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A

PROJECT REPORT
ON

“Study of Promotional Activities at Choithram LLC With


special emphasis on role of promotion in building strong store
image and customer flow”

For

T. Choithtram & Sons L.L.C. U.A.E. (Dubai)

Submitted in the Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement


Of Course
Master in Business Administration
(SESSION 2006-2008)

Submitted by
KRISHNA. R. PAWAR
(Guide)

Prof. Mr. Yuvraj Lahoti & Prof. Mr. Doke


Vishwakarma Institute of Management
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to extend my gratitude to all those who have helped me in


the completion of this project. First and foremost I want to thank my
project guide Mr. Yuvraj Lahoti and Doke sir for their generosity,
faith and superb guidance. I am also thankful to Mr. Yash Gandhi,
Rahul sonawne for their co-operation.
I take immense pleasure in thanking Mr. Ashok for always being
so friendly and co-operative in all the work assigned to us. I wish to
thank all the staff of T. Choithram and Sons. L.L.C., especially
section boys for helping us in long hours of work.
I also extend my gratitude to all the accounts members, especially
to Mr. Kiyas Mohammad for providing us with the data required for
the compilation of our project.
I would like to extend my gratitude toward Dr. Sharad L. Joshi,
Director, Vishwakarma Institute of Management, for his technical
and moral support required for the realization of this project report.

Thanks to all.

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Table of contents

Chapter NO 1 Title Page no

1 Abstract

2 Introduction

Retail Trends in
3 UAE

4 Company Profile

5 Objectives

Research
6 Methodology

Analysis
7

Findings
8
9 Recommendations

10 Bibliography
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Annexure

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RESEARCH
IN
ABSTRACT

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TITLE:-
“Study of Promotional Activities at Choithram LLC With special
emphasis on role of promotion in building strong store image and customer
flow”

Research Methodology:-

A) Primary Data Source:-


Questionnaire, Interviews
B) Secondary Data Source:-
Books, Journals etc.
.

Research Design:-

The stores visit will be carried out for collection of data. As I


have noted above, the data will pertain to all factors of promotions. The
survey will be on Interview basis with employees of Choithram
Supermarket. Observations will be recorded for said research in store.
Questionnaire is designed to obtain information about
Supermarket. The information collected through stores visit will be assumed
accurate, for analysis.

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OBJECTIVES:-

1. To know the Retail Trends and its implementation in Supermarket.


2. To study role of promotional activities and advertising in a
supermarket.
3. To study the various promotional channels used in a super market.
4. To study the effects of promotions and advertising on sales.
5. To study how customer loyalty can be built through promotional
activities.

STUDY CONTENTS:-

Promotional activities, promotional channels, buying behavior, impulse


buying, pricing strategies, customer loyalty.

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PRICING AND PROMOTIONS: - The prices of all products
are decided by the head office. Every product has price tag fixed on it,
with barcode strategy for pricing. Prices are comparatively high in
Choithram . Another thing is prices vary by location of stores. Special
displays provided by Vendors, self-made displays, and gift voucher
such activities are undertaken for promotions. Objective behind display
of product is to create demand and to build stores image.

CUSTOMER SERVICE: - According to T. Choithram & Sons


customer service plays a vital role in whole stores management. TCS
offers home delivery of goods in selected stores, consumer credit
system, and acceptance of Credit cards. TCS tries to retain its customer
by way of keeping customer feedback forms at every checkout counter.
TCS provides Value, Quality and Price to its customer.

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INTRODUCTION
In-store promotions have an important role in the retailers'
marketing efforts. Retailers use those short-term strategy variables
to influence the sales of certain products and consumer purchases,
and in particular to encourage unplanned purchases. Most common
promotional devices used inside the stores, involve different forms
of price reductions, in-store displays, brands advertised, free
sample of merchandise, and couponing. In-store promotion is of
special importance to high/low retailer, since it offers a high-
service level and prices above their competition’s prices, and the
usage of frequent price promotions is needed in order to increase
traffic by attracting both value-conscious and price-conscious
customers.

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COMPANY PROFILE

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COMPANY PROFILE

Company was founded in 1944, in Sierra Leone, and arrived in


the United Arab Emirates in 1974.

The deep-rooted T. Choithram and Sons, focused on one


remarkable vision, the aggressive diversification and geographical
expansion, which led the company to UAE.

Within a short period, the company is acknowledged today as the


largest chain of the Supermarket group in the Emirates, with twenty
four Supermarkets and five Department Stores at prime locations
spread over the seven Emirates of the UAE.

The company has grown to become on the most popular chain in


the UAE and today represent over sixty multinational companies in
the Emirates, which are handled by several specialized divisions.
With the experience of over 60 years of marketing branded
consumer products, the Company’s infrastructure, extensive

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knowledge of the market and the support of dedicated employees
numbering over 1500, all come together in a very effective
marketing-mix to offer their principals the best distribution network
and support in the UAE.

