Voice and Data Delivery Networks

Chapter 11

Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter you should be able to:

 Identify the basic elements of a telephone system.
 Differentiate between the composition of the telephone companies before the 1984 Modified
Final Judgment and after the 1984 judgment.
 Describe the difference between a local exchange carrier and an interexchange carrier.
 Differentiate between the role of the local telephone company before the
Telecommunications Act of 1996 and after the 1996 act.
 Describe the basic characteristics of a dial-up Internet connection
 List the types of leased lines that are available and their basic characteristics
 Identify the main characteristics of digital subscriber line, and recognize the difference
between a symmetric system and an asymmetric system
 Identify the main characteristics of a cable modem
 List the basic characteristics of frame relay, such as permanent virtual circuits and committed
information rate
 Identify the main characteristics of asynchronous transfer mode including the roles of the
virtual path connection and the virtual channel connection, the importance of the classes of
service available, and ATM’s advantages and disadvantages
 Describe the concept of convergence, and identify several examples of it in the networking
industry
 Identify the impact that MPLS and Metro Ethernet are having on frame relay and ATM
services.

Chapter Outline
1. Introduction

2. The Basic Telephone System
a. Telephone lines and trunks
b. The telephone network before and after 1984
c. Telephone networks after 1996
d. Limitations of telephone signals
e. Dial-up Internet service

For example. Committed Information Rate or Service Level Agreements 7. Convergence a. Computer-Telephony Integration (CTI) b. systems that were designed to transfer data. MPLS and VPNs 9. On such system is computer telephony integration (CTI). Prices b. such as voice mail. Summary Lecture Notes Introduction Today. which was originally designed for both voice and data. . a combination local area networks and the telephone system that is capable of providing telephone services. Unified Communications 11. Advantages and Disadvantages of ATM 8. Cable Modems 5. DSL formats 4. such as database systems and electronic mail over a single set of wires. Just knowing data networks is no longer sufficient. and the line between data networks and telecommunication systems is blurring at an alarming rate. In addition. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) a. is another example of a system that is adept at transferring both forms of signals. computers are starting to take over the voice portion of communications. ATM Classes of Service b. T-1 Leased Line Service 6. such as frame relay and the Internet. Summary of Data Delivery Services 10. Digital Subscriber Line a. Telecommunications Systems In Action: A Company Makes a Service Choice a. DSL basics b. are now transmitting voice with various degrees of success. Frame Relay a. Making the choice 12. Asynchronous transfer mode.3. many businesses are installing single systems that can support both voice and data over the same circuits. and typical computer applications.

000 bps modems: digital signaling was introduced. One leased line service is the 56K leased line. Frame Relay .000 bits per second is the T1 (or T-1) service. that can be used to connect a computer into a remote network system: T-1 digital telephone lines.000 bps modem was announced. It wasn’t until the 1980s that POTS began carrying computer data signals as well as voice signals. cable television networks. and high-speed data transfer services such as public data networks.Basic Telephone Systems The basic telephone system. POTS carried more data than voice. POTS was an analog system capable of supporting a voice conversation. remote databases.600 bps modem was announced. other than the traditional dial-up modem. and cable modems. perhaps one that does not need to be dialed at all but is constantly connected. or POTS. Even though POTS has seen a number of technological changes. The growth of data became so large that near the end of the 20th century. During most of those years. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). Alternatives to Dial-up Modems. Dial-up Internet Connections Approximately two years after the 33. T-1 Leased Line Services Businesses require permanent high-speed connections to connect themselves to the Internet and to access other businesses. Each of these transmission technologies requires a particular kind of device that converts the digital data of a computer to the proper form for transmission. such as the increasing use of digital signals in place of analog signals. These users desire a faster circuit.600 was the fastest a modem would transmit)? The experts were correcttwo important facts changed with the 56. Did something change to allow the faster transmission speed. POTS is still basically a voice carrying medium. A second option for companies requiring a data rate faster than 56. and the signal power level was increased. has been in existence since the early 1900s. the 56.DSL and Cable Modems There are five alternative transmission technologies available. One possible solution is to lease a dedicated line from the telephone company. or were the industry experts wrong (that 33. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).

