w'fmd'i' ^W'fm<& - 2017

fN!;sl úoHdj II meh ;=khs

Wmfoia (
* A fldgfia ishÆ u m%Yakj,g ms<s;=re imhkak'
* B fldgfia m%Yak y;rlg muKla ms<s;=re imhkak'

A fldgi - jHqy.; rpkd
(g = 10 N kg )
−1

''''''''''''

1. rEmfha olajd we;s m˙† H Wilg c,h msrjQ is,skavrhla ;sria ;,hla
h
u; ;nd we;' c, mDIaGfha isg h .eUqrlska tys jl% mDIaGfha l=vd
is≥rla mj;S' H
(a) (i) is≥frka c,h msgjk m%fõ.h v i|yd m%ldYkhla h yd .=re;ajc
;ajrKh g weiqfrka ,nd .kak'
x

(ii) tu m%ldYkh ,nd .ekSu i|yd Tn Ndú; lrk uQ,Or®uh l=ula o@

(iii) tu uQ,Or®uh j,x.= jk ;;a;aj i|yka lrkak'

(b) is≥frka msgjk c,h ;sria mDIaGh u; m;s; jkafka is,skavrfha mduq, isg x ≥rlsks'
(i) c, ìx≥jla is≥fr® isg mDIaGh u; m;s; ùug .;jk ld,h t i|yd m%ldYkhla H, h yd g
weiqfrka ,nd .kak'

(ii) x i|yd m%ldYkhla H yd h weiqfrka ,nd .kak'

[2 jk mssgqj n,kak

. lr h iuÛ x ys úp.kh o< m%ia.ska olajkak' x (cm) 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 h (cm) (iii) tu m%ia.nd.hkag wkqrEm x ys w. c.a is≥frka c.h ms<sn|j .h . -2- (c) (i) H = 20 cm kï j.a w.ukhla i|yka lrkak' (d) by..nd..skavrh hï Wil isg .drh weiqfrka" x w.ajrKh hgf.dfõ isg my<g jeàug ie.a wlaIh isriaj isák fia ksi.=re.drhla u.ajc .kak . yels ks.hhka fidhkak' h (cm) 0 2 4 10 16 18 20 x (cm) (ii) (c) (i) ys .=fõ ±lafjk h w.ek l=ula lsj yels o@ [3 jk mssgqj n.eiajqjfyd.h ms˙ is.hhka Ndú.h msgjk m%fõ.

dj l=ula o@ (iii) fuu m¯laIKh ksjer† wkaoñka is≥ ls¯ug" B k<fha fl<jrg iïnkaO l< hq.='.l s C yqud.shd olajkak' 1.dmh fiùu i|yd YsIHfhl= úiska ieliQ wiïmQr®K wegjqula rEmfha ±lafõ' A ù≥re k<h (a) (i) A k<h" rEmfha ±lafjk m˙† fh°fuka is≥ úh yels m%fhda.dj jeälr .fha jdIamSlrKfha úYsIag .˙ ógrh .kakd mQr®fjdamdh l=ula o@ (d) (i) m¯laIKh is≥lr f. 5.j≥rg. c.a ixfla.=ma.d' L fiùug m%ldYkhla . -3- B ù≥re k<h 2.nd .k hdfï° . 3.˙ ógrh yd uka:h idod we.dj i|yka lrkak' cklh D E le. (d) (i) ys fhdod.kak .˙ ógrh (ii) A k<h ksjer†j fh°fuka" m¯laIKfha° bgqlr .fha jdIamSlrKfha ú'.kakd ñkqï" iqmqre≥ ixfla.ekSu i|yd Tn fhdod .fha ú'.shkak' ^le..d'Od' C o. (ii) by.ska is≥flfrk ldr®hh i|yka lrkak' (c) le.a m¯laIKfha ksrjoH. iuÛ wkqms<sfj<ska .kakd wjYH.= fldgi tys we| kï lrkak' (b) D kï lr" tu.s øjHfha ú'. .' . weiq˙ka c. wmyiq. 2.d'Od' Cw o fõ'& [4 jk mssgqj n. c. 4.dm m˙jrKh lr we.

