Making Connections Efficient: Multiplexing

and Compression
Chapter 5

Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter you should be able to:

 Describe frequency division multiplexing and list its applications, advantages, and
 Describe synchronous time division multiplexing and list its applications, advantages, and
 Outline the basic multiplexing characteristics of both T-1, ISDN, and SONET systems
 Describe statistical time division multiplexing and list its applications, advantages, and
 Cite the main characteristics of wavelength division multiplexing and its advantages and
 Describe the basic characteristics of discrete multitone.
 Cite the main characteristics of code-division multiplexing and its advantages and
 Apply a multiplexing technique to an example business situation
 Define the difference between lossy and lossless compression schemes
 Describe the basic operation of run-length, JPEG, and MP3 compression

Chapter Outline
1. Introduction

2. Frequency Division Multiplexing

3. Time Division Multiplexing
a. Synchronous time division multiplexing
T-1 multiplexing
SONET/SDH multiplexing
b. Statistical time division multiplexing

4. Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Compression Techniques a. sharing of the signal is accomplished by dividing available transmission time on a medium among users. Since time division multiplexing was introduced in 1960s.5. Summary Lecture Notes Introduction Under the simplest conditions. In time division multiplexing. each user is assigned a channel. Discrete Multitone 7. Code Division Multiplexing 6. Time Division Multiplexing Time division multiplexing directly supports digital signals. Lossy compression 9. Business Multiplexing In Action 10. So that multiple users can share a single medium. Multiplexing is a technique performed at the physical layer of the OSI model or the interface layer of the Internet model. however. Many times. Comparison of Multiplexing Techniques 8. it has split into two roughly parallel but separate technologies: synchronous time division multiplexing and statistical time division multiplexing. Lossless compression b. we want a medium to carry multiple signals at the same time. This technique of transmitting multiple signals over a single medium is multiplexing. Frequency Division Multiplexing Frequency division multiplexing is the assignment of non-overlapping frequency ranges to each “user” of a medium. Wavelength Division Multiplexing . a medium can carry only one signal at any moment in time. A channel is an assigned set of frequencies that is used to transmit the user’s signal.

When the devices transmits a binary 1. each mobile device is assigned a unique binary code. Should the store run separate lines from each cash register to the server. JPEG. Dense wavelength division multiplexing is a very good. Discrete Multitone Discrete multitone is a multiplexing technique commonly found in digital subscriber line (DSL) systems. statistical TDM wastes less bandwidth on the transmission link. In order to separate the signals. Typical lossy compression techniques include MP3. Compression Techniques The compressing of data can be either lossless (in which no data is lost) or lossy (in which some data is lost). Unlike frequency division multiplexing. use a wireless solution. Synchronous time division multiplexing is also relatively straight forward. input devices that have nothing to transmit can waste transmission space. To transmit a binary 0. wave division multiplexing uses different wavelength lasers to transmit multiple signals. the mobile device would send the inverse of the unique binary code. which divides input sources by time. Common lossless compression techniques include run-length encoding and the Lempel-Ziv techniques. or use some form of multiplexing? As it turns . albeit expensive. Comparison of Multiplexing Techniques Frequency division multiplexing relies on analog signaling and is the simplest and most noisy of all the multiplexing techniques.Wavelength division multiplexing is a fairly new technology that multiplexes multiple data streams onto a single fiber optic line. and like frequency division multiplexing. Thus. Business Multiplexing In Action The In Action example for this chapter involves a retail outlet which wants to connect its cash registers to a computer server in the back room. and MPEG. which assigns input sources to separate sets of frequencies. technique for transmitting multiple concurrent signals over a fiber optic line. and time division multiplexing. the unique binary code is transmitted instead. Up to 256 subchannels can be combined to produce one downstream path. Each subchannel in DSL performs its own quadrature amplitude modulation. The big advantage of synchronous TDM is the lower noise during transmission. Code Division Multiplexing Code division multiplexing is a relatively new technology most commonly found in cellular telephones which allows multiple mobile devices to transmit at the same frequencies and at the same time. Statistical TDM is one step above synchronous TDM because it transmits data only from those input devices that have data to transmit.

5. TV and cellphones use combinations of discrete analog signals. terminal-mainframe connections. 4. Where is discrete multitone commonly used? In cellular telephone systems. TDM: cash register systems. then run one higher-speed line to the server in the back office. Quick Quiz 1. Lossy: audio and video examples Discussion Topics 1. telephone systems. cellphones are common examples. security systems. What is the primary advantage of TDM over FDM? TDM can use digital signals which are better for removing noise. Is there a practical limit to how many devices can transmit simultaneously using code division multiplexing? 4. while basic radio is still all analog. What types of applications might use frequency division multiplexing? Time division multiplexing? Dense wavelength division multiplexing? FDM: modern digital TV. Do people actually notice a loss of signal when MP3 or JPEG is incorporated? . How does code division multiplexing work? Each mobile device is assigned a unique binary code for transmitting 1s and 0s. Is frequency division multiplexing going to disappear in the near future? 2. a commonly found solution is to collect all terminal output at a multiplexor near the cash registers. How many examples of lossless compression can you think of? Lossy compression? Lossless: data systems. DWDM: long-haul telecommunications 2. Will wavelength division multiplexing revolutionize multiplexing? 3. 3. radio.out.

