for the wheel .

14) .02m RI RK M@I counterclockwise = 0 392.908 (as computed earlier) FL = FH Solving for all the reactions on all support bearings in each plane: 392.4 500.4 -500.854 N FV=0 RI .908 392.908 + 642.07) + RK (.07m .02m .16) = 0 RK = 642.12 FJ = 500.4 .544) FH = = = 392.392.4 ๐ท .07m .4(.544 N-m For the shaft: 2๐‘‡ 2(23.392.02) .500. 24 T = 23.908(.854 = 0 RI = 642.4(.854 N .

014829215 m Torque for the digger = F x r = 500.908(.544 1.848 Solving for the diameters 1 1 32๐‘ 3 ๐‘‡ ๐พ(๐‘€) 2 32(2.5(7.5(7.06) .454 N 0 -250.848) D2 = [ ๐œ‹ โˆš4 [๐‘†๐‘ฆ]2 + [ ๐‘†๐‘›โ€ฒ ] ]3 = [ ๐œ‹ โˆš [ 4 490 ๐‘ฅ 106 ]2 + [ 162 ๐‘ฅ 106 ]2 ]3 D2 = 0.4 N 250.848 -7.5) 3 23.5) 3 23.68378 0 -7.848) D1= [ ๐œ‹ โˆš4 [๐‘†๐‘ฆ]2 + [ ๐‘†๐‘›โ€ฒ ] ]3 = [ ๐œ‹ โˆš [ 4 490 ๐‘ฅ 106 ]2 + [ 162 ๐‘ฅ 106 ]2 ]3 D1 = 0.0128712 m 1 1 32๐‘ 3 ๐‘‡ ๐พ(๐‘€) 2 32(2.454 N -392.544 2.4 N 9. 25 392.

5(9.68378) 2 D3 = [ ๐œ‹ โˆš4 [๐‘†๐‘ฆ]2 + [ ๐‘†๐‘›โ€ฒ ] ]3 = [ ๐œ‹ โˆš [ 4 490 ๐‘ฅ 106 ]2 + [ 162 ๐‘ฅ 106 ] ]3 D3 = .5) 3 30. 26 TJ = 30.0159251 m D4 = D3 D5 = D2 D1 = D6 Solving for the rear wheel shaft: Computations for the rear wheel Calculating for torque: Assuming the mass of the whole object to be 40 kg .05448 2.05448 N-m 1 1 32๐‘ 3 ๐‘‡ ๐พ(๐‘€) 2 32(2.

02m .4 .06) .02) + RK (.392.02m RI RK M@I counterclockwise = 0 392.4 392.14m .14) .12 m diameter for the wheel T = 23. 27 ๐‘š(๐‘”๐‘œ) 40(9.16) = 0 RK = 392.4(.544 N-m For the shaft: 2๐‘‡ 2(23.4 N T = F x r = 392.with a .4(.4 N FV=0 RI .4 -392.4 +392.4 ๐ท .544) FH = = = 392.81) F= = ๐‘”๐‘ 1 F = 392.4(.12 FL = FH Solving for all the reactions on all support bearings in each plane: 392.392.4 = 0 .

5) 3 23.848 Solving for the diameters using the equations in the "Machine Elements in Mechanical Design" by Robert L.848 -7.4 N 0 -7.5(7. 1 1 32๐‘ 3 ๐‘‡ ๐พ(๐‘€) 2 32(2.0128712 m 1 1 32๐‘ 3 ๐‘‡ ๐พ(๐‘€) 2 32(2.014829215 m .544 2.4 N 0 -392. 28 RI = 392. Mott as reference.4 N 392.5(7.848) 2 D1= [ ๐œ‹ โˆš4 [๐‘†๐‘ฆ]2 + [ ๐‘†๐‘›โ€ฒ ] ]3 = [ ๐œ‹ โˆš [ 4 490 ๐‘ฅ 106 ]2 + [ 162 ๐‘ฅ 106 ] ]3 D1 = 0.5) 3 23.848) D2 = [ ๐œ‹ โˆš4 [๐‘†๐‘ฆ]2 + [ ๐‘†๐‘›โ€ฒ ] ]3 = [ ๐œ‹ โˆš [ 4 490 ๐‘ฅ 106 ]2 + [ 162 ๐‘ฅ 106 ]2 ]3 D2 = 0.544 1.

