INSTRUCTOR’S
MANUAL  
INSTRUCTIONAL  UNIT:  EXPLICIT  VOCABULARY  INSTRUCTION  
AND  MATHEMATICAL  WORD  PROBLEM  SOLVING    

 

JULY  15,  2017  
JAIME  BROOKS  
WESTERN  GOVERNORS  UNIVERSITY  
TABLE OF CONTENTS

OVERVIEW pp 4-7

INTRODUCTION 4
INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL 4
INTENDED AUDIENCE pp 4-5
LENGTH 5
DELIVERY APPROACH pp 5-6
INSTRUCTIONAL SEQUENCE 6
MATERIALS NEEDED pp 6-7

LESSON OVERVIEWS pp 7-8

LESSON 1 7
LESSON 2 7
LESSON 3 7
LESSON 4 8
LESSON 5 8
LESSON 6 8

ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW pp 8-9

THEORIES AND DESIGN p9

MATERIALS pp 9-10
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS p9
RESOURCES p 10

LESSON PLANS pp 11-35

LESSON 1 pp 11-14
LESSON 2 pp 15-18
LESSON 3 pp 19-22
LESSON 4 pp 23-27
LESSON 5 pp 28-31
LESSON 6 pp 32-35

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REFERENCES pp 36-37

APPENDICES pp 38-56

APPENDIX A -Word Problem Situations 38
APPENDIX B -Addition and Subtraction Word Sort 39
APPENDIX C -Addition and Subtraction Vocabulary Posters pp 40-41
APPENDIX D -CUBES Poster 42
APPENDIX E -Addition Fluency Drill 43
APPENDIX F-One-Step Addition Word Problem Worksheet 44
APPENDIX G -Subtraction Fluency Drill 45
APPENDIX H-One-Step Subtraction Word Problem Worksheet 46
APPENDIX I- 2nd Grade Cognitively Guided Word Problem Rubric 47
APPENDIX J-Two-Step Addition Word Problems 48
APPENDIX K -Two-Step Subtraction Word Problem Worksheet 49
APPENDIX L-Multiplication Fluency Drill 50
APPENDIX M-One-Step Multiplication Word Problem Worksheet 51
APPENDIX N-Multiple-Step Mixed Equation Word Problem Worksheet 52
APPENDIX O -Addition Fluency Pre and Post Assessment 53
APPENDIX P-Subtraction Fluency Pre and Post Assessment 54
APPENDIX Q -Word Problem Pre and Post Assessment pp 55-56
APPENDIX R-Video Links pp 57-58

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This instructor’s manual contains an entire instructional unit on explicit vocabulary

instruction and mathematical word problem solving. This unit is an 8-day (approximately 10

hours) instructional unit on the impact that explicit vocabulary instruction has on word problem

solving. It is geared towards second grade students ranging in age from 7-9 years old. Below

are the relevant sections that contain further details on this instructional unit.

Instructional Goal

Following a unit of instruction on word problems, students will complete a written

assessment with multi-step word problems. At the end of this unit, students will be able to read,

analyze, identify and solve one-step and two step addition and subtraction word problems

consisting of those with like operations and those containing different operations.

Intended Audience

Prairie Winds Elementary School is located in Pueblo West, Colorado in Pueblo County.

It is “still considered a small town in many ways, Pueblo West is the fastest growing community

in Southern Colorado” (Pueblo West Metro, n.d.). It is a bedroom community to Pueblo which is

located approximately 100 miles south of Colorado’s capital city, Denver. Prairie Winds

Elementary School has a student body of 514 students of which 231 are females and 283 are

males. Of those 514 students, there are 328 students that are White, 150 that are Hispanic, 23

students are two or more races, 5 students are Asian, 4 are American Indian, and 4 students are

Black. According to the Colorado Department of Education, 39% of the student population are

considered Economically Disadvantaged, 1.17% are gifted and talented, 2.92% are Limited

English Proficient, and 14.59% of the student population have disabilities. At Prairie Winds

Elementary there are 4 second grade classes and 92 second graders.

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The intended audience is a second grade math class incorporating technology. There are

28 students of mixed ability levels and demographic backgrounds. 19 of the students are girls

and 9 are boys ranging in age from seven to eight years.

There are varying reading skill levels as well as math ability levels. Students in this

classroom population were tested using the They are as follows for math: 6 students scored in

the low ability range, 8 students scored in the average range, and 8 scored in the high range. The

scores for reading were as follows: 7 students scored in the low ability range, 4 students scored

in the average range, and 15 students scored in the high range.

There is some cultural diversity in this class. 2 students are identified as African

American or Black, 9 are identified as being Hispanic, and 16 students are identified as White.    

Length

The instructional unit for this research study will take place over a two-week period (8

class hours). Instruction will be given during the normal math block in the student’s assigned

classroom. This instructional unit will correlate to 2nd grade State Standards as well as Common

Core standards. All students will be expected to participate in all of the routine math instruction

and classroom activities.

Delivery Approach

This unit of instruction will require several different instructional strategies such as whole

group, small group, and individual practice. Each lesson will begin with direct instruction to

introduce the learning goals and to present new material through modeling. New academic

vocabulary will be introduced through Powtoon Videos, YouTube Videos, and the Math is Fun

Illustrative Dictionary within the 10-hour instructional unit and will be posted on classroom

walls for reference. Each of these academic terms will be written in student math journals. In

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addition, there are multiple opportunities for cooperative learning in which the students will

work in flexible groups to create and present a word problem poster. The following day of each

lesson, the students will be given an opportunity to further practice the acquired skills during a

hands on learning centers rotation.

Instructional Sequence

This instructional unit will take place over a two-week period (10 class hours)

approximately 1 hour for pre-assessments, 8 hours of instruction, and approximately 1 hour for

post assessments totaling approximately 10 hours. Instruction will be given during the normal

math block in the students’ assigned classroom. This instructional unit correlates to 2nd grade

State Standards as well as the Common Core standards. All students will be expected to

participate in all of the routine math instruction and classroom activities. Each lesson will

follow the lesson sequence as follows: pre-instructional activities, content presentation, learner

participation, assessment, and follow through activities. The pre-assessment tests include:

addition fluency test, subtraction fluency test, word problem test, addition and subtraction word

sort test. The post assessment tests will be the same tests as the pre-assessment and will be given

at the end of the instructional unit. The instructional unit and corresponding assessments, links,

and worksheets are listed below.

