The Internet

Chapter 10

Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter you should be able to:

 Discuss the responsibilities of the Internet Protocol (IP) and how IP can be used to create a
connection between networks.
 Discuss the responsibilities of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and how it can be
used to create a reliable end-to-end network connection.
 Identify both IPv4 addresses and IPv6 addresses.
 Identify the relationships between TCP/IP and the protocols ICMP, UDP, ARP, DHCP, NAT,
and tunneling protocols.
 Describe the responsibility of the Domain Name Service and how it converts a URL into a
dotted decimal IP address.
 Describe the major Internet applications and services.
 Discuss the business advantages of the World Wide Web.
 Recognize that the Internet is constantly evolving and that IPv6 and Internet2 demonstrate
that evolution.

Chapter Outline
1. Introduction

2. Internet Protocols
a. The Internet Protocol (IP)
b. The Internet Protocol version 6
c. The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
d. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
e. User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
f. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
g. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
h. Network Address Translation (NAT)
i. Tunneling protocols and virtual private networks (VPNs)

3. The World Wide Web
a. Locating a document on the Internet
b. Creating Web pages

Internet telephony. The Future of the Internet 7. and streaming audio and video. turns an unreliable sub-network into a reliable network. Cookies and state information b. provided by software called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). User Datagram Protocol (UDP). a host of protocols are necessary. free from lost and duplicate packets. but it is actually much more. is the file transfer protocol (FTP). Internet Protocols Although many protocols are necessary to support the operation of the Internet. electronic mail. and still one of the more popular offered on the Internet. the User . which allows a user to upload or download files. and Blogs 5. File transfer protocol (FTP) c. several stand out as the most common: Internet protocol (IP). Intranets and extranets 6. Internet Services a. Voice over IP (Internet telephony) e.4. Remote login (Telnet) d. Other services offered by the Internet include remote login. user datagram protocol (UDP). To support the Internet. Tweets. Two of the most common protocols are the Internet Protocol (IP) and the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Summary Lecture Notes Introduction Many people think the Internet is only the service that allows a person to browse web pages and click links. Instant messaging. Electronic mail (e-mail) b. The reliable transport service. These protocols are supported by a host of secondary protocols. Streaming audio and video g. Listservs f. One of the first services. transmission control protocol (TCP). and address resolution protocol (ARP). voice over IP. which include Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). The Internet and Business a. If an application did not need to create a connection to transfer data. The Internet In Action: A Company Creates a VPN 8. listservs. Internet control message protocol (ICMP). and Address Recognition Protocol (ARP).

The World Wide Web Although the Internet still offers tried-and-true services. Using a web browser on a workstation. retrieves the requested web page from storage. customers. two new forms of HTML have emerged that offer more power and flexibility in web page creation— Dynamic HTML and eXtensible Markup Language. a reliable transport service is needed “above” the connectionless packet delivery service to cover for its possible shortcomings. or delivered out of order. you can download and view web pages on a personal computer. and remote login. and remote logins. connectionless network service in which packets may be lost. listservs. the sender and receiver of these packets may not be informed that these problems have occurred. To appreciate the many capabilities of the Internet. duplicated. Internet telephony. most people used the Internet for e-mail. This connectionless packet delivery service is called Internet Protocol (IP). The web server software accepts hypertext transport protocol (HTTP) requests from web browsers connected to the Internet. Web pages are created using HyperText Markup Language (HTML) generated manually with a text-based editor such as Notepad or by using a web page authoring tool. the World Wide Web has probably had the most profound impact on business. e-mail. The Internet and Business An intranet is a TCP/IP network inside a company that allows employees to access the company’s information resources through an Internet-like interface. or other external . an employee can perform browsing operations. let’s examine several of the more popular services that the Internet provides today. it is stored on a computer that contains web server software and has a connection to the Internet. Of all the Internet services. When an intranet is extended outside the corporate walls to include suppliers. but the applications that can be accessed through the browser are available only to employees within the company. starting with File Transfer Protocol for downloading and uploading files and continuing with remote login. UDP supports a connection-less application in which a connection-oriented stream of packets is not necessary. Even worse. such as file transfer. Although HTML was the original and still most commonly used method for controlling the display of web pages. electronic mail. a relatively new service has grown dramatically since its introduction in 1992: the World Wide Web (WWW). voice over IP. delayed.Datagram Protocol (UDP) could be used instead of TCP. file transfers. and returns that web page to the requesting computer via the Internet. and streaming audio and video. Because the connectionless packet delivery service doesn’t inform users that problems may have occurred. Once a web page is created. The connectionless packet delivery service provides an unreliable. Using a web browser such as Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer. Internet Services When the Internet came into existence as the Arpanet.

