Revista Geológica de Chile 30 (2): 205-221.

2003

Revista Geológica de Chile, Vol. 30, No. 2, p. 205-221, 3 Figs., 3 plates, December 2003.

Carbonate ramp facies at the Calabozo Formation
(Middle Jurassic), Mendoza, Argentina
Nora G. Cabaleri
Claudia Armella
Mariana Cagnoni
Adriana Ramos
Susana A. Valencio

ABSTRACT

The limestones of the Calabozo Formation of early Callovian age, crop out in the Neuquén Basin, southwestern Mendoza
Province, Argentina. Facies/microfacies analysis at Arroyo El Plomo, west of Malargüe, shows that the limestones of the
Calabozo Formation originated during a transgressive /regressive episode over the delta-margin facies of the Lajas
Formation (late Bajocian-Callovian), with a change from siliciclastic to carbonate sedimentation. An extensive layer of
floatstone marks the beginning of this stage. Within a ramp environment, a well represented mid-ramp subenvironment can
be distinguished, consisting of a subtidal facies arrangement (wackestones, packstones, packstones with channels and
floatstones) and an inner ramp subenvironment, characterized by a system of ooidal bars (grainstones) with tidal channels
(floatstones) and predominantly intertidal facies passing into peritidal, and supratidal facies (boundstones). Three
shallowing-upward cycles were recognized, the lower and middle ones being characteristic of the mid- ramp. The upper
cycle is the best developed and consists of a middle ramp lower hemicycle and an inner ramp upper hemicycle. The
Calabozo Formation is capped by deposits corresponding to a supratidal environment with restricted circulation, on top of
which the evaporitic succession of the early Callovian Tábanos Formation is developed.

Keywords: Lmestones, Palaeoenvironmental analysis, Callovian, Neuquina Basin, Argentina.

RESUMEN

Facies de la rampa carbonática de la Formación Calabozo (Jurásico medio), Mendoza, Argentina. Las calizas de la
Formación Calabozo (Caloviano inferior) afloran en el sudoeste de la Provincia de Mendoza, Argentina, dentro del ámbito
de la Cuenca Neuquina. En el presente trabajo, se realiza el análisis facial/microfacial de esta unidad en la localidad del
arroyo El Plomo, el que permitió inferir las condiciones de sedimentación y el modelo de rampa carbonática local. Las
calizas de la Formación Calabozo representan un episodio transgresivo sobre las facies deltaico-marginales de la
Formación Lajas (Bajociano tardío-Caloviano), como así también un cambio del régimen sedimentario silicoclástico a
carbonático. El inicio de esta etapa se manifiesta por un nivel de 'floatstone' de amplia extensión areal. En el ambiente de
rampa se distinguieron el subambiente de rampa media que es el mejor representado y está compuesto por un arreglo de
facies submareales ('wackestones', 'packstones', 'packstone' con canales y 'floatstones') y el subambiente de rampa
interna, caracterizado por un sistema de barras ooidales ('grainstones'), con canales mareales ('floatstones') y con
predominio de facies intermareales que pasan a perimareales hasta supramareal ('boundstones'). En la evolución de la
rampa se diferenciaron tres ciclos con tendencia somerizante. Los ciclos inferior y medio son característicos de la rampa
media. El ciclo superior es el mejor desarrollado y, en él, se distinguen un hemiciclo inferior, de rampa media y un hemiciclo
superior, de rampa interna. La Formación Calabozo culmina con depósitos de ambiente supramareal de circulación
restringida, sobre los cuales se desarrolla la sucesión evaporítica de la Formación Tábanos del Caloviano inferior.

Palabras claves: Calizas, Análisis paleoambiental, Caloviano, Cuenca Neuquina, Argentina.

