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Baran Karakus

July 3, 2017

**1. a) Fix > 0. Let N1 be such that n ≥ N1 ⇒ |vn − v| ≤ /2 and let N2 be such
**

that n ≥ N2 ⇒ |wn − w| ≤ /2. Then n ≥ max(N1 , N2 ) ⇒ |(vn + wn ) − (v + w)| ≤

|vn − v| + |vn − w| ≤ by the Triangle Inequality. Since was chosen arbitrarily, we deduce

(vn + wn ) → v + w.

**b) If λ = 0 then λvn = 0 for all n and the result is trivial. So suppose λ is not 0. Fix
**

> 0. Let N be such that n ≥ N ⇒ |vn − v| ≤ /|λ|. Then n ≥ N ⇒ |λvn − λv| ≤ . Since

was chosen arbitrarily, we deduce (λvn ) → λv.

**c) Fix > 0. Let N be such that n ≥ N ⇒ |vn − v| ≤ . Pick M such that
**

k ≥ M ⇒ nk ≥ N . Then k ≥ M ⇒ |vnk − v| ≤ . So (vnk ) → v.

**d) Suppose v and w are not equal. Then |v − w| is positive. Let = |v − w|/3. Then
**

there exist N1 and N2 such that n ≥ N1 ⇒ |vn − v| ≤ and n ≥ N2 ⇒ |vn − w| ≤ . But

then, by the Triangle Inequality, for n ≥ max(N1 , N2 ) we have |v−w| ≤ |vn −w|+|vn −v| =

2 = 2|v − w|/3; contradiction. So v = w.

**Suppose f, g : V → W are continuous, where V and W are normed vector spaces over
**

R. Take x ∈ V , let (xn ) be any sequence in V converging to x. Then f (xn ) → f (x) and

similarly g(xn ) → g(x). From (b), λg(xn ) → λg(x). From (a), (f + λg)(xn ) → (f + λg)(x).

So f + λg is continuous.

2. Since |v · λw| = |λ||v · w| ∀λ ∈ R, we have ||λv||X = |λ| ||v||X ∀λ ∈ R.

We have ||v||X = 0 ⇐⇒ maxw∈X |v · w| = 0. Suppose v 6= 0. In general, for x, y ∈ Rn ,

x · y = 0 ⇐⇒ x or y = 0 or x and y are perpendicular. If X spans Rn , the vectors

in X cannot all be zero or perpendicular to v (otherwise, we have a linear combination

λ1 x1 + ... + λn xn = v, where all the xi are in X, and then, taking the dot product with v

on both sides, the RHS is non-zero and the LHS is zero; contradiction). Thus we have a

vector x in X such that |x · v| > 0. So ||v||X 6= 0 if v 6= 0. So ||v||X = 0 ⇐⇒ v = 0.

1

Now we prove the Triangle Inequality. Take x, y ∈ Rn . We wish to prove ||x||X +||y||X ≥

||x+y||X . We have, by the Triangle Inequality for real numbers, |x·w|+|y·w| ≥ |(x+y)·w)|.

It is then obvious that ||x||X + ||y||X = maxw∈X |x · w| + maxw∈X |y · w| ≥ maxw∈X (|x ·

w| + |y · w|) ≥ maxw∈X |(x + y) · w| = ||x + y||X .

So, || · ||X is indeed a norm on Rn .

**3. a) This set is closed. Take arbitrary (a, b) in the complement of this set. If b 6= 0
**

then let = |b|. If b = 0, let = |a| if a < 0, let = a − 1 if a > 1. Then the open ball

B (a, b) is contained in the complement. So the complement is open. So the set is closed.

**b) This set is neither open nor closed. Take (1/2, 0) in the set. In any open ball
**

B (1/2, 0), there exists points (e.g. (1/2, /2)) not in the set. So the set is not open. It is

also not closed because the sequence ((1/n, 0)) has limit (0, 0) not in the set.

**c) This set is open. Take arbitrary (a, b) in the set. Let = |b|. Then every point in
**

the open ball B (a, b) has non-zero y co-ordinate, so the open ball is contained in the set.

Thus the set is open.