work is progressing on a new. interconnecting universities and research centers at transmission rates up to a gigabit per second (1000 Mbps). IPv6. which was the version presented earlier in the chapter..S. and its links are currently being built and tested on top of existing Internet links. however. to affect the Internet will be the adoption of a new version of the Internet Protocol.agents. People are constantly working on updating and revising the Internet’s myriad pieces. Since an extranet allows external agents to have access to corporate computing resources. What is the relationship between the Internet and World Wide Web? The World Wide Web is one service of many offered by the Internet. the intranet becomes an extranet. 3. Quick Quiz 1. The Internet In Action: A Company Creates a VPN The In Action example for this chapter shows how a company can support its external and mobile employees by providing them with a virtual private network (VPN). 2. a much higher level of security is usually established. What are the principal functions of TCP and IP? TCP provides an error-free end-to-end connection while IP provides a connectionless network packet transfer service. most of the Internet is using IPv4. but continues to grow by adding new networks and new users every day. The Future of the Internet The Internet is not a static entity. . Currently. What is the relationship between HTTP and HTML? HTTP is the protocol to transfer web pages and HTML is the scripting language that displays web pages. One of the biggest changes. If changes to the IP protocol are not enough. very high speed network that will cover the U. The new high-speed network is called Internet2. This VPN uses the Internet along with additional protocols that support secure connections from anywhere into the corporate system.

then NSFnet. You might want to discuss the current status of IPv6 and/or Internet2. Make sure you discuss these terms with an example or two. You may only want to introduce the few that are relevant to the discussion. It is probably not necessary to discuss each of the fields in the IP and TCP headers. With the flurry of viruses that are passed in e-mail attachments. . or are they heroes helping computer specialists discover faults within computer networks and systems? 5. Are cookies an invasion of privacy? 3. Emphasize that the Internet offers many services and not just the World Wide Web. Tunneling protocols and virtual private networks are very popular. Are people spending too much time on social network sites such as Facebook? 6. 3. 2. Suggest the students seek out and join a listserv of their choice. List the main responsibilities of the Internet Protocol. Will IPv6 ever replace IPv4? Teaching Tips 1. Solutions to Review Questions 1. Make sure they save the information necessary to unsubscribe at a later date. will the attachments such as Word files and Excel files become outlawed? 4. What was the precursor to the present day Internet? Arpanet first. To transfer data packets across the Internet. Is IP fragmentation a thing of the past? 2. 4. 2.Discussion Topics 1. 5. The hackers that perform distributed denial of service attacks on e-commerce sites: are they criminals.

4. What is the purpose of the uniform resource locator (URL)? To identify every document on the Internet. Is UDP the same thing as TCP? UDP creates an error-free connectionless connection while TCP creates an error-free connection- oriented connection. How is a Web markup language different from a programming language? Much simpler. 12. does not require loops or decisions. DHCP dynamically assigns IP addresses to machines that need them. What is the relationship between IP and ICMP? ICMP returns an error message to the sender when an error happens during IP. 10. relatively English-like. 6. List the four basic parts of the URL. List the main responsibilities of the Transmission Control Protocol. What is the purpose of MPLS? To speed packets through routers 7. An IP address identifies a computer’s connection to the Internet. 11. 8. What is the relationship between the Internet and the World Wide Web? The World Wide Web is one service of the Internet. while NAT can substitute an IP address when the packet leaves the user’s premises. while a port address identifies a particular application on that computer. 5. 13. 9. No. . Explain the relationship of the port to an IP address. Is DHCP the same thing as NAT? Explain. To create an error-free end-to-end connection over the Internet.3. What is the HTTP protocol used for? Used to transfer web pages across the Internet.