Towards the end of the early Callovian. Jurassic-Cretaceous successions in southern Mendoza indicate relative changes at the base level which. The presence of ammonites in beds underlying these limestones at the type section (Riccardi. Gulisano and Gutiérrez Pleimling. (1993) and Legarreta and Uliana (1999). but the exact geographic location of the studied outcrops was not indicated. 1999).. (2000a. Legarreta and Uliana. 1991) dated them as early Callovian (see also Legarreta et al. Argentina. 1989.. probably due to its restricted distribution. Mendoza Province. 1996). 1978). This unit is exposed from Río Salado in the north. Riccardi and Westermann. with deltaic facies intercalated with tongue-shaped marine bodies of carbonaceous shales (Gulisano and Gutiérrez Pleimling. to the Bardas Blancas region. the Calabozo Formation lies with an erosional contact on the sandy beach facies of the Bardas Blancas Formation (Upper Toarcian-Lower Bajocian) (Gulisano. (2001). Legarreta and Uliana. possibly due to isolation caused by the magmatic arc located to the west (Legarreta and Uliana. according to Legarreta et al. 1981. This study forms part of a larger project. evaporites of the Tábanos Formation accumulated on top of the limestones of the Calabozo Formation. Dessanti (1973. attesting for the complete dessication of the basin. Cabaleri et al. to the southwest of Bardas Blancas. The Calabozo Formation originated during the first Jurassic transgressive-regressive cycle recorded in the Neuquén Basin.. Laterally. Argentina. which is formed by calcareous sandstones and conglomerates accumulated in shallow-water marine conditions. microfacial and diagenetic studies in southern Mendoza. 1994. are due to tectonic activity superimposed on eustatic changes. in the neighbourhood of Cerro Puchenque. It is represented by relatively thin and isolated outcrops formed by bioclastic and ooidal limestone beds. Uliana et al. 1994. 1996.. near the Cuchichenque mine (Fig. This paper deals with a facies/microfacies analysis and the reconstruction of the palaeoenvironmental model of the Calabozo Formation in the Arroyo El Plomo area. described the carbonate beds exposed in Arroyo Calabozo. He assigned them a thickness of 50 m because levels belonging to La Manga Formation were included (Legarreta and Gulisano. in the south. . on the sedimentology and geochemistry of carbonate units of the Neuquén Basin in southwestern Mendoza. 1984. Even though there is large bibliography on the analysis of the Jurassic-Cretaceous sequences. analysed the sedimentology and geochemistry of Calabozo Formation in Arroyo La Vaina. Palma et al. 1993. 1). Legarreta et al. 1993). and Legarreta et al. Palma and Lo Forte (1999) described cyanophites in the limestones beds of Arroyo Calabozo. b) carried out sedimentological. 1999). there are few studies on the Calabozo Formation. The Calabozo Formation lies conformably on the Lajas Formation (late Bajocian-Callovian). and introduced the name 'Calizas de Calabozo' and dated them as Oxfordian. INTRODUCTION The Calabozo Formation crops out in the Neuquén Basin of southern Mendoza Province. 1993).

2). Sedimentary structures were examined on a cm/dm scale and samples were collected in order to make thin sections and polished surfaces. Location map showing the area under study.000 m apart (Profile 1: 8 m. The lines indicate the three shallowing-upward cycles that affected the ramp. . Profile 2: 4 m) (Fig. FIG. 1. FIG. Facies distribution and lithostratigraphic correlation scheme of the two studied profiles. 2. METHODOLOGY Sedimentological and palaeontological analyses are based on detailed field observations along two profiles 1.

a). Wright and Burchette. at approximately 4. b) composed of ooids (25%). fish scales. characteristic of the lower levels of the succession. Mid. There are no mudstones and the micrite is preserved in the wackestone and in some packstone layers. The size of the coarse particles (volcanic rock fragments) ranges between 5 and 19 cm in diameter. there is evidence of a major channel into which minor channels flowed. f-g). Particles are oriented parallel to bedding. Intraclasts (15%) have different origins. Burchette and Wright. is represented by well-rounded micrite peloids (15%). Ooids are rare (1%). . The characteristic components of this environment are ooids. intraclasts and bioclasts. ooids (5%). bivalves (Weyla). The main channel consists of an oointraclastic floatstone (FF2) (Pl. The biointraclastic wackestone facies (FW2) (Pl. The texture is clast-supported and normally graded. h) that grades into a pelointrabiosclastic (FW4) (Pl. is found in the section ranging from 2. The fine- grained fraction. siliciclasts (5%) of well-rounded quartz and feldspar crystals and lithic fragments. packstones. near the Cuchichenque mine. Bioturbation is represented by subhorizontal perforations. enabled the authors to correlate between the profiles. This mid-ramp facies association is widely developed in Profile 1. 1996). radial concentric ooids (10%). corals. together with the field data. This facies is made up mainly of siliciclasts (45%) with evidence of reworking. echinoderms.50 to 3. At approximately 2 m from the base of Profile 1. packstone with channels and floatstones. 1973. d-e). The texture is clast-supported and the particles are poorly sorted. Bioturbation. micrite or other microfacies intraclasts (5%).80 m. 1. Very fragmented bioclasts (5%) are also present. 1. In the upper half of Profile 1. but most are cortoids with a well-defined dark micrite coat.Microfacies data were obtained from thin sections by quantitative analyses performed by point 2 counting (500 points per every 7.1. presenting a slight wedging in the neighbourhood of the Cuchichenque mine. intraclasts (15%) and siliciclasts (15%).5 m from the base. together with intraclasts (8%). a) spreads with varying thickness over the whole area under study. but in Profile 2 is only found in the lower levels (Fig. also identified in Profile 2. is common. poorly preserved foraminifera and dasycladacea algae. of approximately 200 to 300 µm. there is an intrabioclastic wakestone (FW3) (Pl. with an average size of 12 mm. The base level of silici-intraclastic floatstone (FF1) (Pl.5%) consist of broken shells and dasycladacea algae. 1. some being composed of homogeneous micrite or microsparite with remains of filamentous algae. mainly burrows. in part of faecal origin. It consists of bioclasts of bryozoans. Extrabasinal fragments have an irregular quantitative distribution in the different microfacies and reach a maximum in the floatstone facies. with imbrication in some areas. gastropods and Girvanella (15%). 2).ramp The mid-ramp (Wright. DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT Analyses of the Arroyo El Plomo sections indicate that limestones of the Calabozo Formation were deposited on an extended ramp (sensu Ahr. Facies associations are indicative of mid and inner ramp subenvironments. is represented by quartz. plagioclase and potassium feldspar together with sandstone clasts. The peloidal wackestone facies (FW1) (Pl. consisting of brachiopods. Bioclasts (5. Sedimentary structures are dominated by wave ripples that towards the top pass into hummocky cross-lamination. Read. 1996) facies association is made up of wackestones. The results allowed the determination of different facies/microfacies which. 1. 1992. 2.5 cm of section). peloids (5%) and siliciclasts (1%). 1985. where the intraclast and peloid content increases (20%) and bioclasts are larger than in the underlying facies.