dal jr®. m.= fldaKh fidhkak' [5 jk mssgqj n. .dal .mh fkdfmkS hhs' (i) tfia ùug fya.s.d m%fhdackj. iïmQr®K lrkak' (ii) .mh .kak .air® fõ' m%siauh we.srh u.j N%uKh ls¯fuka tla.a l< úg wdf.a f.air® lsrKhla m.dal .shkak' (ii) f.=<.k wxlh √2 (= 1.kh f. X yd Y ys msysàï .=K folla ..ïnlj f.s lsrKfha .mh fkdfmkS hk wjia:dfõ° f.r ≥r s kï wm.Kkdjl b.dal .uk fldaKh d we.air® lsrKj.=j l=ula o@ ( ii) d(i) ys i|yka wdf.kh ms<sn|j yeoE¯ug . úh hq.414) jQ ma.i fhdod .rd wjia:djl° wdf.kak' (d) P .efka' (a) (i) f.fha ialkaOh i|yd .air® lsrK Ndú.a wehs@ 3. -4- (e) fuu m¯laIKfha ° yqud.aul ieleiaula rEmfha ±lafõ' tys ABC 50 ° hkq jr®.fhka wdf.l=Kq lrkak' (c) X yd Y w.d ksjer† úh hq.srh u. Y kï ia:dkfha lsrK loïNh iEfok w.r" m%siauh bj.% .ska idod we.air® lsrK m%dfhda.s iDcq P r fldaKs m%siauhls' AB mDIaGhg .dal .s úg wdf.srh fhdod .af.kakd wjia:d folla i|yka lrkak' A f.a m¯laIKd.nd . f.laIHh jgd m%siauh fiñka oCIsKdjr®.a m%ldYkhla r yd s weiqfrka .air® lsrK" úúO fÈa.h b.efnk w.uka u.mh .diaálaj. X kï ia:dkfha iEfoa' B C (b) (i) ° we.slj fhdod .air® lsrKh AC mDIaGh u.srh u.

kh jk wdldrh o< m%ia.k fldaKh w.j mj. oÛr .j mj.shkak' ^iqΩ ls¯ï wjYH fkdfõ'& 4.shkak' (b) α iuÛτ úp.ajd .kh lr we..%hg α fldaKhlska wdk.ajfkdaógrh hkq lïì oÛrh l=uk msysàul .ajh B jQ taldldr pqïnl fÈa.kak .r iïnkaOh ±lafjk m%ldYkhla . lrñka I i|yd m%ldYkhla .e. Ndú.k ksh.s ≥kafka jHjr®.kh jk fldaKh fidhkak' (iv) ta i|yd m%siauh N%uKh l< hq.= fldaKh α kï" α yd AB mDIaGfha jr®.ekSu i|yd Wml%uhla fhdod . -5- (iii) túg lsrKh AB mDIaGfhka jr®. i%dj >k. lr .s ixfla.h A fõ' (a) lïì oÛrfha .=r o Ndú.drhlska olajkak' (c) i.sk úg oÛrh u.k hk fmdgj.ekQ WmlrKhls' (i) tu Wml%uh i|yka lrkak' (ii) lïì oÛrh újr®.%hl .s α B I Odrdjla /f.nd we.shkak' [6 jk mssgqj n.a N iys.h C o" oÛrh N%uKh jQ fldaKh θ o jkafka kï (a) ys ms<s.h ksh.M. l%shd I lrk jHdjr®:h τ i|yd m%ldYkhla ° we. lïì oÛrhla rEmfha ±lafõ' oÛrfha yrialv jr®.h" taldldr pqïnl fÈa.snqK o" τ ys w.

oÛr .af. oÛr .kh ùu m%i.laIKhla .i Ndú. i.u fol i|yka lrkak' 1' 2' (iii) ´ïógrhla f. i|yka idOl flfia fjkia l< hq.sfrdaOh 10 Ω jk w.kak .r m%.kakd m˙udKfha Tn olsk úfYaI .= fjki N A C B (d) i.a whs.e.= wfkl=. = o@ idOl l< hq.fha° fhdod .fs rdaOh iuÛ Bg wkqrEm ´ïógr W.ska uksk m%.dj jeä ls¯u i|yd my.shkak' (iv) ´ïógrh u. lrkafka kï fuh iuÛ iïnkaO l< hq.al%uK Odrdj 100 mA fõ' (i) 1A l Wm˙u Odrdjla uekSug fuh úlrKh l< hq.alu % Kh úp.e. -6- (iii) WmlrKfha ixfõ°.i Ndú.r mQr®K m˙udK W.ajfkdaógrh ´ïógrhla f. a drhlska olajkak' * * [7 jk mssgqj n.ajfkdaógrhl wNHka.a flfia o@ (ii) by.