The Company’s popular chain of Supermarkets & Department


Stores, conveniently located, lend important and significant support
for brands and agency lines, through prime products displays,
facilities for below-the-line marketing activities, test launching of
promotional offers and even to conduct valuable consumer surveys
to help formulating sound and effective brand development
strategies.

The Company’s well established Catering Division, services, apart


from the regularly awarded government tenders, over two hundred
major institutional clients:

\
– AIRLINES
– RESTAURANTS
– CLUBS
– SCHOOLS
– PETROL STATIONS
– KIOSKS AND SO ON ….

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The novelty division handles agency lines from over twenty-one
countries, supplying to the wholesale and retail outlets in the UAE,
with new products innovations in novelties, fashion wear, children’s
garments, toys, household appliances, domestic products, etc.

“ With the Company’s expertise


Warehouse facilities, distribution
Centers and fleet of delivery vehicles,
Prompt products availability is
Ensured even in the remotest outlets
in the country ”

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MARKET CHARACTERISTICS

DUBAI is the business hub of Middle East, is throbbing with


multidimensional activities and is undergoing thanks to the vision
and foresightedness of the country’s leadership, tremendous
growth, which is evidenced by the fact that a country until 3 years
ago with a population of 2,5 – 3 million in now accommodating and
catering for 5 million people.

“ It´s envisaged that the growth will rise to 10 million by the year
2010 ”

With the increase in growth, all spheres of business are growing


proportionately. Today Dubai can boost about having the highest
number of the most modern Supermarkets and Hypermarkets,
allowing consumers most comfortable environment to do their
shopping, from groceries to electronics to apparels to most of their
requirements, All from under one roof. Shopping in these malls and
super markets is as much an entertainment as a shopping exercise.

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CHOITHRAM takes the pride of being among such
Supermarkets with highest degree of popularity with the local
Arabs, Asians and the Western Experts offering it’s long range of
quality products at very competitive prices.

The Produce section of Choithram is one of the busiest.

Fruit sourced from any where in the world by important


importers such as Fresh Fruits, Abbar O Zainy, Sharbatly, Iffco are
always available with us.

In fact, we are in process of commencing our own import


program and in doing so we will be more than happy to source
Argentinean Oranges, Lemons, Pears, Apples and Stone fruit.

The Produce section of Choithram is one of the busiest.

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Research methodology

Research methodology is a way to systematically solve a research


problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is
done scientifically. In it we study various steps that are generally
adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with
logic behind them.

Research process

Before embarking on the details of research methodology and


techniques, it seems appropriate to present a brief overview of the
research process. Research process consists of series of actions or steps
necessary to effectively carry out research and the desired sequencing
of these steps.

 Formulating the research problem


 Extensive literature survey
 Development of working hypothesis
 Preparing the research design

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 Determining the research design
• Deliberate sampling
• Simple random sampling
• Systematic sampling
• Stratified sampling
 Collecting the data
• By observation
• Through personal interview
• Through telephone interviews
• By questionnaires

 Execution of the project


 Analysis of data
 Hypothesis-testing
 Generalization and interpretation
 Preparation of the report

Types of research

 Descriptive research
 Analytical research
 Applied research

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 Fundamental research
 Quantitative research
 Qualitative research
 Conceptual research
 Empirical research

The above mentioned are the various types of research which a


researcher can apply in order to achieve one’s desired objective.
Therefore to achieve the objectives of my research I have used
descriptive research.

This is based on proper research design to meet the objectives of the


study.

Research Methodology:-

A)Primary Data Source:-


Questionnaire, Interviews
B)Secondary Data Source:-
Books, Journals etc.

And collected data will be analyzed with simple statistical tools


and will be interpreted with graphical explorations.

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Research Design:-
The stores visit will be carried out for collection of data. As
I have noted above, the data will pertain to all factors of Stores
Management. The survey will be on Interview basis with employees of
Choithram Supermarket. Observations will be recorded for said
research in store.
Questionnaire is designed to obtain information about
Supermarket . The information collected through stores visit will be
assumed accurate, for analysis.

Data Analysis:-
Initially data will be sorted in accordance with store visit
and designed questionnaire then data will be analyzed on the basis of
questionnaire feedback which includes various aspects of Stores
management and observation from stores visit.

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DATA COLLECTION

The project was to check feasibility of the services offered by


Choithram using primary data. The primary data was obtained through
observation, direct communication with the people and filling up of
questionnaires, also enormous help was obtained from Choithram,
branch members, crew, staff and colleagues working there.
The data collection tool that I have used is Questionnaire. I have
selected questionnaire as a data collection tool primarily because of
descriptive nature of sampling & secondly it was the most suitable tool
that could help in achieving all the objectives of the study & to do the
analysis deeply and effectively.

Prior to the 1990s, advertising was the largest part of the typical
FMCG budget.