Materials

Materials that will be used in this unit of instruction include an addition and subtraction t-

chart word sorting activity, addition fluency drills, subtraction fluency drills, multiplication

fluency drill, daily word problem solving worksheets. Student journals will also be used for

vocabulary notes. The students will need access to scissors, markers, crayons, glue, and pencils,

in order to create their posters and cut and glue the vocabulary sort activity. Large pieces of

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white construction paper will also be needed for each group of students to create their four

different word problem posters. The teacher will need a journal to record daily observations.

Student posters will be assessed using the Cognitively Guided Instruction 2nd Grade Word

Problem Rubric (2nd Grade Word Problems, 2016) (See Appendix I). Various instructional math

vocabulary Powtoon Videos, YouTube Videos, and the Math is Fun Illustrative Dictionary will

be used within this 10 hour instructional unit. The teacher will need to have access to a

computer, internet, speakers, promethean board or interactive white board, projector, and

document camera.

Lesson Overviews

Lesson 1 Overview: This lesson will review addition and subtraction vocabulary words and their

relationship to corresponding operational signs.    

Lesson 2 Overview: This lesson will cover how to solve one-step addition word problems by

understanding the terms that relate to addition. The students will then be introduced to the

C.U.B.E.S strategy in solving these problems. Through this strategy and by understanding

addition word problem vocabulary, the students will read, analyze, identify, and solve these

problems.

Lesson 3 Overview: This lesson will cover how to solve one-step subtraction word problems.

The students will use the C.U.B.E.S strategy in solving these problems. Through this strategy

the students will read, analyze, identify, and solve these problems. The students will work in

cooperative groups to create their own one step subtraction word problem containing a visual

representation, number sentence, labels, and answer. They will then present their problems to

the class and explain their problem solving process.

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Lesson 4 Overview: This lesson will cover how to solve two-step word problems with like

operations. The students will use the C.U.B.E.S strategy in solving these problems. Through

this strategy the students will read, analyze, identify, and solve these problems. The students

will work in cooperative groups to create their own two-step word problem containing a visual

representation, number sentence, labels, and answer. They will then present their problems to

the class and explain their problem solving process.

Lesson 5 Overview: This two-day lesson will cover how to solve one-step multiplication word

problems. The students will use the C.U.B.E.S strategy in solving these problems. Through this

strategy the students will read, analyze, identify, and solve these problems. The students will

work in cooperative groups to create their own one step multiplication word problem containing

a visual representation, number sentence, labels, and answer. They will then present their

problems to the class and explain their problem solving process.

Lesson 6 Overview: This two-day lesson will cover how to solve multi-step word problems with

different operations. The students will use the C.U.B.E.S strategy in solving these problems.

Through this strategy the students will read, analyze, identify, and solve these problems. The

students will work in cooperative groups to perform their given multi-step story problem with

different operations to the class. They will then provide a visual representation, number

sentence, labels, and answer.

Assessment Overview

There will be formative and summative assessments that will be given throughout this

instructional unit. Students will be formatively assessed by student observation, student math

journals, and class discussions. Five students will also be given a formative assessment through

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a student interview. The summative assessments that will be given are vocabulary tests, word

problem tests, and an addition and subtraction fluency test.

Theories and Design

After developing a learning goal, analyzing learner characteristics, and completing a

needs analysis, the learning theory that was chosen and used in this instructional design was

Cognitivism. Students are given tasks that are developmentally appropriate to their own learning.

The teacher will provide a connection between prior learning and the new concepts that are being

instructed. Cognitivism allows the teacher to model and then actively guide the students in their

application. It also allows the students to explore the material on their own, yet have guidance.

This theory allowed the teacher to use multiple learning styles for the students to grasp the

concept. This is beneficial because the learning is teacher centered and the students are guided

through their learning as active participants.

The instructional design process that I used to develop this second grade problem solving

unit was Dick & Carey 5 step instructional component model based on Gagne’s 9 events of

instruction. The reason this design process would be the most beneficial and effective is because

it allows the teacher to provide a thorough lesson that allowed for pre-instructional activities,

content presentation, learner participation, assessment, and follow-through activities. According

to Dick, Walter, Carey, L., Carey, J. (2014), “Gagné’s cognitive view of instruction is often

characterized as quite purposeful and prescriptive, more teacher-centered than student-centered”

(p. 171).

Instructional Materials

Materials that will be used in this unit of instruction include an addition and subtraction t

chart word sorting activity, daily word problem worksheets. Student journals will also be used

  9  
for vocabulary notes. The students will need access to scissors, markers, crayons, glue, and

pencils, in order to create their posters and cut and glue the vocabulary sort activity. Large

pieces of white construction paper will also be needed for each group of students to create their

four different word problem posters. The teacher will need a journal to record daily

observations.

Physical Resources

This instructional unit will require several different resources that require access for the

teacher-researcher. A Promethean board, projector, and document camera will be used to present

material. The teacher-researcher will use a MacBook Air computer.

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Lesson Plans

Lesson #1: Addition and Subtraction Vocabulary and Operation Signs

Lesson Overview: This lesson will review addition and subtraction vocabulary words and their

relationship to corresponding operational signs.    

Resources or Materials Needed

Teacher: promethean board and pen, white board, dry erase markers, word problem situation

worksheets for students (See Appendix A), student word sort t-chart worksheets (See

Appendix B), addition and subtraction vocabulary posters (See Appendix C)

Word Problem Situation video created (See Appendix S)

Students: pencil, scissors, glue

Performance Objectives  

1.   Given addition and subtraction word problem situations, students will determine the

correct operation needed to solve the problem in at least 8 out of 10 situations.

2.   Given a t-chart, students will categorize addition and subtraction terms under appropriate

operation signs with an accuracy of 85%.

Time: 1 hour

Step 1: Pre-Instructional Activities

•   The teacher will ask the students: How many of you know more than one language?

Well…there are many different types of languages such as English, Spanish, German,

Chinese, and Ukrainian. There are also many types of languages that we use everyday

that we may not recognize as a type of language. Math is one of those languages. It is

important for us to understand mathematical language in order to understand the

problems that we are asked to solve in real life situations.

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•   Today we are going to learn how to categorize addition and subtraction terms and phrases

with the correct operation sign.

•   Using the internet, projector, and promethean screen, show the students the instructor

created word problem situation video created (See Appendix S)

•   The teacher will ask the students to look at 2 addition and 2 subtraction equations on the

board and help solve each problem.

•   The teacher will ask the students to describe how they knew how to solve those problems

Step 2: Content Presentation

•   The teacher will make a t-chart with one side labeled addition the other side subtraction.

•   Ask students to raise their hands if they can think of any words that we use when solving

addition or subtraction problems that apply to word problems.