and IMAP when referring to e-mail systems? ESMPT used to transfer an e-mail. filename. How does instant messaging differ from e-mail? . What tools are necessary to support streaming audio or video? A real time streaming protocol and a software viewer. and POP3 and IMAP used to hold and later access e-mail messages. What are the different classes of IP addresses? Classes A through D (using classful addressing) 16. More reliable within a business (better throughput). 23. What is the main function of Telnet? To allow a remote user to login to a computer system via the Internet. host name.Service. listservs. directory info. How does the domain name server translate a URL into a 32-bit binary address? DNS uses a distributed database system of URL address. archive e-mail messages. group mailings. List the basic features of a common electronic mail system. Send. 24. and voice over ATM. 22. Is VoIP more reliable within a business or over the Internet? Explain. 21. What is a listserv used for? Used to support an e-mail based discussion group on a particular subject of interest. What other options are available for transmitting voice via Internet technology besides voice over Internet? Voice over frame relay. 20. 14. 18. What are the duties of ESMTP. receive. 19. What is the file transfer protocol (FTP) used for? Used to download and upload files across the Internet. 15. 17. POP3.

simpler header. 30. 29. APEX (Application Exchange). But here is what Wikipedia has to say: There have been several attempts to create a unified standard for instant messaging: IETF's SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) and SIMPLE (SIP for Instant Messaging and Presence Leverage). VoWLAN transmits voice and data over a wireless local area network. An extranet is an interconnection of intranets. more commonly known as Jabber and OMA's (Open Mobile Alliance) IMPS (Instant Messaging and Presence Service) created specifically for mobile devices 26. What are the main features of Internet2? High speed. What is the relationship between Electronic Data Interchange and e-commerce? EDI is one facet of e-commerce. better security. Prim (Presence and Instant Messaging Protocol). How do intranets and extranets compare and differ from the Internet? An intranet is an internal Internet that is usually only open to employees of a company. What is a cookie? Who makes cookies and where are they stored? A small set of data stored on a user’s computer. high bandwidth for computationally intensive applications. This IP connection can exist within a corporate wired local area network or over the Internet. the open XML-based XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol). 25. they are stored in a file or files on the computer’s hard disk. 27. bigger IP addresses. 31. Created by a web server. Suggested Solutions to Exercises . How will IPv6 differ from the current version (4) of IP? Smaller. What is the difference between VoIP and VoWLAN? VoIP sends voice and data over an IP connection.It is instant and usually only one or two lines of data. quality of service added. 28. How can a business use a private virtual network and tunneling to support an off-site connection? They allow a remote user to create a secure connection across the Internet into the user’s corporate computing system. What are the two competing protocols used to support instant messaging? Not covered in text. 32.

what are the IP Fragment Offsets and More flags for the appropriate packet fragments? First fragment: Offset=0. Given an IP packet of size 540 bytes. The Hop Limit field in IPv6 is 8 bits long (the same size as the equivalent Time to Live field in IPv4). it no longer directly supports the Internet. Does the U. Will an error message ever be generated from this action? If so. More Flag=false 3. What is the relationship between this setup and the concept of IP addresses with TCP port numbers? You could think of the building as having one postal address (IP address) but with two operations within the building (two port addresses). who will generate the error message and what might it look like? Eventually each packet’s Time to Live field should expire causing the packet to be discarded and ICMP to send a message back to the source that generated the packet. and a maximum packet size of 200 bytes.1. . No. 6.S. non-stop. Why is ARP necessary if every workstation connected to the Internet has a unique IP address? Because once a packet arrives at the destination local area network (such as a CSMA/CD LAN). the LAN protocol does not look at IP addresses but uses the MAC layer addresses to deliver the frame. More Flag=true Third fragment: Offset=50. 7. government support the Internet? Explain. On one side of the room is a real estate agency and on the other side of the room is a guy who sells tea. More Flag=true Second fragment: Offset=25. what are the implications of such a small field size? That a packet cannot hop through as many routers. Private industry and universities now support the many facets of the Internet. 2. Somewhere in the middle of the United States are two Internet routers with routing tables that are all messed up. If I dial in to the Internet from home. 5. Since this hop count is decremented each time an IP datagram enters a router. is it likely that my workstation is using DHCP? Explain. The two routers keep sending their packets back and forth to each other. Suppose there is a small commercial retail building in your town that has essentially one room. 4.