As short-term pressures and the strength of retailers grew, promotions


took more and more of the marketing budget, replacing advertising as
the largest component.

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(Jones 1999) estimates that the ratio of Advertising / Consumer
Promotions /Trade Promo as 24% / 26% / 50%

It is commonly observed that promotions lead to short, sharp sales


spikes. Yet not all volume is profitable volume. From the late 1980s to
the present day, a growing weight of academic evidence from fact-
based studies of consumer promotion spending effectiveness has
revealed an alarming problem (Abraham and Lodish 1990),
(Ehrenberg, Hammond, and Goodhardt 1994).
For example,
Leonard Lodish found that 4 out of 5 promotions are unprofitable in an
extensive study ten years ago (Lodish and Lubetkin 1992).

Given the vast spending levels attracted by consumer promotions, it is


important to understand what drives companies to use them and what
distinguishes the profitable promotions from the unprofitable ones.

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Definition of sales promotion

Sales promotion is a surprisingly difficult term to pin down. The reason


for this is, because it includes such a wide variety of activities and
techniques.

Typical sales promotion include price-off packs, value-packs, coupons,


samples, in-pack premiums, self-liquidating premiums, refunds and
rebates, contests, sweepstakes, trade shows, continuity plans,
warranties and many others.

The term sales promotion as used by practicing marketers today refers


to many kinds of selling incentives and techniques intended to produce
immediate or short-term sales effects. The other defining characteristic
of sales promotion is that the goal is short term or immediate. Sales

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promotion is not generally used to generate long-term results or sales in
the future, but rather to generate sales results now.

The distinction between short-term and long-term results may certainly


vary with the product category and the particular industry, making a
specific time definition somewhat arbitrary. But the important idea is
that the goal for sales promotion is results in the current promotional
period--not in later time periods.

Promotion is, then, a collection of techniques communicated to target


audiences to generate short-term sales results. Traditionally, sales
promotion has been viewed as a non-recurrent selling activity, and it is
often defined as such.

However, this view does not reflect the current condition of frequent
and repeated sales promotion programs necessary to maintain business
in many product categories. In most cases, sales promotion has become
an all-too-recurrent activity, so the idea of a non-recurrent activity is
eliminated from the definition here.

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What drives companies to use
promotions?

The simple truth is that promotions are fun to start and challenging to
stop.

(Ambler 1996) comments that “promotions are no more, and no less,


addictive, than cocaine”. Similarly, Ehrenberg, Hammond, and
Goodha.rdt (1994) comment that “there are many pressures to promote,
acting on middle or junior management”.

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Positive reasons for promotional spending.

 Immediate dramatic consumer sales spike

 Fear of trade customers (display, listing, stock levels)


 Keeping up with competition
 Giving salesmen something to say

Negative reasons for avoiding


promotion include:

 Stockpiling by consumers cannibalizes volume


advantages of spike
 Encouraging consumers to become bargain hunters

 Costs of promotion do not cover profits from spike

 Costs associated with supply chain turbulence

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Volume Price Cost
Immediate
(During the promotion)
Volume price cost

Consumer – Consumer- Direct cost of


Immediate Accelerating (during the promotional
purchase; promotion) incentives,
during the obtaining trial other than off
purchase; Reducing
promotion the net transaction
invoice.
obtaining share of Indirect cost of
volume. price to the “special”
consumer (or manufacturing and
increasing the net packaging.
Trade – Increasing value, in the case of
traffic in channel; Cost of trade
gifts); promotions
obtaining trade deflecting attention
support; not passed on to
from a high price. consumer.
manipulating trade
inventories
Trade – Reducing Indirect cost of
the off invoice trade supply
price chain turbulence.

Medium Consumer – Consumer – .


Decelerating next Scrapping of unused
term{4- purchase Encouraging promotional
(stockpiling); bargain incentives.
16weeks} encouraging repeat hunting. Re-packaging of
purchase; stock
encouraging to remove
more frequent Trade – Pressure to promotional
usage; reduce prices. labelling.
denying volume to
competitors

Trade – Increasing
traffic in channel
(bargain hunters).

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Consumer – Consumer –
Long increasing Encouraging
consumer loyalty; bargain
term{ 16- increasing hunting;
penetration. discouraging
3 years} Trade – increasing purchase off-
traffic in channel; promotion.
increasing trade Trade – Pressure
loyalty for
more promotions.

Consumer purchasing behavior

By far the most common management expectation about promotions is


that they drive sales volume. There is an extensive literature on
consumer purchasing behavior that is useful to review prior to
addressing the more specific question of consumer buying responses to
promotions.
Most consumers have a repertoire of two or three brands in a category
which they habitually buy over time (Ehrenberg 1988) (Brown 1953)
and (Cunningham 1956). The groups of brands purchased are called the
brand repertoire.

