Objectives

At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 identify some Filipino writers who produced significant works of literature
during the American and Japanese Periods (1898–1945), and
 analyze a poem by the Filipino poet Fernando Maramag.

Who wrote during the American and Japanese Periods?
What kind of literary forms did they produce?
What were the usual themes in their works?

Learn about it!
Notes on the American Occupation

(1898–1940)

 The US established a civil government in 1901. Free public education was
introduced. Also, English was the medium of instruction.
 In 1934, President Roosevelt signed a bill making the Philippines a
commonwealth. On May 14, 1935 Manuel L. Quezon was elected president.

Literary Works Produced

The production of literary works in English is the direct result of the American
colonization of the Philippines. The first collection of poetry in English is Filipino
Poetry (1924), edited by Rodolfo Dato. The short story “Dead Stars” (1925) by Paz
Marquez Benitez is considered as the first Filipino modern short story in English. A
Child of Sorrow (1921) by Zoilo M. Galang is the first Filipino novel in English. The
novel His Native Soil (1940) by Juan C. Laya won first prize in the First
Commonwealth Literary Awards in 1940.

Filipino writers in English during the apprenticeship period (1900–1930) imitated
American writing. The poet Fernando Maramag writes in the Romantic tradition in his
sonnet “Moonlight on Manila Bay” (1912). Filipino fictionists copied Sherwood
Anderson, William Saroyan, and Ernest Hemingway. Jose Garcia Villa used the
Anderson pattern. Manuel Arguilla and N. V. M. Gonzalez were influenced by
Anderson and Hemingway. Francisco Arcellana was influenced by Saroyan.

(1941–1945)

 On December 8, 1941, the Japanese attacked Manila.
 On January 2, 1942, Japanese occupied Manila. They set up a Council of
State in the country and started propaganda to remold the Filipinos.

Reyes.  The Japanese surrendered formally on September 2. The best works were compiled by the Liwayway magazine editors in Ang Pinakamabuting Maikling Kathang Pilipino ng 1943. Gonzalez.” On September 20. Philippine literature in English came to a halt.  MacArthur and his Allied forces returned to the country in 1944. V. which came out in 1944. “Nayon at Dagat-dagatan” by N. publications were censored by the military. The Tagalog short story reached its maturity during the period. 1945. Some Filipino writers then turned to writing in Filipino. Literary Works Produced During the occupation. Jose P.  In October 1943 the Japanese declared the Philippines “independent. It is a collection of stories that won a contest sponsored by the Japanese. The top four stories were “Lupang Tinubuan” by Narciso G. and the biggest naval battle in history ensued. “Uhaw ang Tigang na Lupa” by Liwayway Arceo. Laurel was elected president. In effect. Also. . Tagalog was declared an official language (together with Nihonggo). M. and “Suyuan sa Tubigan” by Macario Pineda. They landed on Leyte on October 20.