0/26. B.54.com and list three of the subdirectories in the directory pub.com/listings/pages/web. Disadv: The software is more elaborate. If your computer workstation has a classful IP address of 167. 8.reliable. giving 2 to the 6th power. Locate and label the service.reliable. very likely.htm Service: http:// Host name: www. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using dynamic IP address assignments? Adv: A company can purchase fewer IP addresses since each machine will not be statically assigned a fixed address but dynamically assigned an address when it accesses the Internet. If someone on the Internet sends you an e-mail. 11. or D IP address? It is a Class C address.htm 14. . 12.hpl.32. it knows which Web page goes to which workstation. Using a web browser. and filename in the following URL: http://www. the NAT server will recognize that the packet is intended for the local e-mail server. Much easier to assign an IP address dynamically then to give every potential user an IP address.com Directory: /listings/pages/ Filename: web. go to site ftp. If three users on one local area network all request a Web page at the same time. or 64 devices. how many device/host addresses are available? There are 6 bits for the host (32-26). will NAT delete it before it gets delivered to you? Why.Yes.56. what if 100 IP addresses are purchased and the 101st user tries to access the Internet? 13. is it a Class A. C. If a company is assigned the network address 177.200. 10.hp. 9. because even though a user on the inside did not request the incoming packet. or why not? No. Many possible answers here. host name. how does NAT know which results go to which workstation? The NAT software records each outgoing request so that when the Web pages come back.42. directory.

Telnet allows you to login to a remote computer system by placing a (hopefully) local call to your Internet service provider.6. Some of the new protocols such as IPv6 are not including any kind of error detection scheme on the data portion of the packet. Also. 21.0. What is the difference between voice over the Internet and private VoIP? Private VoIP exists only within a corporate network and may never access the outside Internet.15. 19. HTTP transmits web pages and HTML displays them.1. and quantity. and the two other companies produce batteries and telephone keypads. will you have a large long distance telephone bill? No. the protocols are relying on the better transmission qualities of modern media. the protocols are relying on higher layer protocols to take care of error detection and correction. With respect to e-mail. 8. No.e164. What significance does this trend indicate? To some degree. such as fiber optic cable.5.5.4. the World Wide Web would also be a good resource.3. 16. You are working for a company that wants to begin electronic data interchange (EDI) with two other companies that supply parts. You really need both for an e-mail system to work. battery type. When your company places an order with the battery company. it specifies battery size.1. When your company places an order with the keypad . Convert the telephone number 413 555-2068 into ENUM form. If there is none. Which Internet service(s) introduced in this chapter would best help you accomplish this task? You might consider a listserv for work place ethics. Your company produces mobile telephones. Your company has asked you to keep abreast of work place ethics.5. Are HTTP and HTML two protocols with the same function? Explain. 17. what is the relationship between ESMTP and POP3? Can one operate without the other? SMTP transmits the e-mail messages while POP3 holds the e-mail messages and displays them when you logon.arpa 18. Thinking Outside the Box 1. If you use your computer primarily for Telnet into a remote computer.2. battery power. 20.

… Cookies can be used to record site visits and orders. 5. How might HTML be used to support EDI between these companies? HTML can be used to define the data structure (battery size. It is thinking about converting its telephone system to VoIP and running both voice and data over the system of local area networks. Using the concept of Internet of Things. Flash. IP. battery type. dynamic HTML. What must the company consider before making this move? Can the company’s current network support the much higher load of voice over IP? If not. You give each user a workstation and access to the Internet. as long as a high-level of security is implemented. A VPN would be a good solution. Can they use a virtual private network and a tunneling protocol. Two banks want to establish an electronic link between themselves. 4. 2. What kind of services might you offer in your Web pages? Will your Web pages use HTML. NAT and DHCP might be very useful too. ARP necessary. You are thinking about creating a network solution for a small business of approximately 10 users. what has to be installed? How much will this upgrade cost? 6. 3. CSS. Leased telephone service with encryption will also work. A company currently has a telephone system and a separate system of local area networks. it specifies keypad configuration. You are working for a company that sells high end bicycles and has decided to create a series of Web pages to promote sales. dynamic HTML. quantity) that is part of the purchase order. keypad dimensions. over which they can transmit money transfers. what everyday actions would you like to see connected to the Internet? How would an Internet connection make this action more meaningful? Are there any everyday actions that should not be connected to the Internet? Many possible answers here! .company. Which Internet protocols will your network and workstations need to support? Which optional IP protocols might you implement? TCP. and keypad color. power consumption. or is a better technique available? Defend your answer. JavaScript. battery power. or some other language? How might your company use cookies to its advantage? Many possible answers here: mixture of HTML.