Biological Stabilisation
of Sewage Sludge

April 2003


Biological Stabilisation
of Sewage Sludge

April 2003


The German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste, DWA (former ATV-DVWK), is the spokesman
in Germany for all universal questions on water and is involved intensely with the development of reliable
and sustainable water management. As politically and economically independent organisation it operates
specifically in the areas of water management, wastewater, waste and soil protection.

In Europe the DWA is the association in this field with the greatest number of members and, due to its spe-
cialist competence it holds a special position with regard to standardisation, professional training and infor-
mation of the public. The ca. 14,000 members represent the experts and executive personnel from munici-
palities, universities, engineer offices, authorities and businesses.

The emphasis of its activities is on the elaboration and updating of a common set of technical rules and
standards and with collaboration with the creation of technical standard specifications at the national and in-
ternational levels. To this belong not only the technical-scientific subjects but also economical and legal
demands of environmental protection and protection of bodies of waters.

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ISBN-13: 978-3-937758-71-8
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(German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste)

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processing machines, without the written approval of the publisher.

2 April 2003

-Ing.g. co-fermentation) are to be examined critically. Vohburg Guests: ESCH. Wolfram Dipl.-Ing. Siegfried Dipl. the relevant legislation and the necessary operational requirements. Armin Prof. Julia Dr. Waiblingen KOPP.. Fredy Dr. Peter Dr.-Ing.. Köln April 2003 3 . Thickening and Dewatering of Sludge” by their Working Group AK-2.-Ing. Hamburg KASSNER. Conditioning. Peter Dipl.-Ing..1 “Stabilisation of Sludge”. The ATV-DVWK Specialist Committee AK-2 and its Working Group AK-2. Reinhard Dipl. Dipl.....-Ing. Hamburg HRUSCHKA.. Bernd Dipl. Joachim Dr. Essen GLASENAPP. Wolfram Dipl. Darmstadt (Chairman) MELSA. The biological processes of sewage sludge stabilisation have become widespread across the world.1 have elaborated this Advisory Leaflet from the aspect of the current status of technology... as well as the combined use of municipal digestion reactors for simultaneous waste processing (e.-Ing. For decades they have been dimensioned and operated according to empirical approaches. despite the diverse research work... Disinfection.1: EVERS.-Ing. Bochum EVERS.-Ing. Ulrich Dr. not to be appropriate to establish plants for the stabilisation of sewage sludge solely according to microbiological and reaction kinetic approaches to dimensioning.. Herbert Dr. to reduce the required investment costs.. Essen GLASENAPP.-Ing. Troisdorf REIFENSTUHL.. ATV-DVWK-M 368E Foreword The stabilisation of sewage sludge is the most important basic operation of the overall treatment of sewage sludge. Essen BLEI. Authors This Advisory Leaflet has been elaborated on behalf of and with the collaboration of the ATV-DVWK Specialist Committee AK-2 “Stabilisation.-Ing.-Ing. Ulrich Dr..-Ing.-Ing. München KASSNER. Peter Dr. Ralf Dr. With this a practice-related orientation aid is to be provided. Current efforts towards the reduction of the stabilisation volume and of the stabilisation times. Lengede LOLL. Members of Working Group AK-2.-Ing. Waiblingen LOLL. Darmstadt (Chairman) Members of Specialist Committee AK-2: BISCHOF.-Ing.. Joachim Dr. As usually several process objectives are to be met with the establishment and operation of sewage sludge stabilisation steps it appears. Viersen (Vice-Chairman) WOLF. Ludwigshafen DENKERT.-Ing.

..............................................................................................................2....................................................2 Surcharges as a Result of External and Internal Factors ..2 Conditioning .................2................... 10 2..........1........................................................ 15 3..... 17 3...................................................................................................................................................2....2 Additional Sludge Yield as a Result of Seasonal Peak Loading .2......1................2..1 Thickening ......................................................................................... 21 4... 14 3.................................1................................. 5 List of tables...............2.............................1.......................... 21 4............1 Raw Sludge Yield and Properties .............1............................................................................................................................................. 18 3...6 Summary of the Possible Surcharges to the Basic Sludge Yield.................................................................................3 Additional Sludge Yield as a Result of Wastewater Treatment Works Internal Process Water ...............................................2 Sludge Conditioning ........3 Separate Mesophilic and Aerobic-thermophilic Stabilisation .........................1...............1 Aerobic Stabilisation.............................1.................................................................... 8 2 Basic Elements................................................................................................2 Biochemical Basic Operations.......2 Separate Aerobic Sludge Stabilisation at Normal Temperature .......................................... Dimensioning and Operation of the Biological Stabilisation ........ATV-DVWK-M 368E Contents Foreword.........................................2 Dimensioning................................................................ 17 3.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Additional Sludge Yield as a Result of Precipitation Runoffs............4 Sludge Composting (Separate Aerobic-thermophilic Stabilisation in Solid or Non-free-flowing Aggregate Condition)......... 5 User Notes .........2......................................1 Simultaneous Aerobic Sludge Stabilisation........................................ 26 4 April 2003 ...................2........................................4 Additional Sludge Yield as a Result of Additional Substrates .................................................................................................................. 15 3.........................................................................................2 Anaerobic Processes ......... 19 3...................... 21 4......3 Changes of the Rheological Sludge Characteristics.......................2 Anaerobic Stabilisation (Sludge Digestion) ........................................2............................................ 11 3 Influencing Factors with the Dimensioning of Plants .................................. 17 3................................... 3 Authors ..........1........................................................................................................................................... 3 List of pictures ................................................1 Process Alternatives.... 10 2............................................................................................. 22 4.................................................... 25 4....................... 10 2............ 20 4 Process........ 25 4............................................. 13 3................................................1....................................... 10 2....... 12 3..................2.................2............... 18 3......2.......................................................... 24 4..............................2........................ 6 1 Area of Application and Process Objectives of the Stabilisation ..............3 Influences of Sewage Sludge Disintegration...............5 Peak Surcharges as a Result of In-plant Influencing Factors ............................................................................1 Determination of the Average DR and oDR Loads of the Raw Sludge Yielded (Basic Sludge Yield) ...... 6 Abbreviations ..............1........................ 12 3.............................1.........1............................................................... 18 3......................... 22 4.................................................1 Aerobic Processes .................................1 Terms ........................................................................ 14 3......................

2...........2..................................................4 Circulation ........................... 30 5 Hygienic Aspects ............................... 17 Table 5: Required power density NR depending on the DR content of the reactor sludge....................2.................................... 23 April 2003 5 ......... 11 Diag..... 3: Influence of the solid matter content and the temperature on the flow behaviour (apparent viscosity) of primary and secondary sludge .......................................3 Charging and Seeding ..................3............ 27 4........................3........ 27 4.........................................................................................7 Operation .........................2......................................2........................ ATV-DVWK-M 368E 4...............................................................................3......................................................................3 Structural..................6 Facilities for Measurement and Control ...................... 27 4...................................................................................... Standards and Standard Specifications...................................................................................3....................................................... 31 6 Areas of Application ................3..... 33 Literature ......................................................1 Structural Shapes................. 1: Principle dependency of the aerobic stabilisation time on the temperature (ATV 1996)....... 9 Table 3: Raw sludge yield and properties dependent on various treatment processes and operating conditions ..5 Heating .2.. 32 7 Bibliography ........... 29 4.................................................................2............................................................................................. 28 4........................................... 11 Diag.. 4: Recommended areas of application for biological sewage sludge stabilisation processes .. 2: Dependency of the digestion time for the achievement of the technical digestion limit on the temperature (FAIR...........2 Equipping ............................................................................................................................. MOORE 1934) .................................... 35 List of pictures Diag.................... 16 Table 4: Surcharges to the basic sludge yield as a result of internal and external influencing factors ....................................... 29 4................ 32 List of tables Table 1: Required degrees of stabilisation assigned to utilisation or disposal objectives ............................................................................................................ 8 Table 2: Sludge stabilisation processes..................................................... 27 4...................2................................................................ 27 4.........................................................3............................................................................................... 19 Diag..............3 Dual Biological Stabilisation ......................and Process-Technical Constraints..........................................................................................................................3.... 33 Regulations.........................

With its application no one avoids responsibility for his own action or for the correct application in specific cases. the indi- ces used reflect the English translation of the individual German parameter. For this. a contract or other legal reason. The application of this Advisory Leaflet is open to everyone. Symbol Unit Designation English German β mol FM/mol P Stoichiometric overdosing Cx mg/l Oxygen concentration in the aeration tank ∆ . Inhabitant PT [EW] E Total number of inhabitants and population equivalents F . p= 1013hPa ∆PBio-P g/( I·d) P-load biologically removed (or to be removed) [g/(E·d)] ∆SS [∆AFS] g/( I·d) Removal of suspended solids [g/(E·d)] SS [AFS] kg/m³ Suspended solids SSPST [AFSVK] kg/m³ Suspended solids in the primary settling stage SSIN [AFSZU] kg/m³ Suspended solids in the influent AT [BB] . T= 20 °C. Aeration tank BDS [BTS] kg/(kg·d) Sludge loading BOD5 [BSB5] mg/l Biochemical oxygen demand in 5 days COD [CSB] mg/l Chemical oxygen demand CODRAW [CSBROH] mg/l Chemical oxygen demand in raw sludge D m Diameter I [E] . Where this is not possible the original German symbol is placed in square brackets after the English version.ATV-DVWK-M 368E User Notes This Advisory Leaflet is the result of honorary. Flocculation filtration FA [FHM] . Load FF . rules of procedure of the ATV- DVWK and the Standard ATV-DVWK-A 400). this applies in particular for the correct handling of the margins described in the Advisory leaflet. Difference ∆NO3-N g/(I·d) NO3-N load to be differentiated [g/(E·d)] αOC kg/h Oxygen transfer capacity of an aerator facility in activated sludge with Cx= 0. This Advisory Leaflet is an important. Flocculation aid 6 April 2003 . however. This procedure is not intended to create new symbols for the English-speaking engineering community but serves solely to make German symbols/indices comprehensible to non-German speakers]. not the sole source of information for correct solutions. Abbreviations [Translator’s note: While the main terms remain unchanged as they are recognised internationally. However. an obligation for application can arise from legal or administrative regulations. there exists an actual presumption that it is textually and technically correct. technical-scientific/economic collaboration which has been achieved in accordance with the principles applicable therefore (statutes. according to precedents. For simplicity and clarity these have been chosen to match as far as possible the German indices.

sludge after biological phosphorus removal DRDEN. ATV-DVWK-M 368E Symbol Unit Designation English German PREC [FM] .VK] h Retention time in the primary settling (tank) DR [TR] % Dry residue DRBIO-P [TRBIO-P] % Dry residue. 2) Safety factor ∆SP [∆SF] .PS % Ptot content in primary sludge Px. sludge after chemical precipitation DRPS [TRPS] % Dry residue. 1) Simultaneous precipitation. Efficiency of simultaneous precipitation VR m³ Reactor volume PST [VK] .ECS [TRDEN.ECQ] % Dry residue. Precipitant DS [FS] . Primary settling (tank) AS [WS] . sludge after denitrification by means of external carbon sources DRPREC [TRFÄLL] % Dry residue.ECQ] kg/d Waste sludge yield through denitrification with external carbon source (ECS = external C-source) WSFF [ÜSFF] kg/d Precipitation sludge yield from flocculation filtration WSP [ÜSP] kg/d Waste sludge yield as a result of chemical phosphorus removal (precipitation sludge) SP [SF] .PST [tA. Digested sludge F-DRBio-P kg/I·d Inhabitant-related waste sludge yield from increased biological [F-TRBio-P] [kg/E·d] P-removal F-DRPS kg/I·d Primary sludge load – dry residue [F-TRPS] [kg/E·d] IgnL [GV] % Ignition loss H M Height of sludge level SVI [ISV] l/kg Sludge volume index NR W/m³ Power density for aeration and thorough mixing OB kg O2/kg BOD5 OC/load OC kg O2/(m³d) Required aeration capacity oDR [oTR] % Organic part of the dry reside OV g O2/(kg·oDR·d) Respiration activity p hPa Gas pressure Ptot [Pges] g/m³ Total phosphorus load PS g/I d Specific primary sludge yield [g/(E·d)] Px. Polymer active substance April 2003 7 . primary sludge SS [TS] kg/m³ Concentration of suspended solids SSAT [TSBB] kg/m³ Concentration of suspended solids in the aeration tank SSESST [TSE] kg/m³ Concentration of suspended solids in the effluent of the secon- dary settling tank tSS [tTS] d Sludge age WS [ÜS] kg/d Waste sludge yield WSBio [ÜSB] kg/d Biological waste sludge yield WSBioF [ÜSBF] kg/d Waste sludge yield from biofilm process WSBioP [ÜSBIO-P] kg/d Waste sludge yield as a result of biological phosphorus removal WSDEN.WS [Px.ÜS] % Ptot content in waste sludge QA [QL] m³/h Air supply T °C Temperature tR [tA] d Retention time tR.ECS [ÜSDEN.