•   Generate a list together with students

Addition Subtraction
plus minus
equals equals
sum difference
altogether fewer
In all less than
how long left
total remain
increased by decreased by
how many more
how many less

•   Discuss why each term belongs under the addition or subtraction category

•   The teacher will put the following situations on the board:

Identify Translate
2 plus 5 equals 2+5=
10 minus 3 equals
12 decreased by 6 equals
the sum of 10 and 15 is

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•   The teacher will discuss what it means to identify and translate each of those situations

•   The teacher will highlight the key operational terms in the first situation and show how

those words translate into an equation

Step 3: Learner Participation

•   The teacher will ask the students to help identify the terms on the second example

•   The teacher will ask the students to turn and talk to their groups about the third and the

fourth example

•   The teacher will monitor student understanding while walking around the room

•   The teacher will review the group answers and list them on the board.

•   The teacher will help the students make sense out of the correct answers

Step 4: Assessment

•   The teacher will provide a worksheet to each student with 10 additional situations (See

Appendix A). The students will independently complete the activity.

•   The students will also be given a list of key words that they need to cut out, sort, and glue

under the correct operation sign (See Appendix B).

Step 5: Follow-Through Activities

•   As a center, the students will be given additional word problem situations to translate and

solve.

•   Another center activity would be a vocabulary term/phrase sort using notecards.

Assessment and Evaluation Method

The word sort (See Appendix B) will be used as a formative assessment to evaluate the students’

understanding of addition and subtraction operational vocabulary. The worksheet with ten word

problem situations (See Appendix A) will also be used as a formative assessment to assess the

  13  
students’ ability to identify key vocabulary terms and phrases and translate the situation to an

equation using the correct operation.

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Lesson #2-Introduction to CUBES Strategy to Solve One-Step Addition Word Problems

Lesson Overview

This lesson will cover how to solve one-step addition word problems by understanding the terms

that relate to addition. The students will then be introduced to the C.U.B.E.S strategy in solving

these problems. Through this strategy and by understanding addition word problem vocabulary,

the students will read, analyze, identify, and solve these problems.

Resources or Materials Needed

Teacher: promethean board and pen, speakers, white board, dry erase markers, C.U.B.E.S

strategy poster (See Appendix D), addition/subtraction t-chart (See Appendix B),

addition fast fact fluency drill 1 (See Appendix E) for each student, timer, highlighter

(any color), one-step addition word problem worksheet (See Appendix F) for each

student, Powtoon presentation for addition (See Appendix R), Math is Fun Illustrative

Dictionary word Addition (See Appendix T), CUBES strategy (See Appendix S)

Students: math notebook, pencil, colored pencils, highlighter (any color)

Performance Objective:

1.   Given one-step addition word problems, students will correctly represent, write, and

solve at least 4 out of 5 word problems.

2.   Given one-step addition word problems, students will correctly identify the vocabulary

words/phrases that are associated with addition.

Time: Approximately 1 hour

Step 1: Pre-Instructional Activities

•   Fast fact drill of one-digit plus one-digit numbers to 20

•   The teacher will ask the students to share what they remember form yesterday’s lesson.

  15  
•   The teacher will put up the t-chart with addition and subtraction vocabulary words on the

board but cover the subtraction portion.

•   The teacher will tell the students: We have 28 students in our class. Mrs. Cundiff is sick

today so 6 more students joined our class and the remaining 10 of her students went to

Mrs. Emond’s class. Altogether, how many students do we have in our class now?

•   Today we will learn how to solve one-step addition word problems.

Step 2: Content Presentation

•   The teacher will project the Powtoon presentation for addition on the promethean screen

(See Appendix R).

•   The teacher will then ask the students to open their notebooks.

•   The teacher will have the students write the word addition in their notebooks.

•   The teacher will go to the Math is Fun Illustrated Dictionary and look up the word

addition (See Appendix T). The teacher will show the students the meaning of addition.

•   The students will use their notebooks to write a sentence to represent addition, draw a

picture, write a non-example, and write a list of words that belong with the addition

operation.

•   The teacher will show a word problem on the promethean board

•   The teacher will read the whole problem to the students.

•   The teacher will then dissect each sentence one at a time

•   The teacher will ask who is the problem about?

•   The teacher will ask: What are they doing?

•   The teacher will then write the correct response on the board.

•   The teacher will introduce the acronym C.U.B.E.S to the students

  16  
•   The teacher will use a YouTube video to introduce the CUBES strategy (See Appendix

S)

•   Using C.U.B.E.S strategy, the teacher will walk through how to locate and highlight

important information by circling important information, underlining clue words, box the

question, and eliminate the unnecessary information.

•   Tell the students that when I solve word problems I read the whole problem and try to

visualize the story in my mind just like a movie.

•   The teacher will then read the problem again all the way through while students close

their eyes and try to visualize the story.

•   The teacher will then draw a visual representation and label everything

•   The teacher will reread the problem

•   Ask the students which clue words or phrases that we underlined tells us what operation

we will use to solve this problem?

•   Write the addition number sentence

•   Solve the equation

•   Answer the question using the appropriate label

•   Show students how to check work using the inverse operation.

Step 3: Learner Participation

•   Give each student a word problem that they can glue into their interactive math

notebooks.

•   Have the students take out their colored pencils to use when they are using C.U.B.E.S

•   The students will complete all of the steps for solving one step word problems in their

notebook including drawing a representation of the problem

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•   The teacher will call several students to the front of the class to show their notebooks

under the document camera and explain how they solved the problem

•   The teacher will then pass out a one-step word problem worksheet for individual practice

Step 4: Assessment

The students will be given a one-step addition word problem worksheet that has 5 problems (See

Appendix G). The students will complete this worksheet individually.

Step 5: Follow-Through Activities

A center will be created that has manipulatives that the students can use to solve one-step

addition problems. The students will then draw the visual representation that they created with

their manipulatives in their centers notebook.

Assessment and Evaluation Method

The students will be assessed through observation and a formative assessment containing 5

addition word problems (See Appendix G). Students will show understanding of this concept if

they correctly answer 4 out of 5 problems.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Lesson # 3-CUBES Strategy to Solve and Create One-Step Subtraction Word Problems

Lesson Overview: This lesson will cover how to solve one-step subtraction word problems.

The students will use the C.U.B.E.S strategy in solving these problems. Through this strategy

the students will read, analyze, identify, and solve these problems. The students will work in

cooperative groups to create their own one step subtraction word problem containing a visual

representation, number sentence, labels, and answer. They will then present their problems to

the class and explain their problem solving process.