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Multi brand buying may come about because:

 Buyers seek variety, for example in beverages and


confectionary

 A preferred brand may not be available

 A consumer promotion may temporarily attract


purchasers

An understanding of the factors that affect habitual purchase is


important if the right marketing decisions are to be made. Is a
consumer’s brand repertoire the result of variety seeking, bargain
seeking (and promotional response), or inability to buy the preferred
brand frequently? Answers to these questions relate to marketing mix
decisions.
There is no necessity for habitual purchasing to involve strong feelings
or cognitive processes. It is quite possible for people to buy regularly a
brand they dislike (through economic necessity). People make some
brands, such as Guinness, a small part of their portfolio yet continue to
buy this brand for a long period of time. People may like a brand but
not purchase it through lack of need or opportunity (for example
Porsche).

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Purchase habits also apply to brands that we routinely do not buy. Most
of us will admit to avoiding certain brands that we dislike, but brand
avoidance also applies to brands that are unfamiliar to us as individuals.

 Price-offs. A manufacturer’s price-off is printed directly on the


product packaging and becomes an integral part of the product’s
appearance to consumers. Special labels might also be used. The
advantage of price-offs is that they are easy for the consumer to use,
and they put the product in direct competition with other products on
display. The disadvantage is that everyone who buys the product
takes advantage of the price reduction, including those who
routinely buy the product at the regular price. Trial is therefore
restricted mostly to bargain-hunters, who are inherently less likely to
stay loyal following the offer.
 Bonus packs. Another way the consumer can be offered a special
price is to increase the amount of the product offered for the same
price. Bonus packs can also take the form of BOGOF (buy one get
one free), buy two get one free, and many variants on this theme.
The advantages of bonus packs are that they can increase the amount
of display space for the product, and increase consumption rates,
due to the pressure on storage space causing the consumer to use the
product faster. The disadvantages are that they may well not be
profitable – the cost of the extra free product may be more than the
value of the extra sales.

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 Gifts. There are many types of gifts, including. The advantages of
gifts are that they can enhance the product’s value, if they relate to
its brand values, or link with sponsorship themes (such as Formula
One). The disadvantages are that trade customers may resist storing
and handling the gift items, and also theft and pilferage can be
serious problems.
 Coupons. Coupons are by far the commonest promotional method
in the USA, but their popularity is lower elsewhere. There are two
kinds of coupons – manufacturer coupons, where everything is paid
by the manufacturer, and trade coupons, which are paid partially
by the retailer. The advantage may be that only a percentage is
redeemed, but the disadvantage is that they create clutter and work
for those who process them.

 Continuity plans. Continuity plans require the saving of some


item relating to the purchase, such as stamps, that may be used for
prizes or reduced costs. The advantage of using them is that they
reward heavy purchasers for being heavy purchasers. The
disadvantage may be that they do not reward true loyalty, merely
heavy purchase.

 Loyalty cards are in many ways like electronic continuity plans.


They have the additional advantage of creating a database, and the

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possibility of tracking heavy purchasers. Against this must be
factored the disadvantage of substantial IT cost.

 Refund offers involve the purchaser in sending a proof-of-


purchase in return for a reward. They have the advantage of
rewarding loyal purchasers, but disadvantages include a poor record
in generating trial purchase.

 Contests and sweepstakes differ in the eligibility rules:


contests require that consumers purchasing the product enter, while
sweepstakes do not. Some contests require skill, whereas
sweepstakes do not. The advantages are that they create interest
through press and word-of-mouth, plus they can be a source of
customer data. The disadvantages are the clutter and effort of
organizing.

 Sampling provides the consumer a free sample of the product and


is a very effective means of introducing a new product or
demonstrating an improvement of an existing product. Typically a
small trial size is offered. Although sampling has the advantage of
starting trial usage, its Disadvantages are considerable, especially in
terms of distribution.

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The promotional planning process

Offers

The promotion must offer something valuable to its recipient

Channel exposures

The promotion must be seen, read or heard in a channel

Processing the offer

The audience must pay attention to the offer and absorb its meaning

Psychological response

The offer must also cause a mental response leads to action

Behavioral response

The offer must cause more people to buy more of our product, more often.
Economic response

Economic response Promotions are only worthwhile if they have an economic


payback

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Immediate value promotions,
price-offs and bonus packs, remove the problem of “high price” and may be
perceived as “good value”.
The most usual way of testing alternative offers is to survey a range of offers, with
several other closely competing brands – all at their normal prices – then
progressively introduce better and better offers on our brand until an acceptable
percentage of the survey sample indicated that they would buy our brand.

 Future value promotions,

 Samples and trial offers, function by reducing the perceived


risk of trying our brand. The major method of testing samples
is by placement of samples at several hundred prospective
locations, and counting the numbers of trials.

 Gift promotions

Are tested in various different ways. Premiums need to be tested


first for the appeal of the gift itself – displaying them side-by-side,
including gifts that have previously been used with known results.
Coupons are tested in much the same way as immediate value
Promotions.

 Chance promotions

 Prizes should be tested and compared for their appeal.