iq<xfuda.nd .h hgf.ajh ρ iy iq<xfudaf.shr moaO.hg .sh o ú≥.dfõ isg 100 s la wjidkfha ° tu flda◊l .sY.la u.h 36 km h−1 o kï (b) (iii) ys i|yka iS>%.shd olajkak' (iv) iq<xfm.=re imhkak' ±kg mj.ld nef.=< fhdod .ïnj v idudkH m%fõ.s .dNodhs ùu" Yla.a Yla.a úh hq. ls¯fï ° ie<ls.dfjka jeä m%udKhla c..a fkdfõ' tu ksid úl.sh u. fldaKsl m%fõ.a moaO.=˙ka tlls' iq<x Yla.i Lksc f.shla yryd má u.kak .sk n.shkak' (iii) iq<Û i.4 m kï o" jd.s N%uKh jk . fkdi.Kkh lrkak' [8 jk mssgqj n.Kkh lrkak' (c) iq<xfm.fha is≥jk taldldr fkdjk r.s >Qr®Kh" (ii) N%uK moaO.ajh 1.l Yla.Yla. i|yka f√oh lshjd wid we.djg m.sh ksYap.a hk iq<fÛa Yla.= pd..l Yla. fldgi gr®nhsk f.sh hkq iQr®h Yla. ixfla.ajk úg N%uKh jk jg . meñfKk iQr®h úlsrKfhka iqΩ m%.s jk jHdjr®.s whq˙ka Ndú.am Yla.hla jdhqf.xldj .s m˙fNdackh jeäùu ksid c.h" (iii) iq<x yeóu k. yelsùu" m˙ir ¥IKh wju ùu yd uQ.g ms<s.a Yla.sjk >r®IK n.s w.k jdhq ixirK rgd we.ekSfï yelshdj mj.nd .a yereKq úg Y%S .da.= lreKq .s u.ska wjfYdaIKh lrkq .s u.ajrKh" (iii) iq<Û ksid moaO.s Yla.sfõ' fuf.ajrKh" (ii) ksYap.r jqks kï tu >r®IK jHdjr®.a.s wh..h 443.s m%Nj fhdod .la jk neúka fjr<dikak m%foaYj.am Yla.sh i|yd m%ldYkhla r" ρ iy v weiqfrka . ú≥.sfha flda◊l .h jeä †hqKq ls¯u ±kg y∫kd f.= uqΩ Yla.g iïnkaO lr we.hlska iq<Û yukafka hehs o i.ld" 10 s la .ska .s úl..yjqre ù we.h Y=kHfha isg 10 rad s−1 olajd jeäjQfha kï" (i) N%uK wlaIh jgd iq<xfm.s wr®nqohg ms<shï msKsi úl.dj .a m%fõ.h u.k we.sh ksmoùu i|yd fhdod .shkak' (b) iq<xfm.=<° iq<xfm.sh .aùu fya.alu . ialkaOh i.s m%Nj f.=re imhkak' 5. weiqfrka . -7- B fldgi .' iq<f.fha >k.kakd fldaKsl m%fõ.sj.a" ..a fõ' YS% .i y∫kajkq .sh iq<xfuda.ska Odrd cklj.fha >k. >r®IKh l%shd lrkafka hehs i.ska iq<fÛa Yla.a iq<xfm.ska Wlyd .nvd ù we. yels úl.amrhl° lmd y˙k jd. ls¯u wdr®:ßl jYfhka .rlg muKla ms<s.nhs' tys we.sh njg fmr<kq .fha ialkaOh i|yd m%ldYkhla .rpkd (g = 10 N kg ) −1 * m%Yak y...kq .efí' tu ksid jdhqf.nd .ld iq<xfuda.s m%Njh †.52 N m kï moaO.l wrh r o" jd.a Ndú.sh njg m˙jr®. u.s m%Nj folla kï lrkak' (ii) úl. ú≥.sh" úoHq.shhs' mD:ßúh fj.xldfõ ú≥.ajrKh hgf.s lerlefjk úg we.a msysgqùfuka wmf.aOkh wju ùu hk lreKq i.kafka flfiaoehs fidhd ne.sfhka m%fhdackhla .sj.hg .xldj ¥m.s m%Yakj.am Yla.2 kg m−3 o" iq<f. ls¯fï yelshdj" tu l%uh Ndú.a" jr®.a u.Kkh lrkak' (d) iq<xfm.=fldgf..a lr .ld" (i) iq<xfm.efí' úl.sh muKla m%udKj.a.ska úoHq.am Yla.Kk ^wdikak mQr®K ixLHdjg& .a .s iys.su.kafka hehs i.kh ls¯u i|yd iq<xfuda.sl m%d. ú≥.udkfhaa ú≥.ld" (i) >r®IKh ksid we.sh yd iq<xfuda.awÛ=re iy iQr®h Yla.shkak' (ii) tu jd.dj by. my.h .sh wdr®:ßl yd md˙i˙l jákdlula we. l%shdlrk jHdjr®.s wjYH.a' (a) (i) c.a fm..sfha kj fldaKsl .s m%Njhla .l wrh 1.fs hka 80%l m%udKhla iq<xfm.am Yla.kakd iS>%.=ld.ekSfï jeo. wjia:ß.a.a Yla.s m%Njh myiqfjka .am l%u w.S' iq<x i.hla Ndú.SrKh ls¯fï ° tu Yla.r tu iq<xfm..sfhka ms˙uefik kuq.Su jeo.i iq<f.da.efí' Y%S .s m%fNao Ndú.s iq<xfm.=kla .= pd.