**d) This set is neither open nor closed. Take (0, 0) in this set. For any > 0 there exists
**

an irrational t with |t| < . Hence there is always a point not in the set, namely (t, t), in

an open ball around (0, 0). Thus the set is not open. Let s be an arbitrary irrational. We

can construct an increasing sequence of rationals with limit s inductively: take a1 to be

any rational less than s, take a2 to be a rational between (s + a1 )/2 and s, take a3 to be

a rational between (s + a2 )/2 and s, and so on. Then ((an , an )) is a sequence in the set

converging to (s, s), which is not in the set. So the set is not closed.

**e) This set is closed. Let A = {(x, y) ∈ R2 : y 6= nx for any n ∈ N} be the complement.
**

Now let (a, b) ∈ A.

1

Consider the curve y = mx. Define D : R → R by D(x) = ((a−x)2 +(b−mx)2 ) 2 . D(x)

is the distance between (a, b) and the point on the curve with x as its x co-ordinate. We

a+mb

compute the derivative of (D(x))2 w.r.t. x and set it to zero, which yields x = ϕ = 1+m 2.

|am−b|

This is a minimum point of D. We have D(ϕ) = 1 . This is the shortest distance

(1+m2 ) 2

between the curve and the point (a, b).

|an−b|

Now define F : N → R by F (n) = 1 . F (n) is the shortest distance between the

(1+n2 ) 2

curve y = nx and the point (a, b). Let n1 be the least natural number such that b > an1 ,

if such a natural number exists. Then b > a(n1 + 1). So

If a < 0 and b > 0, or a > 0 and b < 0, i.e. (a, b) is in the upper left quartile or

the lower right quartile, let = min(|a|, |b|). Then every point in the open ball B (a, b)

is in the upper left quartile or the lower right quartile. So no such point has y = nx for

2

some n ∈ N, since the x and y co-ordinates have opposite sign. Hence the open balls are

contained in A.

Let n be the least natural number such that b > an, supposing it exists. Then a(n+1) >

b.

**4. Let A = {f ∈ C[0, 1] : f (1/2) = 0}. Then AC = {f ∈ C[0, 1] : f (1/2) 6= 0}. Take
**

f ∈ AC . Let = |f (1/2)|/2. Consider the open ball B (f ) = {g ∈ C[0, 1] : ||g − f ||∞ < }.

For every g in this open ball and every x ∈ [0, 1], we have |f (x) − g(x)| < . Thus

|g(1/2) − f (1/2)| < |f (1/2)|/2 so g(1/2) 6= 0, so g ∈ AC . Hence this open ball is contained

in AC . Since f was arbitrary, AC is open. So A is closed.

**However, A is not closed under the norm ||·||1 . Take f in AC defined by f (x) = 1 for all
**

x. Take > 0. Define h ∈ C[0, 1] such that on [ 21 − 4 , 12 ], h is the line joining ( 12 − 4 , 0) and

( 21 , −1), and on [ 12 , 12 + 4 ], h is the line joining ( 12 , −1) and ( 12 + 4 , 0). Let h be 0 everywhere

else. Then define g by g(x) = h(x) + f (x). We have ||f − g||1 = ||h||1 ≤ /2, so g ∈ B (f ).

But g is not in AC since g(1/2) = 0. Since was arbitrary, no open ball centred around f

is contained in AC . So AC is not open. So A is not closed.

R1

Now let B = {f ∈ C[0, 1] : 0 f (x)dx}. We prove that B C is open under the ||·||∞ norm.

R1

Take f ∈ B C . Then let = | 0 f (x)dx| = 6 0. Now, for all g in the open ball B (f ), we have,

R1 R1 R1

for all x, f (x) − < g(x) < f (x) + , so 0 f (x)dx − < 0 g(x)dx < 0 f (x)dx + . Hence

R1 C C

0 g(x)dx 6= 0. So g ∈ B . So B (f ) is contained in B . Since f was chosen arbitrarily,

B C is open. So B is closed.

**B is also closed under the || · ||1 norm. Take a sequence (fn ) in C[0, 1] converging
**

toR some f ∈ C[0, R 1 1] under the || · ||1 norm, where each of the fn are in B. We have

1 R1

| 0 f (x)dx| = | 0 (f (x) − fn (x))dx| ≤ 0 |f (x) − fn (x)|dx for all n. Given any there

R1 R1

exists some N such that n ≥ N ⇒ | 0 f (x)dx| ≤ 0 |f (x) − fn (x)|dx. Hence any > 0 is

R1 R1 R1

greater than | 0 f (x)dx|, so 0 f (x)dx = | 0 f (x)dx| = 0. Thus f ∈ B. So any sequence

(fn ) in B that is convergent in C[0, 1] has its limit in B. So B is closed.

