BLACKLANDPRAIRIES OF

SOUTHWESTERN ARKANSAS
THOMAS L. FOTI
Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission
Department of Arkansas Heritage
225 East Markham St.
Little Rock, AR 72201

ABSTRACT

The Blackland Prairie community type has been described in Texas; related communities exist in Alabama
and Mississippi. The Arkansas variant of the community has not been described in detail. Since the Arkansas
Natural Heritage Commission began a systematic inventory of the community in 1985, more than 36
remnants have been identified that retain substantial natural character. However, all show some degree
of disturbance. Based on aerial photo interpretation, aerial inspection, and ground study, an initial description
of the community is presented, including original distribution, soil, vegetation and relationship to similar
communities of Texas, Mississippi, and Alabama.

INTRODUCTION counties ofsouthwestern Arkansas on both the more usual Cretaceous
substrate and also on a narrow strip of land underlain by the Midway
The Blackland Prairie Community in Texas has been described as Group of Tertiary age (Haley et ah, 1976).
a belt of prairie varying in width from 70km in the north to 12km in
the south, extending in a northeast to southwest direction through the
eastern part of that state (Collins et al, 1975; Dyksterhuis, 1946; Hill,
1901; Kuchler, 1964). The term blackland refers to the deep mantle of
black soil high in organic matter which occurs over a substrate of
Cretaceous chalk or marl. Itis generally dominated by Andropogon
gerardii, A. scorparius, Sorghastrum nut am, and Tripsacum dacty hides.
Virtually all of the Texas blackland prairie has been converted to
cropland and pasture.
Cretaceous deposits similar to those of Texas occur along much of
the northern edge of the Gulf Coastal Plain from Arkansas to Georgia.
The best-known area is inMississippi and Alabama, where "black lands"
or a "Black Belt"have been delineated (Kuchler, 1964; Shantz and Zon,
1924). These blacklands are characterized and mapped by the presence
of alkaline soils; however, the vegetation of the Black Belt has been
a topic of controversy. Shantz and Zon (1924) showed the area on their
map as "tallgrass prairie". Rostlund (1957) disputed this, contending
that "a natural prairie belt" in the Mississippi/ Alabama blackland
region was a "myth". Jones and Patton (1966), in a response to
Rostland, presented evidence that within the Black Belt, grassland was
the characteristic vegetation on calcareous clay soil.
The vegetation of the Arkansas blacklands has never been comprehen-
sively described. The vegetation of the Coastal Plain of southwestern
-
Arkansas as a whole is characteristically Loblolly Pine Hardwood
Forest on the uplands and Bottomland Hardwood Forest in the
floodplains of rivers. However, southwestern Arkansas was settled very
early and has for over 150 years been subjected to extensive and in-
tensive land uses that have so modified the landscape that itis difficult .
Figure 1 Blackland soil areas (USDA Soil Conservation Service, 1982).
to find areas exhibiting a high degree of naturalness. There have also
been few ecological studies within the area. This makes understanding
the original character of the community difficult. DESCRIPTIONS OF REGIONAL VEGETATION
Because of the dearth of ecological information on southwestern
Arkansas, the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission determined it Most of the literature on the vegetation of the region is in the form
wouldincrease inventory efforts within the region. The blackland prairie of vegetation maps. The vegetation has been mapped by Kuchler (1964),
community was an early priority. who showed the area as Oak-Hickory-Pine forest in the uplands with
The purposes of this paper are to describe remnant grasslands of the Floodplain Forest in the streambottoms and a small area of upland Oak-
Arkansas blackland region and to examine the relationship of this com- Hickory Forest.
munity to similar communities in Arkansas and elsewhere. Many of the useful early scientific and historical descriptions were
done by geologists. The earliest was provided by G.W. Featherstonhaugh
(1835, 1844), who traveled the Old Military Road from Missouri to the
THE STUDY AREA Red River in 1834.