which has a direct effect on di. Storage in dewatered form* limited stabilisation to complete stabilisation** Utilisation/storage in dried form* Limited stabilisation to complete stabilisation ** Storage following incineration or similar Stabilisation not absolutely necessary Storage following mechanical-biological treatment Stabilisation not absolutely necessary * Can still only be practised as transitional solution up to 2005 in accordance with the German Technical Directive .ATV-DVWK-M 368E 1 Area of Application Basically. b) the reduction of sludge/solid matter quanti- d) Storage in dewatered form. eration/gasification/chemical oxidation e) the extraction of biogas (with anaerobic g) Storage following mechanical-biological treat- stabilisation only). of different process techniques can be employed mensioning of the plant. Completely stabilised** for agriculture. ment f) the creation of buffer and storage space for sludge treatment An assignment of the required degree of stabili- sation for utilisation or disposal is carried out in Process objectives b) to e) are directly related to Table 1. c) Intermediate storage of liquid sludge in • as secondary objectives sludge ponds. of the sludge. otherwise scaping and in recultivation in dewatered form limited stabilisation to full stabilisation** Intermediate storage in liquid form in sludge ponds Limited stabilisation ** Dependent on the type of sludge conditioning. Stabilisation a1) Utilisation in liquid form in farming/agriculture.Municipal Waste.06. ties. f) Disposal in residue landfills following incin- d) the reduction of pathogens. the stabilisation and are thus dependent on this. e) Utilisation/storage in dried form (in Germany c) the improvement of the dewatering ability from 01. ** Achieve the technical stabilisation limit *** In accordance with ATV-DVWK-A 131E. The most important processes and their predominant areas of application are sum- marised in Table 2. successfully. The creation of buffer and storage space for the process chain of the overall sludge treatment is a In order to achieve the given objectives a series special criterion. a3) Utilisation in dried form in framing/agriculture. the process objectives of stabilisation and Process and thus the degree of stabilisation are to be Objectives of the aimed at the respective utilisation or disposal of the sludge. • as main objective b) Utilisation in dewatered form in landscaping or a) the stabilisation of the substrate recultivation. The most important process objectives of sludge a2) Utilisation in dewatered form in farm- stabilisation are: ing/agriculture. Table 1: Required degrees of stabilisation assigned to utilisation or disposal objectives Utilisation or disposal objective Required degree of stabilisation Utilisation in farming/agriculture in liquid form Completely stabilised** Utilisation in farming/agriculture as well as in land.2005 no longer permitted). ATV (2000) 8 April 2003 .

g.05 (kg/kg · treatment plants d) With (effective) self. For small wastewater - heating with BDS ≤ 0. Composting (e.. preventing a (Aerobic) In the dewatered or liq. Long-term aeration e. uid phase matter tion” sized wastewater also with raw sludge terial change through treatment plants ATV-DVWK-M 368E strong pH-value rises 9 9 April 2003 . Aerobic-thermophilic Smaller to medium Concurrent disinfection heating sludge stabilisation (so. in so. ATV-DVWK-M 368E Table 2: Sludge stabilisation processes Type of process/ Milieu Phase or aggregate With/without Process Area of application Remarks function condition self/outside heating with/without outside energy with ad- dition of outside mate- rials Biological Aerobic In the liquid phase Without effective self.Smaller to medium Only in Scandinavia short-term effective ma.sized wastewater called liquid composting) treatment plants In the dewatered phase With (effective) self.g.With addition of foreign So-called lime “stabilisa. Previously smaller to - ers medium sized waste- water treatment plants With outside heating Independently heated Medium to large - digesters wastewater treatment plants Dual=aerobic/anaerobi In the liquid phase With self-heating or Usually combination of Medium wastewater Concurrent disinfection c or anaerobic/aerobic outside heating aerobic-thermophilic/ treatment plants (usually with at least anaerobic-mesophilic or one thermophilic stage anaerobic-thermophilic and anaerobic- mesophilic stage reactor with heat recycling Chemical Aerobic/anaerobic In the liquid phase With outside energy Wet oxidation Larger wastewater Not very common treatment plants In the dried phase With/without outside Incineration/gasification If possible only large - energy wastewater treatment plants April 2003 Chem. Smaller to medium Concurrent disinfection heating called “bioreactors”) sized wastewater treatment plants Anaerobic In the liquid phase Without outside heating Imhoff tank Smaller wastewater With new construction treatment plants no longer to be used Open unheated digest.

which are relevant for the biological sludge stabilisation. With with temperatures below 30 °C. 10 April 2003 . With temperatures above 70 °C the chapters.1 Terms The ATV Handbook „Klärschlamm“ (Sewage This Advisory Leaflet relates to the definition of Sludge) (ATV 1996) (not yet available in English) terms in DIN 4045. Otherwise the information on the respective process temperature. particularly relevant commended for further reading.2 Biochemical Basic Operations sewage sludge to be taken into account. and The biological processes for sludge stabilisation. With the joint aerobic sludge stabilisation within tion of odour-forming content substances and or. dependent on the respective tempera- as certain conditions (e. EN 1085. EN 12832 and and the there quoted specialist literature are re- EN 12255-8.ATV-DVWK-M 368E The stabilisation of sewage sludge is a central Mesophilic basic operation of sewage sludge treatment and Process condition for organisms which are active will retain this significance even with modified with temperatures between 30 °C and 40 °C. If these conditions are no longer maintained the biological degradation restarts. disposal objectives and standards.2. Pseudo-Stabilisation The sludge age influences the degree of the Process that a product creates. Processes under increasing reaction temperature there is there a so-called normal temperature conditions. the biological wastewater treatment stages there ganic sludge solids. the biological Thermophilic process alternatives play a dominating role. which is investigated in particular in Chapter 3. with which the respective process is The other technical terms with their associated process-technically realised (fluid/solid phase). vary essentially through the type of the term “hyperthermophilic” or “extreme thermo- activated microbiological biocoenosis (aero. for which reason only the prac- tice-related relationships are dealt with in this Advi- sory Leaflet. philic” is applied. The following. given standard specification applies. are described in nu- 2 Basic Elements merous references. With the pro- cesses summarised in Table 2. In dimensioning are described with their respective addition.g. change of the active biocoenoses from a broad organism diversity in the psychrophilic tempera- ture range (below 30 °C) via the mesophilic (ca. pH value or dryness) ture level. in substance is not biologically degradable as long addition. Process condition for organisms which are active with temperatures between 45 °C and 80 °C. terms are described here separately. The process activity is. 2. ing condition. Desired secondary objec. are maintained. whose temperature optimum lies between 55 °C which are described in detail in the following and 65 °C. whose organic achievable stabilisation.1 Aerobic Processes Stabilisation Process of sludge treatment for extensive reduc. For the practical dimensioning of stabilisation plants or their components there are different ap- proaches for the recording of the amounts of 2. beyond the information on standardisation: 2. With separate aerobic sludge stabilisation the ex- tent of the process activity under technical oper- Psychrophilic ating conditions depends very much on the tem- Process condition for organisms which are active perature level in the respective reactor. bic/anaerobic) or through the condition of the ag- gregate. are numerous different micro-organisms which tives are the improvement of the dewatering develop depending on the process goal and load- capability and the reduction of pathogenic agents. The biochemical basic operations of the meta- bolic processes of the aerobic and anaerobic mixed biocoenoses. the process variants differ through the first mention.

for the diges- tion of sewage sludge. not been applied successfully in practice. 2: Dependency of the digestion time for the achievement of the technical digestion limit on the temperature (FAIR. The phases of the anaerobic degradation process running synchronously in the sewage sludge substance mixture can be realised successfully in a reactor with little control expense. in practice. there were two operating ranges to be sought with associated optimum temperature ranges which. (ATV 1996) Diag. 1). ATV-DVWK-M 368E 30 ºC to 40 ºC) to the thermophilic (ca. In the past decades the thesis from FAIR and MOORE set up in the thirties that.2 Anaerobic Processes 80 °C) or even hyperthermophilic (over 70 °C) range with decreasing species diversity down to The process of anaerobic degradation has. These are presented in Diag. on the respective temperature level can be read approximately from the curve developed by LOLL In the field of sewage sludge treatment a separa- (1974) and quoted in the ATV Handbook „Klär.2. the seventies. pose of the separate optimisation of their respec- tive process conditions has. has established it- Diag. since monoculture. acetogenic The dependency of the required stabilisation time and methanogenic phase. been described in a four-stage system using hydrolysis. Due to the het- erogeneous substrate characteristics it does not appear to be promising to follow up this objective further. acidification. 1: Principle dependency of the aerobic self throughout almost all the textbooks and spe- stabilisation time on the temperature cialist articles. are to be maintained through appropriate control and tem- perature regulation measures. tion of the individual bacteria groups for the pur- schlamm“ (ATV 1996) (see Diag. MOORE 1934) April 2003 11 . 2. 45 ºC to 2. up to now.

external factors are counted precipitation events. The raw sludge yield to be applied for dimensioning 12 April 2003 . Plants rather that the reaction temperature with appro- priate constraints can be matched to the respec. relationships and dependencies which is the rea- son that they should not be considered in isola- In the summer months excess thermal energy tion but always in the overall context. the surcharges to be applied. Up until now. With regard to the adoption of the advanced wastewater treatment using fur- ther developed process technologies and various selected operating conditions it has shown. tourism etc. DR loads as a result of internal return loading of the wastewater treatment plant through sludge treatment also play a role. increase of the nutrient loading (nitrogen. loading of the sludge stabilisation plants with the ously. yield and its properties are of fundamental signifi- tion temperature no relevant drop in efficiency is cance. if required. to carry out a systematic determination of the DR or oDR loads of the raw sludge as well as. dation of the organic mass of solid matter with an industries which function seasonally. in addition to an at 3. Between these factors there are diverse the sludge treatment. shown with with the Dimensioning of sufficient certainty that the recorded activity maxima and minima of the anaerobic biocoenoses in practical operation do not have to be observed.1 Raw Sludge Yield and least seasonal improvement of the success of stabilisation. For the dimensioning of a plant for separate bio- logical stabilisation of the sewage sludge. DR and oDR daily loads produced. depending on the basic process and the respective operating conditions of the wastewater treatment. in practice. produced can be utilised successfully to increase the temperature level in the reactor. on the other hand for short.ATV-DVWK-M 368E Numerous practical observations in various di. that over recent years in many cases the values given in the “Sludge List”. the determination of raw sludge yield and properties took place in accor- dance with the so-called “Sludge List” from IM- HOFF (1999) which. the knowledge of the current and future raw sludge With continuous controlled changes of the diges. The biological stabilisation is dependent on many tive thermal economy of the complete system of factors. The in- creased temperature level. To the sludge one has to reckon with increasing degra. are too general and therefore should be considered dif- ferentiated. With this it is possible. also has the effect as heat store Properties whereby the lowering of the process temperature in winter can be delayed significantly. in the meantime.or medium-term additional loading With a dewatering of the anaerobically stabilised as a result of external and internal factors. how- ever. inter alia for reasons of necessary safety reserves. depending on the different processes of wastewater treatment. listed the in- habitant-related DR loads for the raw and di- gester sludge yield. A new approach to the determination of the basic sludge yield is presented below. 3 Influencing Factors gester plants have. On one hand this applies for the average to be feared as frequently was assumed previ. With the internal factors the additionally yielded phosphorus with bio-P plants).