29 D3 >D2 D4 = D2 D5 = D1 CAD MODEL OF THE DESIGN Theoretical: .

30 Actual/Proto: .

31 Geneva mechanism .

32 Shaft for the digger .

33 Dimensions for the front wheel .

sulfur. making it malleable. stresses. It also has resistance to corrosion because of the 2.05% to . Availability of materials is also an important factor that can contribute in the production of the product. ductile. FRAME Mild Steel Mild steel is a type of carbon steel that has a low amount of carbon which ranges from . It is furnished in the cold worked condition which results in a higher tensile and yield strength. and weldable. This material is acceptable in the shafts. because it provides properties that can withstand the different stress that will act on it. 34 CHAPTER III RESULTS MATERIAL SELECTION It is important to select materials that are not costly but can efficiently handle different factors like deformation. carbon.25%. manganese. 1. and corrosion. and phosphorus. which makes it a suitable . GENEVA WHEEL MECHANISM SHAFTS AND THE DIGGER Cold drawn SAE-AISI 1040 SAE-AISI 1040 is an alloy of iron.

and is available everywhere. BELT Rubber Rubber belts are made layers of fabric that has a rubber composition and have thin layers of rubber on the faces. it is cheap and can easily be acquired. Though it has low tensile strength. P541 finishing costs Shaping of 5 cylinders and the . ITEM DESCRIPTION RATE QUANTITY PRICE 1 Ball bearing WBB1-8713 P25 each 8 P200 2 Stainless steel 120mm(dia)x15mm P200/kg 8 kg P1600 Pipe and plate 3 . 6 per cut 14 P84 cutting costs Welding and 4 . . which makes it easily replaceable in case of some problems. P300 Geneva Wheel Total P2725 . These belts are very flexible. 3. COST ESTIMATION OF THE PROJECT No. . . It is also inexpensive. 35 frame for the design. .

018 0.18 0.000121391 0.10434E-05 0.135619 0.24 0.54469E-05 0.0889 0.53429E-05 0.008 0.24 0.200267107 0.02 0.10434E-05 0.311148 0.539847 0.000227608 1.015 0.18 0.716511 0.015 0.135619 0.015 0.018 0.53429E-05 0.955348 0.27814876 .353877 0.0889 0.000166601 1.015 0.000227608 1.791278 0.24672 kg .24 0.015 0. the volumes were acquired (only for the shafts) and the total mass of the design will be computed: Table of the calculation for the chassis Height Radius1 Radius2 Volume Mass 0.329383 0.24 0.494486684 0.015 0.716511 0.955348 0.955348 0.05 6.955348 0.329383 0.539847 0.000121391 0.000166601 1.200267107 0.025 2.311148 0.008 0.008 0.28319E-05 0. using the density of AISI 1020 Cold-Drawn steel (7870 ๐‘š3 ) Calculating the mass for the shaft 1 (Driver 1) Radius Height Volume Mass 0.015 0.015 0.85956E-05 0.008 0.49653E-05 0.008 4.353877 ๐‘˜๐‘” The total mass = 13.008 9.27814876 0.49653E-05 0.008 0.791278 0.015 0.05 3.008 0.008 4.015 0.000121391 0.015 0.008 6.008 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.05 3.008 6.85956E-05 0.015 0. 36 TABULATION OF DATA Based on the prototype.45 0.008 9.54469E-05 0.015 0.45 0.008 0.025 2.000121391 0.

05 3.05 4.061810835 0.06 0.53429E-05 0.100133553 0.025 1.27814876 The total mass = 2.025 7.05 3.025 0.014 0.02 1. the total mass = 6.25 0.000282743 2.000176715 1.09691939 0.316471478 0.000282743 2.05 4.932306074 kg Calculating the mass for the front wheel Radius Height Volume Mass 0.07876E-05 0.025 0.05 1.100133553 0.390743798 .06 0.335114046 0.13907438 0.071258896 kg Calculating the mass for the rear wheel R H V Mass 0.02124E-05 0.27235E-05 0.06 0. 37 With the 5kg mass in the driver.07876E-05 0.025 0.76715E-05 0.025 1.316471478 0.009 0.225190077 0.025 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.242298475 0.05 1.000169646 1.27235E-05 0.06 0.225190077 The total mass = 8.225190077 0.000282743 2.242298475 0.016 0.014 0.225190077 0.015 0.014 0.016 0.009 0.2315E-05 0.76715E-05 0.451318417 kg Calculating the mass for shaft 2 (driven shaft) Radius Height Volume Mass 0.06 0.01 0.05 3.000282743 2.02124E-05 0.13907438 0.85398E-06 0.015 0.

