Murtaza Khakoo
LNG Technology Project Manager
BP Exploration
Chertsey Road, Sunbury
Middlesex TW16 7LN, UK
Beatrice Fischer
Senior Process Engineer
Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP)
1 et 4 avenue de Bois-Preau
92852 Rueil-Malmaison, France
Jean-Christophe Raillard
Project Manager
Gaz de France (GdF)
Roche Maurice B.P. 12417
44024 Nantes, France

Trinidad and Tobago’s Atlantic LNG plant has demonstrated how an innovative
approach to project implementation can achieve lower capital costs and a reduction in the
time from conception to start-up. As a result, it is now the industry benchmark on both
counts despite using previous generation LNG technology.
To meet the growing pressures in the LNG market over the next decade, further
substantial reductions in full chain LNG costs will be required. With the liquefaction unit
comprising nearly 50% of LNG plant cost, this is an obvious target for further cost
reduction. Improvements in liquefaction process efficiency offered by a new technology
and additional cost reduction innovations can lead to an overall unit cost reduction of up
to 25% for the next generation of LNG plants.
With this objective, a collaborative alliance and industrial pre-project development
program has been undertaken to capture innovations and cost reductions while
confirming the expected benefits of a new LNG technology based on two different but
complementary processes developed by Gaz de France (GdF) and IFP. These have been
rigorously and critically investigated and objectively compared with current established
processes. The scope of the program, conducted with the participation of engineering
companies and major equipment fabricators, has included the development of
engineering definitions and cost estimates to demonstrate clearly the benefits of these
processes. The program has shown that it is possible to design and construct a unit that
can produce from 2 to 5 million tonnes per annum using single or dual Frame 7EA gas
turbine drivers.
This paper presents the significant findings and comparative conclusions of this
collaborative work, addresses the key issues of innovation, efficiency and operability and
discusses the potential commercial impact and timing of the project implementation of
the Next Generation of LNG plants.


visant à établir une comparaison objective avec les procédés couramment utilisés à l’heure actuelle. Cette usine constitue ainsi une référence pour l’industrie sur ces deux plans. Ce programme a montré qu’il est possible de concevoir et réaliser une unité produisant de 2 à 5 millions de tonnes par an utilisant une seule ou deux turbines identiques de type "Frame 7". PS2-3. des réductions substantielles de coût sont requises sur l’ensemble de la chaîne GNL. a pris en compte les évaluations nécessaires pour disposer des conclusions économiques escomptées. Pour faire face à la demande croissante de GNL prévue au cours des dix prochaines années. a permis de montrer comment une démarche innovante peut conduire à une réduction des coûts d’investissement ainsi que de la durée du temps de construction. Dans ce but. qui représente près de 50 % des coûts d’investissement. Avec cet objectif en vue. dans le cadre du projet “Atlantic LNG”. le programme de travail. Les gains d’efficacité rendus possibles par la mise en œuvre de nouveaux procédés ainsi que de nouvelles innovations techniques permettent d’envisager une réduction supplémentaire de 25 % sur le coût du GNL produit par la nouvelle génération d’usines de liquéfaction. précise les facteurs clés de réussite sur le plan de l’innovation. des performances et de l’opérabilité et analyse l’impact commercial potentiel ainsi que les perspectives de mise en œuvre de cette nouvelle génération d’unités de liquéfaction. bien que basée sur un procédé de génération antérieure aux procédés qui peuvent être conçus à présent. un programme de développement a été entrepris sur la base d’un pré-projet élaboré conjointement en vue de confirmer les gains résultant de la mise en œuvre de deux procédés différents mais complémentaires développés par Gaz de France et IFP.RESUME La réalisation de l’usine de liquéfaction de Trinidad et Tobago. Ceux-ci ont été examinés selon une procédure rigoureuse.2 . doit faire l’objet d’une attention particulière. La présentation résume les principaux résultats et les conclusions en termes de comparaison de ce travail conjoint. L’unité de liquéfaction. mené avec la participation de sociétés d’ingénierie et de fournisseurs d’équipements.