Resources or Materials Needed

Teacher: promethean board and pen, document camera, sample word problem on construction

paper, fast fact subtraction drill sheet (See Appendix G) for each student, one step

subtraction word problem worksheet (See Appendix H), Cognitively Guided

Instruction 2nd Grade Word Problem Rubric (See Appendix I) to assess student work,

PowToon presentation for addition (See Appendix R), PowToon presentation for

subtraction (See Appendix R), Math is Fun Illustrated Dictionary: subtraction (See

Appendix T), C.U.B.E.S strategy poster (See Appendix D)

Students: math notebook, pencil, colored pencils, student worksheet, white construction paper,

black marker

Performance Objective:

1.   Given one-step subtraction word problems, students will correctly represent, write, and

solve at least 4 out of 5 word problems.

Time: Approximately 1 hour

Step 1: Pre-Instructional Activities

•   Subtraction Fast fact drill

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•   Review prior lesson with the students.

•   Replay addition PowToon presentation from lesson 2 (See Appendix R)

•   Explain new learning objective.

Step 2: Content Presentation

•   The teacher will show the Powtoon presentation for subtraction (See Appendix R).

•   The teacher will then ask the students to open their notebooks.

•   The teacher will have the students write the word subtraction in their notebooks.

•   The teacher will go to the Math is Fun Illustrated Dictionary website and look up the term

subtraction (See Appendix T).

•   The students will write a sentence to represent subtraction, draw a picture, write a non-

example, and write a list of words that belong with the subtraction operation.

•   The teacher will show a one step subtraction word problem on the promethean board

•   The teacher will read the whole problem to the students.

•   The teacher will then dissect each sentence one at a time

•   The teacher will ask who is the problem about?

•   The teacher will ask: What are they doing?

•   The teacher will then write the correct response on the board.

•   The teacher will review the acronym C.U.B.E.S to the students

•   Using C.U.B.E.S strategy, the teacher will walk through how to locate and highlight

important information by circling important information, underlining clue words, box the

question, and eliminate the unnecessary information.

•   Tell the students that when I solve word problems I read the whole problem and try to

visualize the story in my mind just like a movie.

  20  
•   The teacher will then read the problem again all the way through while students close

their eyes and try to visualize the story.

•   The teacher will then draw a visual representation and label everything

•   The teacher will reread the problem

•   Ask the students which clue words or phrases that we underlined tells us what operation

we will use to solve this problem?

•   Write the subtraction number sentence

•   Solve the equation

•   Answer the question using the appropriate label

•   Show students how to check work using the inverse operation.

•   The teacher will show a created one step subtraction word problem on a large piece of

construction paper that has a visual representation, labels, number sentence, answer and

how the answer was checked.

•   The teacher will explain the directions for the student task

Step 3: Learner Participation

•   The students will work in groups design a one step subtraction word problem.

•   Each group will use a large piece of construction paper to write a one step subtraction

word problem, draw a visual representation of the problem, label the parts, write a

number sentence, solve, and show how they checked their work

•   The teacher will monitor student understanding in groups

•   The teacher will then call one group at a time to come in front of the class and explain the

process of creating and solving their word problem

Step 4: Assessment

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Each student will be given a worksheet with 5 one step subtraction problems (See Appendix H).

Students should show an understanding of this concept by correctly solving at least 4 out of 5 of

the given problems.

Step 5: Follow-Through Activities

A center will be created that has manipulatives that the students can use to solve one step

subtraction problems. The students will then draw the visual representation that they created

with their manipulatives in their centers notebook.

Assessment and Evaluation Method

The students will be assessed through observation and a formative assessment containing five

subtraction one step word problems (See Appendix H). Students will show understanding of this

concept if they correctly answer 4 out of 5 problems. They will be assessed using the

Cognitively Guided Instruction 2nd Grade Word Problem Rubric (2nd Grade Word Problems,

2016) (See Appendix I). They will also be assessed through observation during their group work

and presentations of their group created word problem.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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Lesson Plan #4-Solve Two-Step Word Problems with Like Operations

Lesson Overview: This lesson will cover how to solve two-step word problems with like

operations. The students will use the C.U.B.E.S strategy in solving these problems. Through

this strategy the students will read, analyze, identify, and solve these problems. The students

will work in cooperative groups to create their own two-step word problem containing a visual

representation, number sentence, labels, and answer. They will then present their problems to

the class and explain their problem solving process.

Resources or Materials Needed

Teacher: promethean board and pen, document camera, sample word problem on construction

paper, two step addition (See Appendix J) and subtraction word problem worksheet

(See Appendix K), Cognitively Guided Instruction 2nd Grade Word Problem Rubric

(See Appendix I), addition and subtraction Powtoon presentation (See Appendix R)

Students: math notebook, pencil, colored pencils, white construction paper, black marker

Performance Objectives:

1.   Given an addition two-step word problem with like operations, students will write and

solve the word problem with 85% accuracy.

2.   Given a subtraction two-step word problem with like operations, students will write and

solve the word problem with 85% accuracy.

Time: 1 hour

Step 1: Pre-Instructional Activities

•   Review prior lesson with the students.

•   The teacher will show the Powtoon presentation for addition and subtraction (See

Appendix R).

  23  
•   Review addition and subtraction terms

•   Explain new learning objective.

Step 2: Content Presentation

•   The teacher will then ask the students to open their notebooks.

•   The teacher will have the open their notebooks to the addition and subtraction vocabulary

pages. The teacher will tell the students to use these pages for reference during the

lesson.

•   The teacher will show a two step subtraction word problem on the promethean board

•   The teacher will read the whole problem to the students.

•   The teacher will then dissect each sentence one at a time

•   The teacher will ask who is the problem about?

•   The teacher will ask: What are they doing?

•   The teacher will then write the correct response on the board.

•   The teacher will review the acronym C.U.B.E.S to the students

•   Using C.U.B.E.S strategy, the teacher will walk through how to locate and highlight

important information by circling important information, underlining clue words, box the

question, and eliminate the unnecessary information.

•   Tell the students that when I solve word problems I read the whole problem and try to

visualize the story in my mind just like a movie.

•   The teacher will then read the problem again all the way through while students close

their eyes and try to visualize the story.

•   The teacher will then draw a visual representation and label everything

•   The teacher will reread the problem

  24  
•   Ask the students which clue words or phrases that we underlined tells us what operation

we will use to solve this problem?

•   Write the subtraction number sentence

•   Solve the equation

•   Answer the question using the appropriate label

•   Show students how to check work.

•   The teacher will show a two step addition word problem on the promethean board

•   The teacher will read the whole problem to the students.

•   The teacher will then dissect each sentence one at a time

•   The teacher will ask who is the problem about?

•   The teacher will ask: What are they doing?

•   The teacher will then write the correct response on the board.