Teaching Tips 1. 5. 7. How many separate channels does a T-1 multiplexor combine into one stream? 24. cable television 2. 4. Many concurrent lanes of traffic. How does a synchronous time division multiplexor stay synchronized with the demultiplexor on the receiving end? There are sync bits inserted in the transmission stream at regular intervals. 2. List three common examples of frequency division multiplexing. In what order does synchronous time division multiplexing sample each of the incoming signals? Round robin order. What would happen if a synchronous time division multiplexor sampled the incoming signals out of order? The demultiplexor would not know what was what. 8000 frames per second 8. How are a T-1 and SONET similar? Both are synchronous multiplexing. with the stripe down the road acting as the guardbands. 6. Solutions to Review Questions 1. Frequency division multiplexing is associated with what type of signals? Analog signals and discrete analog signals 3. Broadcast television. What are the main differences between statistical time division multiplexing and synchronous time division multiplexing? . non-stop. Mention the recent development of the blue laser (and the blue LCD) and its effect on dense wavelength division multiplexing (and other fields of technology). radio. Compare FDM to a multiple lane highway.

Sync: continuous bit stream. How is discrete multitone different from the other multiplexing techniques? How is it similar? Same: multiple channels combined over one medium Different: the multiple channels are all intended for one user. 9. 12. How many different wavelengths can dense wavelength division multiplexing place onto one connection? Potentially 100s 13.How does code-division multiplexing distinguish one signal from another? Each signal is transmitting using a unique binary code or sequence. each channel is modulated separate from the others 15. What are the two basic forms of compression? Lossless and lossy 17. Stat: packets or frames of data. Run-length encoding can be used to compress what kind(s) of data? Data that cannot be lost during compression. Why is addressing of the individual data streams necessary for statistical multiplexing? Because the order of data streams can vary depending on demand. does it require a high speed output line that is equivalent to the sum of the 20 transmission streams? No. 11. If a statistical multiplexor is connected to 20 devices. never out of order. What is the difference between dense wavelength division multiplexing and coarse wavelength division multiplexing? The number of concurrent lambdas. order may vary. 16. 14. 10. Assume that only a percentage of all input streams will have data to transmit at one given time. What are the three phases of JPEG compression? . 18. and data with a majority of one type of symbol. What type of medium is required to support wavelength division multiplexing? Fiber optic cable.

5. Each sample is then converted into an 8-bit value. more efficient use of medium Stat TDM Disadv: May not be able to support all inputs at the same time. dense wavelength division multiplexing FDM Adv: simple.536. A benefit of frequency division multiplexing is that the all the receivers do not have to be at the same location. state two advantages and two disadvantages of each of the following: a. and if each sample is converted into an 8- bit value? Each voice channel has a bandwidth of 4000 Hz. if we use the standard analog to digital sampling rate. can apply digital techniques. 2. What is the total bandwidth required if frequency division multiplexing is used? Each voice channel has a bandwidth of 4000 Hz. run-length encoding Suggested Solutions to Exercises 1. Sampled two times the frequency equals 8000 samples per second. statistical time division multiplexing d. FDM Disadv: analog signals and noise Sync TDM Adv: less noise (digital). 24 signals times 64. can apply digital techniques Sync TDM Disadv: never-ending stream is not an efficient use of medium Stat TDM Adv: less noise (digital). Twenty-four voice signals are to be multiplexed and transmitted over twisted pair. 3. If only four computers are transmitting digital data over a T-1 line. Explain what this benefit means and give an example. quantization. 24 times 4000 Hz equals 96000 Hz. WDM Adv: incredible capacity WDM Disadv: cost.Discrete cosine transformation. What is the bandwidth required (in bps) if synchronous time division multiplexing is used. frequency division multiplexing b. all receivers don’t have to be in same place. so 8000 samples per second times 8-bits per sample = 64. synchronous time division multiplexing c.000 bps. Twenty-four voice signals are to be multiplexed and transmitted over twisted pair. popular. what is the maximum possible data rate for each computer? . Compared to the other multiplexing techniques.000 bps each equals 1.000 bits per second. Their “de-multiplexors” (television sets) can be located anywhere. 4. All people watching television do not have to be in the same place.