The relevant SS re. so low that it practi- the primary settling stage. determined above the 85 The waste activated sludge from increased bio- percentile frequency of undercutting there is already logical P removal increases the SS load of the a significant safety reserve compared with the an. the Raw Sludge Yielded (Basic Sludge Yield) The nutrient removal also has an effect on the waste activated sludge yield: with nitrification the The primary sludge yield PS is applied accord. exist- ing wastewater treatment plants as a rule show suf. The biological waste activated sludge yield ficient operating reserves for the buffering of WSBF with biofilm processes (biological filters and loading peaks of the sludge yield (thickener. These details should if possible be verified by measurements. mined based on the formula tabled in Standard ATV-DVWK-A 131E (ATV-DVWK 2000) for the calculation of the waste activated sludge depend. With plants with low sludge age (tSS < 5 days) the oDR content of the waste activated sludge as a mean is ca. April 2003 13 . as a rule.35) as dard ATV-DVWK-A 131E (ATV-DVWK 2000).0 g DR/g ∆PBIO-P wastewater loads relevant for the waste activated sludge yield are. The waste activated sludge from the denitrifica- tion using external C sources increases the SS The biological waste activated sludge yield load of the biological waste activated sludge ac- WSB with the activated sludge process is deter- cordingly. however. 3. cal P removal then results as follows: creases slightly. The follows: DR content of the primary sludge removed from the primary settling stage (without return waste ac. biological contactors. of 15 °C. The additional waste activated sludge yield ing on the settleable solids in the influent to the WSBIO-P with the increased biological phosphorus aeration tank. 75 %.ECS(METHANOL) = 0.ECS(ETHANOL) = 0.55 g DR/g ∆NO3-N · ∆DN · ß as a mean is applied as 67 %. share of newly formed nitrificants in the waste ac- ing to the removal of the settleable solids (SS) in tivated sludge is. 4.53 g DR/g ∆NO3-N · ∆DN· ß tivated sludge) lies between 2 % and 8 %. The actual inhabitant–related waste With this it is to be noted that the specific waste activated sludge yield from the increased biologi- activated sludge yield with falling temperatures in. cally has no significance. ethanol. removal. As the F-DRBIO-P = 3. a large degree on the sludge age in the aeration tank.ECS with tling stage. stoichiometric overdosing ß (as a rule = 1. fluidised bed reactors) is fundamentally compa- ted that the waste activated sludge yield is deter. F-DRDEN. acetic acid) re- F-DRPS = F-SSIN · ∆SS with: sults depending on the NO3-N load to be denitrified ∆SSPS = f(tR.0 g SS/g ∆PBIO-P (JARDIN 1995). Therefore. fixed and buffer tank or similar). denitrification by means of external carbon sources (e. With high sludge age (tSS > 15 3. rable with the waste activated sludge yield with mined with an average dimensioning temperature the activated sludge process and is therefore. nual mean sludge loads yielded. moval ∆SS depends essentially on the retention period tR. The share of the organic solid matter oDR on the DR F-DRDEN.82 g DR/g ∆NO3-N · ∆DN · ß content (ignition loss IgnL) of the primary sludge F-DRDEN. biological filters.ECS(ACETIC ACID) = 0. In these cases it is permit. biological waste activated sludge accordingly.PST of the wastewater in the primary set.g.1 Determination of the Average days) this value can fall to 70 % as a result of the DR and oDR Loads of increasing share of the endogenous respiration. ATV-DVWK-M 368E then results as the sum of the basic sludge yield The organic share oDR of the total share of solid and the appropriate surcharges of external and matter of the waste activated sludge depends to internal factors.5 g N/(g/(I·d)) and the external car- bon source applied. In addition. The additional waste activated yield WSDEN.PST) ∆NO3-N (e. principally a dimen- sioning temperature of 10 °C is relevant. depending on the P load ∆PBIO-P to be removed biologically is ca.g.1. methanol. The actual inhabitant-specific Typical values for the average SS removal waste activated sludge yield from the denitrification depending on the retention time of the raw sludge using external carbon sources then results via the in the primary settling stage are given in the Stan.

the lected operating conditions. If one applies for the precipitation some set correspondingly lower. combined systems). to a considerable additional sludge yield. The actual loading of the wastewater treatment plant. With this. For the quantitative determination of ing using precipitant products which are based on the surcharges for the raw sludge yield as a re- calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate.2 Surcharges as a Result of Ex- rus removal through simultaneous precipitation) ternal and Internal Factors and the precipitant employed.IN Result of Precipitation Runoffs F-DRPREC(ALUMINIUM SALTS) = 4.5 g DR/g Fe3+·ß·56/31·F-Ptot. one is concerned with regulation of a pH value in the almost neutral range. however. 7. 2. As one is concerned mainly with mineral material sumed that the hydrated lime is almost completely with surface degradation and deposits in the dissociated. The determination of yield and properties of the The precipitation sludge yield WSP as a result raw sludge (Basic Sludge Yield) is summarised in of chemical phosphorus removal (simultaneous Table 3 below. geology and surface degrada- Under certain circumstances a pH value correction tion of the catchment area. the DR share in the raw sludge must be calculated according to the selected dos.1. as well as the relevant phosphorus load in the in- fluent to the aeration tank to be precipitated: 3. 200 l/(I·d). specifications of the treatment performance (complete or supplementary chemical phospho.1 one is concerned with the Basic 2004) using iron salts is ca.IN The treatment of stormwater in the catchment area of the wastewater treatment plant can lead The organic share of the jointly removed biologi.1.ATV-DVWK-M 368E taking into account the appropriate operating pa. should be kept away from the combined from the precipitant products. dimensioning. The actual suspen. with the treatment of the wastewater and the se- rus load in the influent to the aeration tank. deposits and flushing is necessary though the input of hydrated lime due behaviour in the sewer network (in particular with to the formation of H+ ions with simultaneous pre.30 % tant products and the actual suspension (on average 25 %) are recommended for pure retention. addition of lime. surcharges of 20 % . a water. this is not possible.5 g DR/g Fe3+ or Sludge Yield which results dependent on the 4. dependent on the phospho. topography. 3. however. products can be estimated taking into account the phosphates and hydrates formed from the pre. to be determined quantitatively analo. in accor- With the quantities of sludge determined accord- dance with Standard ATV-DVWK-A 202E (April ing to Sect. With a lime precipitation.2. above all from paved surfaces with slight specific sludge yield of ca. The sludge yield from the precipitant combined sewer systems.1 Additional Sludge Yield as a F-DRPREC(IRON SALTS) = 2.5 g SS per g dosed iron (ATV smaller stormwater inflow the surcharges can be 1997). it 5 g Fe3+ per m3 wastewater as well as an aver.0 g DR/g Al3+ using aluminium salts.5 g SS/(I·d) results pollution. sult of precipitation runoff as far as possible op- erating data of the wastewater treatment plant The sludge yield WSFF with a flocculation filtra. With modified combined sewer systems with cipitant as ca. cific sludge yield from the flocculation filtration is gously to the procedure with the activated sludge thus ca. depending on the process applied precipitation) results. Thus the polluted 14 April 2003 .5 g SS/(I·d). The spe- rameters. it is as. The additional sol- ids yield from precipitation products. sewer and discharged directly.0 g DR/g Al3+ ß·27/31·F-Ptot. similar influencing factors should be employed. 5 g SS/(I·d). process.1. area. however. sion retention is set as ca. concerned or comparable catchment areas with tion placed downstream of the biological treat. 2. As here. If ment stage is made up together from the precipi. with this eration of the stormwater treatment facility. it sewer network. The fol- cal waste activated sludge through the chemical lowing influencing factors play a role: precipitant sludge reduces accordingly. increases. Vari- inhabitant-related increased yield of sludge then ous internal and external influences described results via the required ß-factor [mol FM/mol P] of below lead. 3. to higher quantities of the precipitant input and the stoichiometric ratio sludge which are to be taken into account using of the mol masses of precipitant and phosphorus appropriate surcharges. 2. type and op- cipitation using acidic metal salts. should be taken into account that the precipitation age specific wastewater yield of ca.

2. Par. with the reduction in volume (thickening. and no possibilities for intermediate buffering ex- ist. In addition the hydraulic flushing surge.1. 3. Therefore the additional yield of sludge as a Even with the realisation of a separate treatment result of seasonal peak loads have to be taken plant for wastewater treatment works internal into account with the dimensioning of the reactor process water from sludge treatment additional volume of plants for sludge treatment in a similar sludge can. For This separate sludge yield can be determined this there are the following important options: separately by means of the relationships pre- sented in Sect. corporated in the primary and waste activated sludge are in part released with sludge treatment The additional sludge yield as a result of precipi. the wastewater 3. 3. 2001). combined sewer to the wastewater treatment plant. To determine the dimensioning sludge yield the effects of seasonal loads for domestic and com- ter treatment plant in batches.1. wine campaigns) as and its properties depend directly on the relevant well as the tourist season can lead at times to a wastewater loads in the inflow to the wastewater considerable yield of raw sludge as a result of treatment plant as well as its removal through the their additional wastewater pollution loads yielded respective treatment stage. termined separately and taken into account using appropriate surcharges. tant runoffs must be added as surcharge to the dewatering) of the sewage sludge.2. mainly dissolved form with the separated sludge ticular problems can be caused by the additional liquor as return flow into the biological stage. Treatment Works The sludge yielded results almost exclusively Internal Process Water from the “degradation” of the surfaces of the catchment area and therefore consists almost The organic and inorganic content substances in- completely of mineral components. which can reach far more than sludge liquor separation these highly concentrated three times the daily sludge yield with dry internal pollutant loads often lead to a consider- weather.3 Additional Sludge Yield as significantly smaller as. into account analogously (MÜLLER et al. The surcharge as in the annual mean).1. hours and several days. sludge liq- yield of sludge must be taken into account as uor and sludge loads in the wastewater treatment soon as the hydraulic retention periods of the plant is recommended for the determination of an sludge with separated stabilisation are exceeded accurate as possible total raw sludge yield.1.1 and is to be added as sur- a) Appropriate enlargement of the reactor vol- charge to the Basic Sludge Yield in accordance ume. ATV-DVWK-M 368E precipitation runoff in the main continues to reach ciency according to the share of peak loading the wastewater treatment plant. particular thickening and or the possibilities which are directly drained or can be drained via a for buffering.1. With integrated joint treatment. The difference in the timely distribution able additional loading of the wastewater treat- can be equally large and can lie between a few ment plant.2 Additional Sludge Yield as treatment works internal process water from a Result of Seasonal treatment of sludge yielded in the mechanical Peak Loading and/or biological treatment stage cannot be sepa- rately determined by means of the relationships Industries which work seasonally (production of presented in Sect. As the raw sludge yield foodstuffs and beverages. De- sludge from the treatment of stormwater through pending on the type of sludge and the process of its yield in batches.2. and. April 2003 15 . which during and after rainfall loads the wastewa. in the stormwater sewers a Result of Wastewater one has to reckon with significantly less deposits. The return loading from a possi- b) Retention of the reactor volume (acceptance ble sewage sludge disintegration is to be taken of a temporary overload and reduction in effi. is only slightly re- mercial-industrial wastewater must each be de- duced through the modified combined system.1. 3. be yielded. a comprehensive over several months.1. manner to biological wastewater treatment. With catchment areas with separate sewer sys- tems the surcharges for the increased yield of sludge as a result of precipitation events are set 3.1. with Sect. return in Basic Sludge Yield according to Sect. a result of precipitation runoff should therefore c) Combination of a) and b) as well a favourable not be reduced to the same degree which would arrangement of other influencing factors in correspond with the ratio of the paved surfaces. 3. depending on the process. The seasonal additional balancing of the relevant wastewater.