Trapped fine sand size grains are found in the cavities of small bivalve shells. Ooidal grainstone (FG2) (Pl. echinoderms. in decreasing frequency. The main components are poorly sorted intraclasts (30%) and bioclasts (15%) of fragmentary Weyla sp. with forms similar to Ophiomorpha. The matrix is an intrabioclastic wackestone that in some areas grades into grainstone made of intraclasts (8%). The intraclastic packstone/grainstone facies (FP/G) (Pl. Bioclasts (45%) consist of oriented broken large bivalve shells together with corals. c-d) shows high-angle planar cross-stratification with current and wave ripples. Siliciclasts (1%) and peloids (1%) are scarce. Subordinate peloids (5%). valves and corals. consists of grainstones and boundstones.20 m thick. bryozoans. Planolites and Teichichnus. black pebbles (rich in organic matter and iron oxides) and sparite intraclasts with micrite coats (cortoids). They are poorly sorted and show an inversely graded texture. Among the skeletal fragments there are echinoderms. foraminifera and fish scales. This subenvironment is found in the upper levels of Profile 1 and constitutes almost all of Profile 2 (Fig. b-c). Components show reworking and good sorting. complete and fragmentary bivalve shells.ramp The facies association characterizing the inner ramp (Wright. Bioclasts (15%) are represented by bivalve shells. The grainstone facies is divided into: Intraclastic grainstone (FG1) (Pl. forming a geopetal fabric. The bioclastic packstone facies (FP2) (Pl.In the FW3 facies. bryozoans. but mostly from other facies (packstones) and with shell nuclei. Inner. gastropods. 0.70 m long and 0. mostly from other microfacies. a-b) dissected by lenticular channels. Bioclasts (5%) are fragmented and consist of cephalopods and gastropods shells. They are associated with intraclasts (15%). Bioturbation is important. It is made up of ooids (25-10%). The channels dissecting the intraclastic grainstone (FG1) consit of matrix-supported and inversely graded intrabioclastic floatstone (FF4) (Pl. d-e) is represented by beds. The oobioclastic packstone facies (FP1) (Pl. foraminifera. is recognised at about 1. 1996). foraminifera. 3. 3. bioclasts (15%). 2. 2. They are of different origins. including Thalassinoides. ammonites and dasycladacea algae. Grains are well sorted and correspond to ooids (15%) with nuclei of different compositions: bivalve shell fragments. fish scales and dasycladacea algae. 1. An increase in the ooid content is indicative of its proximity to the inner-ramp ooidal bodies.5 and at 1 m from the base in Profiles 1 and 2 respectively.80 m thick.20 to 2 milimeters in diameter. Intraclasts range from 0. echinoderms. The size ranges from 50 to 100 µm and the composition is variable. faecal pellets (3%) and ooids (3%) are also present. 2. Some levels show bioturbation. Most grains are reworked and oriented.5 m long and 0. faecal pellets (5%) and intraclasts (5%). gastropods. They form 3. oncoids (4%) and peloids (3%). there are lenticular bodies. Ooids (5%) are similar to those present in the grainstone facies. of biointraclastic floatstone with siliciclasts (FF3) (Pl.12 m thick lenticular bodies with erosional bases. small brachiopods or intraclasts as well as radial. The intraclasts usually are well rounded and the ooids are broken or with abraded edges. The bioclasts are very fragmented and other particles (intraclasts and ooids) show evidence of erosion. Micritic ooids (1%) are scattered about the rock. h). f-g) consists of well-rounded intraclasts (30%). cropping out in amalgamated beds. bryozoans and dasycladacea algae. The grainstone facies consists of well-rounded intraclasts (40%) with dark micrite coats. 2. up to 0. 2). micrite . c). dissected by channels with well-defined erosional bases and dominantly wave-generated structures. broken ooids (5%). small bioclasts (5%).