Featherstonhaugh (1844) described the physiognomy of the prairies
The Arkansas blackland region, that is, the region containing near present-day Blevins in Hempstead County:
calcareous clay soils, lies primarily within the portion of the West Gulf
Coastal Plain underlain by Cretaceous deposits (Foti, 1974). The "...a chain of prairies running westward and parallel with
blacklands are not one contiguous area, but instead consist of several Red River for a great distance, until the whole country
discrete areas that are best shown on the General Soil Map of Arkan- becomes one vast prairie, devoid of trees, except those
sas (USDA, 1982). As shown in Fig. 1, blacklands occur within seven which grow immediately upon the watercourses. Some

Proceedings Arkansas Academy off Science, Vol. 43, 1989 23

Blackland Prairies off Southwestern Arkansas of these prairies were mere bald spots ofhalf an acre and Ten of the less-disturbed prairies were selected for repeated visita- more. its dominant vegetation was qualitatively described. geography. Of the blackland prairie PNA's. were used to create an initial description of the blackland prairie community and other vegetation of the region. Using this initialdescription. Harper (1914) was taken to what was apparently a blackland prairie new Arkadelphia and said. Each was visited in April.0m wood and had a much more inky color than the rich was estimated on each of these prairies. who compiled informa. Approximately 90% of the PNA's well as the location of major prairie areas. blackland prairie remnants.. Also. the portions that contained prairies. 1989 . a few lieoutside the SCS that community type. fences. Locations of blackland prairie relicts. but rather in specific portions. origin. soils. flora. Distribution of the most important formations is shown in Survey (PLS) of the General Land Office (GLO). The criteria for evaluating naturalness of grassland areas on the photographs included absence ofcattle trails. Numerous the distribution and character of blackland prairies in the study area. Prairies have not been found on Arkadelphia Marl.. older aerial photographs." tory is shown inFig. The presettlement character of these areas been found on Brownstown Marl. The observed distribution of blackland prairie The existence of the blackland prairie community was noted by Foti remnants does not coincide with that on any previous vegetation map. and natural boundaries ifwithin forest. prairies have been located on these geologic formations: Saratoga Chalk. probably derived from the. dividual prairies. the others have been significantly altered. and was used in further studies. Maps Within the study area. species every instance surrounded witha belt of timber and plants lists compiled. or other obvious effects of grazing. blackland limits and some of the blackland areas shown on the SCS The most detailed existing study of the vegetation of the region is map contain no prairie relicts. The study area was examined from a light aircraft. 1979). 0. [the soil was]. remains of the mollusca I have named. region. while also touching on such rele- vant matters as relationship of vegetation and land-use to geology. a substrate 24 Proceedings Arkansas Academy of Science. ground and the best known and shows two prairies along the eastern edge of the aerial inspection showed that at least 36 retained substantial natural study area. this fact was noted and the area was given no further attention. Figure 2. Few have been found on other for- was examined by consulting microfilmed field notes of the Public Land mations. the remainder are posted and permission to enter whose geological map also showed several prairies. Marlbrook Marl. "The Arkansas Blackland Region" (Roberts. Ifan area was found to be highly disturbed.. relicts are not distributed an unpublished report in the files of the Arkansas Natural Heritage uniformly over the SCS blackland areas. along withthe known existing sites. have been examined.25m X 1. some as early as 1937. and the three sites known then. Anadditional 49 were rocky glades or other Sargent (1884). Commission. The outlined areas were considered poten- tial natural areas (PNA's). this por. InAugust the aerial peculiar to the country.. who showed major forest cover types of Arkansas as non-blackland and openings in forest. since entire shells in a soft state are found embedded in the soft limestone. a relatively uneven texture that would preclude the presence of improved pasture. METHODS The historical and scientific literature sources. and made up the list of areas to be in- vestigated in the field.. and two more in MillerCounty just outside the blackland values. then entered into the Natural Heritage Commission database. were consulted to evaluate past condition. although the sample was not adequate to compare in- was bottomed upon immense beds of rotten limestone. 43. either high-quality or degraded. and August.. vegetation. with data from all prairies vegetable mold usually found inlow grounds. These photos were examined in the county offices of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) and Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS). and Branner and Hill(1888). Owen (1860) and Dane (1929) provided increasingly detailed POTENTIAL NATURAL AREAS descriptions of the regional geology. aerial photography was examined to locate what were apparently the least disturbed areas within the region. in tion during 1986. tified for further examination. That report summarized the geology. 2." RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Later. Several have were identified and delineated. Ifthe area appeared littledisturbed. "Incrossing itrapidly I noticed essentially DISTRIBUTION AND GEOLOGY the same kind of soil and topography and treeless horizons and some of the same weeds and crops that characterize the geologically similar The distribution of blackland prairie remnants located by the inven- black belt or prairie region of Alabama and Mississippi. pooled. PNA's were inspected on the ground between 1985 and 1988. Vol. 295 potential natural areas (PNA's) were iden- of value were produced by Langtree (1866). black as charred cover of dominant species within six to 12 quadrates. 1). This method was chosen to rapidly obtain data on community tionof the country which had the quasi prairie character. whilst others contained several hundred acres. Fig. Of these. The distribution ofblackland prairies is most clearly understood in As field investigation provided increasingly-detailed knowledge of relation to geological substrates and topographic features. Furthermore.. (1974) who recognized the Cretaceous region as a distinct section of Most of the blackland prairie relicts lie within the blackland areas the Coastal Plain Natural Division partly because of the presence of delineated on the SCS map (Fig. and uncommon plants documented. composition.. Sargent's map is has not yet been granted. However.June. 3. 118 were determined to be tion from the land-survey plat sheets which included some prairies. Annona Chalk and the Ozan Formation. and in the offices of the Arkansas Highway and Transportation Depart- ment in Little Rock.