tR. tR.0.95 ß = 1.59 g/(I·d). ∆SF ≈ 100 % 5.7 %).8 5) > 0.59 Biol.72 4. tR. SS and BOD5 loads in the raw wastewater are applied with typical values of 70 g DR/(I·d) or 60 g BOD5/ (I·d).0 h 0.PST = 0.7 5) > 0.5 h 0. result as analogous to the activated sludge Fluidised bed reactors process Simultaneous precipitation (SP) Precipitation sludge Iron salts WSP 8) ß = 1. 8. ∆BOD5 = 33.0 ß = 1.88 Acetic acid (ß = 1. Px.PST = 2.7 56.67 1.0 h 0.90 Flocculation filtration (FF) Precipitation sludge Iron salts (ß = 1.0 h 1b) PS 2-8 351) 0.1 1) 2) 0.0. With a dimensioning temperature of 10 °C the waste activated sludge production increases by ca. Biological contactors WSBF taking into account the respective operating condi- tions.70 4. an effluent load of 0. The Ptot load in the influent of the biological stage.67 1.95 6) 0.96 g P/(I·d).0 h 0. ∆SF ≈ 100 % 4. ∆Ptot ≈ 100 %) WSFF 7. 6.35) 1.2 g P g/(I·d). 0.0 tR.g. ∆BOD5 = 16. 0.3 1) 2) 0. P removal in the primary settling tank of ca.0 8. ∆SF ≈ 100 % 7. ∆SF ≈ 50 % 2.6 tSS = 15 d.PST = 1.7 34.6 Aluminium salts ß = 1. 5.5 8) ß = 1. tR. tR.0 h 1c) 2-8 401) 0.PST.5.4 Activated sludge processes (T = 15 °C) Waste acti- C removal (BOD5+ if reqd. denitrification) vated sludge tSS = 5 d. 1a) Typical removal rates: ∆SS = 43 %.0 tSS = 10 d.8 1) 2) 0. ∆SF ≈ 50 % 3.5.7 32.75 7) < 0.5 h 1a) sludge 2-8 301) 0.0 5.7 46.7 42.95 6) 0.9 5) > 0.5. taking into account a P influent load of 1.PST = 2. tR.70 5.59 g/(I·d) is set = 1.72 6. PST = 1. 6 %.95 6) 0.5.16 g/(I·d). is set as 0. ∆BOD5 = 25. = 1.5 h WSB 0.0 5.75 5.3 tSS = 25 d (Stabilisation plant) 0. The P load ∆PBIO-P to be removed using bio-P. P removal WSBIO-P 2. 4 %.72 5.0 Nitrification Practically no WS additional production detectable Denitrification as result of ext.1 tSS = 10 d. P incorporation in waste activated sludge (tSS = 15 d.8 1) 4) 0. taking into account a P influent load of 1.0 1) 3) 0. C sources WSDEN. The content of settleable solids in the effluent of the secondary settling tank is set as SSESST = 20 mg/l. = 2. ∆ SF ≈ 100 % 5.5 h 0.0 h 0.75 6.67 1. the P removal in the pri- mary settling tank of ca.65 8.57 Ethanol (ß = 1.35) 1.7 %) of ca. with smaller ∆NO3-N loads the waste activated sludge reduces proportionally.8 g/(I·d). 0.PST = 1.3 % 2. tR.PST = 1.8 8) ß = 1.75 5.25 g/(I·d) (tR. after complete nitrification). With a dimensioning temperature of 10 °C the waste activated sludge production increases by ca.7 tSS = 5 d.PST.0 8) ß = 1. With a dimensioning temperature of 10 °C the waste activated sludge production increases by ca.7 35. 3. 5.25 g/(I·d) and through incorporation in the biological waste activated sludge of ca.3 1) 3) 0.5 1.PST = 0.5.0 % 1c) Typical removal rates: ∆SS = 57 %. Px.0 h 0.PST = 0.8 g/(I·d). ∆SF ≈ 50 % 2.7 37.0 h.ATV-DVWK-M 368E Table 3: Raw sludge yield and properties dependent on various treatment processes and operating conditions Process / Operating conditions Sludge yield and properties Type of DR content DR load oDR/DR Volume sludge [% DR] [g /(I·d)] [-] [l /(I·d)] Primary settling tank: Primary tR. 0.0 tSS = 15 d.PS = 0.PST = 2. tR. The NO3-N load ∆NO3-N to be denitrified using external C sources is set as 8 g/(I·d) (e.7 41.PST.7 30.4 1) 3) 0.WS = 1. 7.70 5.0 ß = 1.0 h 0.6 tSS = 15 d.3 1) 4) 0.2 tR.0.35) 1. ∆SF ≈ 50 % 2.0.7 39.2 1) 3) 0. tR.9 tSS = 5 d.ECS Methanol (ß =1. 16 April 2003 .5 %.05 7) Biofilm processes Biological filters (C removal/nitrification) Sludge yield and properties with biofilm processes.7 % 1b) Typical removal rates: ∆SS = 50 %. = 0.3 tSS = 10 d. 4.2 1) 4) 0.

the presence of “classical” or “modified” combined the catchment area otherwise con.2. these aspects are deci- due to the separate delivery of substrates such sive for the dimensioning of the appropriate plant as faecal sludge or other organic substances components. must be taken into for the design of individual rately.1. system.1. For the throughput capacity of many units and the retention period in buffer tanks working/operating days per week or per Table 4: Surcharges to the basic sludge yield as a result of internal and external influencing factors Influencing factors Surcharge Notes Precipitation runoffs effect Overall If required further differentiation in accordance with – taking up of the “pollution” in ca. see also Sect. The of considerable significance for individual elements necessary surcharges to the Basic Sludge Yield of the treatment of the sewage sludge. 20 % . 3. 3. 3. are summarised in Table 4.2. surcharge to the Basic Sludge Yield in accor- dance with Sect. Above all.2. which can. The process can be the dimensioning of the plant components.1. The value determined is to be added as units account as a result of in-plant influences.4 Additional Sludge Yield as a working day as well as arrangements for holidays Result of Additional Substrates are to be taken into account. organic matter) by case oDR-loads In-plant influencing factors Consideration Determination of peak surcharges in accordance (peak surcharges) by case with operational specifications and constraints April 2003 17 .2.6 Summary of the Possible Surcharges to the Basic 3. 30 %. ATV-DVWK-M 368E 3.g.5 Peak Surcharges as a Result of Sludge Yield In-plant Influencing Factors The possible variations and peaks from internal The distribution of the sludge yield into a daily or and external influences are evaluated together weekly rhythm is determined from the process of and used as basis in a harmonious fashion for the wastewater treatment plant. for co-fermentation). without shift operation. not be operated like stabilisation reactors in con- tinuous operation.1. Consideration Quantitative determination of the PT-specific DR or cal sludge.1 sideration by – re-suspension of deposits in the case sewer – erosion of the sewer film Seasonal peak loads Consideration Quantitative determination by means of Table 3 via – industry by case separate balancing of the additional pollution loads in the inflow to the wastewater treatment plant – tourism (WTP) Separate treatment of wastewater Consideration Quantitative determination by means of Table 3 via treatment plant internal process by case separate balancing of the additional pollution loads water in the process water from sludge treatment Integrated joint treatment of WTP.2. with small and medium sized wastewater treatment plants The additional inhabitant-related sludge yield. Consequently peak surcharges (e.1. Consideration Quantitative determination by means of Table 3 via internal process water in the by case separate balancing of the total pollution loads in wastewater treatment wastewater and sludge flows produced in the WTP Separate input of substrates (fae. is determined sepa.

With static thickening a conditioning using or- ening of primary sludge and waste activated ganic flocculation aids as a rule leads to no im- sludge in the primary settling tank or in a static portant improvement of the degree of thickening. provement of the thickening capability and dewa- tering capability of the sewage sludge with regard to the respective process goal.2 Sludge Conditioning The basic elements and various processes of thickening are summarised in detail in the ATV Under sewage sludge conditioning are under- Report „Eindickung von Klärschlamm“ [“Thicken- ing of sewage sludge” (Not available in English)] stood to be all processes which lead to an im- (ATV 1998).2 Conditioning With biological wastewater treatment and sewage sludge stabilisation the degradation of organic 3. The results of thickening are essentially depend- Therefore. contents which. a degree of separa- ingly.2. stufung von organischen Flockungshilfsmitteln – • the colloidal and gel-like constituents which Polyelektrolyten – in Wassergefährdungsklassen“ are contained in particular in organic waste (ATV 1999) [“Classification of organic flocculation activated sludge and in hydroxide sludge as aids . are too low for an opti- mum method of operation of the following treat- ment stages. Conditioning can be achieved via chemical and/or cally dependent on: physical processes. brings economic advantages in particular for the volume of the stabilisation reactor. of wastewater has a very high water content and a correspondingly small content of solid matter. above all the element of the colloidal and gel-like content substances with the The sewage sludge resulting from the treatment exception of the EPS. • the share of EPS (extracellular polymer sub- stances) as a result of slimy/viscous proper. nega- 18 April 2003 . The respective quantity of water and in particular the intensity of the inter-molecular bonding force (electrostatic and Van-der-Waals forces) are criti. process technology of the wastewater treatment propriate reduction of volume is sensible. According to available operating results on an in- ties. This and the sludge treatment. Report. circulation and heat- ing is ensured.1 Thickening substances reduces. whereby the und Einsatz von organischen Flockungshilfsmit- smallest particles have a very large specific teln – Polyelektrolyten – bei der Klärschlam- surface area and thus very large bonding mentwässerung“ [“Selection and employment of forces. eration of the transportation. 3.ATV-DVWK-M 368E 3. for all process steps of sludge treat. a concentration of the solid matter with ap.2. As a rule. with conditioning. be increased. The solid matter content in the thickened tion of more than 90 % can be achieved.polyelectrolytes – into water hazarding well as in phosphate precipitation sludge. the mixing and heating unit and the sludge dewatering machine. The solid matter content of the discharge achiev- able using the different processes are summa- rised according to sludge types in the ATV Report With combined sludge thickening the solid matter „Eindickung von Klärschlamm“ (ATV 1998). Therefore a separate static thickening the solid matter-related degree of separation can. in the following stabilisation stage. the ment. not available in English]. organic flocculation aids – polyelectrolytes – with sewage sludge dewatering” (ATV 1992a) not • the organic content substances which have a available in English] and the supplement „Ein- very high specific surface area. Microthrix parvicella) as a result of the vanced sludge stabilisation are currently under hydrophobic (water rejecting) properties). thickener. dustrial scale and laboratory investigations. are achieved through the joint thick. classes”. as a rule. of the primary sludge in the primary settling tank however. The working mechanisms are explained in detail in the ATV Report „Auswahl • the distribution of particles. or in a thickener and the mechanical thickening of the waste activated sludge is carried out increas.g. Further sludge should only be increased so far that the details can be found in the above-named ATV degradation process is not hindered and the op. specialist discussion. • the share of filament-forming micro-organisms The effects of the flocculation aids on the ad- (e. ent on the composition of the wastewater.