**5 Define the norm || · ||1 by ||(xn )||1 = ∞
**

P

k=1 |xk |. Define the norm || · ||∞ by ||(xn )||∞ =

maxk∈N |xk |. It is very easy to check that these are both indeed norms. Now let b > 0. Let

(xn ) be such that exactly b + 1 elements are 1, the rest are zero. Then ||(xn )||1 = b + 1 >

b||(xn )||∞ = b. So for all b > 0 we can find a sequence in l0 such that ||(xn )||1 ≥ b||(xn )||∞ .

So these two norms are not Lipshitz equivalent. P

For all nonempty X ∈ P(N), define a norm || · ||X on l0 by ||(xn )||X = k∈X |xk |. It

is straightforward to check that these are norms. We will show no two of these norms are

3

Lipshitz equivalent, and thus that we have uncountably many norms, none of which are

Lipshitz equivalent.

Take any non-empty, distinct X, Y that are subsets of N. Now let i be an element in

one of X, Y and not the other, wlog i ∈ X. Let b > 0. Define a sequence (xn ) by xi = 1,

xk = 0 for all other k. Then ||(xn )||X = 1 > b||(xn )||Y = 0. So for all b > 0 we can find a

sequence (xn ) such that ||(xn )||X > b||(xn )||Y . So the two norms are not equivalent. Hence

no two of the norms are equivalent.

**6. Suppose S(L) is bounded. Let C be an upper bound. Fix > 0, and take v, w ∈ V ,
**

v 6= w. We have ||A(v−w)||

||v−w|| ≤ C. Then ||v − w|| < C ⇒ ||Av − Aw|| = ||A(v − w)|| ≤

C||v − w|| < . Hence L is continuous.

**Now suppose L is continuous. Then it is continuous at 0. So there exists a δ > 0 such
**

that ||v|| < δ ⇒ ||Lv|| < 1. Now let λ < δ. Then for any v with ||v|| = 1, ||λv|| < δ, so

1

||L(λv)|| < 1. Hence ||Lv|| < |λ| for all v with ||v|| = 1. Now, given any w ∈ V , let ν be

||Lw|| ||L(νw)|| 1 1

such that ||νw|| = 1. Then ||w|| = ||νw|| = ||L(νw)|| < |λ| . So S(L) is bounded by |λ| .

**We prove that supS(L) = sup{||Lx|| : ||x|| = 1}. Let α = sup{||Lx|| : ||x|| = 1}.
**

Given, v, let λ be such that |λ| ||v|| = 1. Then ||Lv|| ||L(λv)||

||v|| = ||λv|| = ||L(λv)|| ≤ α. Now

||Lv||

let ν < α. There exists v with ||v|| = 1 such that α ≥ ||v|| > ν. Then ||v|| > ν. Hence

α = supS(L). We utilise this result in b) and c).

a) ||L|| = supS(L) = 0 ⇐⇒ ||Lv|| = 0 (∀v ∈ V /{0} ⇐⇒ L is the zero map.

**||λL|| = supS(λL) = sup{ ||λLv|| ||Lv||
**

||v|| : v ∈ V /{0}} = |λ|sup{ ||v|| : v ∈ V /{0}} = |λ|||L||

∀λ ∈ R.

||L+K|| = sup{ ||(L+K)v||

||v|| : v ∈ V /{0}} ≤ sup{ ||Lv|| ||Kv|| ||Lv||

||v|| + ||v|| : v ∈ V /{0}} ≤ sup{ ||v|| :

v ∈ V /{0}} + sup{ ||Kv||

||v|| : v ∈ V /{0}} = supS(L) + supS(K) = ||L|| + ||K||.

Thus || · || is a norm on B(V, W ).

**b) Take any unit vector v in V1 such that ||L1 (v)|| = 6 0 (if there is no such unit
**

vector, then L1 is the zero map and the inequality is trivially true as the LHS becomes

0). Let λ be such that ||L1 (λv)|| = 1. Then ||(L2 ◦ L1 )(λv)|| = ||L2 (L1 (λv))|| = |λ|

1

||L2 (L1 (v))|| ≤ ||L2 ||, so ||(L2 ◦ L1 )(v)|| ≤ ||L2 || |λ| = ||L2 || ||L1 v|| ≤ ||L2 || ||L1 ||.