s ixLHd.laIHj.h (V) i|yd iólrKhla .g iúlr tys tla fl<jrlg úp.r lïìfha .ld" (i) lïìh m%Njh iuÛ wkqkdo úh yels wjia:dj.ajh 8000 kg m-3 jk w.sh 7 × 10−2 N m−1 fõ' th AB Tiafia .g ú°ug wjYH fõ' jdhqf.15 N fõ' lïìfha †..i i.° øjh bj.ajh m¯Èd ls¯u i|yd msiagkh u.a jQ úg flaYsl Woa. .da..sìh yels Wm˙u w.a ù hdug kï msiagkh u. ksh. -8- 6.slhg yd m<uq Wm˙. ±lafjk tla tla wjia:d hgf.shg . f.ukh h i|yd m%ldYkhla T.s øjHfha hx udmdxlh fidhkak' (ii) lïìh m%Njfhka bj.rj ≥ïu.=< mj.shkak' c.h iy ù≥re i|yd iamr®Y fldaKh Y=kH f.r th . fh†h hq.sh 0.a.day nghla iïnkaO lr id∞ we.d wrh r1 fõ' my.h fldmuK o@ (c) by.lkak'& (i) Z j.. n.ska 0. g iy r weiqfrka .ld Z ys° øjh .kak .h 300 Hz isg 1000 Hz olajd fjkia lrkq .a fldg A fl<j˙ka l. m%pdrK fõ.ejrE fr† lene.h .nd lïìhg iudka. (a) (i) wNHka.49%lska jeä ù we.° øjfha mSvkh fldmuK o@ (iii) X isg B olajd ≥r iuÛ mSvkh fjkia jk wdldrh m%ia. m%fõ.rx. udjlfha jl%.sriaj .d hdug wdikak wjia:dfõ mj.h h weiqfrka fidhkak' (iv) h1 iuÛ r1 fjkia jk wdldrh m%ia. (c) (ii) ys uQ.=<ska .h 350 m s-1 iy wd..ska øjh bj.a úg th . yels c.dr .s is˙kachla rEmfha ±lafõ' A Z B X Y ß wd.g wkqrEm ixLHd.diaála nghl fl<jrg yrialv úIalïNh 1 mm l taldldr is≥rla iys. YZ isyska f. l< ixfla.nd. fidhkak' (ii) ° we.s øjfha mDIaGl is˙kacfha l%shdld˙. mSvkh = 1 × 105 N m−2 fõ' ^isyska ngh yd øjh w.ïm lr B fl<jr ksoyiaj .fha isriaj .sriaj fofl<jr wp.S hehs i.=<u lïìfha B<Û Wm˙. k<hg ir®jiu fjk.laIHj. udjlfha yevh we| olajkak ( (I) h1 = h (II) h1 < h (III) h1 > h (iii) h1 i|yd .S hehs i.i mj.Sr®hla ..ajd .=< we. y∫kajkak' (b) m%Njh jdfka lïìh A B rEmfha olajd we. ρ.h .hla fh°fuka øjh isyska ngfhka bj.dkhg w∞< ixLHd.efí' jdfkaj.rx.g ..lska lïìh ms˙ue°fï ° lïìh yryd hefjk . mrdih .r wrh r jk ms˙is≥ ù≥re flaYsl k<hla c. m%fõ.shkak' Ndú.' m%Njfha ixLHd.r iamr®Y fldaKh Y=kH hehs i.Sr®hla .a my< c. lrkak' (iv) Z j.dr . >k.h fidhkak' (iii) by.lkak' (ii) by.Kkh lrkak' [9 jk mssgqj n. (a) we† lïìhla .= wju n. iDcq jdfka lïìhla .Kkh lrkak' 7. . lrkak' (b) yrialv úIalïNh 10 mm jk taldldr ma.s m˙† 0·5 m †.rx.. .=< isriaj .s w.sìh yels Wm˙u w. l|l Wi h1 o túg my< c.dkh o ks¯CIKh l< yelsùu i|yd lïìfha wd.a flaYsl k<hla jd.j.ehs i.s.nd we.H ixLHd.ld" (i) lïìh id∞ we. (b) (i) ys lïìh tys fkdwe≥kq †.=< mSvkh fidhkak' (ii) Y yd X .. m%Njhla iïnkaO lr we.