raw sludge and digested sludge are to be classified as non-Newtonian • stabilisation time liquids. thickening to a solid matter content of 2 % to 4 % the degradation behaviour and the charge DR. as a rule. Equally. The apparent viscosity for the characteristics with the result of a smaller dis. iour were ascertained (Bau. raw sludge and • degradation of the colloids stabilised sludge. ter. (1986).3 Changes of the Rheological The viscosity of the pre-thickened sewage sludge Sludge Characteristics as a rule improves in the subsequent stabilisation plant dependent on: The rheological characteristics (flow characteris. the solid matter content. colloids with stabilisation and the temperature have a decisive influence on the viscosity. no significant influences on the flow behav- balancing which takes place with thickening. Here. the degradation of • share of the finest solid matter particles. the share of organic substance. 3: Influence of the solid matter content and the temperature on the flow behaviour (apparent viscosity) of primary and secondary sludge April 2003 19 . With the evaluation quantity of raw sludge of the flow behaviour the sludge is to be divided into primary and secondary sludge.2. 3 in de- pendence on solid matter content and temperature. With this. one has to reckon with a The flow capability first deteriorated following the mechanical thickening of raw sludge and the me- • reduction of the yield of biogas and a chanical thickening of waste activated sludge using centrifuges without addition of flocculation aids • worsening of the digested sludge dewatering (DENKERT 1988). ATV-DVWK-M 368E tive effects on the wastewater treatment and the Viscosity investigations of activated sludge with a sludge treatment can arise with the employment solid matter content of 2 . as they change their viscosity depending on • share of waste activated sludge of the total the forces acting on the liquid.8 gSS/l resulted in no of an increased quantity of organic flocculation important deviations in comparison to clean wa- aids with the pre-thickening of the waste acti. 1986). • stabilisation process tics) of sewage sludge change with thickening. They are described using the measured value of • stabilisation temperature the viscosity. 3. with conventional static raw sludge vated sludge due to the chemical composition. Within the anaerobic sludge stabilisation and dewatering. The results are presented in Diag. Diag. separate thickening of primary and secondary charge solid matter content and an increased sludge using centrifuges was investigated by BAU requirement for conditioning agent.

can lead to a reduction of the retention time in the di- gester. With mechanical disintegration the energy is intro- duced into the sewage sludge mechanically. The disintegration or treatment can be induced through non-mechanical methods (thermal. for example. 2001. high pressure and shear splitting ho- mogenisers. whereby the organic sludge liquor leads to a return loading of the acti- components in such compounds are broken vated sludge stages. Consequently the specific biogas yield can increase.3 Influences of Sewage Sludge eration. with the selection of pumps the digester is not set too short due to the accel- for transport of the thickened sludge and the con. consists of micro-organisms. 20 April 2003 . the dewatering Disintegration behaviour can deteriorate and the consumption of flocculant usually increases significantly. The speed of Further information on this subject can be found this degradation reaction is determined through in the reports of the ATV-DVWK Working Group the formation rate of the enzymes required for “Disintegration of Sewage Sludge” (ATV-DVWK this. For practical purposes the disintegration is car- ried out on the waste activated sludge as this. as ception of the mixing facilities in the stabilisation then a washing out or removal of the active bio- plant. For this one utilises the methods from wet crushing technology or from the dispersion and emulsion technologies.ATV-DVWK-M 368E The viscosity must be taken into account with the Attention is to be paid that the retention time in pipe friction losses. The remaining quantity of sewage sludge reduces after dewatering. The degradation of the organic elements in the sewage sludge can be increased from ca. The in- In the digester the biological degradation reac. thickening due to the viscosity as negative effects on the subsequent stabilisation should be The reduction in the size of the sewage sludge avoided. Here the disintegration of the sludge begins. erated degradation with continuous charging. down and converted. 2001a. The effects of the sewage sludge disintegration on the anaerobic sludge stabilisation can be the following: An acceleration of the biological degradation process can take place which. chemical. Currently employable are agitator ball mills. to a large extent. creased solubility of organic substances in the tions start with hydrolysis. Thus. ATV 2000) If one destroys or disintegrates the cell walls of the micro-organisms in the sewage sludge the cell components are then available for the en- zymes. particles through disintegration influences even more parts of the wastewater treatment plant op- 3. 40 % to 60 %. ultra sonic disintegrators and centri- fuges with lysing facilities. Intracellular enzymes then additionally can also take part in the degradation reactions. biological). which are then in part or colloidally soluble in sludge liquor. There are also limits for the raw sludge mass from the digester can occur. theoretically.

The primary settling stage is dispensed with.0 kg O2/kg BOD5 • simultaneous aerobic sludge stabilisation. The accurate determination of the average SS • separate aerobic sludge stabilisation with content in the stabilisation tank SSAT takes place normal. volume index SVI. in particu- tleable solids (primary sludge) which reach the lar if the sludge is not completely stabilised due to wastewater treatment plant with the raw waste- the process (for the simultaneous running waste- water and the waste activated sludge formed with water treatment still active activated sludge is still the biological wastewater treatment in accor- required). 2. In order not to endanger the process goal of stabi- lisation and to prevent the formation of bulking sludge. April 2003 21 . The dimensioning of the simultaneous aerobic Dimensioning and stabilisation takes place using the Standard ATV- DVWK-A 131E (ATV-DVWK 2000). logical wastewater treatment (ATV 1997). which the processes are presented in Chap. which can be realised process-technically through a long aeration time and a sufficiently high acti- vated sludge content in the simultaneous aeration or stabilisation tank. the formation of an anoxic No. the thickening ability and dewa- With simultaneous aerobic stabilisation the set- tering capability are significantly poorer. mesophilic and/or thermophilic tem. 2-3 and penditure. can be realised process-technically • activated sludge content in the stabilisation essentially using the following process variants: tank SSAT = 4 . treatment ranges into a solid or non-flowing aggregate goal peak loading conditions) using Standard state). stabilisation tank is oriented on the corresponding low.2.1 Aerobic Stabilisation • sludge age tSS ≥ 25 d (temperature T ≥ 10 °C.1.1 Simultaneous Aerobic Sludge 70 % of the total time. The most favourable employment ranges of wastewater engineering process variants. step with the biological removal of carbon and ni- trogen compounds. under specification of treatment goal and sludge perature ranges. ATV-DVWK-M 368E 4 Process. liberate denitrification) whose biochemical basic elements are described in Sect. with nitrification) 4.1. The operating costs as a Stabilisation result of the long aeration time are relatively high. For an extensive stabilisation of the sludge a high sludge age is necessary. area for denitrification is possible without problem. The necessary oxygen transfer • sludge composting (separate aerobic sludge αOCnec is determined depending on various influ- stabilisation with thermophilic temperature encing factors (wastewater properties. Struc- tural design and process technical design of the The process technologies named are described be. not available in English] as well as the low operating and monitoring ex- (ATV 1994). 6. ATV-DVWK-A 131E (ATV-DVWK 2000).5 kg SS/m3 • oxygen load OB ≥ 3. tion Bayern (ATV-DVWK 2003). 2-4 of the ATV-DVWK Federal State Associa. tained in the ATV Report „Stabilisierungskenn- werte für biologische Stabilisierungsverfahren" Advantages result from the low investment costs [“Stabilisation characteristic values for biological and the operational security (large buffer capacity) stabilisation processes”. Notes are presented in detail in the ATV Manual on Bio- on stabilisation characteristic values are con. In addition. the aeration time may not undercut 65 % – 4. The following Operation of the approaches serve for a rough pre-dimensioning: Biological Stabilisation • sludge age tSS ≥ 20 d (temperature T ≥ 10 °C. These disadvantages can be compen- dance with the activated sludge process are sta- sated using sludge ponds or other storage tanks bilised simultaneously in a reactor in a process for anaerobic post treatment. nitrification and de- The aerobic stabilisation of sewage sludge. as well as in Handbooks No. In comparison with separate aerobic or anaerobic stabilised sludge.

erably.1. to 8.5 % to 4. is relatively insensitive. 70 % organic share and solid • required power density for aeration and thor. With static thickening of the primary sludge and Centrifugal aerators or coarse bubble com.ATV-DVWK-M 368E 4. is raw sludge as a rule lies in a favourable range charged with raw sludge once a day.0 % and 7. aerobically greatly reduced with the aerobic-thermophilic stabi- operated tanks or reactors at normal outside lisation that a self-heating of the sludge into the temperatures. The dimensioning of the required reactor volume takes place via the hydraulic retention time of the • operationally necessary solid matter content sludge in the aerobic-thermophilic reactor (AT- in the stabilisation tank 3 % – 4 % DR. temperatures (LOLL 1974. The personnel thickening of the raw sludge from more than 8.2 Separate Aerobic Sludge 4.3 Separate Mesophilic and Aero- Stabilisation at Normal bic-thermophilic Stabilisation Temperature Through the creation of appropriate process- With separate aerobic stabilisation the raw sludge technical constraints (heat insulation of the reactors. increases strongly. however. Oxygen transfer and thorough perature is a little less efficient due to the lower mixing in the reactor are then impaired consid- degradation rates and is thus not so economical. there is achieved. The aeration and thorough mixing of the reactor contents with aerobic-thermophilic stabilisation can take place through combined aeration and mixing systems as well as separately pressure using systems with separate mixing facilities. The stabilisation tank. As required combined systems can also be equipped with additional mixing facilities. separate mechanical thickening of the waste acti- pressed air aeration systems are suitable for vated sludge the achievable DR content in the aeration. The following sys- tems are basically suitable: • spiral and forced air aeration systems (self- priming ejector aerator). due to the higher Compared with aerobic-thermophilic stabilisation solid matter content. compared with given (RIEGLER 1989.0 % DR. with central European conditions. In warm climate zones the employment negatively influenced by the employment of floc- of the process. culation aids with mechanical pre-thickening. approach applies for thickened municipal raw sludge with ca. reactor). According to available experiences. the viscosity of the sludge separate aerobic stabilisation with normal tem. Metabolic rates and degradation per- practically no measurable self-heating of the formances are significantly increased with these sludge through the exothermal metabolic proc. employment of suit- and waste activated sludge) is treated separate able aeration and mixing units). GLASENAPP 1989). As a result of the very versatile aeration time. The following guidance values are aerobic biocoenosis the process. A too extensive pre- the stabilised sludge is drawn off. For a perfect stabilisation of the sludge a retention period of at least five days is seen as • required aeration capacity OC ≥ 2. ATV 1996): toxic content substances in the sewage sludge.0 %.5 % DR is not sensible as. sult of the higher temperature level a safe disinfec- tion of the stabilised sewage sludge is possible The dimensioning takes place via the necessary (STRAUCH 1980). appears to be thor.0 % expense is slight for operation and maintenance. matter content of at least 3. This O2/(m3·d) (oDR degradation ≈ 30 % . 22 April 2003 . Prior to this between 5. the heat loss is so to the wastewater treatment in open. As a result of the absence of insu. esses with the aerobic degradation of the sludge The stabilisation time can thus be reduced.2 kg sufficient (LOLL 1984. as a rule. the The process is therefore no longer realised in aerobic biological degradation process is not Germany. thermophilic temperature range of 45 °C – 65 °C is lation. yielded with the treatment of wastewater (primary thickening of the raw sludge. • retention period tR ≥ 20 d (Minimum tempera- ture T ≥ 10 °C). DEMHARTER 1986).1. As a re- content substances. ough mixing NR ≥ 50 W/m3. oughly justified.35 %).