the customer only needs to transmit his or her data over a local link to a nearby frame relay station. and MCI offer frame relay service over most of the country. such as AT&T. Other unique features of ATM include a small cell size (53 bytes). Running the appropriate telephony operations on a workstation computer. Sprint. The transfer rates are as fast as 622 Mbps with even faster speeds possible. CTI combines the power of computer systems with the services of a telephone network. Most long distance telephone companies. while leased line is better quality. thus creating modern voice and data applications that run on computer systems. and quality of service options. The frame relay network is responsible for transmitting the user’s data across the network and delivering it to the intended destination site. a user can perform typical telephone operations by clicking in a window of a program. support for a wide range of traffic types. Quick Quiz 1. similar to frame relay. 2. CTI integrates the PBX phone switch with computer services. What is the difference between a POTS line and a leased line? POTS line is voice-grade. is a relatively new high speed. Convergence Convergence in the telecommunications industry is constant. A business that wants to send data between two points (either within a building or across the country) at very high transfer rates might consider using ATM. Once the service is established. Asynchronous Transfer Mode Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). One form of convergence is Computer Telephony Integration (CTI). What is frame relay used for? . packet switched service that is offered by the telephone companies. CTI is an exciting field that combines more traditional voice networks with modern computer networks. dial-up.Frame relay is a packet switched network that was designed for transmitting data over fixed lines (not dial-up lines). always on. Telecommunications Systems In Action: A Company Makes a Service Choice The In Action example for this chapter chronicles a company and how they decide to select a frame relay service over other types of long distance data communication services.

What is asynchronous transfer mode used for? Asynchronous transfer mode is also a high speed data packet transfer service but can support a wide variety of traffic types at very high transfer speeds. . fiber optic lines? 2. Will the distinction between local telephone calls and long distance telephone calls ever disappear? What may cause this to happen? 3. the port charge. Emphasize the three costs involved with a frame relay service: the PVC. 3. What are the primary uses of digital subscriber line and cable modems? They both are used to provide home and business users with high speed connections into the Internet. Will frame relay someday pass into obscurity along with token ring LANs? 4. but using modern technology this loop can be extended to carry many more channels (such as used in DSL). 4. Frame relay can also carry voice now. and the telecommunications line that connects the office to the frame relay network. Emphasize that the local telephone loop normally carries two channels of voice for a regular telephone line (one channel for each direction of traffic).Frame relay is a high speed data packet transfer service for local and long distance. Will the telephone companies ever replace all copper telephone lines with digital. What do you envision as some possible future applications of computer telephony integration? Teaching Tips 1. 3. Emphasize the importance of the Modified Final Judgment of 1984 and its effect on long distance service and the Telecommunications Act of 1996 and its effect on local telephone service. Be sure to demonstrate an example of a business with at least three sites scattered across the country and how they can use either T1 lines or frame relay service to interconnect. Discussion Topics 1. 2.

Using the web pull up some local advertisements for digital subscriber line service.600 bps modems? . Have the students go to web sites such as http://www. Why are the 56 kbps modems faster than the older 33. is most commonly found between telephone central offices. Breakup of AT&T.telcoexchange. definition of LATAs. or any others.com to determine local availability. 5. List the most important results of the Modified Final Judgment of AT&T. cable modem service.decide.4. What two entities does a local loop connect? A home or business to the nearest central office. 7. Incumbent local telephone companies must open up their local telephone lines to new. What is a LATA? Local Area Transport Area – Regions of the country that define local telephone calls and long distance telephone calls. How does a trunk differ from a telephone line? A trunk carries multiple telephone signals. What is the difference between a local exchange carrier and an interexchange carrier? Local exchange carrier provides a local telephone service while interexchange carrier provides a long distance telephone service. 9. 4. and is not associated with a single telephone number. 6. What is the typical frequency range for the human voice? 200 Hz to 3500 Hz (a range of 3300 Hz) 3. 2. opening up of long distance lines. 8.com or http://www. long distance providers as well as anyone else can now offer local telephone service. What is the plain old telephone system (POTS)? The standard telephone system that enters most homes and businesses. List the most important results of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. is usually digital. competitive local telephone companies. Solutions to Review Questions 1.

11. lowered power levels. 12. several Mbps for commercial users. How do you create a frame relay permanent virtual circuit? Ask the frame relay carrier to create the circuit. 14. long distance. 15. How does a frame relay switched virtual circuit differ from a permanent virtual circuit? The switched virtual circuit can be created by the user. What are the basic features and transfer speeds of cable modems? Always on connection. . high speed. What are the basic services of a T-3 line? All digital.544 Mbps total data rate. speeds up to a few Mbps. synchronous time division multiplexing. 16. 18. 19. What are the basic characteristics of frame relay? Digital. always on. 10. while leased line is better quality. packet switched. What are the basic features and transfer speeds of DSL? Always on connection. 17. can support up to 24 separate telephone lines. data (primarily) and voice transmission service. speeds up to 1 Mbps for residential users. and analog / digital conversions. What features make frame relay so attractive? All the answers in Question 14 are advantages. Why don’t the 56 kbps modems transmit at 56 kbps? Too much noise. synchronous time division multiplexing. 13. 45 Mbps total data rate. 1. dial-up. How does a leased line service differ from POTS? POTS line is voice-grade. What are the basic features of a T-1 line? All digital.They use digital signaling techniques.