•   The teacher will review the acronym C.U.B.E.S to the students

•   Using C.U.B.E.S strategy, the teacher will walk through how to locate and highlight

important information by circling important information, underlining clue words, box the

question, and eliminate the unnecessary information.

•   Tell the students that when I solve word problems I read the whole problem and try to

visualize the story in my mind just like a movie.

•   The teacher will then read the problem again all the way through while students close

their eyes and try to visualize the story.

•   The teacher will then draw a visual representation and label everything

•   The teacher will reread the problem

  25  
•   Ask the students which clue words or phrases that we underlined tells us what operation

we will use to solve this problem?

•   Write the addition number sentences

•   Solve the equation

•   Answer the question using the appropriate label

•   Show students how to check work.

•   The teacher will explain the directions for the student task.

Step 3: Learner Participation

•   The students will work in groups design either a two step subtraction word problem or a

two step addition word problem.

•   Each group will use a large piece of construction paper to write a two step subtraction

word problem or a two step addition word problem, draw a visual representation of the

problem, label the parts, write a number sentence, solve, and show how they checked

their work

•   The teacher will monitor student understanding in groups

•   The teacher will then call one group at a time to come in front of the class and explain the

process of creating and solving their word problem

Step 4: Assessment

Each student will be given two worksheets, one with 4 two step addition problems (See

Appendix J) and one with 4 two step subtraction problems (See Appendix K). Students should

show an understanding of these concepts by correctly solving at least 3 out of 4 of the given

problems for addition and subtraction.

Step 5: Follow-Through Activities

  26  
A center will be created that has highlighters and addition and subtraction two step word

problems. The students will use the highlighters to highlight the key vocabulary that translates to

the correct operation. The students will then solve the problems in their notebooks.

Assessment and Evaluation Method

The students will be assessed through observation and a formative assessment containing 4

addition two step word problems (See Appendix J) and 4 two step subtraction word problems

(See Appendix K). Students will show understanding of this concept if they correctly answer 3

out of 4 problems. They will be assessed using the Cognitively Guided Instruction 2nd Grade

Word Problem Rubric (See Appendix I). They will also be assessed through observation during

their group work and presentations of their group created word problem.

  27  
Lesson Plan #5-Solve One-Step Word Problems with Multiplication (2-Day Lesson)

Lesson Overview: This lesson will cover how to solve one-step multiplication word problems.

The students will use the C.U.B.E.S strategy in solving these problems. Through this strategy

the students will read, analyze, identify, and solve these problems. The students will work in

cooperative groups to create their own one step multiplication word problem containing a visual

representation, number sentence, labels, and answer. They will then present their problems to

the class and explain their problem solving process.

Resources or Materials Needed

Teacher: promethean board and pen, document camera, sample word problem on construction

paper, fast fact multiplication drill sheet (See Appendix L) for each student, one step

multiplication word problem worksheet (See Appendix M), Cognitively Guided

Instruction 2nd Grade Word Problem Rubric (See Appendix I), Powtoon presentation

for Multiplication (See Appendix R), Math is Fun Illustrated Dictionary Multiplication

(See Appendix T)

Students: math notebook, pencil, colored pencils, highlighters, white construction paper, black

marker

Performance Objective:

1.   Given one step word problems with multiplication, students will represent, write, and

solve to find the correct answer on at least 80% of the problems.

Time: 2 hours

Step 1: Pre-Instructional Activities

•   Fast fact drill for multiplication-0, 1, 2, 5, 10

•   Review prior lesson with the students.

  28  
•   Explain new learning objective.

Step 2: Content Presentation

•   The teacher will show the Powtoon presentation for multiplication (See Appendix R)

•   The teacher will then ask the students to open their notebooks.

•   The teacher will have the students write the word multiplication in their notebooks.

•   The teacher will project the Math is Fun Illustrated Dictionary from the computer to the

Promethean board. Then the teacher will find the word Multiplication and present the

definition (See Appendix T).

•   The students will use their notebooks and write a sentence to represent multiplication,

draw a picture, write a non-example, and write a list of words that belong with the

multiplication operation.

•   The teacher will show a one step multiplication word problem on the promethean board

•   The teacher will read the whole problem to the students.

•   The teacher will then dissect each sentence one at a time

•   The teacher will ask who is the problem about?

•   The teacher will ask: What are they doing?

•   The teacher will then write the correct response on the board.

•   The teacher will review the acronym C.U.B.E.S to the students

•   Using C.U.B.E.S strategy, the teacher will walk through how to locate and highlight

important information by circling important information, underlining clue words, box the

question, and eliminate the unnecessary information.

•   Tell the students that when I solve word problems I read the whole problem and try to

visualize the story in my mind just like a movie.

  29  
•   The teacher will then read the problem again all the way through while students close

their eyes and try to visualize the story.

•   The teacher will then draw a visual representation and label everything

•   The teacher will reread the problem

•   Ask the students which clue words or phrases that we underlined tells us what operation

we will use to solve this problem?

•   Write the multiplication number sentence

•   Solve the equation

•   Answer the question using the appropriate label

•   Show students how to check work.

•   The teacher will show a created one step multiplication word problem on a large piece of

construction paper that has a visual representation, labels, number sentence, answer and

how the answer was checked.

•   The teacher will explain the directions for the student task

Step 3: Learner Participation

•   The students will work in groups design a one step multiplication word problem.

•   Each group will use a large piece of construction paper to write a one step multiplication

word problem, draw a visual representation of the problem, label the parts, write a

number sentence, solve, and show how they checked their work

•   The teacher will monitor student understanding in groups

•   The teacher will then call one group at a time to come in front of the class and explain the

process of creating and solving their word problem.

Step 4: Assessment

  30  
Each student will be given a worksheet with 4 one step multiplication word problems (See

Appendix M). Students should show an understanding of this concept by correctly solving at

least 3 out of 4 of the given problems.

Step 5: Follow-Through Activities

A center will be created that has highlighters and multiplication word problems. The students

will use the highlighters to highlight the key vocabulary that translates to the correct operation.

The students will then solve the problems in their notebooks.

Assessment and Evaluation Method

The students will be assessed through observation and a formative assessment containing 4

multiplication word problems (See Appendix M). Students will show understanding of this

concept if they correctly answer 3 out of 4 problems. They will be assessed using the

Cognitively Guided Instruction 2nd Grade Word Problem Rubric (See Appendix I). They will

also be assessed through observation during their group work and presentations of their group

created word problem.

  31  
Lesson #6 Solve multi-step word problems with different operations (2 Day Lesson)

Lesson Overview: This lesson will cover how to solve multi-step word problems with different

operations. The students will use the C.U.B.E.S strategy in solving these problems. Through

this strategy the students will read, analyze, identify, and solve these problems. The students

will work in cooperative groups to perform their given multi-step story problem with different

operations to the class. They will then provide a visual representation, number sentence, labels,

and answer.

