CRIMINAL LAW

Criminal Law, defined.
Criminal law is that branch or division of law which
definescrimes, treats of their nature, and provides for
their punishment. (12129)
Crime, defined.
Crime is an act committed or omitted in violation of a
public lawf o r b i d d i n g o r c o m m a n d i n g
i t . ( I L a w D i c t i o n a r y , R a w l e ' s
Third Revision, 729)
Sources of Philippine Criminal Law.
1. The Revised Penal Code (Act No.
3815) and its amend-
m e nt s . 2. Special Penal Laws passed by the Philippine C
ommission,Philippine Assembly, Philippine Legislature,
National As-sembly, the Congress of the Philippines,
and the
Batasang3. Penal Presidential Decrees issued during Ma
rtial Law.
No common law crimes in the Philippines.
The so-called common law crimes, known in the United
Statesand England as the body of principles, usages
a nd r ul e s o f a c t i o n,which do not rest for their authority
upon any express and positivedeclaration of the will of the
legislature, are not recognized in thiscountry. Unless there
be a particular provision in the penal codeor special penal
law that defines and punishes the act, even if it besocially
or morally wrong, no criminal liability is incurred by its
com-mission. (See U.S. vs. Taylor, 28 Phil. 599, 604)Court
decisions are not sources of criminal law, because
theymerely explain the meaning of, and apply, the law as
enacted by thele g i s l a t i v e br anc h o f t he g o v e r nm e nt .

CRIMINALLAWINGENERALLimitations to Enact Criminal Legislation
2
Power to define and punish crimes.
The State has the authority, under its police power, to define
andp u ni s h cr im es a n d t o l a y d ow n t he r ul e s of c r im i n al
procedure. States,as a part of their police power, have a
large measure of discretion
inc r e a t i n g a n d c r i m i n a l o f f e n s e s .
( P e o p l e v s . S a n t i a g o , 4 3 P h i l . 120,
124)T h e r i g h t o f p r o s e c u t i o n a n d p u n i s h m e n t f o r a c r i m e i s
one oft he at t ribut es t hat by a nat ural l aw bel ongs t o
the sovereign powerinstinctively charged by the
com m on w i ll of t he m em bers of soci et y to look after,
guard and defend the interests of the community,
theindividual and social rights and the liberties
of every citizen and theguarant y of t he exerci se of hi s
r i g h t s . ( U . S . v s . P a b l o , 3 5 P h i l . 9 4 , 100)
Limitations on the power of the lawmaking body to enactpenal legislation.
The Bill of Rights of the 1987 Constitution imposes the
f o l l o w i n g l i m i t a t i o n s : No
post facto
law or bill of attainder shall be
enacted.( A r t . S e c . 2 2 ) 2. No person shall be
held to answer for a criminal offensew i t h o u t d u e p r
o c e s s o f l a w . ( A r t . S e c . The first limitation
prohi bi ts the passage of retroacti ve l aw swhich are
p r e j u d i c i a l t o t h e a c c u s e d . An
ex post facto
law is one which:m akes cri minal an act don e bef ore t he
passage of the lawand which was innocent when done,
and punishes such
a n act;( 2 ) a g g r a v a t e s a c r i m e , o r m a k e s i t g r e a t e r t h a n i
t was, whencommitted;changes the punishment and
inflicts a greater punishmentthan the law annexed to
the crime when
c o m m i t te d; (4) alters the legal rules of evidence, and author
izes convictionupon l e s s or d i f f e r e nt t e s ti mony t han t he
law required atthe time of the commission
of the offense;

C R I M I N A L I N G E N E R A L Constitutional Rig
hts of the Accused
3
(5) assumes to regulate civil rights and remedies only, i
n effecti mposes penal ty or de pri vati on of a ri ght
for somethingwhich when done was lawful;
a nd (6) deprives a person accused of a crime some lawful
protectionto w hi ch he has be come enti tl ed, such as
t he pr o t e c t i o n of a former conviction or acquittal, or a
proclamation ofa m n e s t y .
(In re:

To give a law retroactive application to the prejudice of theaccused is to make it an ex post facto law. A r t i c l e I V ( n o w S e c . Its essence is the substitution of alegislative act for a judicial determination of guilt. or eight years andone day to ten years. That increased penaltydoes not apply to estafa committed on October 16. (People vs. Its retroactiveapplication is prohibited by Articles 21 and 22 of the RevisedP e n a l C o d e a n d S e c t i o n 1 2 . o f the 1987 Constitution). ( P e o p l e v s . of the 1987 Constitution provides forthe following rights: . Inc.. 1985. Ferrer.4 3 1 ) Congress is also prohibited from passing an act which wouldinflict punishment without judicial trial. 97)T h e s e c o n d l i m i t a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t c r i m i n a l l a w s m us t be o f general application and must clearly define the acts and omissionspuni shed as cri mes. The penalty of mayor medium. 818.Kay Villegas Kami. Bill of Rights. A bill of attainder is a legislative act w h i c h i n f l i c t s punishment without trial. A r t . 1974 becauseit would make the decree an ex post facto law. Villaraza. 35 SCRA 429. Article III. 81 SCRA 95. for that would constitute a b i l l o f a t t a i n d e r . 2 2 . 48 SCRA 382. Constitutional rights of the accused.applies only to swindling by means of issuing bouncing checkscommitted on or after October 22. 395) Example: Congress passes a law which authorizes the arrest andimprisonment o f c o m m u n i s t s w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t o f a j u d i c i a l trial. imposed by Presidential Decree No.

C R I M I N A L I N G E N E R A L Constitutional Rights of the Accused 4 .

No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law. (Sec. be bailable by sufficient sureties. before conviction. . or a d m i n i s t r a . s h a l l . t h r e a t . f o r c e . o r a n y other means which vitiate the free will shall be used againsth i m . In all criminal prosecutions. i n t i m i d a t i o n .3.All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition oftheir cases before all judicial. 13)4.The right to bail shall not be impaired even when theprivilege of the writ of habeas corpus i s s us pe nde d. to be informedo f t he na t ur e a nd c a us e of the accusation against him. 17)Any pe r s o n unde r i nv e s t i g a t i o n f o r t he c o m m i ss i o n o f an offense shall have the right to be informed of his rightt o r e m a i n s i l e nt a n d t o ha v e c o m pe t e nt a nd i n d e p e n d e n t counsel preferably of his own choice. and shall enjoy theright to be heard by himself and counsel. quasi-judicial. No pe r s o n s h a l l b e c o m p e l l e d t o b e a w i t n e s s a g a i n s t himself. the accused shall be presumedinnocent until the contrary is proved. (Sec.5 . 16)2. hemus t be pr o v i de d w it h o ne . All persons. (Sec. after arraignment.N o t o r t u r e . Excessive bail shall not be required.If the person cannot afford the services of counsel. The s e rights cannot be waived except in writing andin the presence of counsel.to have speedy. However. and public trial. (Sec.tive bodies. (Sec. or bereleased on recognizance as may be provided by law. except those charged with of fenses punishableb y w h e n e v i d e n c e o f g u i l t i s s t r o n g . trialmay proceed notwithstanding the a bs e nc e o f t he a c c us e d provided that he has been duly notified and his failure toappear is unjustifiable. impartial. S e c r e t d e t e nt i o n pl a c e s . (Sec. and to have compulsory process tosecure the attendance of witnesses and the production ofevidence in his behalf. s o l i t a r y . to meet thewitnesses face to face.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