%h .kak' (d) m%fõ.=<ska .=<g msúfik wdfrdamK PdhdrEm .a whk" tlsfklg . úoHq..% .a fÈa.a q wdfrdamKhla i.=< .ïn f.% (Velocity Separator) .ajdlr®IK n.uka ls¯fï° tys p.hla ^m:hla& olajhs o@ (ii) tu p.ld y˙kak'& (iv) FE > FB .%hla .s jk n. E yd B weiq˙ka .ajfhka × ×V × × × .a pqïnl fÈa.yvqj - fuh B0 i%dj >k. s q wdfrdamKhla iys.a whk ksl=.s lrhs' l=vd × × × × × × × × is≥r × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × + + + + + + + ++ + × × × × × × × × × × × × V × × × × × × × × × × B× × q→ • B0 P ÷ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × → − − − − − − − − −− × × × × × × × × whk × × × × × × × × → m%Njh m%fõ.a fÈa. úúO ia:dkj. wxY=jla fCIa. ls%hdj.a WmlrKhls' fuys m%Odk fldgia .%hla we.sl úoHdfõ° Ndú.ksñka mrudKql fN!. fkdi.hg . iajNdjhg ^m:hg& fya.%h . fõ kï" m/q i|yd m%ldYkhla d.kak .%hg V m%fõ. FE < FB iy FE = FB jQ úg wdfrdamKh .i we.=Ω fõ' wdfrdams. meye†.h FE i|yd × × × × × m%ldYkhla . m.amkh lrkak'& (e) by.. hehs Wml.s fÈa. m%fõ.%h .kh jk úg th u.yvqj u.sj .% .ska wdfrdams.a fÈa.h % la .a ùug iy tfia fkdùug imqrd .d .s jk pqïnl n.sl úoHdfõ° iuia:dksl fjka ls¯u i|yd Ndú.h FB i|yd m%ldYkhla . whk P is≥frka bj.sjk n..a fCIa. fjkalrKhg V m%fõ.sh hq. wxY=j u.=<g we.s taldldr pqïnl fÈa. jk jeo. úh' óg fya.ïnlj B i%dj >k.nd. we.a yd pqïnl fÈa.=j l=ula o@ (iii) by.a m%.j.=<ska heùfuka ksYaÑ.kak' ta i|yd (a) (iv) ys Tn . ù ixfõok we.fhka Bg wNs. rEmfha m˙† Ok f.yvqj u.s.s.s.yvqj u.shkak' E (ii) wdfrdams. fhdok n.= wjYH.a lrhs' (Ion Source) (2) m%fõ.=kls' (1) whk m%Njh - úúO m%fõ.ajhla we. B0.ska hq.j.yvqj by. wxY=j u.dj E jQ taldldr úoHq. we.kshs' (3) PdhdrEm .Sj. hq.hla iys.l=Kq lrkak' ^.nd .g .=j l=ula o@ ^tu wxY=j. wxY=j × × × × × úoaHq.%h .s. × × × × × × × × fjkalrKh PdhdrEm→ × × × × × × × × . -9- B 8. fjkalrKfhka B0 fÈa.=Ω jk whk PdhdrEm . ye.=Ω jk m ialkaOfhka hq.r" fuu fÈa. lrkak' (c) ±ka B0 taldldr pqïnl fÈa.ska hq.uka lrk wdfrdams. P isg d ≥rlska msyá s ia:dkhl m.luq' (i) fuu wdfrdamKh B0 fÈa.=< (Photographic Plate) mj. †Ydjg . we. fjkalrKh - fjkia m%fõ.ïnlj we.ajk q wdfrdamKhla P is≥frka bj.sj%.sh mrudKql fN!. q wdfrdamKh PdhdrEm .s.sj we| olajkak' (b) ialkaO fNao or®Ylh (Mass Spectrometer). whk m%Njfhka ksl=.fhka we.%h u.i wdfrdam.shkak' (iii) q wdfrdamKh p.uka lrk m: meye†.=<g Bg .fhka we.=<° l=uk wdldrfha p.s lrhs' × × × × × (a) (i) úoHq. m.%hla yd i%dj >k.=re.a ù m%fõ.%hla .ïnlj V m%fõ. mokï lr .afla flfia o@ [10 jk mssgqj n. % dj E jk × × × × × taldldr úoHq.nd .sM.=. wdfrdamKh q ksh.ajh B jQ taldldr pqïnl fÈa.s. Ndú.sk w. wxY= u.