Resources or Materials Needed

Teacher: promethean board and pen, document camera, sample word problem on construction

paper, multi step word problems with different operations worksheet (See Appendix

N), Cognitively Guided Instruction 2nd Grade Word Problem Rubric (See Appendix I),

Math Problem Code Words Powtoon (See Appendix R), Math is Fun Illustrated

Dictionary: Addition, Subtraction, and Multiplication (See Appendix T)

Students: math notebook, pencil, colored pencils, highlighters, white construction paper, black

marker

Performance Objectives:

1.   Given multi step word problems with different operations, students will represent, write,

and solve to find the correct answer on at least 80% of the problems.

2.   Working in a group, students will perform a multi step story problem with different

operations to the class.

Time: 2 hours

Step 1: Pre-Instructional Activities

•   Review prior lessons with the students.

  32  
•   Math problem code words Powtoon (See Appendix R)

•   Explain new learning objective.

Step 2: Content Presentation

•   The teacher will then ask the students to open their notebooks.

•   The teacher will give each student a multistep word problem and highlighter.

•   The teacher will use the Math is Fun Illustrated Dictionary for a review of addition,

subtraction, and multiplication terms (See Appendix T).

•   The teacher will show a multiple step word problem with different operations on the

promethean board

•   The teacher will read the whole problem to the students.

•   The teacher will then dissect each sentence one at a time

•   The teacher will ask who is the problem about?

•   The teacher will ask: What are they doing?

•   The teacher will then write the correct response on the board.

•   The teacher will review the acronym C.U.B.E.S to the students

•   Using C.U.B.E.S strategy, the teacher will walk through how to locate and highlight

important information by circling important information, underlining clue words, box the

question, and eliminate the unnecessary information.

•   Tell the students that when I solve word problems I read the whole problem and try to

visualize the story in my mind just like a movie.

•   The teacher will then read the problem again all the way through while students close

their eyes and try to visualize the story.

•   The teacher will then draw a visual representation and label everything

  33  
•   The teacher will reread the problem

•   Ask the students which clue words or phrases that we underlined tells us what operation

we will use to solve this problem?

•   Write the number sentences.

•   Solve the equation

•   Answer the question using the appropriate label

•   Show students how to check work.

Step 3: Learner Participation

•   The teacher will give each student another multistep word problem. The students will

glue this inside their notebooks and highlight key information.

•   The teacher will explain the directions for the student task

•   Each student will then work with their group to act out the multistep word problem. Each

group will then have to present their word problem story to the class.

Step 4: Assessment

Each student will be given a worksheet with 4 multi step word problems (See Appendix N).

Students should show an understanding of this concept by correctly solving at least 3 out of 4 of

the given problems.

Step 5: Follow-Through Activities

A center will be created that has highlighters and multi-step word problems. The students will

use the highlighters to highlight the key vocabulary that translates to the correct operation. The

students will then solve the problems in their notebooks.

  34  
Assessment and Evaluation Method

The students will be assessed through observation and a formative assessment containing 4

multi-step word problems (See Appendix N). Students will show understanding of this concept

if they correctly answer 3 out of 4 problems. They will be assessed using the Cognitively

Guided Instruction 2nd Grade Word Problem Rubric (See Appendix I). They will also be

assessed through observation during their group work and presentations of their group created

word problem.

  35  
References

2nd Grade: Word Problems. (2015, July 07). Retrieved February 19, 2016, from

http://www.dusd.net/cgi/2nd-grade-word-problems/

Dick, Walter, Carey, L., Carey, J. (02/2014). Systematic Design of Instruction, The, Loose-Leaf

Version, 8th Edition. [VitalSource Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from

https://wgu.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781323022566/

Evans, T., & Learning, G. 4. (2015). Addition and Subtraction Key Words and Posters Freebie

[Pdf]. Accessed from www.TeachersPayTeachers.com

International Society for Technology in Education (2017). ISTE Standards for Educators.

Retrieved June 30, 2017, from http://www.iste.org/standards/

Lane, C. (n.d.). The Distance Learning Technology Resource Guide: Multiple Intelligences.

Retrieved June 30, 2017, from http://www.tecweb.org/styles/gardner.html

Math-Aids.Com (2017). Addition Fluency Worksheet [Pdf]. Retrieved March 30, 2017 from

www.math-aids.com.

Math-Aids.Com (2017). Dynamically Created Math Worksheets: Lesson 3 Subtraction Fluency

Drill [Pdf]. Accessed March 30, 2017 at www.math-aids.com.

Math-Aids.Com (2017). Multiplication Fluency Worksheet [Pdf]. Retrieved March 30, 2017

from www.math-aids.com.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2011). Strategic Use of Technology in Teaching

and Learning Mathematics. Retrieved June 30, 2017, from

http://www.nctm.org/Standards-and-Positions/Position-Statements/Strategic-Use-of-

Technology-in-Teaching-and-Learning-Mathematics/

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2017). Principles, Standards, and Expectations.

  36  
Retrieved June 30, 2017, from http://www.nctm.org/Standards-and-Positions/Principles-

and-standards/Principles,-Standards,-and-Expectations/

Pueblo West CDP QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau. (n.d.). Retrieved December 23, 2015,

from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/08/0862220.html

SchoolView | Data & Accountability. (n.d.). Retrieved December 23, 2015, from

http://www.cde.state.co.us/schoolview

Welcome to Pueblo West Colorado. (n.d.). Retrieved December 23, 2015, from

https://pueblowestmetro.com/our-community

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

  37  
Appendix A

NAME%___________________________% %
% DATE_________%
%
%
WORD%PROBLEM%SITUATIONS%
%
IDENTIFY% TRANSLATE%

two$and$five$equals$ %

twelve$minus$seven$equals$ %

six$plus$three$plus$four$equals$ %

ten$decreased$by$seven$is$ %

the$sum$of$thirteen$and$twenty8six$ %

five$times$five$equals$ %

the$product$of$two$and$five$is$ %

altogether$18$plus$23$more$$ %

the$sum$of$10$and$35$is$$ %

  38  
Appendix B

Addi tion an d Subtraction
Key Word Sortin g
Cut out the words below and glue them into the columns.

Addition Subtraction
Key Words Key Words

total join increase less combined

minus plus take away sum altogether

in all decrease both subtract difference

take add fewer left how many more

Games 4 Learning www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/games-4-learning ©Teresa Evans 2015 10

  39  
Appendix C

ADDITION'VOCABULARY'
'
'
!

Plus!

Combined!