7. 6. degradingo r i nh um a n pu ni s hm e nt i nf l i c t e d . If an act is punished by a law anda n o r di na nc e . (SecAny confession or admission obtained in violation oft h i s o r S e c t i o n h e r e o f s h a l l b e i n a d m i s s i b l e i n e v i d e n c e a g a i ns t hi m . No person shall be twice put i n j e o pa r d y o f puni s hm ent for the same offense. 21)8. conviction or acquittal under either shallconstitute a bar to another prosecution for t he sam e act . Section 1. Excessive fines shall not be imposed. from arraignment to promulgationo f t h e x x x 4. To be presumed innocent until the co ntrary is provedbeyond reasonable do ubt . 2. t he a c c us e d s ha l l b e entitled:1. ( Se c . ( Se c . Statutory rights of the accused. To be informed of the nature and cause of the accusationa g a i n s t h i m . (Sec. F ree access t o t he court s and quasi-judicial bodies andadequate legal assistance shall not be denied to any personby reason of poverty. Rule 115. To be present and defend in person and by counsel at everystage of the proceedings.C R I M I N A L I N G E N E R A L Statutory Rights of the Accusedo r o t h e r s i m i l a r f o r m s o f d e t e n t i o n a r e prohibited. 3. (Sec. nor cruel. To testify as a witness in his own behalf but subject toc r o s s - . of the Revised Rules on Criminal Procedurep r o v i d e s t h a t i n a l l c r i m i n a l p r o s e c ut i o ns .

To be exempt from being compelled to be a witness againsthimself.e x a m i n a t i o n o n m a t t e r s c o v e r e d b y d i r e c t e x a m i . His silence shall not in any manner prej udi cehi m . To c o nf r o nt a nd c r o s s - examine the witnesses against hima t t h e x x x 5 .6 .nation.

Download With Free Trial You're reading a preview. Download With Free Trial You're reading a preview. Unlock full access with a free trial. Pages 621 to 658 are not shown in this preview. Unlock full access with a free trial. You're reading a preview. Pages 19 to 602 are not shown in this preview. Download With Free Trial Recommended Documents Documents Similar To Reyes RPC Book 1  . Unlock full access with a free trial. Unlock full access with a free trial. Pages 677 to 772 are not shown in this preview. Pages 911 to 941 are not shown in this preview. Pages 791 to 892 are not shown in this preview. Unlock full access with a free trial. Download With Free Trial You're reading a preview. Download With Free Trial You're reading a preview.

Reyes RPC Book 1  Criminal Law 1 Finals Reviewer  Criminal Law 1 Luis Reyes .

pdf  People vs. Beltran  . CrimLaw Reyes Reviewer.

Quezon City Board of Assessment Appeals. Herrera and Herrera v. 3 SCRA 186 (1961)  Legal Memo -Collection of Sum of Money  MALA PROHIBITA CASE DIGEST  .

Criminal Law Reviewer (Art. 1-113)  Political Law Reviewer 2015  SISON vs TE LAY LI .

Diaz  Benguet Electric vs Calleja . Polyfoam Digest  Statutory Construction .

 crim4  ACP v CPG  .

Criminal Law Case Digests  Trial Memorandum Guide-1  People vs Ural  .

doc . Jaurigue. Sta Maria Obligation Contracts Text and Cases  Criminal Law Reviewer  People v.

 Memorandum for the Prosecution  People vs Gonzales  Statutory Construction .

 ABS-CBN vs.R. Atty. 195956. 1 March 2015)  Campanilla 2015  . Felipe Gozon (G. No.

Criminal Law Case Digests (Aggravating Circumstances)  Criminal Law Book1  Cir vs Central Luzon Drug Corporation .

Documents About Ex Post Facto Law  Utah Marriage Case  Tennessee lawsuit challenges sex offender registry laws  2017-01-24 GOAL v Healey .

 FNMA v.3d 1259. GA Bd. (2003)  . 11th Cir. Nunez  Brown v. 335 F. of Pardons & Paroles.

209 F. Winston Eugene Mitchell. (2000) . and Pardon Services Travis Medlock. United States v. Attorney General for the State of South Carolina. 4th Cir. Brown. (1998)  James Madison Compton v.. in Their Individual and Official Capacities. 995 F. 4th Cir.3d 319. South Carolina Department of Probation. Grady A. Sr. 4th Cir.2d 1062. Commissioner. Parole. (1993)  United States v. Wallace.