Pores are irregular. Laminae are crenulated. brachiopods. which form an extended thin body (0. with mean sizes ranging from 100 to 350 µm. arranged subhorizontally concordant with stratification and surrounded by peloidal grumous micrite with a high content of organic matter and disseminated iron oxides. g-h) consists of stratiform stromatolites. The microbial lamination is defined by an alternation of light microsparite and dark peloidal micrite. e-f). gastropods and bivalve shell remains. echinoderms. foraminifera and dasycladacea algae. present in Profile 1 over a surface of erosion and dissolution of grainstone horizons. It consists of alternating fenestras. sparite and other microfacies.60 m thick with erosional surfaces overlain by intraclastic lags. b) of the Lajas Formation. empty or filled with sparite. A fenestral fabric characterizes the upper facies levels. are composed of micrite. The main components are intraclasts (35%) and bioclasts (20%) of cephalopods. This erosional surface is recognized from south of río Salado to north of the río Malargüe and indicates a change from a siliciclastic to a carbonatic regime within the basin. 3. 3. a. a. PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL MODEL The facies association identified in the carbonate succession of the Calabozo Formation at the arroyo El Plomo are characteristic of a shallow-water ramp with a mid and an inner ramp subenvirontments (Fig. Porosity increases towards the top of the unit. Intraclastic grainstone with ooids (FG3) (Pl. where thin evaporitic gypsum beds are more conspicuous. Schematic representation of palaeoenvironmental model of the Calabozo Formation in the Arroyo El Plomo area. FIG. Intraclasts (8%).03 m) present in both sections. subhorizontal and laterally discontinuous. The boundstone facies (FB) (Pl. Carbonate beds overlie a ravinment surface on the delta margin sandstones (Fig.and sparite ooids. This facies is represented by beds up to 0. Ooids and oncoids are also found (15%). Bioclasts (2%) include dasycladacea algae. corals. 3c). 3. the particles are cortoids. 3.delta plain (Lajas .

High energy conditions are shown in the upper levels. The lower and middle cycles and the lower hemicycle are defined by the mid-ramp wackestone/packstone facies association. megaripple structures produced by wave oscillation and hummocky cross-stratification are often found. Intraclast characteristics indicate a peritidal facies provenance. c) and is best represented in Profile 1 (Fig. In Profile 2 (Fig. and an upper hemicycle. and by very fragmentary skeletal particles. formed under low-energy conditions that represent periods of quiet water circulation in the basin. whereas the upper hemicycle is characterized by the inner ramp grainstone/boundstone facies association. 1993). shows a higher percentage and greater size of bioclasts. 3. Settlement of highstand conditions and middle ramp facies association. Trace fossils of Planolites and Palaeophycus are present in this environment. consisting of grainstone facies with ooidal bodies.maximum flooding surface and base floatstone levels of the Calabozo Formation. 2). Facies/microfacies analysis indicates three shallowing-upward cycles affecting the ramp: lower. characterize the inner ramp. In the FW3 facies a small channel system (FF3) developed. structures and facies associated to the mid and inner ramps. The upper cycle is the most widespread and shows a facies succession indicating a shallowing trend. which could be the result of storm-generated flows (Cheel. b. These bodies have a tabular geometry and show a slight wedging to the east (Profile 2. The basinal and extrabasinal particles were transported by tidal currents and there is no evidence of wave activity. mostly of the Cruziana icnofacies. 1991. extrabasinal particles) were deposited forming a clast-supported floatstone (FF1). During transgression. waves and tides eroded the delta plain (Fig. near the Cuchichenque mine entrance). it is subdivided into a lower hemicycle. b) and sediments (clasts. 1992). the particle association and the biota of the intrabioclastic (FW3) and pelointrabioclastic wackestone (FW4) levels indicate quiet shallow water conditions. 2). FW4. under high energy and shallow water conditions (Wright and Burchette. Amalgamated beds. A particular feature of wackestone levels is bioturbation. This facies is overlain by oobioclastic packstone facies (FP1). This facies is dissected by a distributary tidal channel system (FF2) that transported sediments from marginal to basinal areas. 1996. whereas the middle and upper levels. The middle-cycle facies and the biointraclastic wackestone levels were formed in a storm- influenced environment. the last consisting of a lower and an upper hemicycle.morphology. possibly due to a temporary increase in the amount of water received or captured by the basin. (Fig. c. Taking into account its thickness and that it attests to more conspicuous shallow water conditions than the previous cycles. middle and upper. indicating a prevailing south-westerly flow. indicating water discharge from the inner towards the mid-ramp. The mid-ramp subenvironment is defined between fair weather wave base and storm wave base (Burchette and Wright. defined by an inner ramp facies (FG3 and FB). indicating that shallow water conditions were established on the ramp. suggests shallow water conditions. Formation) previous to the development of the ramp. frequently cortoids and biota. FF3 and FP/G). 3. not analysed in this paper. The mid-ramp facies is capped by a bioturbated intraclastic . Particles are eroded and bioclasts are highly reworked. intraclasts. The lower cycle begins with a peloidal wackestone (FW1). the basal levels consist of the mid-ramp association. This facies (FW2). Cheel and Leckie. The material is very fragmented and well sorted. Nichols. including a mid-ramp facies (FW3. At the base of the lower hemicycle. by wave-generated structures. The grain association. 1999). compared to the underlying wackestone. The bioclastic packstone facies (FP2) was formed in shallow water ramp areas under fair weather wave oscillation.