however. ATV-DVWK-M 368E • submerged aerators.5 80 . recommended that before any decision is made on the system. pre.6.5. To minimise the radiation losses a tank gen consumption geometry with a ratio between internal diameter of 3. In practice the H/D ratio is.4. The relevant air supply tributed evenly in the reactor.100 foam layer is destroyed through the input of air Mechanical 5. With this it is able significance for the oxygen supply. The aera- α [-] degree of COD deg.2 [kg O2/kg CODdeg] Safety factor for deg- Thermophilic (AT) reactors should have a cylindri- radation-specific oxy- cal form. an expenditure and dense foam layer is formed through the ex- of energy corresponding to the viscosity of the halation of CO2 or of air.0 or higher can be favourable for better oxy- gen utilisation with binary nozzle aeration systems.4. also to be arranged centrally.75 to 1. [W/m3] ance is influenced negatively and the insulating Static 3.367 · CODRaw · α · VR independent information on the oxygen-transfer QA = ————————————— [m3/h] capacity.0 120 . forced air and submerged aerators the height of the foam April 2003 23 . low specific power consumption should be dis- sumption (BAU 1986). de- p = 1013 hPa) pendent essentially on the structural design of the CODRaw [kg/m3] COD concentration in aeration and mixing system selected. two or more mixing units each with relatively approximately with the microbial oxygen con.0 . ess-technical diversity of the aeration and mixing proach: systems on offer it is.0 are certainly possible.0 . [%] [%] density thickening NR Surface aerators are not suitable as the heat bal.0 is f(T. Raw sludge DRRawSludge DRReactorSludge Power • pressure aeration systems with separate thorough mixing facility. p). H/D ratios of 1. With aerobic-thermophilic stabilisation a very fine sure a sufficient thorough mixing. (T = 0 °C.5 3.180 via the surface. In view of the inten- sation of the aeration sive thorough mixing at the bottom of the reactor system H/D ratios of 0. For spiral the raw sludge aerators a H/D ratio of 0. As tR [d] Stabilisation goal a result of the lesser dependency of the air supply on the filling level of the reactor.5 24 [h/d] Conversion factor to 2.2 · 3.5 . The following reference val.0 . Submerged aerators are ∆O2 [-] Average oxygen utili. ened sewage sludge the creation of an even and mined sufficiently accurately via the balancing of high shear gradient in the reactor is of consider- the chemical oxygen demand COD. In order to en. The height of the ues apply for the required power density in the permitted sludge layer above the sludge level is reactor NR (Table 5): dependent on the system. sludge tors). The dimensioning of the aeration systems with Due to the non-Newtonian behaviour of the thick- aerobic-thermophilic stabilisation can be deter. on the required energy consumption ∆O2 · tR · 24 and on the technical functional capability of pos- sible systems is obtained. whose height for operat- sludge is necessary. 1. In view of the proc- can be determined roughly via the following ap. With spiral.0 2. optimal. mixing of the reactor contents is proportional to the flow behaviour of the sludge. tors are installed tangentially to the reactor wall radation with a 45 % slope to the reactor bottom.2.367 [m3 Air/kg O2] Conversion factor = the reactor D and height of sludge level H of 1. in principle. Forced air aerators are arranged centrally whereby the H/D VR [m3] Reactor volume ratio is also to be 0. If possi- assumed that the COD reduction corresponds ble. Table 5: Required power density NR depend- ing on the DR content of the reactor • binary nozzle aeration systems (injector aera. with: For technical flow reasons the aerobic- 1.5 is favourable. ing reasons has to be limited. This applies also for compressed air aeration sys- The required energy expenditure for the thorough tems with separate thorough mixing facility.

as a rule.4 Sludge Composting (Separate and more can be achieved. A pH fixing is not required. Otherwise one has to reckon with a significant pre-degradation of The composting process or the biochemical deg- the organic substance as well as considerable radation process also called rotting can take odour nuisance as a result of the uncontrolled onset place. This method of opera. as the aerobic-thermophilic biocoeno- actor for aerobic-thermophilic stabilisation suf. to be propriately using pipelines.1. if required. the determina- tion of the content of organic acids in the stabi- With the start-up of an AT plant no seeding of the lised sludge come into consideration. A further regulation of the temperature is not With smaller plants the installation of a single re. Two-stage plants tor temperature displays a saw-tooth progression. quired. recommended that this temperature range is sired freeboard in the reactor. 0. been shown that a sufficient operational control of temperature and pH value is possible. The which are often described in literature falsely as average daily temperature in the reactor varies C-donors. with normal sewage sludge composting reactors. to composting. have proven themselves to be very good opera. raw be stabilised. In practice it has oxygen reaches all parts of the reaction volume. variations.10 can be re- both internally and externally against corrosion. What is decisive is that the heap to be ventilated perature. tween 7 and 9. As further possible parameters for the de- Heat losses are sufficiently reduced if the tanks are termination of the degree of stabilisation. such as. both with extensive mechanically dewa- of acidic fermentation. necessary. sludge temperature and external temperature be- 24 April 2003 . More than three reactors in series are not maximum temperature can be more than 10 °C.3. BOD5/COD ratio has shown itself. flowing Aggregate Condition) tion ensures the necessary minimum retention period for the disinfection and has proven itself to The aerobic-thermophilic stabilisation. After achieving the desired temperature level the charging with Aerobic-thermophilic Stabilisa- small. can be operated several reactors the charging can be evened out also in solid and non-free-flowing aggregate con- through automatically controllable dosing pumps ditions which is equivalent. avoided through the easing of the oxygen trans- fer. With special con- mainly of steel. as has be very good in practice. For operational control as well as for the regula- tion of the process the parameters reactor tem. Above ca. recommended. The tanks must be well protected straints a BOD5/COD value of ≤ 0. inter alia. Municipal sewage sludge As a result of material stress and strain with high can. With discontinuous operation the reac- tors in series are to be installed. a suitable parameter for the determination of the degree of stabilisation.15 m.04 W/(m·K). with normal operation.1. sis possesses a high adaptability to temperature fices.15. tered raw sludge alone as well as in a mixture with other biogenic waste matter. Before ess-technically. With medium and larger units several reac. reduces. With larger plants with been described in Sect. Therefore it is essentially to the reactor geometry and the de. With binary nozzle and compressed air specific efficiency of degradation of the aerobic- aeration systems higher foam layers are certainly thermophilic biocoenosis. saw dust or paper remains. In order to ensure this.ATV-DVWK-M 368E layer formed should be limited to a maximum of tween 40 °C and 65 °C. are added to the raw sludge which is to depending on the manner of operation. In order to ensure a high opera- tional flexibility of the stabilisation plant with the employment of several reactors these should be With aerobic-thermophilic stabilisation the of the same structural design and connected ap. for example. the raw sludge should be stored inter- mediately for a short time only. The permitted height then conforms of spore-forming bacteria. vary be. charging. biologically and proc- or through continuous pump operation. be seen as stabilised if the operating temperatures the tanks are constructed BOD5/COD value is ≤ 0. 65 °C the 0. which consists mainly permitted. The difference between the daily minimum and tionally. pH value and oxygen content come is loosened to such an extent that sufficient air or primarily into consideration. g O2/(kg·oDR·d)) and. the insulated with a ca. 55 °C 4. sewage sludge is required. 4. structured materials The pH values. 10 cm thick heat insulation with determination of the respiratory activity (OV ≤ 100 a caloric conductibility of ca.and medium-sized plants should takes tion in Solid or Non-free- place once or twice a day. the process comes into action so rapidly that already after three to four days an average temperature level of ca.

ting under thermophilic temperature conditions is set. ATV-DVWK-M 368E The addition of carbon sources is in no way nec. The disadvantage is that. In addition. with the tained in the raw sludge is degraded. for some time alone until the first digester has Approximately half of the organic matter con. for example. 2. cally between the following reactor types: In the first phase a so-called pre.1 Process Alternatives Analogous to other composting process tech- niques the complete process of biological stabili. Anaerobic sludge digestion can be operated as 4.or intensive rot. the temperature (see Chap. Further technical information is to be found in the Mesophilic anaerobic sludge stabilisation is by far ATV Handbook „Klärschlamm“ (ATV 1996). “recovered”. with which the re- can be operated as: maining stabilisation work is to be performed. tained for practical reasons over a longer period. Open and unheated digesters are today still em- ployed only in very simple conditions or in warm The process duration of the intensive rotting climate zones. ticeable well in time through the falling gas devel- opment of the first tank. ing sizes in the dimensioning part (Sect. If.2. provement of the structural boundary conditions of the material to be stabilised. 4.2. • thermophilic digestion in a temperature range between 50 °C and 60 °C. while can be utilised as energy carrier. fluid environment both with the aerobic as well as with the anaerobic process. To accelerate the re.2). in many cases Due to the dependency of the digestion time on fines are fed back into the rapid rotting process. reactor temperatures > 55 °C are of other biogenic wastes. They are therefore not dealt with should be at least 14 days. • mesophilic digestion in a temperature range The process step of intensive rotting can be car- between 30 °C and 40 °C or as ried out technically in so-called bioreactors quasi continuously or in rotting cells by charges. the operationally relevant volu- the process produces biogas/digester gas which metric loading in the first tank is very large. The areas of application of the process depend- essary for the actual biological conversion proc. With two-stage opera- (Sludge Digestion) tion the first highly loaded anaerobic stage serves for the hydrolysis and acidification of the sub- Under sludge digestion is understood to be the strate introduced. The still functioning sec- The anaerobic degradation of the raw sludge ef. 4.2. material is subjected to a post-rotting process which is to be dimensioned in at least weeks. ent on the economic efficiency as well as other ess which is shown clearly with stabilisation in a constraints are defined in Chap. the most frequently employed process.2. • unheated or heated digesters. 2. Heated anaerobic stabilisation in closed digesters however usually in months. problems are to anaerobic degradation of organic sludge content be expected through particular industrial loading substances (EN 1085. 1997). The biochemical or toxic loads. same tank size. in any detail other than to give a few dimension- spective rotting process and also for the im. it is always small corresponding to the in the April 2003 25 .2 Anaerobic Stabilisation single-stage – with several tanks in parallel op- eration – or as two-stage. ond tank can then process the raw sludge yielded fects a considerable reduction of solid matter. For the quality characteristics and for process con- trols the same criteria apply as for the composting For disinfection. • open or closed digesters. to be maintained. the two-stage operation has the basic elements of the anaerobic stabilisation are advantage that the loading peaks are made no- described in Sect.2) the heating of the sludge in closed tanks leads to a significant In a final post-rotting the biologically highly active reduction of the necessary treatment volume. 6. whereby here more than 60 °C are to be main. With sludge digestion one can differentiate basi- sation is carried out usually in two phases.

ess. 45 % – 50 %. Digestion is an asymptotic biological degradation process whose last phase stretches to a very long time so that this is finally of no significance Here the maximum daily peak values are not to be technically. tion retention time. With the observation of the above given digestion bility of the digested sludge. The specific digester gas production rate changes. rather the determination of the a (certain) point. Thus the utilisation of space also reduces realisation of significantly shorter digestion times. pre-trials with the sewage sludge yielded gas production is determined decisively by the should be carried out for this – in particular with following influencing factors: existing plants – in order to be able to record the specific sludge characteristics. but rather depends on sludge quantities can vary over the year in order various constraints as well as on different crite. lead to out significant industrial discharges one has to different results. due to the more even loading. 2. however. ca. With new planning it is also necessary This technical digestion limit is. in ad- perature. a compromise usually has to be reckon with a specific digester gas production of selected for dimensioning. reduction of odour. time and correct operation and equipment of the content of organic acids. in particular for higher Already for some time there have been efforts to solid matter contents. The following digestion times are selected as approximate values (see also • digester circulation. This digester ble. In order to be able to buffer loading peaks suffi- ciently. Relevant dimensioning parameter is the diges. in the digester dependent on a realistic maximum. a retention period with mesophilic diges. water content. dewatering capa. to procure an as accurate as possible over- stances as well as their mutual influence.2 Dimensioning to 8 %.2. digester one has to reckon with a degradation of the organic solid matter mass of ca. up until view on the amounts of sludge yielded and their now the degradation kinetics have not been ca- pable of being grasped accurately. time and to subject these to a highest value con- sideration. for example. no to make sensible assumptions in how far the precisely fixed value.ATV-DVWK-M 368E meantime degradation achieved for the following Specialist Committee strongly advises against a tank.2). Above all to these belong the degree of stabilisation. • digestion time. With the joint treatment of organic substrates the tion of at least 20 days is recommended. Chap. • Imhoff tanks 60 days • operation and utilisation of the wastewater treatment. The dry residue of the raw sludge should be 3 % 4. sludge loading • heated digesters (55 °C) 12 days • phosphorus precipitant – type and quantity. 400 – 500 l per added kg oDR. • digester temperature. yield of raw sludge. • heated digesters (35 °C) 20 days • sludge age. A sufficiently thorough mixing of the tank volume is to be ensured. The process is therefore broken off at taken into account. In practice both as this endangers the assured guarantee of the methods of operation are employed with success. which is considerably better with parallel charging as is more often recommended in recent times. goal of stabilisation. As these characteristic values. Due to the numerous influencing factors For a sufficient but at the same time economic di- such as. 26 April 2003 . with regard to With municipal wastewater treatment plants with- their being taken into account optimally. • share of the waste activated sludge quantity • earth basins and unheated digesters 120 days in the overall raw sludge quantity. which is designated as technical sliding average values dependent on retention digestion limit. For wastewater treatment plants which already exist. tem- mensioning of the digesters it is necessary. thorough mixing. the hydrographic curves of the sludge yield can be evaluated for this. gas production. sludge content sub- dition. So far as this is possi. determine the digester volume using calculation models. thus to be able to verify a secure retention period ria for the assessment of the stabilisation proc.