 DC Appeals Court ruling on Salim Hamdan  "Talking Points" For ND Law Enforcement Against Pro-Gun Bills  Commonwealth v. Sylvain .

89  State of Colorado v. 9 and Prop. Judge's Decision Striking Down Portions of CA Prop. Pamela Boyd  .

. et al. Juvenile Male (2010)  . Marcus.S. Bank Markazi v. Judgment  United States v. 258 (2010)  United States v. 560 U. Peterson.

Ct. 302 (1955)  Bowen v. Hospital. 204 (1988) . 2072 (2013)  Marcello v.S. 349 U. United States.S. Bonds. 133 S. Peugh v. 488 U. Georgetown Univ.

Jones. 749 (1995)  Garner v. v.S. of Corrections v. Morales. 529 U.S. California Dept. 244 (2000) . 514 U.S. 514 U. 499 (1995)  Reynoldsville Casket Co. Hyde.

Bull.S. Calder v.S. 180 (1915)  . South Carolina. 237 U. 386 (1798)  Malloy v. 3 U.

(2006)  United States v. (2016)  . 10th Cir. Neel. Cannon v. 10th Cir. Mullin.3d 989. 10th Cir. 297 F. (2002)  United States v. Mendenhall.

10th Cir. Disciplinary Barracks Federal Bureau of Prisons Federal Bureau of Prisons. 153 F. Chester. U.3d 1428. (1995)  Prince S. Secretary of the Air Force U. Department of Defense United States Department of the Army United States Air Force United States Air Force.S. Oklahoma Pardon and Parole Board Farrell Hatch. Kyles v. Webber v. Director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons Attorney General of the United States of America. (2012)  Alfred Brooks v.S. 62 F.J. (1998) . 10th Cir.3d 730. 10th Cir.

pdf  . More From RonalynPuatu  Checkilist AAI Inventories  Ortega Notes 2.

pdf  2016 Pol Law Lstmin . Statutory-Construction-by-Agpalo (REVIEWER).pdf  AGPALO-CHAPTER-1-2-3-4-5-Statutory-Construction-Notes-Cases-and-Legal-Maxims- pdf.

 Civ Pro Map.docx  ARTICLES_OF_PARTNERSHIP_General_June2015.doc  .

Criminal-law-reviewer-San-Beda-Red-notes-pdf.pdf  Cruz vs Cabrera  Civ Pro Map.docx  .

1. Briefing O Merger and Consolidation  Merger & Consolidation  Revised Ortega Lecture Notes on Criminal Law 2.doc .

 ARTICLES_OF_PARTNERSHIP_General_June2015.docx  2013 CRIMINAL LAW UPDATES BOOK 1.docx .doc  1ERRATUM.

Word  Memory-Aid-LABOR.Crim Suggested Answers (1994-2006). 6.pdf  .

Gris World  Legal Writing  Criminal Law Based on 2013 SC Syllabus  .

People vs Mercadejas  CHECKLIST .RECLASSIFICATION -.pdf .docx  IFRIC 18_Transfers of Assets to Customers_ppt [Compatibility.

xls  REPUBLIC ACT NO. NFSTANDBY PAY. 7055 .Civilian Supremacy  holy see .

pdf  Pascual vs. 1992 Footer Menu ABOUT  About Scribd .  Criminal Law Book 1 Articles 11. 84240 March 25.r. No. Bautista g.

. Press  Our blog  Join our team!  Contact Us  Invite Friends  Gifts LEG AL  Terms  Privacy  Copyright SUPPORT  Help / FAQ  Accessibility  Purchase help  AdChoices  Publishers Social Media Copyright © 2017 Scribd Inc.Mobile Site.Site Directory.Site Language: English .Browse Books.