# CHAPTER 8

FRICTION

1 CHARACTERISTICS OF DRY FRICTION  Friction is defined as a force of resistance that prevents the movement of two contacting surfaces that slide relative to one another.  Experiments show that frictional forces act tangent (parallel) to the contacting surface in a direction opposing the relative motion. .  There are two types of friction: dry or coulomb friction and fluid friction.8. The present discussion is limited to dry friction between non-lubricated surfaces. Fluid friction applies to fluid mechanics.

Theory of Dry Friction  Consider a block of uniform weight W which is resting on a rough horizontal surface that is non-rigid or deformable. .  Close examination of the contacting surfaces between the floor and block reveals how these frictional and normal forces are developed from a reactive force ∆Rn. upper portion of the block can be considered as rigid.  Floor exerts an uneven distribution of both normal force ∆Nn and frictional force ∆Fn along the contacting surface.

N = W ∑Mo =0 Wx = Ph. For the body shown in the figure to be in equilibrium. . the following must be true: F = P.

After this. FS = msN ms is coefficient of static friction . block is unstable.Impending motion  As P increases. F increases until it attains a maximum value Fs called the limiting static frictional force.  The maximum friction force is attained just before the block begins to move (a situation that is called “impending motion”)  This Fs is directly proportional to the resultant normal force N.

Impending motion  Thus. when the block is on the verge of sliding. the normal force N and frictional force Fs combine to create a resultant Rs From the figure. tan øs = ( Fs / N ) = (ms N / N ) = ms Where øs = angle of static friction (between R s and N) .

. The value of ms depends on the two materials in contact.

Fk = mk N .  Once the block begins to move. the block starts moving. the frictional force typically drops to smaller value Fk called kinetic frictional force. Motion  If the P is increased slightly greater than Fs.

 In this case. the resultant force. Rk has line of action defined by øk (angle of kinetic friction) Fk m k N tan  k   N N tan  k  m k .  Typical values for mk are approximately 25 percent smaller than those listed in Table 8. The value of mk (coefficient of kinetic friction) is less than ms .1 for ms.

The graph shows the variation of the frictional force F versus load P  F is a static frictional force if equilibrium is maintained  F is a limiting static frictional force Fs when it reaches a maximum value needed to maintain equilibrium  F is a kinetic frictional force Fk when sliding occurs at the contacting surface .

81N = 196.3.2 N W = 196. Mass = 20 kg Weight = 20 x 9. The coefficient of static friction is μ = 0. determine if it remains in equilibrium. If a force P = 80N is applied on to the crate.EXAMPLE The uniform crate has a mass of 20kg.2 N .

. SOLUTION Resultant normal force NC act a distance x from the crate’s center line in order to counteract the tipping effect caused by P. 3 unknowns to be determined by 3 equations of equilibrium.

SOLUTION ∑ Fx = 0. 80 cos 30o N – F = 0 F = 69.2 N = O Nc = 236 N Taking moment: ∑ Mo = 0.4 m) .9. -80 sin 30o N + Nc – 196. 80 sin 30o (0.08 mm .3 N ∑ Fy = 0.80 cos 30o (0.2 m) + Nc (x) = O Substituting Nc = 236 N. x = .

SOLUTION Since x is negative.8N Since F = 69. the resultant force Nc acts 9.08 mm (slightly) to the left of the crate’s center line. the crate will not slip . To find the max frictional force which can be developed at the surface of contact: Fmax = μsNC = 0.3(236N) = 70.8N.3N < 70.