Contests versus sweepstakes should be compared, by
discussing simulated promotion situations with potential
entrants.

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Ten hard questions to ask or be asked

1. Do we believe that our promotions have anything other than a short-term


impact?

2. If so, what is the evidence for this?

3. How well do we integrate promotional activity with advertising and display?

4. What percentage of our trade promotional expenditure is passed on to


consumers?

5. Do our promotions devalue the brand by encouraging “bargain hunting”?

6. Can we enhance the loyalty tie-in of our promotions?

7. What analysis supports our choice of promotional offers?

8. Do we understand and take into account the direct and indirect costs of our
promotional offers?

9. What process do we use for planning our promotional campaigns?

10. What do we do to research, test and track our promotional campaigns? Is what
we do adequate?

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Conclusions
 Many promotions do not cover their costs.
 Promotions often produce an immediate and measurable “spike” in
sales volumes, but a positive effect on sales after the promotion has
ended is rare and generally small.
 Trial purchases from first-time buyers are a minority. Most
consumers who buy on promotion have previous experience of the
product. They switch temporarily away from other brands in their
repertoire (thus temporarily increasing the purchase frequency of the
promoted brand, and decreasing the purchase frequency for the rest
of the category).
 Frequent promotion by competitors reduces the purchase frequency
(and share) for non-promoted brands. Where a significant
percentage of category sales is sold on promotion, brands that do not
promote will be “locked out” during promotional periods, and
purchase frequency will fall.
 Sales promotions should not happen on an ad hoc basis, but be
implemented via a campaign plan, with every campaign having a
specified objective which reflects the overall marketing strategy.
 Sales promotions carried out by and through trade customers require
a different type of campaign management and offer from those
targeted directly at end consumers.
 Rigorous testing and tracking of responses to individual promotions
reduces risk, and enables campaigns to be rolled out, withdrawn, or
fine-tuned to reflect market behavior

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ANALYSIS

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The retail purchase decision by
customers at Choithram.

Purchase type % of total retail


sales volume

Planned purchases (Pre-store Decision) 67%

Impulse purchases (In stores Decision) 33%


No intention of buying the particular product 14%
but did so
Intended to buy a product but no specific 10%
brand in mind
Added an extra title to core product purchase 5.5%
on impulse
Brand switched from intended purchase In- 3.5%
store

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The results show that two thirds of the volume of product sales are
planned purchases - ie. The decision to make that purchase was
determined prior to the consumer entering the shop. However, one third
of the volume of product sales (and growing) is made as the result of an
in-store decision.

WHY CUSTOMERS OPTED TO BUY

Reason for purchase % of Total Respondents

Part of regular purchasing pattern 41%

Cover browse related attractions 33%

Impulse 11%

Price 9%

Added values 4%

Recommended by friends 1%

Stimulated by an advertisement 1%

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Customer’s feedback

PART OF A REGULAR PURCHASING PATTERN

"I always buy it" is typical of this category. The consumer may still be
buying on impulse on this particular occasion, but they are buying a
title which they are familiar with and have often bought before:
"reminder buying".

COVER / BROWSE-RELATED

A whole range of statements fall under this category: "It caught my


eye", "It looked interesting", "The front cover attracted me", "It had an
article of interest". All the statements are based on the fact that
something specific caught the consumer's interest, either from the cover
itself or from a quick flick through the pages. With one third of buyers
stating that this prompted their purchase, this clearly underlines the
importance of the front cover layout and design.

IMPULSE

"I just wanted to try it". "I wanted a change".

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PRICE

"It's good value". "Its cheaper than the other like it".

ADDED VALUE

The presence of a cover mounts or supplement. This is a classic area,


like price, where consumers often under claim under research
conditions as they do not like to be seen to be influenced by give-
aways. This reason is much more important, predictably, among those
buyers who had made their decision to buy in-store (44% higher than
among those who had decided their purchase before they entered the
shop). Also, cover mounting is very high profile within a few, key
magazine sectors.

STIMULATED BY AN ADVERTISEMENT

The conscious recall of an advertisement for a specific title accounts for


only 1% of purchasing occasions. This is not to dismiss the value of
above-the-line advertising, but is mainly a reflection of the way in
which advertising works which is often not "top-of-mind".

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Why customers did not opt to buy

Identified two distinct groups:

(1) Those who dip in and out of the shop without looking at the
magazine displays.
These people are simply not in "magazine buying mode". They are in a
hurry.
They are in the shop to buy something else. They simply do not want a
Magazine at the moment. There is clearly very little that anyone can do
to alter the consumer's behavior on such occasions.

(2) Those who come to the magazine displays to browse, but who do
not buy.
Three reasons emerged most commonly for non-purchasing:

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Reasons for browsing, but not buying % of Total
Respondents
I only intended to look 24%
I couldn’t find the one I wanted 21 %
Just wanted to see what’s around 20 %

Clearly, browsing the magazine racks is a pleasurable activity in its


own right and many consumers do it with no intention of buying a
magazine. Yet just over one fifth of readers who do not buy fail to
make a purchase because the magazine they want is not on display.