and is affected by waves and tidal currents (Reading. which represent a maximum flooding surface. Thus. Benthic microbial communities grew in shallower areas of the ramp and underwent recurrent episodes of subaerial exposure and evaporation with gypsum precipitation. These levels are present in different localities from south of the río Salado to north of the río Malargüe. where a group of ooidal bar facies (FG2) and grainstones. 2) this subenvironment is represented by the upper hemicycle of the topmost shallowing-upward cycle (upper cycle). In Profile 1 (Fig..packstone/grainstone (FP/G). The ooidal bodies form elongated bars that are sometimes dissected by small tidal channels (FF4). 1992). 2. The succession ends with stromatolitic mats (FB). The biota and ichnofacies association denote a normal marine environment with a sandy type mobile substrate under shallow and turbulent waters affected by currents (Pemberton et al. 1998. The inner ramp subenvironment (Fig. These channels are filled by sediments deposited by currents coming from the inner ramp and marginal areas. whereas the upper cycle is characterized by a different facies association. In relatively low energy levels. The upper levels alternate with peritidal microbial beds. the mid-ramp lower hemicycle facies are not present and are replaced by carbonate ooidal bodies from the inner ramp upper hemicycle. where three different shallowing-upward cycles are identified: the lower and middle cycles are typically mid- ramp. The microbial facies (FB) are not found near the Cuchichenque mine. are found on top of the mid-ramp facies (lower cycle). affected by currents. Near the entrance to the Cuchichenque mine (Fig. which may have formed in a wave dominated shoreface. During the subsequent highstand. formed in high energy environments (FG1 and FG3). 3a) forming a pre-ramp. 1992). Profile 2). 3c) is better represented in the western sector (Fig. Profile 2). 2. The mid-ramp (Fig. the basal floatstone was deposited (FF1) (Fig. the lower . The inversely graded. as an erosional surface truncates the upper beds. 3b). and deposition of ooid rich intraclastic grainstones. the highstand condition produced subtidal facies characteristic of a mid-ramp subenvironment. In this facies an erosional surface and an intraclastic lag is also present. This hemicycle consists of intraclastic grainstones with ooids (FG3). This subenvironment is better developed near the Cuchichenque mine entrance (Fig. 2. Posamentier et al. a high density of Ophiomorpha burrows is present. The trace fossil association is a soft substrate ichnofacies. 1992).. The environment shows moderate to low energy levels. where sorting is poor to fair and depositional rate is preferably low (Pemberton et al. CONCLUSIONS The carbonate facies cropping out in the arroyo El Plomo area were deposited on a delta plain (Fig. Plint. prograding parasequences developed. 1992). Profile 1). c) extends from the high tide wave base to the fair weather wave base (Burchette and Wright. 3. In its initial phase. The top of the upper levels in Profiles 1 and 2 indicates evidently shallow water conditions on the ramp. which is typical of intertidal areas. On the substrate formed by delta margin facies of the Lajas Formation. for the transgression during which the Calabozo Formation sedimentation commenced. 1987). developed over an erosional surface truncating grainstone beds. 1995. similar to lags formed during forced regressions (Hunt and Tucker.. which are present throughout the area. well-sorted intraclastic grainstone beds (FG1) that grade into ooidal grainstone (FG2) indicate high-energy depositional conditions.