2 Equipping ATV-DVWK-M 363 (Not yet available in English) The required security which is to be taken into (ATV-DVWK 2002a). the small then. at the same time as the input of raw sludge sludge surface and the continuous curvature of the the appropriate quantity of digested is forced out wall. dead space and short circuit flow are to be prevented. A sufficiently intensive circulation ensures the re- quired material and heat transport. Through the steep lower trough. architectural considerations. Therefore in the past. tural and foundation technical specifications as well as operational functions have played a role but also. reduce scum layer problems and also ease gas The charging of the digester should.3. as far as possible take place outside the digesters. April 2003 27 . this shape delivers extremely favourable pre. In addi- ment plants with aerobic sludge stabilisation is. within the collection. not only struc. account with the dimensioning of digesters de- pends. meaning of an optimum reactor. one or more cylindrical.2.3. of the reactor. using sev- a lower and upper cone. D:H ratio.0 to 1. The egg form represents a further improvement of the classical European shape. In addition. egg-shaped or the process and also to be able to be able to inter- spherically matched closed digesters above vene with malfunctions. continental European shape is is to preheat the raw sludge extensively to the tank made up of a cylindrical middle part (D:H~1) and temperature and to mix in. seeding of the raw sludge with charging. i.and Process. If one selects the incline eral times the inflow quantity of active sludge. work against bottom deposits. sites for an intensive digestion process. tion. to seed.e. the cir- Technical Constraints culation of the contents of the digester as well as a continuous heating are the essential prerequi- Conspicuous characteristic of wastewater treat. 4.3.3 Charging and Seeding As far as possible digesters are charged with raw 4. It is tion of temperature in the complete sludge mass. on the effectiveness of the technical facilities employed. then this shape offers good A continuous operation with smaller plants runs prerequisites for the circulation/homogenisation up against limits inter alia with regard to a mini- of the tank contents. take place as far as possible continuously. conditions for circulation. In particular the flat bottom leads. operated as anaerobic biological flushing reactor ogy.2.2.3 Structural. The preheating and 4. the prerequisite The cylindrical shape with flat bottom represents for the degradation of the organic substances and a compromise between the Anglo-American the gas development as well as an even distribu- (D:H>1) and the classical European shape. the ratio sur- face/content with a view to the required heating is more favourable than with the other structural 4.3.e.7 and for the upper cone as 0. selected shapes can support good thus heating energy.0. (totally thoroughly mixed tank). for the lower cone as 1. cheaper to produce and has a more favourable The chronological and local constancy of solids. it first became If the digester – as is today generally usual – is possible through progress in concrete technol. i. ATV-DVWK-M 368E More details on the composition and utilisation of digester gas are described in Advisory Leaflet 4. too often. mum pipeline cross-section so that then a quasi continuous interval operation is to be sought. above all. ground level made from steel. What is to be sought here The classical. reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete. nev- bacteria and temperature and the utilisation of the ertheless.6 to 1.1 Structural Shapes sludge which has a relatively high solid matter content in order to save digester volume – and Favourable. thorough mixing.2.4 Circulation shapes. The installation of the technical equipment should with the construction of digesters. to limitations with the selection of the whole available space are therefore to be sought mixing facilities.2. the possibility must exist to monitor and control as a rule.

i. is connected to the tank wall and centred over its height at several 4. the fixing device. flexible lances. With tanks with flat bottoms – due to the hydrostatic conditions these are above • external pumps. several pumps.3. with external circulation the hydraulic the rising pipe. whereby The required power density for an effective circu- however. sludge temperatures and low external tempera- tally no moving parts which cannot be easily re. In order to avoid an emptying so dimensioned that. down to im- mixers. The digester heating today takes tion of the sludge on to the scum layer and. ing even higher temperatures. the formation the static constraints of the tank are to be exam- of the scum layer is counteracted. organ with deflector plate and the drive. 5 – 15 W/m3. In addition. so that this is selves as mixing organs. Here. via external heat exchangers. internal stirring devices have been in- creasingly employed. With regard to the The circulation of the digester contents via external digested sludge. better.5 Heating points using rods or cables. The gas is compressed and forced via cient existing digester gas or usable waste heat various systems into the lower part of the di. specially developed impeller wheels. With tanks with funnel points it is recommended that digester gas is injected at the The supply of heat to the heat exchanger as a periphery so that the sludge in the area of the re. The performance of the heating system is to be dom in Germany. The rising pipe. downwards.2. in more rare cases. at the same time.ATV-DVWK-M 368E For circulation in digesters. thickening and dewatering proc- pumps represents a very simple process which is esses should as far as possible be employed available in particular for smaller tanks. costs. 4000 m3 are equipped with this system. With large which subject the digested sludge flocks to a not tanks the quantity to be circulated is distributed over too high shear loading. size of the reactor. Single. all suitable for gas lifting – the gas is fed through several rigid or. the actual mixing pipe losses lead to an increased energy demand. laton of the contents of the digester lies. which can • large type screw pumps / digested sludge be dismantled (removed) upwards. to temperatures of ≥ 40 °C. guaranteed taking into account the radiation Recently. ever. a possible ex. have proved them. to steer the ternatively. as a rule. In order to ensure a sufficiently thorough mixing it • gas lifting. A deflector plate. is created. which can The methane bacteria can react sensitively to transport in both directions. with as far as possible to be maintained or to be upwards transport. at other points the colder season. in order with this to gester. in particular with operation us- isting inclination of the sludge to foam is. exchangers or a direct low pressure steam heat- ing is also employed. tures. fundamen. short-term changes in temperature. rule takes place from the complete heating sys- 28 April 2003 . as a result of this. Due to problems with tangling/matting internal stirring devices have been used relatively sel. Al- the transport direction downwards. Part 8. It can most conveniently be achieved using digester The so-called large type screw pump consists of gas mixing. mediately above the bottom. internal heating broken up floating sludge into the rising pipe. is necessary that at least five-times the digester contents are circulated daily. Currently digesters up to ca. be able to utilise the thus stored heat energy in wards flow and. however. reinforced. Through the rising gas bubbles an up. primarily the following actor outer wall is moved upwards and.e. in the processes are employed: centre. before the winter period using the then still suffi- culation. due to the lower investment losses. for di. Within the scope of an economical operation of the digesters it is recommended to heat up these Gas lifting is also a proven process for reactor cir. serves as aid for the distribu. changed slowly. with place. according to EN 12255. ined beforehand. between ca. even in winter with low raw of the digester due to defective units. a secure heating up of the raw sludge is moved should be present within the digester.or two-stage. a circulation the tank is also of great significance. depending on the tank size. With this the heat insulation of an appropriate downwards flow. depend- gesters > 500 m3 the external circulation is seen ent on the solids content in the reactor and the as insufficient. how. • stirring devices.

Such types of co- gester can also be started up in that raw sludge is substrate must be sufficiently pretreated before added to the digester once the operating tem. which is provided through a boiler plant. can be an economical The raw sludge should as far as possible be fed for alternative for heat recovery by preheating the seeding and for preheating. quality of the process as well as for the overview through foam precipitation. as well as the removal of quantities and energy. if re- the boiler is necessary.3. technical safety aspects.12 weeks). This is at least worth recommend- be differentiated: commissioning. they are fed directly to the digester or following perature has been reached and with this the mix. rangements and operational measures. also with mesophilic operation. The necessary measuring measurements or operating hours counter can be facilities are to be installed for this. The operation of the digestion is relatively simple perature. Appropriate meas- ing digester and an increasing raw sludge input ures are – so far as they are not already covered should be started slowly. 4. is increased only insignifi- sured at all times – the digester has to be started cantly (∼ 6 . • oil.g. are a sufficient dimensioning and equipping as well as the observation of various operational Under certain constraints the employment of a rules and. for 4. measurement of filling level. wastewater treatment plant effluent) and Closed and heated digesters can also be used for then heated up to operating temperature. if re- checked using the appropriate analysis equip. normal opera. The normal operation of sludge digestion plants is as a rule without problem. measures for neutralisation carried out. mixing with the raw sludge. Important are in particular measurements of tem. sludge-sludge heat exchanger (recuperator). gas composition and the temperature of the eral monitoring of operation such as filling level various sludge flows. To these measuring and registration equipment is to be belong the removal of floating solids. pH value. up.6 Facilities for Measurement Floating solids. After digestion of faecal sludge from cess pits and sep- this at least 10 % of the digester contents should tic tanks or from other organic wastes added. outside energy raw sludge and digested sludge is essential pre- must be employed.2. the combat- installed and manual measuring equipment is to ing of the formation of foam and the prevention of be held in case of need for the evaluation of the the entry of foam into the gas pipelines. CH4-/CO2 analyses or determination of sludge density can With regard to the operation the following are to be carried out. If the feeding of seeding through the plant approval – are to be agreed digested sludge is too expensive then the di. the organic acids of the raw and digested ment. due to other energy users. in comparison with the For the purposes of a heat supply which is en. DR content.8 during com- of a second energy source for the operation of missioning. above operating method. To be recorded and controlled are digester gas quantity. foam and bottom deposits lead to and Control disruption of the digestion process and must therefore be prevented through structural ar- Independent of legally prescribed records. quired. ATV-DVWK-M 368E tem. For commissioning the digester is filled with water (e.g. various measurements for gen. sludge quantity and to monitor. quasi continuously or an increased CO fermenta- tion is planned. In addition. above all.7 Operation example. e. sludge as well as pH value. oDR content and. complete start up time.2.g. with the supervisory authorities. also to increase the gas yield. 10 °C – 15 °C. The mixing together of when. ing if the charging of the digester takes place tion and operating faults. in particular the digester over 24 hours. for example: quired. e.3. via the mixing unit to raw sludge by ca. pressure. In this case the gas motor plant or from a combination of both. April 2003 29 . quantity of digester gas. of sand during normal operation. charging is to be reduced and. a ing plant is operated continuously. requisite for a stable digestion process. The gas quality is to be quantity. Additionally further measurements such as. planned. furthermore the failure of the energy carrier digester gas must be calculated for – the holding Should the pH value fall below 6. be added as digested sludge from a well operat. Prerequisites for this • natural gas/propane gas.