What are the basic features of ATM? Fast.20. Since PVCs are virtual circuits. 21. complex. Yes. high and low-speed data. voice. What is the relationship between an ATM virtual channel connection and a virtual path connection? Carrier creates the virtual path and the customer can create one or more virtual channels over the virtual path. 23. the carrier will guarantee a certain percentage rate of packets delivered. How does frame relay compare to sending data over the Internet? Frame relay is more secure. music. but costs more. Corporate systems that require people to use the phone extensively. What technologies are threatening the use of frame relay and ATM? MPLS (multi protocol label switching) and VPNs (virtual private networks) . Is it possible to have more than one PVC over a physical line? Explain. 26. 24. 28. such as retail order taking and customer service. What is established when a customer and a frame relay service agree on a committed information rate? If the user keeps the data transfer rate under a certain value. faster. expensive. What happens when a user transmits data faster than the agreed upon committed information rate? The user’s frames will be marked and may be discarded if the network becomes congested. 22. Describe some applications that incorporate computer telephony integration. What is meant by the ATM classes of service? ATM can support a wide range of traffic types. wide range of traffic types. 25. 27. the physical circuit is capable of supporting multiple virtual circuits. WAN (mostly) and LAN. and more. such as video.

will the friend hear high quality music? If not. The FCC was created to watch over interstate telephone systems b. Customers could choose between different long distance telephone providers f. because the telephone is designed to transmit signals with a relatively small bandwidth (4000 Hz).Suggested Solutions to Exercises 1. what kind of telephone call have you placed? What kind of telephone company handles this telephone call? Long distance telephone call. 3. Interexchange carrier (IEC). Cable television companies could provide local telephone service e. the telephone system allocates two 4000 Hz channels. 4. What do you estimate is the bandwidth of a local loop? Since the human voice has a bandwidth of approximately 3300 Hz. How many different area codes are currently available? What would you suggest to increase the number of telephone numbers? First digit can be 2-9 (8 combinations). The telephone line that connects your house or business to the central office (the local loop) carries your conversation and the conversation of the person to whom you are talking. so 8 * 10 * 10 = 800 possible area codes. 6. trunk. trunk. AT&T had to sell off its local telephone companies c. If you play a CD for a friend over the telephone. State whether each of the following was a result of the Modified final Judgment of 1984. or neither: a. 5. Go to a longer telephone number (more digits). AT&T split off its technology division. the Telecommunications Act of 1996. 2. or 8000 Hz altogether. For each of the following scenarios. The LATA was created d. which became Lucent . Many within the telephone industry feel we will eventually run out of area codes and telephone numbers. state whether a telephone line or a trunk should be used: The connection from your home to the local telephone company The connection between a large company’s PBX and the telephone company The connection between two central offices Line.000 Hz. If you place a telephone call and it leaves your LATA and enters another LATA. Music CDs require a bandwidth approaching 20. why not? No. and second and third digits can be 0-9 (10 combinations each).

Do you have to install your own telephone lines to each house and business? Explain.92 modem rather than the older V. The next day.000 bps. like 56k modems. Internet service providers may not want you to use this because then you can stay connected for long periods of time and not worry about missing incoming voice calls. If you install a 56 kbps modem into your computer and dial into a remote network that only has 33. neither 7. you dial in to an Internet service provider different from the one used in the previous question. not uploading. Why would you want to use the newer V. analog / digital conversions. No. 9. 1996. Cable modems. The ISP might have an older modem.92 modem can pause a data connection if an incoming voice call arrives. and why doesn’t this asymmetric connection affect the average Web user? An asymmetric connection is one in which the downstream data transfer speed is higher than the upstream speed. 1984. is your modem useless? No.000 bps. since the average Web user is usually downloading lots of data (web pages).neither. 8.90? Why might an online Internet service not want you to use the V. What are the basic functions of a cable modem? . Once connected. 11. there is an additional analog/digital conversion somewhere in the circuit 13. This time you get connected at 24. This is common. Why not 56k bps? List all possible reasons.92 modem? The V. the 56k modem will fallback to the appropriate speed. 1984. What does this mean. create asymmetric connections.600 bps modems. You dial in to your Internet service provider using your 56k modem. 14. Could there be different reasons for this slower connection? Explain your response. Telecommunications Act of 1996 says we can lease equipment and lines from existing local telephone companies (ILECs). You want to start your own local telephone company. your data rate is shown as 42. 1984. What type of telephone service do you use to connect a PBX to a central office if you want to allow 40 users to dial out simultaneously? You most likely would use two T-1s. Noise. or two Primary ISDNs. 12. FCC requiring a lower power level. 10.