000282743 2.000112595 0.13 mm 6 mm Nothing D2 13.87067mm 15 mm Nothing D7 5. Data on the NSK Bearings was used for the bearings (D3 and D5).7836 mm 18 mm Nothing D4 D4 > D5 20 mm Bearing D5 14.13 mm 6 mm Using appendix 2. and D7.25 0.81 kg or 40 kg Dimensions for the shaft driver 1 Mating part Diameter Number Minimum Diameter Specified Diameter Sheave D1 5.000176715 1.06 0.016 0.025 0.0643 mm 18 mm Cam D6 11.02 1. D2. as well as D1 and D2. the specified diameters were known for D1.14 0.886120137 0. The researchers decided to make D2 and D6 the same.225190077 The total mass = 9.8637 mm 9 mm Diameters for the front wheel .3171 mm 15 mm Bearing D3 15.100651442 kg The total mass of the machine = 39. in order to minimize machine and provide a little safety factor.09691939 0. Diameters for shaft driver 2 Mating part Diameter Number Minimum Diameter Specified Diameter Cam D1 7.390743798 0.015 0. 38 0.014 0. D4.2315E-05 0.78 mm 9 mm Bearing D2 D2 > D3 and D1 10 mm Nothing D3 8. D6.

Appendix 2 was used for finding the standard sizes of the other diameters while data on NSK Bearing was used to find the standard diameters for the bearings. respectively. the force exerted in the digger is high.9251 mm 16 mm Nothing D4 12. Based on the calculations. and the bearings of the wheel will have to .8712 mm 14 mm Bearing D2 14.829215 mm 15 mm Wheel D5 12. Diameters for the rear wheel Mating part Diameter Number Minimum Diameter Specified Diameter Wheel D1 12.8712 mm 14 mm Bearing D2 14. Appendix 2 was used for finding the standard sizes of the other diameters while the Table 14-3 was used to find the standard diameters for the bearings. respectively. because they both have the same moment. 39 Mating part Diameter Number Minimum Diameter Specified Diameter Wheel D1 12.8712 mm 14 mm Bearing D5 14. PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN THE DESIGN The seed-planter design can encounter problems in the actual application.829215 mm 15 mm Nothing D3 15. because they both have the same moment.9251 mm 14 mm The diameters of the left side are equal to the right side.829215 mm 15 mm Nothing D3 D3 >D2 16 mm Bearing D4 14.829215 mm 15 mm Wheel D6 15. The process of rotating the driver in order to plant a seed can be very exhausting to the user.8712 mm 14 mm The diameters of the left side are equal to the right side.

The weight is also a factor in the design for it will provide assistance to the digger. the user cannot see if the seeds have fallen or not. 40 counter that stress. because it can only move in a straight path and it cannot turn. . The movement of the design is also the main problem. Due to the outer cover.

in order for the seeds to be efficiently distributed in the field. The problems earlier can be solved with the right materials and better improvement in the design. one seed for one hole can be achieved which can save a lot money when it comes to large-scale farms. 41 CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION DISCUSSION The seed-planter is designed to improve the rate of the planted seeds in a certain area. but some wastes a lot of seeds planted in one hole. With this. The user can see if the seeds have fallen if the cover material is transparent. The design is heavy enough to withstand the force and for the user to easily push it. less effort will be made by the user. Other designs incorporate the same idea. which can result in different replacements of some parts. CONCLUSION This design had some limitations on the seeds that it can use. and to provide fast and reliable way of planting seeds. Still. With this design. The design lets the user manually operate the fall of the seeds. Improvements on the design can be made in the driver by converting the rotational motion to linear motion. this design can be renovated and be subjected into large-scale .

The materials needed in the design are easily available and the price is suitable for the consumers. the following are recommended for the improvement and enhancement of the seed planter design. but can be lowered with other accessible materials. 3.) Materials incorporated in the design. RECCOMENDATION Based on the findings and the results of the study. Farmers will truly benefit in this design. 2. The main mechanism in the design is the Geneva Wheel mechanism. especially if it is improved. . 1. 42 farms.) Conversion of the rotational driver into a much easier driver.) Enhancement movement of the design. and it is suitable for the control of the falling seeds.

html (for the soil density) .engineeringtoolbox. 43 REFERENCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY MACHINE ELEMENTS IN MECHANICAL DESIGN Robert L. Mott NSK BEARING CATALOG http://www.com/dirt-mud-densities-d_1727.

44 APPENDICES .

45 Table for soil densities: Table for the properties of carbon and alloy steels .