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• Network = graph

Network/Graph

• Informally a graph is a set of nodes

Theory joined by a set of lines or arrows.

1 1 2 3

2 3

4 5 6 4 5 6

**Graph-based representations What is network theory?
**

Network theory provides a set of

Representing a problem as a graph can techniques for analysing graphs

provide a different point of view Complex systems network theory provides

Representing a problem as a graph can techniques for analysing structure in a

make a problem much simpler system of interacting agents, represented

More accurately, it can provide the as a network

appropriate tools for solving the problem Applying network theory to a system

means using a graph-theoretic

representation

**What makes a problem graph-like? Friendship Network
**

There are two components to a graph

Nodes and edges

In graph-like problems, these components

have natural correspondences to problem

elements

Entities are nodes and interactions between

entities are edges

Most complex systems are graph-like

Business ties in US biotech-

Scientific collaboration network

industry

**Protein-Protein Interaction
**

Genetic interaction network Networks

**Transportation Networks Internet
**

Graph Theory - History

Ecological Networks

Leonhard Euler's paper

on “Seven Bridges of

Königsberg” ,

published in 1736.

**Graph Theory - History Graph Theory - History
**

Cycles in Polyhedra

Trees in Electric Circuits

Thomas P. Kirkman William R. Hamilton

Gustav Kirchhoff

Hamiltonian cycles in Platonic graphs

**Graph Theory - History Graph Theory - History
**

Enumeration of Chemical Isomers Four Colors of Maps

Arthur Cayley James J. Sylvester George Polya

**Francis Guthrie Auguste DeMorgan
**

Definition: Graph Definitions

**• G is an ordered triple G:=(V, E, f) • Vertex
**

– Basic Element

– V is a set of nodes, points, or vertices.

– Drawn as a node or a dot.

– E is a set, whose elements are known as – Vertex set of G is usually denoted by V(G), or V

edges or lines. • Edge

– f is a function – A set of two elements

• maps each element of E – Drawn as a line connecting two vertices, called

• to an unordered pair of vertices in V. end vertices, or endpoints.

– The edge set of G is usually denoted by E(G), or

E.

Example Simple Graphs

**Simple graphs are graphs without multiple
**

edges or self-loops.

• V:={1,2,3,4,5,6}

• E:={{1,2},{1,5},{2,3},{2,5},{3,4},{4,5},{4,6}}

**Directed Graph (digraph) Weighted graphs
**

• Edges have directions • is a graph for which each edge has an

– An edge is an ordered pair of nodes associated weight, usually given by a weight

function w: E → R.

loop

multiple arc 1.2 2

1 2 3 1 2 3

.2

.5 1.5 5 3

.3 1

arc node 4 5 6 4 5 6

.5

Structures and structural

metrics Graph structures

Identify interesting sections of a graph

Graph structures are used to isolate

Interesting because they form a significant

interesting or important sections of a

**domain-specific structure, or because they
**

graph significantly contribute to graph properties

Structural metrics provide a measurement A subset of the nodes and edges in a

of a structural property of a graph graph that possess certain characteristics,

Global metrics refer to a whole graph or relate to each other in particular ways

Local metrics refer to a single node in a graph

Connectivity Component

• a graph is connected if • Every disconnected graph can be split

– you can get from any node to any other by up into a number of connected

following a sequence of edges OR

components.

– any two nodes are connected by a path.

**• A directed graph is strongly connected if
**

there is a directed path from any node to any

other node.

**Degree Degree (Directed Graphs)
**

• In-degree: Number of edges entering

• Number of edges incident on a node • Out-degree: Number of edges leaving

**• Degree = indeg + outdeg
**

outdeg(1)=2

indeg(1)=0

outdeg(2)=2

indeg(2)=2

**The degree of 5 is 3 outdeg(3)=1
**

indeg(3)=4

Degree: Simple Facts Walks

• If G is a graph with m edges, then

Σ deg(v) = 2m = 2 |E | A walk of length k in a graph is a succession of k

(not necessarily different) edges of the form

• If G is a digraph then uv,vw,wx,…,yz.

Σ indeg(v)=Σ outdeg(v) = |E |

This walk is denote by uvwx…xz, and is referred to

as a walk between u and z.

• Number of Odd degree Nodes is even

A walk is closed is u=z.

Path Cycle

• A path is a walk in which all the edges and all

the nodes are different. • A cycle is a closed path in which all the

edges are different.

**Walks and Paths
**

1,2,5,2,3,4 1,2,5,2,3,2,1 1,2,3,4,6

walk of length 5 CW of length 6 path of length 4 1,2,5,1 2,3,4,5,2

3-cycle 4-cycle

**Special Types of Graphs Trees
**

• Empty Graph / Edgeless graph • Connected Acyclic Graph

– No edge

• Two nodes have exactly

one path between them

• Null graph

– No nodes

– Obviously no edge

Special Trees Regular

Connected Graph

Paths

All nodes have the same

degree

Stars

Bipartite graph

Special Regular Graphs: Cycles

• V can be partitioned

into 2 sets V1 and V2

such that (u,v)∈E

implies

– either u ∈V1 and v ∈V 2

C3 C4 C5 – OR v ∈V 1 and u∈V2.