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Customer Loyalty
Customer loyalty can be classified into brand loyalty,
vendor loyalty, service loyalty, and store loyalty.

With lack of consistency, marketing researchers have defined customer


loyalty. We can classify these definitions into a behavioral approach, an
attitudinal approach, and a combined approach.

Behavioral Definition.

Early studies on loyalty have been done on individual brand which can
be measured from panel data and brand loyalty largely was understood
as behavioral concept. They focused on observing and measuring the
continuation of purchases in the past (Brown 1952-1953). Kuehn
(1962) used stochastic approach to find behavior of brand loyalty of
customers. He saw brand loyalty a function of purchasing history of
customers. Lip stein (1959) thought brand loyalty as a function of
probability of purchase of the same product or a function of time for a
specific brand. Jacoby and Chestnut (1978) summarized 53 early
definitions of loyalty and made a conceptual definition. According to
their definition, loyalty is a biased behavioral reaction of consumers in
the choice of one among many alternatives in a period of time and it
can be represented as a function of decision-making process. Jeuland

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(1979) also used stochastic model to define brand loyalty. In his study,
it was defined as long-term probability of choice or purchase ratio of a
specific brand among total product categories and such a behavior was
named as inertia.

In summary, behavioral definition of store loyalty is a tendency of


consumers to purchase repetitively in a period of time and it can be
operationally defined and measured as purchase ratio as repetitive
purchase behavior (Raj 1982), purchase frequency. By using these
definitions, it can be objectively measured and has an advantage of
distinguishing store loyalty for various stores. But it has limitations that
researchers can easily use subjective judgments and that it is hard to
explain how the store loyalty is formed and why it changes.

Attitudinal Definition.

Attitude is a learned tendency of preference to consistently show favor


or disfavor and affirmative or negative reactions. Consumers have a
favorable attitude to a specified brand but they don’t always purchase

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that brand since there are various situations. But attitude influences
behavior a lot. Thus the concept of loyalty is viewed not separated from
the attitude that represents individual psychological tendency in
repetitive purchases. Moreover, the attitude of consumers relatively
evaluating a specified brand is important since repetitive purchases
mean that consumers choose it among various alternatives. n summary,
store loyalty in an attitudinal sense can be understood as store
preference or psychological commitment and hence it can be defined as
favorable attitude to the specified store and operationally it can be
measured future probability of purchase(Oh 1995). By this definition,
we can figure out the process of psychological formation of it but it is
uncertain that favorable attitude to the specified store is converted to
real action o buy. The marketers can see the store loyalty in attitudinal
approach have little practical value.

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Combined Definition of both Behavioral and Attitudinal
Approach.
Dick and Basu(1994) combined both behavioral and attitudinal
approaches and then defined store loyalty as favorable attitude and
repetitive purchase of consumers so that the concept can be
comprehensively understood and they argue that their concept was
desirable since both components could be measured. Either favorable
attitude or repetitive purchase alone cannot be necessary and sufficient
conditions of index of store loyalty and the both must be considered
together in the light of consumers. Following this view of store loyalty,
we define store loyalty as favorable attitude of consumers and tendency
to purchase repetitively in a period of time.

Store Image
Definition of Store Image.

The concept of store image was used by Martineau (1958) for the first
time. He defined it as “a store defined in customers’ mind partly based
on functional attributes and partly based on psychological attributes.”
He claimed that store image includes its characteristic attributes and it
makes customers feel the store different from others. Functional
attributes are assortment of commodities, layout, location, price-value
relation, and service that consumers can objectively compare with other
stores. Psychological attributes are attractiveness and luxuriousness that
represent special attributes of that store.

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FINDINGS

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Store Image Components at Choithram

 Dimension Component Content of component


 Merchandise Quality Excellence of quality relative to the other
stores Excellence of quality relative to price
 Overall excellence of quality
 Price Low price relative to the other stores
 Reasonable price relative to product
 Overall lowness of product prices
 Assortment Availability of new (fashionable) products
 Variety of brands
 Variety of product designs and colors
 Variety of kinds of product
 Overall availability of various brands and kinds of product to
choose
 Promotion Frequency of sales
 Scope of sale of product
 Providence of new product information
 Invitation of cultural events and special sales
 Sending cards for birthday or anniversary
 Frequency of gift events
 Placement of right catalogues
 Variety of gifts
 Benefits of store credit card (long credit and mileage)