4

c) Let A = (A1 , ..., An ) where Ai is the ith column of A. p As proven above, ||L|| =

sup{||Lx|| : |x| = 1}. Let x = (x1 , ..., xn ) where 1 = x21 + ... + x2n , i.e. x is a

unit vector. We have ||Lx|| = ||x1 A1 + ... + xn An || ≤ |x1 | ||A1 || + ... + |xn | ||An || ≤

max(||A1 ||, ..., ||An ||). Let i be such that ||Ai || = max(||A1 ||, ..., ||An ||). Then let xk = 1

for k = i, xk = 0 otherwise. Then ||Ax|| = ||Ai || = max(||A1 ||, ..., ||An ||). So ||L|| =

max(||A1 ||, ..., ||An ||).

**7. a) Does not converge uniformly.
**

The sequence converges pointwise to f defined by f (x) = 0 for all x ∈ X. So if

it converged uniformly, it would converge to f . Take N ∈ N. Now pick x such that

1

log

N ≤ log x2 . Such an x exists since log 1 = 0 and log is continuous and strictly increasing on

(0, 1), so the RHS can be made arbitrarily large by making x small. Then we have xN ≥ 21 .

Since N was arbitrary, for every N ∈ N we deduce that we can find an x ∈ X such that

|fN (x) − f (x)| = |fN (x)| = fN (x) ≥ 12 . So (fn ) does not converge uniformly on (0, 1).

b) Converges uniformly.

The sequence converges pointwise to the same f as before. Take > 0. Now let N be

log

such that N ≥ log n N ≤ 1 N ≤ ∀x ∈ X. Since

1 . Then n ≥ N ⇒ |fn (x) − f (x)| = x ≤ x 2

2

was chosen arbitrarily, we deduce that (fn ) converges uniformly on (0, 21 ).

c) Converges uniformly.

We have (fn ) → f pointwise where f (x) = 0 ∀x ∈ [0, ∞). Fix > 0. Let N ∈ N be such

that log (1/N ) − 1 < log ; such an N exists since log is not bounded below and strictly

increasing on (0, ∞) and 1/N can be made arbitrarily small. We have, for all n ≥ N ,

log (1/n) − 1 ≤ log (1/N ) − 1 < log .

We have, for x ∈ (0, ∞), xe−nx < ⇐⇒ log x − nx < log . Consider the function g

on (0, ∞) defined by g(x) = log x − nx. We have g 0 (x) = 1/x − n = 0 ⇐⇒ x = 1/n. We

also have g 00 (1/n) = −n2 < 0, so g has maximum value g(1/n) = log (1/n) − 1 on (0, ∞).

Hence, n ≥ N ⇒ log x − nx ≤ log (1/n) − 1 < log for all x ∈ (0, ∞) ⇒ 0 ≤ xe−nx < for

all x ∈ [0, ∞).

d) Converges uniformly.

We again have (fn ) → f pointwise where f is zero everywhere. Fix > 0. We try to

2

find an N such that n ≥ N implies that |e−x sin( nx )| < for all real x. We note that the

2

LHS is a product of two things, |e−x | and | sin( nx )|, both of which are always less than or

equal to 1.

2 2

Let x0 > 0 be such that e−x0 < ; such an x0 exists since e−x is strictly decreasing on

2 2

[0, ∞) with limit 0 as x → ∞. For all real x with |x| ≥ x0 , e−x < , and so |e−x sin( nx )| < .

2

Now we try to make N such that |e−x sin( nx )| is also less than on [−x0 , x0 ].

5

x0

Let N be such that N > sin−1 ()

. Then for all x ∈ [−x0 , x0 ], n ≥ N ⇒ x

n ∈ [− xN0 , xN0 ] ⊂

2

[− sin−1 (), sin−1 ()], so and hence |e−x sin( nx )| < .

x

| sin( n )| <

Thus we have found an N such that n ≥ N ⇒ |fn (x)| < for all real x.

p

8. a) We have fn (0) → 0. Take x ∈ (0, 1]. fn (x) → 0 ⇐⇒ ennq x → 0 ⇐⇒

p log n − nq x → −∞ (by continuity of the log and exp functions).

nq qnq−1 qnq

We have, by L’Hopital’s Rule, p log n → p 1 → p → ∞. Thus for every k > 0 there

n

exists N such that n ≥ N implies that nq > kp log n, so that nq x − p log n > (kx − 1)p log n.