Join!
Both! ADDITION'
!

Altogether! Increase!!
In!All!

Total!

Sum!

  40  
SUBTRACTION+VOCABULARY+
+
+

decrease+ take+ less+ difference+

how+many+more+ Subtract+ +
take+away+

fewer+ minus+ left+
+
+

  41  
Appendix D

CUBES Poster

!

C ircle!the!numbers !!
!

U nderline!the!question!
!

B ox!important!math!words!
!

E liminate!unnecessary!information!
!

S olve!and!check!my!work!

  42  
Appendix E

Addition Fluency Drill

Name : Score :
Teacher : Date :

0 8 9 0 7
+3 +9 +5 +5 +0

0 6 4 2 7
+6 +5 +5 +8 +6

2 3 6 2 5
+2 +9 +8 +6 +8

5 5 1 6 8
+4 +8 +3 +4 +5

Math-Aids.Com
Addition Worksheets

  43  
Appendix F

ONE$STEP(ADDITION(WORD(PROBLEMS(
(
!
Name:_______________________________________! Date:___________________!
!
!
1.! There are two classes in the second grade. Mrs. Emond’s class read 52
books. Mrs. Harr’s class read 53 books. How many books did the whole
second grade read?

2.! Luke has 10 blue airplanes, 3 green cars, and 8 red airplanes. How many
airplanes does he have?

3.! Mr. Arnold has 19 boys in his class and 9 girls. How many students does he
have in his class?

4.! Sarah earned 50 cents last week and 25 cents this week. How much money
did she earn altogether?

5.! Yesterday Sally went to the park. She saw 8 dogs, 2 clowns, and 6 squirrels.
How many animals did Sally see altogether?

  44  
Appendix G

Subtraction Fluency Drill

Name : Score :
Teacher : Date :

1 Minute Drill

8 8 7 7 4
- 2 - 6 - 2 - 7 - 4

6 5 0 8 2
- 1 - 1 - 0 - 0 - 2

9 6 3 10 6
- 9 - 3 - 1 - 3 - 3

5 8 5 9 9
- 1 - 7 - 4 - 4 - 5

Lesson 3 Subtraction Fluency Math-Aids.Com

  45  
Appendix H

ONE$STEP(SUBTRACTION(WORD(PROBLEMS(
(
!
Name:_______________________________________! Date:___________________!
!
!
1.! There are two classes in the second grade. Mrs. Emond’s class read 87
books. Mrs. Harr’s class read 53 books. How many more books did Mrs.
Emond’s class read?

2.! Luke had 29 blue airplanes and 3 green cars. Luke gave his brother Andy 6
of his favorite blue airplanes. How many blue airplanes does Luke have left?

3.! Mr. Arnold has 19 boys and 9 girls in his class. How many more boy than girl
students does he have in his class?

4.! Sarah earned $15 last week doing her chores. On Saturday Sarah went to
the store and bought a purse that cost $9. How much money did Sarah
have left after buying her purse?

5.! Yesterday Sally went to the park. She saw 33 ducks sitting in the pond. All
of a sudden 11 ducks flew away. How many ducks were left in the pond?

  46  
Appendix I

2nd Grade Word Problem Rubric

0 No Understanding Blank paper

Minimal Incorrectly solves problem, but
1
Understanding attempted to solve problem

Only correctly shows one of the
following:
2 Developing
Understanding • Correct number sentence OR
• One correct strategy

• Correct number sentence with all
3 Complete symbols, numbers, and solution
Understanding (when required)
• Shows one correct strategy

• Correct number sentence with all
symbols, numbers, and solution
(when required)
• Shows one correct strategy
4 Advanced
Understanding • Clearly explains their thinking
(written or dictated)
• Solution properly labeled based on
context (SMP#6: Attend to
precision) ex. _____ cars

!
Strategy!Used:
Counting'on/' Invented'Algorithm'
Direct'Modeling Recall/'Memorization
Counting'back (Derived'Facts'0B10)
'
Revised'7/20/15'

  47  
Appendix J

TWO$STEP(ADDITION(WORD(PROBLEMS(
(
!
Name:_______________________________________! Date:___________________!
!
!
!
1.! Ryan and Scott went to the movies to see Batman. Tommy and his 3 friends
met up with Ryan and Scott to see Batman. How many kids went to the
movies?

________________________

2.! Nathan had 15 footballs. He got 18 more footballs from his coach and 2
from the street. How many footballs does Nathan have now?

________________________

3.! Ben had a lot of homework. He did 15 minutes of spelling practice. Then he
read for 10 minutes. When that was done he did his math which took him 20
more minutes. Altogether, how many minutes was Ben doing homework?

________________________

4.! On Monday, Jacob earned $15 for mowing the lawn. On Tuesday, Jacob
earned $10 for cleaning the bathrooms. On Wednesday, Jacob made $5
more. Altogether how much money did Jacob earn?

_________________________

  48  
Appendix K

TWO$STEP(SUBTRACTION(WORD(PROBLEMS(
(
!
Name:_______________________________________! Date:___________________!
!
!
!
1.! Ginger had 15 pencils. She gave 7 pencils to Mark and 3 pencils to John.
How many pencils does Ginger have left?

________________________

2.! Donny had 43 pieces of bubblegum. He gave 10 pieces to his mom and 12
pieces to his sister. How many pieces of bubblegum does Donny have now?

________________________

3.! Tara made 12 chicken legs for dinner. Jacob ate 4 of the chicken legs and
Ben ate 7 legs. How many chicken legs are left?

________________________

4.! On Tuesday, Dave had 20 gallons of gas in his car. On Wednesday, he used
10 gallons of gas to travel to his dads house. On Thursday he drove to the
park and used 5 more gallons of gas. How much gas did Dave have left in
his car?

_________________________

  49  
Appendix L

Multiplication Fluency Drill

Name : Score :
Teacher : Date :

0 5 3 5 5
x0 x4 x4 x5 x3

1 3 0 1 5
x4 x0 x1 x1 x1

1 5 1 2 2
x3 x1 x4 x5 x1

2 3 4 5 1
x1 x1 x4 x3 x3

Math-Aids.Com

  50  
Appendix M

ONE$STEP(MULTIPLICATION(WORD(PROBLEMS(
(
!
Name:_______________________________________! Date:___________________!
!
!
!
1.! There are two classes in the second grade. Each class has 27 students. How
many students are in the second grade?

2.! Tom and Sally ordered a pizza. Each one of them had six slices. How many pieces were in
the pizza?

3.! Aly had a package of 15 pencils. She shared the pencils equally with two
of her friends. How many pencils did each person get?