A. Argentina. The carbonate ramp. Wright. on top of which the evaporitic succession of the Tábanos Formation developed.M. Argentina) is gratefully acknowledged. Santiago) for their constructive comments as reviewers of the manuscript.hemicycle of the upper cycle was formed in the subtidal areas of the mid. Cagnoni. Extended Abstracts. Ramos. It is found in Profile 1 and is missing towards the east.G. G. The middle cycle is formed by the FW2 and FP2 facies. The upper cycle is the most extensive unit and indicates a well defined regressive stage. Le Roux (Universidad de Chile) and Dr. characteristic of the inner ramp. This research was supported by CONICET.an alternative to the shelf model.. The lower cycle.Vol. T. This indicates a strong shift from low energy subtidal environment facies. p. P. [ Links ] Cabaleri. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are very grateful to Dr. PIP No. Mr. Sociedad Geológica de Chile. 2001. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo. Association Geological Societies Transactions.. peritidal and supratidal facies (upper hemicycle). [ Links ] . No. Valencio. Panarello. ooidal bodies (FG1 and FG2) were formed. Restriction of the basin becomes more evident towards the top of the Calabozo Formation with the deposition of restricted circulation facies. The floatstone facies (FF2) characterizes the tidal channel fills that retransported sediments from basinal and extrabasinal areas. Argentina) for assistance in the field and valuable comments on an earlier version of this paper. Argentina. for preparing the petrographycal thin sections and Mr. Facies and carbon/oxygen isotopes of the Calabozo Formation (Middle Jurassic). In this environment.A. Tomorrow's New Targets. 1973. FG3 and FB in Profile 1 and FG1. REFERENCES Ahr. 67- 115.. Riccardi. FG2 and FG3 in Profile 2 represent the facies of this last hemicycle. C. 3. Vol. near the Cuchichenque mine (Profile 2). M. Arroyo La Vaina. where they are replaced by the upper hemicycle facies. In South American Symposium on Isotope Geology. The mid-ramp lower hemicycle facies wedge out and disappear towards the east (Profile 2). H. Carbonate ramp depositional systems. Volume (CD). J.C. Gulf Coast. 1992. Santiago.ramp and the upper hemicycle in the intertidal. [ Links ] Burchette.O. Today's New Technology. Armella. Argentina) for drawing the figures. to high energy intertidal environment facies. V..P. W. p.P.. Giordanengo (INGEIS. These channels (FF4) trapped the sediments resulting from destruction of the ooidal bodies and enabled the material to be transported between the peritidal and subtidal areas. Sedimentary Geology. Mendoza. shows a slight decrease in thickness towards the entrance to the Cuchichenque mine (Profile 2) and is represented by the FW1 and FP1 facies..M. 221-225. p. C. It comprises the inner ramp subtidal facies with a small channel system (FW3 and FF3) and subtidal facies (FW4 and FP/G) (lower hemicycle) and the inner ramp intertidal. identified in both profiles. E Llambías (INGEIS. S. 363- 367. 4517. characteristic of the mid-ramp. This suggests the predominance of a high energy intertidal environment in the eastern sector. 8. Riccardi (Universidad Nacional de La Plata.. A. They also thank Dr.A. and were under constant wave and current activity that caused erosion and the development of channel bars. Progradation of the marginal facies took place over the whole area and the increasingly shallower conditions favoured the development of peritidal to supratidal environments of the upper hemicycle (FG3 and FB). 23. Alvarez (Sipetrol. peritidal and supratidal areas of the inner ramp. N.