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 Advertisement Information providence of advertisement
 Usefulness of shopping plan of advertisement
 Appeal of advertisement
 Confidence of advertisement
 Convenience Easy movement within the store
 of shopping Easy search of wanted goods
 Possibility of blanket purchase
 Overall convenience of shopping
 Convenience Easy entrance and exit to parking lot
of location Connection to public transportation (bus and subway)
 Proximity to home or working place
Shopping bus schedule
 Availability of free parking
Store facility Easy use of physical facilities of the store
 (Escalator, elevator, baby cart)
 Well-assorted rest area (snack corner, toilet, coffee shop, chairs)
 Clean in and out facilities
 Overall modern facilities
 Store service Salesperson Kindness of salesperson
 service Assistance of salesperson on product and related
information
 Providence of new information by salesperson
 Affirmative action and solution to complaints by salesperson
 Excellent customer service
 Credit service Variety of credit cards accepted

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 Easy return and exchange of goods
 Possibility of money return in the case of impossibility of return
or exchange
 Store Happiness of shopping atmosphere
 atmosphere Relaxation of shopping atmosphere
 Excellent presentation and decoration of products
 Luxurious atmosphere of lighting, color, and facilities
 Store brand High class image
 High brand name
 Dimension Component Content of component

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DIFFERENT PROMOTIONAL
ACTIVITIES AT CHOITHRAM

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SNAPPY TOM PROMOTION AT CHOITHRAM

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This promotion was a real eyeball catcher, appreciated all over the
Choithram stores, and a big success too.
All the European customers were very much impressed by this
promotion.
The most important factor behind these promotions were the fact that
these promotions were common in all choithram stores, and a
competition is held amongst all choithram stores, the best visual
promotion gets an award.
It is competitions like these which keeps the employees nimble on their
feet, and thrives them to work with a will.
All the visual promotions are very much responsible for enticing a
customer, to purchase a commodity.
There is a finding that says, a perfume bottle is purchased by the
customer because of its cover, than its fragrance.
It is therefore a result of visual promotions in stores, which lead to
unplanned purchases One more important thing to be noticed in the
promotional picture is that, the other products like Arial, and a few
shampoos which are supposed to be the upcoming promotions for the
next month, are also kept so that the customer should get a glimpse of
things to come

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Discount of whopping 50% at wonder land theme and Water Park.

This was another special promotion at all choithram super markets,

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If a customer spends AED 250 at any choithram stores in a single
invoice then he gets a whopping 50% discount on splash land in
wonderland a water park
It is promotions like these which magnetize the customer towards the
stores, he is always on a look out for the upcoming, and ongoing
promotions.

Promotions like these helps to draw the customer into the stores, it is
places like water parks and amusement parks, where one spends the
best quality time, along with the family, and by offering promotions
like these the super market actually has a part to play in the customer’s
jolly time.

No wonder promotions like these bring happiness to the customers.

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Gift voucher

This promotion involved an attractive gift voucher, which was for sale,
this gift voucher meant that a customer can gift this voucher to any
person he knows, gift voucher actually enables the customer to
purchase any commodity from any choithram stores as per the amount
mentioned on IT which is available in the multiples of 50 AED .

It is promotions like these, which help to draw new customers into the
super market, it helps in creating commendable stores image, and build
customer loyalty.

Purchases through such vouchers bring immense pleasure to the


customer as it gives him the feeling of free shopping.

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A tie up with ABN AMRO CREDIT CARD
Shop Save and Win, with ABN AMRO credit cards

Great discounts, special offers, and a jeep wrangler just a swipe away.

By shopping with an ABN AMRO credit card for over 100 AED or
more the customer gets the chance to win a brand new wrangler, also
great discounts and offers every time a customer shops at the
participating outlet from 15 June to 15 aug .

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BN AMRO OFFERS AT CHOITHRAM Spend AED 250 or more and get 4.5 kg
Unifrutti Fruits [1.5 kg Red apples 1.5 kg S .AFRICAN Clementine, 1.5
kg Orange Navels] absolutely free

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A Mercedes Benz, the biggest ever promotion one would get to see in a
super market

Shop at Choithram for 50 DHS AND WIN A MERCEDES c 180


Model Car with a sms

Offer starts on 15 Nov 2006, and the Draw date 15 Dec 2006

Draw venue
Choithram, Safa park outlet at 5 pm

Terms and conditions

On a single purchase oh Dh 50/- the customer will get a coupon to


qualify to SMS and win the prizes.

This coupon is valid for entry for the promotion only.


Each SMS costs 5 Dhs

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A unique promotion of garments through pamphlets
This promotion was done at the Dubai-Karama, Ajman Ras AL Khaima
and Fujairah outlets.

This was a weekly promotions, the promotion was all about finding the
best deals when it comes to garments wide range like, Boys T shirts,
shorts,

Men’s twill shirt, right from kids wears to adults.

It was advertised as Factory Zone outlet, which generally catches the


eyes of the Asian customer.

Garments were for sale at the cheapest rate one could ever get with a
commendable quality.