5 because no relicts have been located and there are major differences in site between those areas and the prairies described here. and soil hillsides. shrubs and vines along distance into the gentle slopes at the foot of a ridge. 5. 43. They occur on the steep faces of ridges known as cuestas that PHYSIOGNOMY are characteristic features of the study area. were usually replaced by forest within a short distance of the foot of Inthe GLO field notes. Some occur on Oktibbeha soils. 4). well-drained. HARDWOOD WITH . Relationship of forest and prairie to slope._ >£____ — ~ O/P^nPT— / ——_ DEPENDING ON SUBSTRATE :~-HL_5I__AM^~~~ SOIL Blackland prairie remnants occur primarily on Suniter and Demopolis PRAIRIES soil series. Marlbrook Marl. with pale olivemottled clay to 67 cm and light olive gray soft chalk to a depth of about a meter. Figure 3. Annona Chalk. and covered much of even these limited areas. Inthe GLO land survey notes. However. and distribution of relicts. and gently to moderately sloping on hilltops and Figure 4. However. there were usually trees to mark the section the slope. Prairies do not occur over the fullexposure of the appropriate for- mations. STEEP SLOPE. itis assumed that GENTLE SLOPE. trees were typically rather long (often 15-20m). just north of present-day Columbus. the base of the slope and corners. the sur- face layer is oliveclay about 10 cm thick. indicating the landscape was open. separated by fringes of trees. these prairies of soil (Fig. but extended for a acres in size. with a small area of Browns tone Marl (Kb) on which several prairies occur. is olive clay to a depth of about 45 cm. However. they watercourses. the distances to witness the adjacent valley have been plowed. Erosion has removed most of the topsoil. HARDWOOD OR PINE. Typically. topography. The twoprairies were described at the time of settlement. Nor have relicts been found on the Tertiary deposits where prairies ported no prairies have been eliminated from this map. Vol. Prairie notations often took the form "2 prairies" or "4 small prairies". Distribution of geologic formations on which blackland prairie remnants occur. 1989 25 . J>/ Sumter clay soil occurs on slopes of three to 12 percent.Foti which forms deep black soils that seem tobe the "classical" blackland the Brownstown Marl and the Ozan Formation that apparently sup- soils. ranging fromless than an acre to a few hundred originally occurred primarily on the steep slopes. those portions of erosion hazard is severe. DEEP SOIL occurred. Therefore. Hard Based on these geologic and topographic site factors a map of the rippable chalk lies below. itappears that the prairies were typically small. substrate. Thomas L. based on geology. Cuestas are asymmetrical ridges with a steep slope and a shallow slope. The soil is moderate in natural fertility and original distribution of blackland prairies is presented inFig. On these steep slopes the As noted by Featherstonhaugh (1835) and verified by examinations underlying chalk or marl outcrops are mantled with only a thin layer of the GLO field notes and field observation of relicts. Forests in organic matter. Outlined areas include Saratoga Chalk. on the eastern edge of the study area that frequently have been shown on other maps are not delineated in Fig. However. It is moderately alkaline throughout. and Ozan Formation. DEEP SOIL / / CHALK OR MARL these are inclusions of the other soils within Oktibbeha. THIN SOIL. carbonatic. Itis moderately deep. This may therefore have been a prairie of several hundred FROM MARL OR SAND. but in these areas the soil appears to be one of the other two soils. acres. In all the existing prairie relicts. It is classified as fine-silty. Proceedings Arkansas Academy of Science. Figure 5. thermic Rendollic Eutrocrepts. Original distribution ofblackland prairies. several mile notes indicated "mostly prairie" and at two corners no trees GENTLE SLOPE. so the areas were not treeless. The descrip- HARDWOOD tions of these two soils are summarized from USDA (1979). The upper part of the subsoil depth on cuestas.