In the case of detergents as caus. plants. entry in practice. an improvement of the energy balance and a qualitative increase of the properties of the stabi- Poisons or pollutants inhibit the digestion process lised sewage sludge is sought. ready in the planning stage with the observance ognised in the reduction of the gas production. All other imaginable haz- the change of the CO2-component in the digester ardous situations in normal and repair operation gas. apart from the combination of ther- problems can occur with deposits of magnesium mophilic anaerobic pre-stage and mesophilic ammonium phosphate (MAP) The encrustation anaerobic second stage. familiarised through instruction at regular inter- enced operating staff can detect disruption of the vals. in part not always to be explained tive sub-process are combined together opti- satisfactorily. are to be covered by operating instructions with ids in the digested sludge. in of safety regulations. nides. 2002a) is available.3 Dual Biological Stabilisation digester temperature by more than 1 °C in less than 24 hours. a pre-pasteurisation of the material “Commissioning” – should be restarted. Note: For the evaluation of the digester gas a separate Advisory Leaflet ATV-DVWK-M 363 Cause for this is frequently an overloading of the „Herkunft. With digestion of bio-P sludge operating possibilities. phenols as well as herbicides and insecti- cides have unfavourable effects. through the addition of anti-foaming agents. ter thorough mixing are not sufficient. Experi. cess chain combined from two different biological ten to be traced back to detergents or to a mas. which offers improved reaction con- this. to a more than 50 °C is achieved through automatic complete breakdown of the digestion process exothermal metabolic processes. In the upstream aerobic-thermophilic reaction stage a heating up of the raw sludge to be stabilised to Should it come. Dual sewage sludge stabilisation can be success- fully employed for the purposes given below: So long as operational instructions and other safety regulations are observed digesters repre. have found no broad problem can be met using suitable anti. In addition. encrustation agents. In this case. as a rule. Further- more. • disinfection of the sewage sludge. suffocation or poisoning hazards due to the medium digester • relief of existing sewage sludge digestion gas can be extensively excluded or avoided al. which are pre- possible and emptied at intervals of 20 years or sented in literature as diverse combination more. 30 April 2003 . gasen [Origin. sive development of thread forming bacteria but with which the specific advantages of the respec- are. preferably gas. in the increase of the content of organic ac. The “dual sewage sludge stabilisation” is a pro- The causes for a foaming in the digester are of. however. Processing and Utilisation of Bio- input is to be reduced so far as measures for the gas]" (Not yet available in English) (ATV-DVWK intensification of raw sludge seeding and for bet. serious changes of the operating tempera- ture. Repair work on pipelines or fittings can also ditions for the subsequent anaerobic biocoenosis. mally. in the fall of the pH whose contents operating personnel are to be value and in the change of the alkalinity. When pos- sible digesters are to be operated as long as Other combinations of processes. this means an increase/decrease of the 4. be carried out by special diving firms. despite all countermeasures. then the digester – as described in the section on one hand. chlorinated hydrocarbons. digestion process in the change to the odour of the digested sludge. is enabled and. Through this. Aufbereitung und Verwertung von Bio- digester with raw sludge. can disrupt the digestion process. process variants of sewage sludge treatment. anaerobic-mesophilic digestion stage. Increased heavy metal concentrations Dual stabilisation consists mainly of the coupling can considerably reduce the activity of methane of an aerobic. stage with a downstream anaerobic. more severely than the processes of wastewater treatment. preferably aerobic-thermophilic bacteria and thus reduce the production of bio.ATV-DVWK-M 368E Disruptions to the digestion process can be rec. on the other. a chemical-physical ing of the digester should be avoided due to the modification of the organic content substance very high operational expense associated with takes place. sent no special safety risk. An empty. Explosion. cya. Through the combination of processes a ers of foam the symptom can be combatted reduction of the investment and operating costs.

in the area of agricultural customers and users. drawn to the Advisory Leaflet ATV-M 365 „Hy- age sludge content substances is effected giene bei der biologischen Abfallbehandlung – through the aerobic-thermophilic stage according Hinweise zu baulichen und organisatorischen to the respective constraints. ATV-DVWK-M 368E • reduction of investment costs with the establishment of sewage sludge stabilisation 5 Hygienic Aspects plants.2. however. significance. thought is to be given that for small and medium connection capacities possibly the exclusive aerobic-thermophilic stabilisation or anaerobic digestion stages in a ready-made structural form can represent a more favourable overall solution.or partial degradation of the organic sew. For this reason in many cases a cost effective retrofitting using a thermophilic pre- stage offers itself for overloaded digestion plants of smaller and more medium sizes. Here. on Structural and Organisational Measures as siderably shorter reaction times (ca. For agricultural utilisation according to current le- gal specifications a hygienisation is not neces- The diversely employed sewage sludge digestion sary. age sludge and their control are described in detail sation of sewage sludge and is evaluated positively under practice-relevant conditions (ATV 1986. Cur. The investment costs of biological sewage sludge stabilisation can possibly be reduced through the employment of an aerobic-thermophilic pre-stage. with its application. 1988a). rent efforts towards revision by the EU demand in- creased disinfection measures. repre. pre- as.2 presented three reports on the sub- for the application of sewage sludge to certain ject field “Disinfection of sewage sludge” in which agriculturally used areas. 1/4) com. April 2003 31 . well as Protection of Labour]“ (Not yet available in pared with the anaerobic digestion. In the currently applicable [German] sewage sludge ordinance the disinfection of sewage For this reason the previous ATV/VKS Working sludge is not promoted as binding process step Group 3. Analogous to the retrofitting of already existing digestion plants these facts can be used also with new establishment of stabilisation systems. investment costs for their installation in appropri- ate scope in comparison with digestion are more favourable. If with such cases of application the disinfection is not taken into account as process goal then the process chain can be installed without facilities for a forced heating. The drafts of the EU (European Commission effects no disinfection of the raw sludge so that 2000) for the amendment of the Sewage Sludge for this area of application the dual sludge stabili. however. these processes in future could gain in product is created. however. 1988. an epidemic-hygienic end. sumably. the processes suitable for the disinfection of sew- sent a measure for increasing quality with the utili. For more extensive information attention is also ble pre. land and areas under crop cultivation in that this material must be epidemic-hygienically safe. Maßnahmen sowie zum Arbeitsschutz [Hygiene with the Biological Treatment of Waste – Notes As the aerobic-thermophilic stabilisation has con. German legislation in the first Sewage Sludge The specific overall digester gas production rate Ordinance has from 01 January 1987 limited the can be increased with the operation of a dual application of treated sewage sludge on pasture- stabilisation. In addition to the effect of disinfection a controlla. Directive. prefer a hygienisation de- sation represents a sensible process supplement pending on the area of application so that. the necessary English) (ATV 1999a). It does.

for the majority of specialists. the demand for nitrogen re- moval with the treatment of wastewater has brought with it that the process of joint aerobic With the biological stabilisation process. but rather that dynamic displace- 50. be largely undisputed As such recommendations for employment can that. or dual process com- binations are the processes of choice. however. 4 are presented appropriate areas of ap- cultivation in Germany.000 P + PT the “joint aerobic stabilisation” and groups. with the classification of processes presented here.000 to general system. tive of decision specifications which result from the overall objective of the respective process chain of the sewage sludge treatment. which are usually mended. bic-thermophilic pre-stage.000 P + PT aerobic digestion also with aero- technical influencing factors. there re. processes with disinfecting effect (aerobic- pendent on the capacity of the respective waste. thermophilic and dual stabilisation) as. ment and sewage sludge treatment. Diag 4: Recommended areas of application for biological sewage sludge stabilisation processes 32 April 2003 . here there result differences due to the with wastewater treatment plant with more than different weighting of ecological. irrespec- stabilisation again finds an expanded application.ATV-DVWK-M 368E 6 Areas of Application Thus. taking into consideration respective sta- created through amended legislative targets set in bilisation and disposal goals with the inclusion of the fields of wastewater treatment as well as the the complete process chain of wastewater treat- utilisation or disposal of the sewage sludge. with wastewa- only be the result of subjective evaluation yard- ter treatment plant capacities of less than sticks of individual specialists or specialist 10. one cannot just be Only in the area of the medium-sized waste- concerned with an obligatory and “computable" water treatment plants between ca. through water treatment plant. Correspondingly counter to this is the trend with sult areas of application to be recommended de. What is decisive is that. According to the current status of technical dis- cussion it should. some laws or decrees. 10.000 P + PT is a differentiated project-related ments are to be taken into account with the classi- process comparison to be particularly recom- fication of areas of application. economical and 50. for example. plication for the most important variants of bio- logical sewage sludge stabilisation. the agricultural utilisation of sewage sludge is limited and has been prohib- ited with pastureland and on areas under crop In Diag.

p. 1141 ff. (ATV Handbook) king Group “Disinfection of sewage sludge”].2. utilisation and disposal.1. p. Arbeitsbericht Fachausschusses 3. In: Korrespon- In: KA Korrespondenz Abwasser..1. and Dewatering of sludge”]. “Stabilisa- mittee 3. In: KA Korrespondenz anaerobic digestion stage and is to be viewed as Abwasser. Eindickung und Ent- ATV (1988a): 3. Disinfection. “Stabilisation. V.1 “Stabilising characteristic values. tion.2 „Stabilisati- seuchung.1 "Stabilisierungskennwerte. p.2. Report of the ATV Specialist Commit- schlamm“ [3rd Report of the ATV/VKS Wor- tee “Stabilisation. April 2004] ATV (1999): Einstufung von organischen Flo- ckungshilfsmitteln – Polyelektrolyten – in ATV (1992a): Arbeitsbericht des ATV- Wassergefährdungsklassen. 11/1986. Standards and Standard ergy and emission balances]. p. Thickening king Group “Disinfection of sewage sludge”]. 1997. Okto- management and wastewater engineering ber 1992 [Now available in English as ATV- 1/4]. ATV (1997): Biologische und weitergehende Ab- wasserreinigung [Biological and advanced ATV (1988): 2. Arbeitsgruppe 3. Arbeitsbericht der ATV/BDE/VKS-Arbeitsgruppe 3. p. Arbeitsbericht der ATV/VKS- wastewater treatment]. 71 ff. (ATV Handbook) sludge”]. Berlin: Verlag Ernst & Sohn. „Entseuchung von Klär- Publ. 455 ff. 04/1992.2. 01/1998.V.und E- 7 Bibliography missionsbilanzen [Stabilising characteristic values for biological stabilisation processes. ATV-Fortbildungskurs für Elimination von Phosphor aus Abwasser“ Wassergütewirtschaft und Abwassertechnik [“Processes for the Removal of Phosphorus I/4 [Sludge treatment. ing Group 3. process alternative for smaller and more medium- sized plants. “Disinfection of sewage 1996.. 1325 ff. ATV (1998a): Schlammbehandlung. 11/1988. Entseuchung. 122 ff.2 „Stabilisation. ATV (1998): Eindickung von Schlämmen.2.: Abwassertech- Arbeitsgruppe „Entseuchung von Klär- nische Vereinigung e. en- Regulations. Ent- des ATV-Fachausschusses 3. Energie. Thickening and Dewater- Thickening and Dewatering of Sewage Sludge”. In: KA Korres- Specifications pondenz Abwasser.2 „Sta- bilisation. with the dewatering of sewage sludge”] (Not gate state cannot be combined sensibly with an available in English)]. Eindickung und Entwässerung on. Berlin: schlamm“ [2nd Report of the ATV/VKS Wor- Verlag Ernst & Sohn. 4th Edition. from Wastewater”]: Gesellschaft zur Förde- ATV Further training course for water quality rung der Abwassertechnik e. Arbeitsbericht der ATV/VKS- wässerung von Schlämmen“ [Thickening of Arbeitsgruppe „Entseuchung von Klär- sludge. p. Hennef: Abwas- DVWK 202E “Chemical-Physical Methods for sertechnische Vereinigung e. ATV (1986): 1.2. (GFA). Entseuchung. October 1998 in Fulda. “Selection and employment of or- April 2003 33 . Disinfection. V. In: KA Korrespondenz Abwasser. Report of the serung“ [Report of the ATV Specialist Com- ATV Specialist Committee 3. Arbeits- bericht des ATV-Fachausschusses 3. denz Abwasser. Eindickung und Entwäs- von Schlämmen“.2. 569 ff. Publ.: Abwassertechnische Vereinigung e. ATV (1994): Stabilisierungskennwerte für biologi- sche Stabilisierungsverfahren. Disinfection. „Auswahl und Einsatz von serung von Schlämmen“ [Classification of organischen Flockungshilfsmitteln – Poly- organic flocculation aids – polyelectrolytes – elektrolyten – bei der Klärschlammentwäs- into water hazarding classes. Report of the ATV/BDE/VKS Working Group 3. -verwertung ATV (1992): Standard ATV-A 202 „Verfahren zur und -beseitigung. Arbeitsbericht der ATV/VKS- ATV (1996): Klärschlamm [Sewage sludge]. ATV-DVWK-M 368E Composting in bioreactors which ultimately ganic flocculation aids –polyelectrolytes – represents a sewage stabilisation in solid aggre. schlamm“ [1st Report of the ATV/VKS Work- 4th Edition. 12/1988. In: KA Korrespondenz Abwasser. 03/1994. 1998 the Removal of Phosphorus from Wastewa- ter”. V.

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