Complete Graph Complete Bipartite Graph

**• Every pair of vertices are adjacent • Bipartite Variation of Complete Graph
**

• Has n(n-1)/2 edges • Every node of one set is connected to

every other node on the other set

Stars

Planar Graphs Subgraph

• Can be drawn on a plane such that no two edges • Vertex and edge sets are subsets of

intersect

those of G

• K4 is the largest complete graph that is planar

– a supergraph of a graph G is a graph that

contains G as a subgraph.

Special Subgraphs:

Subgraphs: Cliques Spanning subgraph

A clique is a maximum complete • Subgraph H has the same vertex set as

connected subgraph. G.

– Possibly not all the edges

A B C

– “H spans G”.

D E F

G H I

Isomorphism

Spanning tree

Let G be a connected graph. Then a • Bijection, i.e., a one-to-one mapping:

spanning tree in G is a subgraph of G f : V(G) -> V(H)

that includes every node and is also a u and v from G are adjacent if and only

tree. if f(u) and f(v) are adjacent in H.

• If an isomorphism can be constructed

between two graphs, then we say those

graphs are isomorphic.

Isomorphism Problem Representation (Matrix)

**• Determining whether two
**

graphs are isomorphic

• Incidence Matrix

–VxE

• Although these graphs look

very different, they are – [vertex, edges] contains the edge's data

isomorphic; one isomorphism • Adjacency Matrix

between them is –VxV

f(a)=1 f(b)=6 f(c)=8 f(d)=3

– Boolean values (adjacent or not)

f(g)=5 f(h)=2 f(i)=4 f(j)=7

– Or Edge Weights

Matrices Representation (List)

1

1,2 1,5 2,3 2,5 3,4 4,5 4,6

1 1 0 0 0 0 0

• Edge List

2 1 0 1 1 0 0 0

– pairs (ordered if directed) of vertices

3 0 0 1 0 1 0 0

4 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 – Optionally weight and other data

5 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 • Adjacency List (node list)

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 0 1 0 0 1 0

2 1 0 1 0 1 0

3 0 1 0 1 0 0

4 0 0 1 0 1 1

5 1 1 0 1 0 0

6 0 0 0 1 0 0

**Implementation of a Graph. Edge and Node Lists
**

• Adjacency-list representation Edge List Node List

– an array of |V | lists, one for each vertex in 12 122

12 235

V.

23 33

– For each u ∈ V , ADJ [ u ] points to all its 25 435

adjacent vertices. 33 534

43

45

53

54

Edge Lists for Weighted

Graphs Topological Distance

**A shortest path is the minimum path
**

Edge List

connecting two nodes.

1 2 1.2

2 4 0.2

4 5 0.3 The number of edges in the shortest path

4 1 0.5

connecting p and q is the topological

5 4 0.5

6 3 1.5

distance between these two nodes, d p,q

N = 12

Random Graphs

Distance Matrix

Erdős and Renyi (1959)

p = 0.0 ; k = 0

N nodes

|V | matrix D = ( dij ) such that

|V | x |V

dij is the topological distance between i and j . A pair of nodes has

probability p of being

connected.

p = 0.09 ; k = 1

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 0 1 2 2 1 3 Average degree, k ≈ pN

2 1 0 1 2 1 3

3 2 1 0 1 2 2 What interesting things can

be said for different values

4 2 2 1 0 1 1 of p or k ? p = 1.0 ; k ≈ ½N 2

(that are true as N ∞)

5 1 1 2 1 0 2

6 3 3 2 1 2 0

**Random Graphs Random Graphs
**

Erdős and Renyi (1959) Erdős and Renyi (1959)

p = 0.0 ; k = 0

p = 0.09 ; k = 1

p = 0.045 ; k = 0.5 p = 0.0 ; k = 0 p = 0.045 ; k = 0.5 p = 0.09 ; k = 1 p = 1.0 ; k ≈ ½N 2

**Let’s look at… Size of largest component
**

1 5 11 12

Size of the largest connected cluster Diameter of largest component

p = 1.0 ; k ≈ ½N 2 0 4 7 1

Diameter (maximum path length between nodes) of the largest cluster

Average path length between nodes

Average path length between nodes (if a path exists) 0.0 2.0 4.2 1.0

Random Graphs Random Graphs

David

Kentaro

Mumford Peter Toyama

Erdős and Renyi (1959) Erdős and Renyi (1959) Fan Belhumeur

Chung

Diameter of largest component (not to scale)

Percentage of nodes in largest component

**If k < 1: What does this mean?
**

– small, isolated clusters

– small diameters

– short path lengths 1.0 • If connections between people can be modeled as a

random graph, then…

At k = 1:

– a giant component appears – Because the average person easily knows more than one

– diameter peaks person (k >> 1),

– path lengths are high

0

– We live in a “small world” where within a few links, we are

For k > 1: 1.0 k connected to anyone in the world.