Free home delivery was also offered on minimum purchase of 25 dhs,


within the radius of 2 kms. The offer was valid till the stalk lasted

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This was another promotion through pamphlets which was for a month
This pamphlet gave a brief summary of the fresh fruits and produce
available at choithram, the picture’s displayed, and the price mentioned
below, gave the customer a clear idea of things he is looking for at a
desired price

This promotion also had consumable and consumable items,


Non consumable items involved electrical appliances, cosmetics, house
holds, garments, etc.
Different brands like coca cola, London dairy Dairy milk, kellogs were
also advertised in stores customer communication techniques and
signages are very essential to keep a customer unruffled, and
comfortable in a store, people nowadays are calorie conscious and
hence I found this signage catchy.

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Items whose expiry date is near are supposed to be cleared
immediately, hence special promotions are done to cope up for the task,
a special display of reduced to clear items is done. Prices of the items
which are supposed to be stock cleared are reduced by considerable
margin, i.e. more than 50%at times

Special promotions like price highlighting are practiced,


At special occasions like Ramadan shiny cloths and dates are on
display for festive promotions.

Radio hip off music is used to keep the buying tempo of the customer
going, eg: jazz music influences customer for unplanned purchases.
Practices of visual merchandising, knowledge of awareness, at the point
of sales danglers are practiced as tools for promotion
Suggestions
The core elements of retailing –
Your Consumers
Understanding the needs, emotions and desires of the final user of your
product or service helps you to plan your interactions and your business
relationship with your customer. Read on to find out how consumers
make their buying decisions and how you can best serve their needs.

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Your Products

By understanding your consumers you can better determine how your


products and services must evolve to meet the changing needs of the
marketplace. It is also essential to know how to promote and display
your goods or services to catch the attention of your target market.

Your Premises

To delight your customers and maximize your sales it is vital that you
create the appropriate image and ambience for your true demographic
and generational market. The external and internal ‘feel’ of your
premises must be comfortable and negotiable for your target market.

Your Business

To succeed today business owners and managers must be innovative,


creative and think outside of the box, both in the way your operate
your business, promote yourself, display and merchandise your
products and services, and care for your customers.

The times they are-a-changing, and that applies to retailing too!


Competition today is fierce, margins are growing slimmer and
customer’s lifestyles and buying habits are changing. It is no longer

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enough to keep up with the competition, today you must outpace your
competition and think FOR your customers to continue to be a
profitable and financially healthy organization.
.

SWOT ANALYSIS

STRENGTH

 Limited competition.

 Good reputation of the company (T. Choithram & Sons.)

 Quality of service.

 Highly cooperative and efficient staff & crew members.

 Exclusive products

 Use of modern technology like credit card billing & loyalty


program .

 Wide range of products to suit all customer segments.

 Maximum number of branches (Approx.27)

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WEAKNESS

 Target customer base very small.

 No presence in semi urban sector.

 Promotional campaigns are nearly absent.

 Less advertising efforts.

 Some times products are out of stock.

 Promotions are not up to the mark

 Lack Mordern Visual merchandising practises

OPPORTUNITIES

 Customer education will improve the customer base.


 Festive promotions will drive more customers.
 By making some good promotional efforts TCS can gain more
number of customers who will be loyal.
 No of competitor’s is increasing very fast, especially In Dubai.
 Promotions can bring spike in the sales.

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THREATS

 Competition with big giants like Lulu, Spinneys, Al Madina


Super market Etc.
 Challenges posed by other retailers in the market.
 Customer may shift to other supermarket.
 Lower customer base may hinder prompt service.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Bibliography

 TCS Brochures & Flyers.

Web Search Engine

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ANNEXURE

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Questionnaire

1. Which has been your best promotion, regarding any commodity, in the
past few years? Could you explain it in detail?

2. What are the in- stores customer communication techniques you use.
(Signs - product information – graphics –sound – textures)

3. How do you blend ambient conditions –temperature- noise - music-


odor for promotional activities

4. How do you influence impulse buying, by promotional activities?

5 What activities do you adopt to attract customers? (Decorations-


signage - symbol- furnishings- layout- equipments)

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6. Do you adopt promotional activities such as contest-puzzles-wining
prizes-
Sample-free taste of product.
*sweep stakes –no puzzles just lucky draw-discount coupons-
Demonstration-grinding process, -cleaning procedures- referral gifts-special
events.

7. Do you look out to reduce promotion cost if manufacturer him selves


bears the expenses for displays.

8. How do you display past contest winners? Does this display help in
enticing more customers to enter into the future contest?

9. What channels of promotions do you adopt?

10. How do you constitute promotion mix?

11 .Which promotional schemes have you adopted?

12 After adopting the schemes what are the changes you have come across
in terms of sales? Have they increased? {percentage of sales increased?}

13 Do you get any customer and vendor feed back regarding the promotional
displays in the store? If they are negative, how do you go for respective
changes?

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14. How do promotions help in creating or building customer loyalty?

15 Do you adopt any promotional technique for stock clearance?

PHOTOGRAPHS OF CHOITHRAM

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