each of which generates a 64-kbps stream. This fiber-optic line has reached capacity. 6. So should be 40% capacity of sync TDM. At any point in time. 7. How does the system distinguish the two signals? . The cell phone company in town uses code division multiplexing to transmit signals between its cell phones and the cell towers.000 bps. Ten computer workstations are connected to a synchronous time division multiplexor. 9. is it possible to incorporate relative addressing? If so. Instead of assigning absolute addresses to each piece of data. Should be a smaller address space than all the devices in the entire system. Stat TDM: It should be different. A discrete multitone system is using a modulation technique on its subchannels. Assuming ideal conditions (no noise). Sync TDM: 10 workstations x 128 kbps = total speed of high-speed line. T-1 allocates space for 24 separate devices. 40 percent of the workstations are not transmitting. Doesn’t matter if a device is transmitting or not. Only need to create an address for those devices connected to this pair of multiplexors. What is the minimum necessary speed of the line leaving the multiplexor? Will the answer be different if we use a statistical multiplexor instead? Explain your reasoning. Yes. 11. 256 x 64 kbps = 16. relative addressing can be used. the individual units of data must have some form of address that tells the receiver the intended recipient of each piece of data. What alternatives can the telephone company consider to increase capacity? Good possible solution is wavelength division multiplexing 10. explain its benefits. what is the maximum data rate of the discrete multitone system? Assuming the system supports 256 simultaneous channels. What is the purpose of the synchronization bit in a T-1 frame? Why is it necessary? The synchronization bit is necessary to keep the receiver synchronized with the incoming data stream. because a stat TDM only reserves a space for devices that currently have data to transmit. You are using your cell phone while standing next to someone using her cell phone. When data is transmitted using a statistical multiplexor. a space is still allocated for each device. The telephone company has a fiber-optic line with time division multiplexing that runs from the United States to England and lies on the ocean floor.It doesn’t matter how many are currently transmitting. 8.384. Each workstation transmits a 128 kbps.

How many frames per second does a T-1 and SONET transmit? Why this number? 8000 frames per second. 0 Sum of products: -8 13. and which on only wireless media? Conducted and wireless: frequency division and time division Only on conducted: wavelength division Only on wireless: code division (can actually be done on conducted media but most if not all examples are performed on wireless) 16. and different wavelengths of color are simply different frequencies of radio signals. 1. -1. 1. so code sent is: .+ . yields 8000 samples per second 14. -2. Which of the multiplexing techniques can be used on both conducted media and wireless media. Is this a positive or negative? . 1. also using code division multiplexing.+ - Total: 0. 0.Essentially each cell phone is assigned a different bit or chip sequence.+ + + + B sends a 0. -2. Mobile user B. has been assigned a binary code of 01010101. -1. 0. 0.+ . Why is wavelength division multiplexing more like frequency division multiplexing and less like time division multiplexing? Because in wavelength division multiplexing different wavelengths of color lasers are used.. they would be sending the same code. In reality. it is using its assigned sequence. code division multiplexing can have 264 different signals in the same area... -2. 1 Products: 0. In theory. Furthermore. Mobile user A transmits a 1. Show the sum of products that results and your calculations. the sum of signals would be 0. -1. 0 A’s original signal: -1. What happens if you assign one mobile device the code 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 and a second device the code 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1? If first device transmits a 1 and second device transmits a 0. 1. so code sent is: + . 2. which on only conducted media. 12. 1. -1. -2. 1. The receiver can separate one cellphone’s sequence from another. 2. 0. 0 Sum of products: 8 B’s original signal: -1. -1. -1. -2. this is not possible. typical voice range of 4000 Hz. When a cell phone transmits a binary 1. 15. A sends a 1. 0. 2. sampled twice per highest frequency (Nyquist rule). 2. 2. 2. 1 Products: 0. -2. while Mobile user B transmits a 0. Mobile user A is using code division multiplexing and has been assigned a binary code of 00001111. 0. Why not? Show an example.

5. The only connection is the need for the receiver to stay in sync with the incoming bit stream. 0.17. thus more expensive. show the run-length encoding that would result: 00000001000001100000000000000000010000001110000000000 7. as DSL is affected by noise. The newer techniques like discrete multitone are getting much more complex by trying to combine separately modulated signals over one medium. and MPEG all rely on what characteristic in the data in order to perform compression? That some loss of data will not be noticed by the end user. 0. Can you compress a set of bank statements using JPEG compression? Explain. JPEG. 1010 20. 18. 1111. Thinking Outside the Box 1. Either wireless as above. MP3. . since JPEG is lossy. Wireless? Such as terrestrial microwave or free space optics? What about running a couple strands of fiber and doing stat TDM multiplexing? I would avoid copper-based media 2. 0000. and AM radio might be generating some of the same frequencies as used by DSL. 0000. Corporate DSL is typically faster. Given the following bit string. 4. 0000. 6. which type of compression would be the most effective? Run-length encoding 19. 0110. 10 Or 4-bit binary nibbles: 0111. 0101. And it is often symmetric. 3. Better not. 0000. Is the form of DSL that a company uses different from the form of DSL that a home user subscribes to? Explain. If data has a large number of one type of symbol. 0. 5. Right-of- way is definitely a problem here. 18. 21. 0011. More than likely. or call the telephone company and see what they can offer. You might see a slowdown. But most DSL systems now transmit signals that avoid AM signals. yes.

A DVD holds 4.7 GB. 640 x 800 x 24 bits/pixel x 30 frames/second x 7200 seconds/2 hours = 2.654 x 1012 bits for a two hour (7200 seconds) movie.6. So a movie has 100 times more data than a DVD. or 3.76 x 1010 bits. .