y Reunión Argentina de Sedimentología. Lo Forte. Análisis estratigráfico de la Cuenca Neuquina (Triásico superior-Terciario inferior. No.P. Sharp-based shoreface and 'offshore bars' in the Cardium Formation of Alberta: their relationship to relative changes of sea level. Gulisano. Gutiérrez-Pleimling. Actas. N. Boletín del Servicio Nacional Minero. Tucker. In Cuencas Sedimentarias Argentinas (Chebli. Sedimentology and Stratigraphy. Vol. Trace fossil facies models. Serie E. [ Links ] Legarreta. In Facies Models. p. 120. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. [ Links ] Palma. Instituto Superior de Correlación Geológica. Sequences and Paleogeographic evolution.. C.P..M. b) Mendoza Province. 139.. Vol. Salta. No. Uliana. R. p.. 1. Secretaría de Minería de la Nación. editors). 1993. 355 p. 1996. p. 2000b. 102-110. p. Argentina. 1981. No. G. No. No. Cianofitas y sus implicancias ambientales en facies de la Formación Calabozo (Caloviano)-Cuenca Neuquina... Grain fabric in hummocky cross-stratified storm beds: genetic implications.. 579-592.. Blackwell. 1988.. S. Kendall. [ Links ] Plint. No. Mar del Plata. No. 221-244.A. Actas. R. [ Links ] Dessanti. 159 y Asociación Geológica Argentina. Sedimentary Geology. Stranded parasequences and forced regressive wedge systems tract: deposition during base level fall.. 1993.J. In Congreso Geológico Argentino. G. p.. D. L. Argentina. Mendoza. Argentina. Servicio Geológico y Minero Argentino. Mac Eachern. 68-69. El Jurásico y Cretácico de la Cordillera Principal y la Cuenca Neuquina. Cuenca Neuquina. Blackwell Science. R. D.W. [ Links ] Legarreta.. Mendoza. editors).. p. Argentina. R.. 3.Vol. C. Palaeogeography. 8.L. Argentina).. Lanés. 3-4. 103 p.S. Lo Forte. Field Guide.J.A. [ Links ] Gulisano. C.L. [ Links ] Nichols. p. B.A. p. [ Links ] Palma. Lanés. In Congreso Geológico Argentino. Environmental and allostratigraphic significance. [ Links ] Gulisano. provincia de Mendoza. Buenos Aires. M. S. R. L. R. Buenos Aires. Lo Forte. p. p..Cheel. 1989. Facies Sedimentarias. L. Serie de Correlación Geológica... M. 9. M. [ Links ] Hunt. 1999. Posamantier. 1999. Geología Argentina (Caminos. Las secuencias sedimentarias jurasico-cretácicas. Hummocky cross stratification. No. Gulisano. 103-122. Ciclos depositacionales en la Formación Calabozo (Caloviano). 1978 Descripción geológica de la Hoja28b Malargüe. El ciclo Cuyano en el norte del Neuquén y sur de Mendoza. Descripción geológica de la Hoja 29b Bardas Blancas. Universidad Nacional de Tucumán. Buenos Aires. J. y Reunión Argentina de Sedimentología. H.A. C. C. In Congreso Latinoamericano de Sedimentología. Argentina. 1999. editors). Mendoza. 1. Argentina. Palaeclimatology and Palaeoecology. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists.M. 1-70. Mar del Plata. p. 2.A. [ Links ] Palma. 399- 416. Uliana.W.No. The Jurassic of the Neuquén Basin. Vol.M.A. 303- 330. Response to sea level changes (Walker. 1-50. No. Vol. 1. 3. 61. A. San Luis.N. editor). L.N. Argentina. 6. [ Links ] .. 81. James. R. No. Argentina. L. G. p. [ Links ] Legarreta. 12. 357-370. 2. Oxford. The jurassic succesion in west-central Argentina: Stratal patterns. No. M. No. 14..R.L. No. [ Links ] Pemberton. 42. Geological Association of Canada. 8 (Resúmenes). R.A. S. Argentina. In Sedimentology Review 1 (Wright. G. R. Vol. In Congreso Latinoamericano de Sedimentología. In Sea level changes: an integrate approach (Wilgus. Vol. 87-114.. No. In Congreso Geológico Argentino. p. Leckie. 29. Mendoza.E 1995. 139. V.C. [ Links ] Cheel..G. Relatorio. C. 138. [ Links ] Legarreta. 1-9.A. 2.A. Boletín del Servicio Nacional Minero. p. 1994. [ Links ] Dessanti. Spalletti.K. Buenos Aires. Frey. 1992. 47-72. 2000a. 1991. p. C.. A. 149.C. provincia de Mendoza.St. Anales. Publicación. J. 8 (Resúmenes). Uliana... Van Wagoner. Ross.G. Hastings.G. Vol.. 1973. Cuenca Neuquina. R. editor)..A. G. Preservación y diagénesis de corales escleractínidos de la Formación Calabozo (Caloviano).

A. In Congreso Geológico Argentino. Rounded intraclasts of homogeneous micrite. 1999. 325-394. Bioclasts of bivalve shells. well-rounded intraclasts.V. Actas. [ Links ] Wright. T. plagioclase and feldspar crystals and rock fragments. and igneous rock fragments. Middle Jurassic Ammonoid Fauna and Biochronology of the Argentine-Chilean Andes. Scale bar: 500 µm. a FF1. Scale bar: 500 µm. 4. Part IV: Bathonian-Callovian Reineckeiidae.P. b FF2. Micrite peloids. Scale bar: 100 µm.. Biointraclastic wackestone. 1992. g FW2. Palaeontographica. with siliciclasts. 1996.C. PLATES 1-3 Plate 1 Figures (a-h) Mid. p. Scale bar: 500 µm. H. Oxford. [ Links ] Riccardi. 1.P. [ Links ] Uliana. Legarreta. 1991. Radial and micrite ooids. p. American Association of Petroleum Geologists.G. Part III: Bajocian-Callovian Eurycephalitinae. Sedimentology. Silici-intraclastic floatstone. Biointraclastic floatstone. Peloidal wackestone. 1985. 1-6. Fashions and models in sedimentology: a personal perspective. ooids replaced by sparite.A. 33. 4. ooids with feldspar nucleous. echinoderms. 1996. No. faecal peloids. L. 9. p.. [ Links ] Riccardi.P. Scale bar: 500 µm. A216. 559-595. micrite peloids. d FW1. Vol. No. D. M.G. 1984. 1-61. No.. Grains are well sorted and show a clast-supported texture. Oointraclastic floatstone. No.C. p. examples and exploration significance. the smaller ones show thin dark micrite coats (cortoids). h FW3.W. Forced regressions in a sequence stratigraphic framework: concepts. M. [ Links ] Read. Las asociaciones de Amonitas del Jurásico y Cretácico de la Argentina. H. 76. G.. H.ramp facies of the Calabozo Formation.F. Vol. Peloidal wackestone. siliciclasts of quartz and rock fragments. 2001. Bulletin.Posamentier. Bioclast corresponding to a fish scale remain. Estratigrafía y geoquímica de las facies generadoras de hidrocarburos en las cuencas petrolíferas de Argentina. [ Links ] Wright. In Congreso de Exploración y Desarrollo de Hidrocarburos. James. p. G. G. thin sections of the different types of floatstone and wackestone facies. 69. H. A. Transverse section of a foraminiferous. Scale bar: 500 µm. igneous rock fragment. Biointraclastic wackestone. Westermann.. 1-145. well-rounded intraclasts... In Sedimentary Environments: Processes. p. Ooid with sparite nucleous. Stephanocerataceae. Bioturbation canal cutting through intraclasts and bioclasts. Shallow-water carbonate environments. 34.P. f FW2. Burchette..A. editor). Scale bar: 500 µm. concentric ooid. Stuttgart. [ Links ] Manucript received: December 7. Vol. 3- 9. Facies and Stratigraphy (Reading. Siliciclasts: quartz. No.P. Allen. 1. Facies sequence on a carbonate ramp: carboniferous limestones of South Wales.E. Blackwell Sciences. 2003. American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Well-rounded micrite and sparite intraclasts. 1- 21. intraclasts of micrite/ microsparite and of microsparite with sparite and dolomite crystals. siliciclasts: rock fragments and quartz. Carbonate platform facies models. Bulletin. 1987. 221-241. J. Villar. Mar del Plata. Sedimentology. p. faecal peloids. [ Links ] Reading. Buenos Aires. c FF3. e FW1. accepted: August 10. Tesson. Siliciclasts are the dominant components: quartz and tabular plagioclase crystals. V. made of micrite with organic matter and of other microfacies. Argentina. Scale bar: 500 µm. 1687- 1709.. Vol. Laffitte. Intrabioclastic wackestone. . p.G. No.

