**All the matter is made up of tiny particles; these

may be atoms, molecules or ions.

**States Of Matter:

Solid Liquid Gas
Definite Shape Take the shape Take the shape
of the container of the container
Definite volume Definite Volume No definite
volume
Incompressible Incompressible Compressible
Particles are Particles aren’t Particles are very
tightly packed to tightly packed far from each
each other other
Intermolecular Intermolecular Intermolecular
forces are strong forces are forces are very
moderate weak
Intermolecular Intermolecular Intermolecular
spaces are very spaces are spaces are very
small moderate large
e.g. Wax, Marble Blood, Water, Methane, Neon
Wood Mercury

even at low temperatures. They stay close together. When a liquid cools. When a gas is cooled. The high energy particles escape from the liquid. and a liquid forms. . When they bump in to each other. **Changes of states of Matter** Condensation and solidification: condensation is when a gas turns back into a liquid. the particles lose energy. the particles slow down even more. they do not have enough energy to bounce away again. Evaporation and boiling: evaporation constantly occurs on the surface of liquids. They move more and more slowly. Eventually they stop moving except for vibrations and solid forms.

During a change of state the temperature of the mixture does not change.Boiling occurs at the boiling point and then the liquid evaporates everywhere in the liquid (not just on the surface) and is much faster. .

*Kinetic theory states that matter is made of tiny particles that move all the time.g. which are themselves in continuous and random motion. moving particles. 1• All matter is made of tiny. The higher the temperature the faster they move. mixing of bromine vapour and air. DIFFUSION: this is the mixing of atoms or molecules due to their continuous and random motion. *The main points of the theory are. liquids and gases can be explained by kinetic theory. E. **Kinetic Theory** *The properties of solids. BROWNIAN MOTION: the constant random movement of tiny particles (e. 2• The particles move all the time. smoke particles. invisible. or pollen on a drop of water) is caused by collision with (invisible) air or water molecules. . 3• Heavier particles move more slowly than light ones at a given temperature.g.

. Ammonia and hydrochloric acid particles under Brownian motion as they hit air particles in the tube. When they meet white smoke (ammonium chloride) forms.g. As the ammonia travels farthest along the tube we know that.E. Experiments using gases diffusing in a tube are used to examine the motion of the particles. • The ammonia particles are lighter than the hydrochloric acid particles. • The ammonia particles move faster than hydrochloric acid particles.