26 Proceedings Arkansas Academy of Science. Itonly lists those species that occur the Texas blackland prairies. common. common in thin soil Crotonopsis elllptlca Willd. slowly permeable. Raf. stellata Wang. Typical. Thelesperma filifollum (Hook. often large UMBELLIFERAE O_. purpurea Vent. Hedvotis niqricans (Lam.) common VITACEAE Ampelopsis Parthenocissus (L. to chalk is 1. FAGACEAE II. common Aster laevis L. and Rose) Standl.) Nutt.) Michx. exotic.) Koehne arborea quinquefolia (L. eleaans (Walt. Ouercus muehlenbergil Engeln. var. Gray virainiana P. Dalea Candida Michx. Gaillardia pulch. squarrosa (L. Nomenclature follows Smith. ox Rob. abundant invader £. £. the listincludes . Erosion has removed most montmorillonitic. Greene common. VERBENACEAE HYPERICACEAE Glandularia bioinnatif ida (Nutt. Gaura demareei Raven and Gregory common pallida (Nutt. lonaiflora Spach common £. common Phlox pilosa L. pvcnostachva common RANUNCULACEAE Jj. Euphorbia bicolor Englem. Chamaecrista fasiculata (Michx. Cirsium altissimum (L. Lactuca canadensis L.) B. Koch abundant invader iudbeckia hirta L. and Standl. 1989 . abun. Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) Schnoid. rare Neotunia . that is a typical deep soil within the higher-quality grassland remnants. dominant E. occ.) Dufr. Carva mvristicaeformis (Michx.) Pall. The Houston Series is classified as very-fine.ella Foug. However.) Benth. RUBIACEAE CONVOLVULACEAE Cuscuta sp. LEGUMINOSAE DICOTS Acacia anaustissiraa (P. Rhus aromatica Ait. Erigeron philade lphicus L. strioosus Muhl. DORAGINACEAE Melilotus alba Medic. the surface layer is grayish brown silty clay loam about 10 cm thick. in disturbed areas lerchemia scandens (Hill)K. ex Britt. Table 1 Flora of 10 prairie relicts. abundant OXALIDACEAE Euoatorium altissimum L. Miller Rosa sp. JUGLANDACEAE £. thermic Typic Chromudert. The soil is moderate in natural fertilityand organic PLANT COMMUNITY matter. Mill. nearly level to gently sloping. Vol.) Moench uncommon Hill. Lobelia soicata Lam. common £.) Shinners early Spring dominant £.) Pers. well drained.) A. CAMPANULACEAE (DC. rare ULMACEAE £. common Diosovros virainiana L. -disturbance Heliotropum tenellum (Nutt. Oxalis violacea L. SilPhium integrifolium Michx uncommon Walt. A list of the florais presented inTable 1 This list is compiled from the frequently-inventoried sites. seldom dominant CAPRIFOLIACEAE LINACEAE Ait. common common Anemone berlandieri Pritzel early Spring dominant L. viridia Walt. common invader Cacalia plantacrinea (Raf. common. It is moderately alkaline throughout. Fall dominant Platanus occidentalis L. common. marginata Pursh Celtis laeviaata Willd. in contrast to the deep soils that typify .coppallina L.) Michx.) Lam. dominant