Let k = x2 . We know that log n → ∞, so p log n → ∞, so nq x − p log n → ∞. Hence

p log n − nq x → −∞, which implies that fn (x) → 0.

**Thus (fn ) converges pointwise to f defined on [0, 1] by f (x) = 0 for all x. So if it
**

converges uniformly, it must do so to f .

b) and c)

q q

We have fn0 (x) = np e−n x − np+q xe−n x = 0 ⇐⇒ x = n1q . We have fn00 (x) =

q q

−2np+q e−n x + np+2q xe−n x , so fn00 ( n1q ) = −2np+q e−1 < 0. For large enough n, n1q ∈ (0, 1).

p

We have fn (0) = 0, fn (1) = ennq , and fn ( n1q ) = np−q e−1 . A continuous function on a

closed bounded interval has its maximum value on the interval at stationary points or at

endpoints of the interval. For n large enough that n1q ∈ (0, 1), the maximum of fn on [0, 1]

p

is either fn (1) = ennq or fn ( n1q ) = np−q e−1 . (fn ) converges uniformly to f if and only if

p

both of these tend to 0 as n → ∞. We already know that ennq → 0, from a). It is obvious

that np−q e−1 → 0 ⇐⇒ p < q.

So we have uniform convergence iff p < q.

nk

9. Claim: (1+δ) → 0 as n → ∞ for all k ∈ N, for all δ > 0.

n n!

Proof: By the Binomial Theorem, for n ≥ 2k, (1 + δ)n ≥

k+1 = (n−k−1)!(k+1)! =

n·(n−1)·...·(n−k) (n )k+1 nk (nk )(2k+1 )(k+1)! 2k+1 (k+1)! nk

(k+1)! ≥ 2

(k+1)! , so (1+δ) ≤ nk+1

= n → 0, so (1+δ) → 0.

**a) For all real α. We have nα xn (1 − x) → 0 for x = 1 or 0, for all α. So we need
**

only prove it for x ∈ (0, 1). Proving that nα xn (1 − x) → 0 for x ∈ (0, 1) suffices, since

(1 − x) is simply a constant for fixed x. Let k be a positive integer greater than α. We

have 0 ≤ nα ≤ nk for all n. Now let δ = x1 − 1 > 0. We have 1+δ 1

= x. By the Claim,

nk

nα xn ≤ nk xn = (1+δ)n → 0. So nα xn → 0. Thus fn (x) → 0 for all real α.

b) For α < 1. We require that ∀ > 0 ∃N n ≥ N ⇒ fn (x) = nα xn (1−x) < ∀x ∈ [0, 1].

6

Continuous functions on closed bounded intervals have their maximum point(s) at

either a stationary point or at endpoints of the interval. We have fn0 (x) = nα+1 xn−1 −

(nα+1 + nα )xn = 0 ⇐⇒ x = 0 or x = n+1 n

. We have fn ( n+1 n

) = nα (1 + n1 )−n n+1

1

, and

α 1 −n 1

fn (0) = fn (1) = 0, so the maximum of fn on [0, 1] is n (1 + n ) n+1 = n α−1 −n

(1 + n ) 1+1 1 .

1

n

If we are to have uniform convergence, for all > 0 there must exist an N such

that n ≥ N ⇒ nα (1 + n1 )−n n+1

1

< ; we require nα−1 (1 + n1 )−n 1+1 1 → 0. We know

n

1 −n

that (1 + n) → e ∈ (2, 3). So there exists N such that n ≥ N ⇒ 2nα−1 1+1 1 ≤

n

1 −n 1

nα−1 (1 + n) 1

1+ n

≤ 3nα−1 1+1 1 . For α = 1, the LHS → 2, for α > 1 the LHS → ∞, for

n

α < 1 the RHS → 0. Hence nα−1 (1 + n1 )−n 1+1 1 → 0 ⇐⇒ α < 1.

n

R1 R1 R1

c) For α < 2. We have ||fn ||1 = 0 nα xn (1 − x)dx = nα ( 0 xn dx − 0 xn+1 dx) =

nα nα−2

(n+1)(n+2) = (1+ 1 )(1+ 2 ) → 1 if α = 2, ∞ if α > 2, 0 if α < 2.

n n

**d) For α < 0. We have fn0 (x) = nα xn−1 (n − (n + 1)x). We require fn0 (x) → 0 for all
**

x ∈ [0, 1].