hq.h B oyj.ajk úg" ^I& C ys úNjh wdikak jYfhka l=ula o@ ^II& RC ys w.afõ' .ajd .s wdfrdamKhg l=ula is≥fõ ±hs .a wNHkA.' ° we.slka g%dkaisiagrhla LED 2 V.r m%.jo R = R2 úg LED n.anfha w.Kkh ls¯ulska f.h wdikak jYfhka fidhkak' (ii) R = R1 úg LED n.s úNj udkh .afjk úg g%dkaisiagrh ix.Dma..=r myokak' (b) S iaúph újD..nvd ù we.=.%lj.aÜógrhla imhd we.=r myokak' VCC = 10 V (B) (a) wdf.aùug isiqfjl= úiska is.e.f s rdaOh Q S X A fkd.sfrdaOh fkd.k †.anh wv w∫fr®° o kshudldrfhka o.%lj. 20 mA Ndú. w. ls¯u u.10 - 9.anh kshdudldrfhka ±.Kkh lf<a kï (c) (i) ys ms<s.anh ±. l< úg Od˙.sfrdaOfha w.d hk Odrdj B Y .s wdfrdamKh fjkiafõ o@ Tnf.kd we.fha° muKla LED n..nd.°' fuu m%. .r m%..af.d'n' 2V jk t<jqï fldaIhlska iy 1m †.sfrdaOhla iys.s◊h yels fldaI .=ru .h fldmuK o@ (ii) úNj udkh fjkqjg by.ajd .2 Ω 3V (A) rEmfha ±lafjkafka wNHka. l< úg .sfrdaOlh yryd úNj wka.rh uekSug úNj udkhla yd m˙ñ.' (i) LED n.sksh yels ú'.dal ixfõ° m%.s% ld.a ù we.s úg" 3V (i) tla tla fldaIh yryd .r" rd.aÜ ógrh Ndú.Kkh lrkak' P 2Ω 4Ω (ii) tla tla Od˙. .anh kshudldrfhka o.s% ld.r R m%.ska rd.efí o@ Tfí ms<s.anhla RB = 500k Ω RC ±. wjia:djg meñK we. lrf.nvd ù we.s 2 V 4Ω C wdfrdamK fldmuK o@ (iii) m%. yelsh' ^I& R1 iy R2 ii|kak' ^II& Tfí ms<s.kak .sfrdaOfha w. fjda.drj meye†.enqKq ix.a ld.sksh yels lïìhlska X yd Y iïnkaO l< úg Od˙.d l=vdjk w. lr .%l moaO.fha° E LDR tys w.aùug kï LED n.dal ixfõ° m%.h M Ω lSmhl úYd.ekam.sh bj.=h' túg ta yryd . m%.fha° b.rhla mj.a ms<s.afldg P yd Q w.=kla iys. fjda. (A) fyda (B) fldgig muKla ms<. .s taldldr lïìhlsks' (i) úNj udkh Ndú.anh >k w∫fr®° muKla kshudldrfhka ±. s r = e imhkak' 1.% w.= olajkak' [11 jk mssgqj n.%lfha ..sfrdaOh fkd.hla olajd jeäfõ' n. m˙m:hls' 3μ F 2μ F C1 C2 (a) m˙m:fha S iaúph jid we.k ksr®udKh l< m˙m:hla rEmfha R C ±lafõ' LDR wdf.=rg fya.sfrdaOlhla iïnkaO lr S iaúph jik .r 2V úNj wka. 60 cm jQfha kï R m%.sfrdaOlhla (LDR) Ndú.k Odrdj 20 mA fõ' LED n.s lrkak' (c) Od˙.a mdGdxlh weiqfrka R .