ASCLEPIADACEAE Gleditsia triacanthos L. Depth ly. tubiflorus Nutt. abundant in grazed areas Raf. common Liouidambar styraciflua L. Houston soil. Itis shallow. well drained. ex Willd. dry sites Daucus carota L. Ruellia humilis Nutt. and deep gullies occur. A. OLEACEAE Brickellia eupatorioides (L. 1. dominant Onosmodium molle Michx. rubra Muhl. Xtinijinmedium (Planch. moist areas Traaia urticifolia Michx. uncommon Sabatia anqularis (L.) Ilex decidua Walt. However. Ulrous alata Michx.) RHAMNACEAE Woot. Underlying material is light brownish gray very gravelly silty clay loam with chalk fragments. disturbed areas GENTIANACEAE Ervnaium vuccifolium Michx. ONAGRACEAE Coreopsis lanceolata L. Nutt. of ficinalis (L. all areas observed have been con- Typic Udorthents.. purpurea (L. Itis deep. Toxicodendron radicans (L.utea (Leav. Michx.) common invader occasional invader Prunella vulaaris L. florida L. Itis classified as loamy-skeletal. Blackland Prairies of Southwestern Arkansas Demopolis silty clay loam (gullied soil) occurs on slopes of three to of Texas prairies. exotic. uncommon uncommon £. Below that is rippable chalk.) Fosberg common SALICACEAE CORNACEAE common Pooulus deltoides Marsh Cornus drummondii Meyer invader SAPOTACEAE £.5-2m.) Pursh VALERIANACEAE HAMAMELIDACEAE Valerianella radiata (L. f. and Gray common in grazed areas Tomanthera auriculata (Michx. H. laciniatum L.) Britt. common invader SCROPHULARIACEAE EUPHORBIACEAE Pensteraon cobaea Nutt. 1988. These soils are both shallow. common invader EBENACEAE Bumelia lanuainosa (Michx. abun. ex Willd.) Shinners Fraxinus americana L. and gently sloping to verted to other vegetation. Nutt LABIATAE . Nutt. moderately of the topsoil. shallow at the time of settlement. abundant invader MacM. common invader MENISPERMACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE Arenaria drummondii Shinners rare MORACEAE COMPOS ITAE pomlfora (Raf. common comnn Robinia pseudo-acacia L. and extends to a depth of about 25 cm. carbonatic. PLATANACEAE Grindelia lanceolata Nutt.alabra L. moderately sloping on hilltops and hillsides. thermic. common Ratibida columnifera (Nutt. Planchon Salvia lvrata L.) Spreng. occurs inArkansas and probably supported prairies 12 percent. canadensis L. POLEMONIACEAE Liatris aspera Michx. common Delphinium carolinianum Walt. 43. crassicarpus common in thin soil ANACARDIACEAE Cercis canadensis L. dominant AQUIFOLIACEAE Desmanthus illinoonsis (Michx.) Torr. native. and l'orn.) Kuntze 12.)Kuntze common ACANTHACEAE Astragalus crassicarpus Nutt. a few rills. and may have a gravelly surface texture. -disturbance Lithospermum tuberosum Rugel ex DC.) Raf. abundant in grazed areas ROSACEAE Solidago rioida L. shallow gullies. pennsvlvanica Marsh.