– almost all nodes connected

– diameter shrinks – Erdős and Renyi showed that average

– path lengths shorten phase transition path length between connected nodes is

**Random Graphs The Alpha Model
**

David

Kentaro

Mumford Peter Toyama

Erdős and Renyi (1959) Fan Belhumeur Watts (1999)

Chung

**What does this mean? The people you know aren’t
**

BIG “IF”!!! randomly chosen.

**• If connections between people can be modeled as a
**

random graph, then…

People tend to get to know those

– Because the average person easily knows more than one who are two links away

person (k >> 1), (Rapoport *, 1957).

**– We live in a “small world” where within a few links, we are
**

connected to anyone in the world. The Personal Map

The real world exhibits a lot of by MSR Redmond’s Social Computing Group

**– Erdős and Renyi computed average clustering.
**

path length between connected nodes to be:

* Same Anatol Rapoport, known for TIT FOR TAT!

**The Alpha Model The Alpha Model
**

Watts (1999) Watts (1999)

**α model: Add edges to nodes, as α model: Add edges to nodes, as
**

in random graphs, but makes in random graphs, but makes

Normalized path length

**links more likely when two links more likely when two
**

Clustering coefficient /

nodes have a common friend. nodes have a common friend.

For a range of α values: For a range of α values:

**– The world is small (average – The world is small (average
**

Probability of linkage as a function path length is short), and path length is short), and

Clustering coefficient (C) and

of number of mutual friends

(α is 0 in upper left, average path length (L)

– Groups tend to form (high plotted against α – Groups tend to form (high

1 in diagonal,

and ∞ in bottom right curves.) clustering coefficient). clustering coefficient).

α

The Beta Model The Beta Model Jonathan

Donner

Kentaro

Toyama

Watts and Strogatz (1998) Watts and Strogatz (1998) Nobuyuki

Hanaki

**First five random links reduce the
**

average path length of the

network by half, regardless of N!

**Normalized path length
**

Clustering coefficient /

Both α and β models reproduce

short-path results of random

graphs, but also allow for

β=0 β = 0.125 β=1 clustering.

**People know People know People know
**

their neighbors. their neighbors, others at Small-world phenomena occur at Clustering coefficient (C) and average

and a few distant people. random. threshold between order and path length (L) plotted against β

chaos.

Clustered, but Clustered and Not clustered,

not a “small world” “small world” but “small world”

**Power Laws Power Laws
**

Albert and Barabasi (1999) Albert and Barabasi (1999)

**What’s the degree (number of What’s the degree (number of
**

edges) distribution over a graph, edges) distribution over a graph,

for real-world graphs? for real-world graphs?

**Random-graph model results in Random-graph model results in
**

Poisson distribution. Poisson distribution.

**Degree distribution of a random graph, Typical shape of a power-law distribution.
**

N = 10,000 p = 0.0015 k = 15. But, many real-world networks But, many real-world networks

(Curve is a Poisson curve, for comparison.)

exhibit a power-law distribution. exhibit a power-law distribution.

**Power Laws Power Laws Anandan
**

Kentaro

Toyama

Albert and Barabasi (1999) Albert and Barabasi (1999) Jennifer

Chayes

**Power-law distributions are straight “The rich get richer!”
**

lines in log-log space.

**Power-law distribution of node
**

distribution arises if

How should random graphs be – Number of nodes grow;

generated to create a power-law – Edges are added in proportion to

distribution of node degrees? the number of edges a node

already has.

Power laws in real networks:

Hint: (a) WWW hyperlinks

(b) co-starring in movies

Pareto’s* Law: Wealth (c) co-authorship of physicists “Map of the Internet” poster Additional variable fitness coefficient

distribution follows a power law. (d) co-authorship of neuroscientists allows for some nodes to grow

faster than others.

*** Same Velfredo Pareto, who defined Pareto optimality in game theory.
**

Searchable Networks

Kleinberg (2000)

Searchable Networks

Kleinberg (2000)

**Watts, Dodds, Newman (2002) show
**

that for d = 2 or 3, real networks

are quite searchable.

**Killworth and Bernard (1978) found
**

that people tended to search their

networks by d = 2: geography and

profession.

Just because a short path exists,

doesn’t mean you can easily

find it.

**You don’t know all of the people
**

whom your friends know.

**Under what conditions is a network
**

searchable?

Ramin

Zabih

**The Watts-Dodds-Newman model
**

Kentaro

Toyama

**closely fitting a real-world experiment
**

a)

b)

c)

–

–

–

–

–

Searchable Networks

Kleinberg (2000)

**Variation of Watts’s β model:
**

Lattice is d-dimensional (d=2).

One random link per node.

Parameter α controls probability of random link

– greater for closer nodes.

**For d=2, dip in time-to-search at α=2
**

For low α , random graph; no “geographic”

correlation in links

For high α, not a small world; no short paths to

be found.

Searchability dips at α=2, in simulation

References

**ldous & Wilson, Graphs and Applications. An
**

Introductory Approach, Springer, 2000.

**Wasserman & Faust, Social Network Analysis,
**

Cambridge University Press, 2008.

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