Continuous functions on closed bounded intervals have their maximum point(s) at either

a stationary point or at endpoints of the interval. The functions fn0 are continuous. We

have fn00 (x) = xn−2 (nα+2 − nα+1 ) − xn−1 (nα+2 + nα+1 ) = 0 ⇐⇒ x = 0 or x = n+1

n−1

.

0 0 α 0 n−1 α n−1 n−1

We have fn (0) = 0, fn (1) = −n , fn ( n+1 ) = n ( n+1 ) < n . The maximum of fn0 on

α

**[0, 1] is thus fn (1). We have fn (1) = n → 0 ⇐⇒ α < 0. So we have (fn0 ) → 0 pointwise
**

0 0 α

⇐⇒ α < 0.

e) For α < 0.

We cannot have uniform convergence to 0 for α > 0 as we do not even have pointwise

convergence for α > 0, and uniform convergence implies pointwise convergence.

log

Now take α < 0. Take any > 0. Now let N > e α . Then N α < . For all n ≥ N ,

nα ≤ N α < . Since nα is the maximum of fn0 (1) on [0, 1], as proven in (d), n ≥ N ⇒

0 ≤ fn0 (x) < for all x ∈ [0, 1]. So we have uniform convergence.

P

12. Let x ∈ (−1, 1). Since an converges, the an are bounded, i.e. there exists some

C > 0 such that C ≥ |an | for all n ≥ 0. Then |an xn | ≤ Cxn . Cxn converges because

P

it

an xn

P

is a geometric series with common ratio in (−1, 1). So, by the Comparison Test,

converges absolutely, so converges.

Now define f on (−1, 1] by f (x) = ∞ n

P

P∞an x . This is an well-defined function since

n=0

f (x)

P is finiten forPall x. We havePf (x) = (sn − sn−1 )x (where

n=0P Pwe take s−1 = 0)

= ∞ n=0 sn x − ∞

n=0 s n−1 x n = ∞

n=0 s n x n−x ∞

n=0 sn x n = (1 − x) ∞ n

n=0 sn x .

7

13. Since the function is periodic with period 2, we may as well prove the given

inequality for s, t ∈ [−1, 3], with at least one of s, t, wlog s, in [−1, 1], since both of

them being in [1, 3] is the same as both being in [−1, 1]. Suppose s, t ∈ [−1, 1]. Then

|ϕ(s) − ϕ(t)| = ||s| − |t|| ≤ |s − t| follows from the Triangle Inequality. Now suppose

t ∈ [1, 3].

We first prove the inequality for s, t ∈ [−1, 1]. |ϕ(s) − ϕ(t)| = ||s| − |t|| ≤ |s − t| follows

from the Triangle Inequality. Now suppose t ∈ [2n + 1, 2n + 3] for some n ∈ N. There

exists some u ∈ [−1, 1] such that ϕ(u) = ϕ(t) and u − t = 2k for some k ∈ Z. We thus

have |ϕ(s) − ϕ(t)| = |ϕ(s) − ϕ(u)| ≤ |s − u| = |s − t − 2k| ≤ |s − t| + |2k| by the Triangle

Inequality, so |ϕ(s) − ϕ(t)| ≤ |s − t|.

**14. a) Suppose there is some > 0 such that there is no finite collection of open balls
**

of radius that cover C. We shall construct recursively a sequence in C with no convergent

subsequence. Take v1 ∈ C. Take v2 ∈ C \ B (v1 ). Now take v3 ∈ C \ (B (v1 ) ∪ B (v2 )),

and so on. We are always able to pick the next element of the sequence because at no point

will C \ (B (v1 ) ∪ ... ∪ B (vk )) be empty. Thus (vn ) is a sequence where every element is

at least a distance from the other elements. So it has no convergent subsequence. So C

is not sequentially compact; contradiction.

Thus, for every > 0 there is a finite set of points {v1 , ..., vn } such that {B (v1 ), ..., B (vn )}

cover C.

b)

8

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