However. A few LITERATURE CITED small areas exist at the transition between the steep hill slopes and the gentler valley floors. pro- CYPERACEAE Carex cherokeensis Schwein. J.) Hitchc. Dalea the 10 remnants of relatively high quality. The only exceptions are probably some small prairies within AMARVLLIDACEAE Agave vlrainica L. The descriptions of physiognomy and distribution Ratibida columnaris 1. and R.. early Spring dominant history of conscientious management of this community. located on thin Dalea sp. and they occur on the same soil series as 1. The GLO Sisvrinchium sp.P. Map showing the geology on the slopes. As can be seen in this table. p. dominant deep moist soil However. Max D. Salvia azurae. Because of their geographical proximity and alkaline soils. are typical Andropogon scoparius is the overwhelming dominant on the prairies.1 of those eastern blackland prairies. Shepherd and Jerry Roberts assisted with others.. have been found that are being managed using fire or other standard Ziaadsnus nuttallii A. and relating these communities. assembling the species lists. etc. COMPARISON WITH THE TEXAS AND species that tolerate disturbances.0 geographically separated. common disturbed areas Tripsacum dactvloides (L.) Kunth uncommon slopes. Tridens flavus (L.) L. In this transition zone and inmesic pockets higher BRANNER. existed on the gentler. well drained.4 those in Arkansas. 3. in Marcy uncommon thin soil great concern is the presence oferoded spots on all the prairies. The Arkansas blackland receives as much precipitation as the Texas maximum. Vol. Panicum viraatum L. even though the areas are Sorqhastrum nutans 4. Thomas L. uncommon forest. the prairies are quite different in overall It is more dominant on these prairies than on any other prairies in character. Species such in Table 2. alpmeratus (Walt. and is based on estimated aerial cover within 113 plots on as Astragalus crassicarpus.T. Carex sp. Rosa sp. Panicum virgatum. 1860. The prairies there are small. The Texas prairies are (or were) expanses of prairie over deep Arkansas.C.0m. common erosion problems of these sites. Overgrazing obviously can aggravate erosion problems. scoparius Michx. Hutchison. Proceedings Arkansas Academy of Science. abundant invader Almost all relicts that have been located to date show evidence of MONOCOTS grazing.S. uncommon uncommon A. and gorahastrum nutans Nash(L. 0. common thin soil and woody species such as Ilexdecidua and Juniperus virginiana. give the prairie a "lowland grassland The status of these species indicate the extreme dryness of these sites. of the Geol. SPECIES PERCENT COVER There may be more similarity between the blacklands of Arkansas Andropoaon scoparius 50. well-drained situations" (Collins et aI.) Torr. Surv. The underlying chalk and marl. notes do not contain specific references to erosion. Noextensive example of this community has been found. Report for 1888 become dominant. Few native prairies have been found lacera (Raf. questions remain as to long-term impacts of past grazing. Of mteloua curtipendula (Michx. the Species dominance of the blackland prairie community is presented Arkansas and Texas blackland prairies share many species. the lack of weedy invaders on some of the formerly Hvpoxis hirsuta L.0 Miscellaneous species 11. e. grazing has been excessive and the prairie has ftndropoaon aerardii Vitman dominant moist areas probably been permanently damaged. Vol. Coville common grazed prairies. Juniperus virainiana . however. August. Sorghastrum nutans and/or Andropogon gerardii also of Southwestern Arkansas. and the presence of species that are rare statewide. working under contract with the ANHC. dominant Evidence of disturbance includes exotic species such as Melilotus sp.2 encountered in Arkansas. A. Bare Ground 21.9 >e illoensis 1.1888. retention capability of the soil. as well as those that are found only MISSISSIPPI BLACKLANDS on undisturbed sites.4 of the Black Belt prairies cited before.7 mine how similar the plant communities are. Since there are no floristic or ecological studies Hedvotis sp. 1986. Notes in the list indicate aspect dominance. These prairies are notably drier and smaller than other prairies Table 2. itis not possible at this time to deter- Rudbeckia hirta 1. describing.. on comparable sites in Texas. either at present or on older photographs. Percent cover of major species on 10 prairie relicts.) Raf. are very similar to the patterns 1. IIof the Ann. noted as early as Owen. HILL. Nevertheless. 43. Further study should be devoted to finding. . observed response to disturbance.) B. is uncommon on the blackland sites that remain. are very erosion-prone and occur on sometimes-steep Sporobolus asoer (Michx. Included are Aristida sp. 86). but the soils are thinner. Many are abandoned pastures. Neptunia lutea. virainicus L. moister slopes at the bases of the ridges. dactyloides. Even on the prairies of higher A. uncommon disturbed areas Aristidalonaispica Poir. that are mowed for hay. . statewide rarity. Cacalia plantactinea. In GRAMIHEAE many cases. Gray uncommon ORCHIDACEAE prairie management techniques. appearance even on upland.25m x 1. and less fertile. a co-dominant on most of the other fertile soil. These spots may be smaller than a square meter to hundreds of square meters. Hypoxis hirsuta. purpurea. Foti GYMNOSPERMS CONDITION AND MANAGEMENT CUPRESSACEAE j^rHpariia ylrolnlann L. 1975.) Dritt. uncommon even in the higher-quality prairies.. along with the dominant grasses. it is uncertain whether grazing has been the cause of the IRIDACEAE Nemastvlis aeminiflora Nutt. The relatively high rainfall (75-115 cm/yr) and the high water- prairies inArkansas..9 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Miscellaneous species are those having a cover value less than 1 percent. and WilliamM. 1989 27 . A. 1.. Ark.g.2 and those of Mississippi and Alabama.6 soils over chalk on cuestas. in Arkansas and certainly do not have a lowland grassland appearance.) common hence the sites. Data obtained from visual estimates of areal cover within 113 Itis probable that communities similar to those described here occur plots. abun- dance. no prairies Smilax bona-nox L. of both areas.. dominated by Tripsacum photointerpretation . Spring dominant vide evidence that grazing does not necessarily destroy the prairie. saccharoides Swartz common disturbed areas quality. There is no past LILIACEAE Nothoscordum bivalve (L. assisted with A substantially different community.