if you have a Web server on site. your frames that exceed the CIR of 256k + burst rate of 128k may be discarded. 2-3 miles is maximum distance for DSL. 17. You live in a house that is ten miles from the nearest city. Will you be able to get DSL service to your home? If the answer is no. Or maybe offer a wireless solution. 21. do you just pick up the telephone and dial the number of the party you want to connect to? Explain. What will happen to your data? Probably nothing. Give an example in which someone would want to use a symmetric DSL service? If the upstream load is the same as the downstream load. In a DSL service. Once established. splits the signal between computer and television 15. If the frame relay network experiences congestion. what is the function of the DSLAM? Combines regular phone signals with Internet data. You have established a frame relay connection with a committed information rate of 256 kbps and a burst rate of 128 kbps. No. and the downstream in asymmetric is sometimes bigger than the downstream in symmetric. Itemize the different charges that you will have to pay for this connection. Several times a day your computer systems transmit in excess of 512 kbps. provides cable television. 19. If you have a frame relay service installed. the carrier establishes the PVC for the customer. its always there. but not likely. what could the DSL service provider do to provide you with DSL? More than likely not. .Provides high speed access to the Internet. Telephone lines (two) to connect Chicago and New York offices to frame relay network. But service provider could run fiber optic cable to your neighborhood. 20. Assuming the frame relay service is providing a PVC. What is the main advantage of asymmetric DSL over symmetric DSL? Very often cheaper. Port charges (two) – one in Chicago and one in New York. you would be uploading as much data (if not more) than you would be downloading). Suppose you want to have a frame relay connection between your Chicago office and your New York office. 18. For example. 16. PVC to connect between Chicago and New York.

Draw a simple sketch that shows each virtual channel connection. What exactly does frame relay do if a frame is garbled and produces a checksum error? Drops the frame. 27. 23. online database service. Many possible solutions here. All data is transmitted in 53-byte cells. frame relay. Internet. forwarding calls. CBR or VBR. Describe a business or school application that would benefit from unified communications. frame relay. helpdesks. on to a second network entity. For each of the following activities. and then to your desired destination. One of the disadvantages of ATM is the “5-byte cell tax. ABR or UBR. 26. CBR or VBR. 25. fax retrieval.” Explain what the 5-byte cell tax means. How can a local area network support telephone operations using CTI? Telephone functions such as answering calls.22. 24. voice mail services. frame relay or the Internet: sending email sending high speed data interactive voice communications receiving a live video stream participating in a chat room or newsgroup Internet. Telemarketing. 28. information centers . conference calls. and providing user with a menu of options can all be performed on a workstation connected to a LAN. You have an ATM connection that goes from your location to a network entity. frame relay. and each cell has 48-bytes of data with a 5-byte header. State which ATM class of service would best support each of the following applications: email with image attachments interactive video simple text email voice conversation VBR or ABR. The 5-byte header is the “tax”. state which is the better transmission medium.

located in Memphis. A company wants to connect two offices. 3. you might need a CBR service.Thinking Outside the Box 1. access their voice mail. More than likely in both cases a frame relay solution is the most economical. What kind of system would allow this? Describe the necessary hardware and software components.. e-mail. color ultrasound images between the main hospital and an outpatient clinic … Sounds like high-capacity data transfers in real-time. and data files. and Laramie. Long distance T-1s are very pricey. Tennessee. If you do this continuously. You will need a system that is capable of supporting both voice calls and data transfers. high-resolution. best handled by ATM. You are consulting for a hospital that wants to send three-dimensional. Your company wants to create an application that allows employees to dial in from a remote location and. otherwise you can probably get by with a RT-VBR. Wyoming. .. 2. Which is the less expensive solution . using a single connection. You will want to consider some form of CTI. The offices need to transfer data at 512 kbps.