PLATE 1 .

ooids. Intraclasts. Peloidal-intrabioclastic wackestone. Gastropod remains. g FP/G. Scale bar: 500 µm. micrite peloids. e FP2. cortoids. fragments of bivalve shells. bioclasts with micrite coat. small intraclasts. intraclasts. Scale bar: 100 µm. Well-rounded intraclasts of micrite and of other facies. a FW4. Scale bar: 500 µm. Bioclastic packstone. faecal peloids. Intrabioclastic floatstone. broken ooids. Plate 2 Figures (a-h) Mid-ramp facies of the Calabozo Formation. Scale bar: 100 µm. Oobioclastic packstone. micrite intraclasts. peloids. reworked bioclasts. micrite/microsparite intraclasts. concentric ooids. d FP2. Scale bar: 500 µm. foraminifera. Scale bar: 100 µm. h Inner-ramp facies. b FP1. thin sections of the different types of wackestone and packstone facies. gastropod section. Bioclasts. peloids. c FP1. Scale bar: 100 µm. Peloidal micrite. Intraclastic packstone. sparite intraclasts with micrite edges. Concentric ooids with sparite nucleous. FF4. Scale bar: 100 µm. Bioclastic packstone. intraclasts. Oobioclastic packstone. Section of foraminifera. siliciclasts. Foraminifera fragment. Intraclastic packstone. quartz and feldspar siliciclasts and rock fragments. f FP/G. siliciclasts and bioturbation canal. bioclasts. PLATE 2 . Fragments of bivalve shells.

ooids. Intraclastic grainstone with ooids. Scale bar: 500 µm. PLATE 3 . Ooidal grainstone. Intraclastic grainstone with ooids. Contact between the stromatolitic level and the gypsum laminae. Stromatolitic boundstone facies. h FB. Scale bar: 500 µm. peloids. e FG3. Reworked gastropod with micrite coat. peloids. Scale bar: 500 µm. g FB. a FG1. oncoids and intraclasts. Scale bar: 100 µm. The stromatolite is made up of dark peloidal-grumous-micrite laminae with scattered black pebbles. Scale bar: 500 µm. Scale bar: 100 µm. Scale bar: 500 µm. Ooidal grainstone. Bioclasts represented by bivalve shells and vertebrate remains. peloids. Plate 3 Figures (a-h) Inner-ramp facies of the Calabozo Formation. thin sections of different types of ooidal body and stromatolitic boundstone facies. Intraclastic grainstone. Intraclastic grainstone. oncoids. Sparite-filled ooid with micrite coat. Transverse section of dasycladacea alga crossed by microstilolite. Concentric ooids with nucleous of brachiopod. b FG1. Section of gastropod. micrite laminae with iron oxides can be seen in the upper sector. Scale bar: 100 µm.Reworked bioclasts. micrite intraclasts. Stromatolitic boundstone facies. c FG2. f FG3. micrite intraclasts. with crenulated contours. of micrite and of sparite. d FG2. Subhorizontal microbial lamination.