The Arkansas Blackland Region. Geogr. Ark. Ark. 97pp.H. 1914. Spec.. HILL.V.. The myth of a natural prairie belt in Alabama: States. Pp. F. U. Pt. 666 pp. Publ. Geography and geology of the Black and Grand Prairies. G. an interpretation of historical records.S. Ark. Natural vegetation [Map]. Excursion through the Slave ROSTLUND. E.G.G. 5. Geol. 1974. Geological report of an ex. E. Government pp. Texas. E. 1901. C. Surv. New York. and E. Geol. 11-34. IV. The forests of North America. Comm. G.Univ.W. In Arkansas Natural Area Plan. "prairie".B. The vegetation of Arkansas (text and map). 1964. ZACHRY. Grand Forks. B. 17(2):36-48. U. 21st Ann.F. 489 pp. Monogr. A.. SMITH. 1835. Vol. USDA SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE. 36. E. Surv. Natural divisions of Arkansas. O. Harper and Bros. 47(l):75-80. 1924.W.L. 16:1-29. 43. DANE. USDA SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE. Potential natural vegetationn of the conter- Nat.G.E. 1946. SHANTZ.M. HARPER. Annals Assoc. amination made in 1834 of the elevated country between the Missouri and Red Rivers. J. B. DALE.S. Geologic map of Arkansas. Pp.B. Bull. manuscript. WOODWARD. Washington. Soc. General soil map of Arkansas. Pub. T.H. in 1832. In in the Black Belt of Sumter County. 2nd session ROBERTS.E. R. The Plant World. D. CLARDY. Upper Cretaceous formations of southwestern LANGTREE. Geog. Second report of a geological reconnoissance Prairie. M. Little Rock. C. Forest. Rept.C. C. and D.D. E. (sic) of the Middle and Southern Counties of Arkansas made during the years 1859 and 1860. RISKIND. W. C. 1957. FOTI. 23rd Cong. PATTON. 1979.R. Langtree's new sectional map of the State of Arkansas.. McCowan. Plant JONES. 11-34. 1976. 47:392-411. Ecology Prairie: A Multiple View. 4(5):6-27. Arkansas. 156 pp. 215 pp. Unpublished Vol.S. 1975.. An atlas and annotated list of the vascular plants of Arkansas.T. 1884. and R. 71 pp. Little Rock. SMEINS and D. Ecol. The vegetation of the Fort Worth OWEN. ZON. in Atlas STONE. and soils communities of the Blackland Prairie of Texas. D. Washington. 1866. Arkansas. Arkansas Department of Planning.J. Printing Office. GLICK. 1929.L. FEATHERSTONHAUGH. 7. Soil survey of Hempstead County. 75-87. Johnson and Yerkes. 1844. LittleRock.E.W. LittleRock. 1988.Natural Heritage Commission.L. HALEY. Amer. 1979. LittleRock.S. Privately Published. Amer. R.. H. KUCHLER. 1982. Phytogeographical notes on the Coastal Plain of Arkansas. DYKSTERHUIS. SARGENT. 1.S. minous United States. Ex-Doc. Geol. p. by G. 1989 .L. A. 152. 28 Proceedings Arkansas Academy of Science. FEATHERSTONHAUGH. 1986. of American Agriculture. Alabama. Blackland Prairies of Southwestern Arkansas COLLINS. Ark. State Printers. 1966.O. 1860. BUSH.North Dakota Press.