4.! Emily made a tray of 24 brownies. She divided the brownies equally
between her and her three sisters. How many brownies did each girl get?

!

  51  
Appendix N

MUlTIPLE)STEP)MIXED)OPERATION)WORD)PROBLEMS)
)
!
Name:_______________________________________! Date:___________________!
!
!
!
1.! Ryan and Scott went to the movies with Sarah, Emily and Jan. Two kids got
sick and left before the movie was over. How many kids stayed at the
movie theater?

________________________

2.! Nathan had 12 baseballs. He got 25 more baseballs for his birthday. He lost
17 baseballs at the field. How many baseballs does Nathan have now?

________________________

3.! Ben went to the store and bought 16 apples. He already had 4 apples at
his house. That night his friend came over and wanted to share the apples
equally. How many apples did each boy get?

________________________

4.! Last week Sarah earned $15 doing her chores. This week she earned $25
babysitting. After babysitting Sarah went to the store and bought a purse
that cost $9. How much money did Sarah have left after buying her purse?

_________________________

  52  
Appendix O

Name________________& & & & Date___________&
&
Addition'Fluency'Assessment'
&
&
&&&&5& &&&&&& && 7& &&&&&&&& & 6&& &&&& & 1& & &&&& 3&&&&
+&&4& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&+&&3& &&&& &&&&&&+&&0& & &&&&&&&+&2& & &&&&&&&+&1&
&
&
&
&
&
&&&&2& &&&&&& && 0& &&&&&&&& & 9& &&&& & 4& & &&&& 4&&&&
+&&6& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&+&&3& &&&& &&&&&&+&&0& & &&&&&&&+&2& & &&&&&&&+&1&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&&&&2& &&&&&& && 0& &&&&&&&& & 0&& &&&& & 1& & &&&& 5&&&&
+&&4& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&+&&5& &&&& &&&&&&+&&0& & &&&&&&&+&9& & &&&&&&&+&3&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&&&&7& &&&&&& && 3& &&&&&&&& & 1& &&&& & 4& & &&&& 8&&&&
+&&2& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&+&&3& &&&& &&&&&&+&&5& & &&&&&&&+&3& & &&&&&&&+&1&
&

  53  
Appendix P

Name________________& & & & Date___________&
&
Subtraction+Fluency+Assessment+
&
&
&&&&5& &&&&&& && 7& &&&&&&&& & 6&& &&&& & 8& & &&&& 3&&&&
.&&&4& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&.&&&3& &&&& &&&&&&.&&&0& & &&&&&&&.&&2& & &&&&&&&.&&1&
&
&
&
&
&
&&&&6& &&&&&& && 3& &&&&&&&& & 9& &&&& & 4& & &&&& 4&&&&
.&&&6& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&.&&&0& &&&& &&&&&&.&&&0& & &&&&&&&.&&2& & &&&&&&&.&&1&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&&&&9& &&&&&& && 8& &&&&&&&& & 0&& &&&& & 9& & &&&& 5&&&&
.&&&4& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&.&&&5& &&&& &&&&&&.&&&0& & &&&&&&&.&&2& & &&&&&&&.&&3&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&&&&7& &&&&&& && 3& &&&&&&&& & 5& &&&& & 4& & &&&& 8&&&&
.&&&2& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&.&&&3& &&&& &&&&&&.&&&2& & &&&&&&&.&&3& & &&&&&&&.&&1&
&

  54  
Appendix Q

Word Problem Pre and Post Assessment

NAME_________________________& &&
DATE____________________& & & & & &
!
WORD!PROBLEM!ASSESSMENT!
&
1. Jacob played Minecraft for 45 minutes. He played 15 minutes
more than Bryan. How many minutes did Bryan play Minecraft?

2. Jane gave 10 pieces of candy to Sam. Fred gave Sam 6 pieces of
gum. Mary gave Sam 12 pieces of gum. How many pieces of gum
does Sam have now?

3. Columbus saw 25 whales in the ocean. How many more whales
will he need to see to make it 3 dozen whales all together?

4. Mary likes to collect coins. Mary got 36 coins from her brother, 29
coins from her mother, as well as 16 coins from Sally. However, Mary
lost 17 coins before putting those coins into her piggybank. How
many coins does Mary have in her piggybank?

5. Melissa had 78 pumpkin seeds. She gave 23 of them to her
brother. How many pumpkin seeds does Melissa have left?

!

  55  
6. 320 children wore their Halloween costumes to school. Some of
the children took their costumes off at recess. There were 210
children left wearing costumes. How many children took their
costumes off at recess?

7. Ryan had some trick-or-treat candy. He gave 123 pieces of
candy to his sister. Now Ryan has 100 pieces of candy left. How
many pieces of candy did Ryan have to begin with?

8. Mrs. Williams has 4 boxes of candy. There are 10 pieces of candy
in each box. How many pieces of candy does she have now?

9. Megan has 15 cookies. She puts the cookies into 5 bags, with the
same number of cookies in each bag. How many cookies are in
each bag?

10. Jacob is playing a video game. He scores some points the first
time he plays a game. Then he scores 147 more points. Now it says
that he has 198 points altogether. How many points did he score the
first time he played the game?

!

  56  
Appendix R

VIDEO LINKS

PowToon Videos

Addition
https://youtu.be/ky69FYrFCOk

Subtraction
http://avnorclass.weebly.com/addition-or-subtraction-key-words-powtoon.html

Addition and Subtraction
https://youtu.be/y2T7CqcGELQ

Word Problem Code Words
https://youtu.be/qBpuwEyqcLY?list=PLrzRxqa_XKhued_ckVAbSymVSFRF6mdIL

Multiplication
https://youtu.be/V-tMr89ddWk?list=PLrzRxqa_XKhued_ckVAbSymVSFRF6mdIL

YouTube Videos

Word Problem Situation video created
https://youtu.be/huaKZ5v3otM

Cubes Strategy Video
https://youtu.be/v4993xqdmQA

Addition PowToon
https://youtu.be/ky69FYrFCOk

Addition and Subtraction PowToon
https://youtu.be/y2T7CqcGELQ

Word Problem Code Words PowToon
https://youtu.be/qBpuwEyqcLY?list=PLrzRxqa_XKhued_ckVAbSymVSFRF6mdIL

Multiplication PowToon
https://youtu.be/V-tMr89ddWk?list=PLrzRxqa_XKhued_ckVAbSymVSFRF6mdIL

  57  
Math Is Fun Illustrated Dictionary

Addition
https://www.mathsisfun.com/numbers/addition.html

Subtraction
https://www.mathsisfun.com/numbers/subtraction.html

Multiplication
https://www.mathsisfun.com/definitions/multiplication.html

  58