7 V.ajh iy O%eùh.aÜgqjla újD.aàh.dfõ úYd.k w.kak .dard . .nd °ug fikr® vfhdavhla Ndú.ska kslf a uk wdf.=j l=ula o@ (vi) by.s.aàh.a fikr® vfhdavfha Èu.r túg ta yryd úNj neiau 6V ls' LDR u.djla (VB) .dal úfudapl vfhdavfhka (LED) ksl=. ksh.d fol w.sfrdaOh wvq w.11 - (b) my.sfrdaOh (LDR) u.5 W kï" (I) th yryd heúh yels Wm˙u Odrdj fidhkak' (II) túg R2 ys w.dj .s úg" wdf..aul jr®Olfha wmjr®..sh hq. ls¯fï° ksji .ekSu i|yd fhdod . jk úg ksjfia iúfldg we.k fkdjk w.aÜgqj újD. 4.s nirh ^iSkqj& kdo fõ' +12 V R1 R4 +12 V LED LDR R2 BUZZER A + Q R3 B - R5 -12 V f. m.sfrdaOlfha w.hla jk w.dalh LDR u.ajk wdf.%h fj.i l%shd lrhs' (i) LED oe.djla f.r túg th yryd úNj neiau 9V ls' ldrld.Aàh.dalhg muKla ksrdjrKh jk úg" LDR ys m%.dj (VA) iuÛ iei∫ï fjda. ±lafjkafka ksjil f. m. fjda.= o@ (II) Tfí ms<s..dalh iïmQr®Kfhkau wdf.hla jk w..s.ekSug fya.aàh.dal ixfõ° m%. fikr® vfhdavj.sfrdaOh jeä w.s lrkak' (v) (I) m˙m:fhka is≥jk ldr®hh imqrd.=r meye†.Su i|yd 2.= o@ (II) Tfí f. (v) (I)ys fhdod .8 V yd 6.afjk úg th yryd . (II) VA < VB jk úg Q ys fjda.k Odrdj 10 mA o túg th yryd úNj neiau 2V o fõ kï R1 m%.aÜgqj jid we. wdf. yels wdrlaIl m˙m:hls' f. fkdjk úg tys m%.dard .s.d iys. fkdjk úg A ys úNjh fidhkak' (iii) (I) VA > VB .ska l=ula f.dalh m.%fhys fjda..=< isák wfhl=g ta nj ±k .shd olajkak' (iv) (I) m˙m:fha iSkqj kdo ùug" (iii)ys i|yka wjYH. hq.aàh. flfr®' th wmjr®. fõ' LED ys wdf.h fldmuK o@ [12 jk mssgqj n.h fidhkak' (ii) LED u.8 V hk fikr® fjda.=˙ka l=ula imqrd.dj 0.

nd we.˙ógrhla .dr.M.dm Od˙. a drhg we¢ iamr®Ylfha wkqlu% Kh 3·6°C min-1 ÷ bá .dmh .h 20 min ÷ iïmQr®Kfhka bá øjùfuka fudfyd.sl .lafg%dak i|yd kej.h = 6·63 × 10-34 J s wdf.dmh wjfYdaIKh lrk YS>%.dm Od˙.dm Od˙.g 1 s ° m.a. .rd wjia:djlg miq bá øj f.ska muKla bf.ajh by< fkdhk nj.s fµdafgdakj.hkfha úYsIag .=ma.air® m%Njh u.aj ld.aj i|yka lrkak' (b) by.°' ta weiq˙ka w¢k .ska taldldrj bá r. úYsIaG .j≥rg.Kkh lrkak' (B) úYd.rx.a. jk fµdafgdak ixLHdj lSh o@ ^ms<s. ±lafõ' ^m˙ir WIaK.ajh 62̊C ÷ bá ksh.dj 0·9 fõ' . lf<a kï" (i) f.drh Ndú.alr jdIam ùu wdrïN ùug fmr fudfyd. ú.dj l=ula o@ (iv) øj báj.sk nj.iu mj.hla u.Kkh lrkak' (v) by.nd.=r m<uq oYuia:dkhg ±laùu m%udKj...enqKq f.lafg%dakhl wdfrdamKh = 1·6 × 10-19 C ma.ajh .ajh 30˚C úh'& ÷ bá øj ùu wdrïN ùug fudfyd.=K wdor®Ykh i|yd isiqfjla m¯CIKhla ie.=j my∞ ° tu fkdief.. m%i.dj 60 J kg¯1 jQ le.lafg%dak ixLHdj lSh o@ (iv) m%ldY Odrdj .=<g bá 100 g oud 100 W l .h = 3 × 108 m s-1 π = 3 f.fhka báj.kakd ksh.dfmdfrd.Kkh lrkak' ^ms<s.lkak' (a) (i) m%ldY .dmh imhk úg tla.Kkh lrkak' (iii) foay.a m˙irhg .a lr mdGdxl .davh u.=ï úNjh .amrhg ksl=.h iuÛ WIaK.x. .dj fldmuKo@ (iii) tu fudfydf.g .s.a .k Odrdj .drhg we¢ iamr®Ylfha wkql%uKh 4·8 ̊C min-1 by.h 0·4 cm2 jQ wkdjrlhla rEmfha olajd we.ska 20%la u.amrhl° m.CIHdldr m%Njhls' thska úlsrKh jk ..fhka .h 5·2 × 1014 Hz jk úg úfudapkh jk bf. .kh jQ úg loïnfha we.dj 1800 J kg¯1 K¯1 fõ' (i) báj.ajfha mj.dmh ydks jk iS>%. (A) fyda (B) fldgig muKla ms<. WIaK.lg fmr m%i.j. jk fµdafgdak ixLHdj .lg miq m%ia.Kkh lrkak' * * * .amrhl ° wkdjrlfhka ksl=. m. a drh w¢kak' (c) YsIHhd .nd .M.ajh uksk .dm m%Njhla u.°' thg fya.CIHdldr m%Njh fjkqjg .dkala ksh.a >k báj.sh ixLHd.dal loïnhla Ndú. fN!. .a lrk fµdafgdak ixLHdj .Kkh lrkak' (iii) m%ldY wkdjrlfha ldr®hCIu. olajd ld. wdhduh 6000̊A yd CIu. úYsIag .= úh yels WIaK.srh × D S m%ldY ixfõ† wkdjrlh 10m S taljr®K .°' n.sk ld.lafg%dak ksoyia flfr® kï m%ldY fldaIfhka msg..dj 0·1 W jk tla.srfha ueo talSh jr®.12 - 10.s m˙† ..a fõ'& (ii) wkdjrlfha iïmQr®K jr®.Kkh lrkak' (b) S taljr®K .air® wdf.i i.g .=r m<uq oYuia:dkhg ±laùu m%udKj.srfha uOHfha mDIaGßl jr®.ska .dalh m%ldY fldaIhl iSishï lef.s.h u. . kshuh Ndú.a fõ'& (ii) fuu wdf.rd f.a ks¯CIKh lrk .' bf. m¯CIKfha øj báj.lg fmr" bá iy le.a WIaK.kakd .k WIaK.dj 10 W fõ' .iqï lrhs' ta wkqj >k bá taldldrj r.dj yd báj.k kshuh m%ldY lrkak' th j. fhd∞ . wdhduh 490 nm yd CIu.=re my.M.= jk .rx. WIaK.dalfha m%fõ.˙ ógrh . øjdxlh l=ula o@ (ii) bá øj ùu weröug fudfyd.rx.a jk m%ldY bf. s r = e imhkak' (A) (a) ksõgka isis.o m%ia.