from small (~0. but to increase its market share.5mtpa) to large (~5mtpa). a significant reduction in cost has to be achieved in order to deliver low cost LNG for any scale. The plant which uses the Phillip’s Cascade system with 6 GE Frame 5 gas turbines for its drivers and an air cooling system. The equipment incorporated should also be inherently safe. maintains a high level of reliability and flexibility. Two main concepts have been considered in the development of the CII (Integral Incorporated Cascade) Technologies : − CII-1 for smaller capacity trains. The addition of Trains 2 and 3 currently being undertaken is projected to set an even lower benchmark in LNG plant cost at around 150 US$/tpa. this is an obvious target for further cost reduction. The technologies which are selected therefore have to rely upon simple and robust concepts which are easy to operate. safety and reliability - all of which are considered essential. Trinidad has set a new benchmark at just over 200 US$/tpa. The challenge of this alliance project was to bring the investment cost down without compromising operability. LNG has the advantage of no geographical or political barriers. the capital costs of greenfield LNG facilities lay in the range of 300 to 400 US$/tpa of LNG production. in the range of 1 to 2mtpa of LNG. PS2-3.3 . well-proven and widely available. The plant has now exported in excess of 100 cargos of LNG and is currently undergoing expansion with the addition of two almost identical trains. Prior to Atlantic LNG’s first train in Trinidad. With the liquefaction unit accounting for nearly 50% of LNG plant cost. requiring lower investment and better adapted for some quick start projects and − CII-2 for large-size liquefaction trains producing 4mtpa of LNG or more to benefit from scale effects. This will lead to a rapid growth in the international LNG trade and to the possibility of new grass-root projects with shorter transport distance. THE CHALLENGE Trinidad and Tobago The Atlantic LNG plant is the first grassroots LNG export project in the Western Hemisphere since 1969 [1]. The breakthrough in Trinidad was achieved by challenging the use of traditional LNG technology and by using unique project management. The innovative and efficient liquefaction processes described in this paper result in higher LNG production for a given unit of power. The plant began production in 1999. less than 7 years after project inception. THE NEXT GENERATION OF LNG PLANTS INTRODUCTION Gas will continue to be the fuel of choice providing it can compete on delivered prices compared to alternatives like diesel and coal. there is a significant reduction in the LNG production unit cost. A major share of this gas is supplied by long distance pipelines and LNG. When combined with cost reductions from state-of-the-art rotating and heat transfer equipment and appropriately correct engineering design. contract strategy and execution for an LNG facility.

with an actual plant cost. • Efficiency Benchmark: This relates to the theoretical power required to produce a unit of LNG production and is frequently the most improperly benchmarked number in the industry. reliability and safety are preserved. • Cost Benchmark: This is perhaps the hardest to achieve and can be facilitated by at least two approaches : − Comparison of theoretical costs produced from a combination of “factored” costs for the liquefaction unit including sections of the plant affected by the specific process technology. the target for the current BP/IFP/Gaz de France project was to reduce the unit cost of LNG production even further through: • Increased LNG output: This is achieved in the CII processes through a higher efficiency liquefaction cycle which incorporates cascades of dual mixed refrigerants circuits and through the use of specific equipment like plate-fin exchangers. cost reductions through technical improvements and optimal utilisation of these and other plant items were targeted. Process Benchmarking The key factors in the validation of the benefit from the new LNG process is to ensure that proper benchmarks of both the achieved process efficiency and the resultant LNG plant costs are made. • Cost reductions: With compressors. Both approaches have been adopted in the BP/IFP/Gaz de France project . To make proper comparison requires comparable designs to be produced taking into consideration many factors including : sink temperatures (air or water-cooled). driver power including all derating factors. export systems etc. − Comparing a detailed cost estimate for the whole LNG plant including all pretreating units. A critical factor in the optimisation and cost reduction effort was to ensure that operability. gas turbines and exchangers representing between 70 and 80 % of the direct cost of a liquefaction unit. The pre-project development team working in conjunction with inputs from the engineering companies and the equipment vendors incorporated many cost reductions into the CII liquefaction and LNG plant design. Cycle development and optimisation targeted in excess of 15% additional LNG production for a given power compared to conventional processes. economic heat exchanger LMTD and pinch temperatures. the Trinidad Train 1 design was used as the Case Study with much of the actual plant parameters outside the liquefaction unit and the PS2-3. Review and value improvement sessions were incorporated at key stages of the project – at completion of process design and during operability assessment. margins and compressor efficiency. cold box outlet temperature (sub-cooled or warm into tanks).4 . To ensure congruence.Targets With this background of an aggressive new benchmark in execution and cost set by the Trinidad LNG project.the first for comparison of liquefaction technologies and the second for comparison with Trinidad project information.

An Extended PS2-3. to enable cost comparisons. The development of an optimised process design formed a key part of the study and delivered a comprehensive process data book incorporating option evaluations and all the normal process engineering information. The final step was to generate generic designs of competing processes and develop equipment and costs for comparison with the new technologies. The Trinidad Train 1 design parameters together with the use of Frame 7 gas turbine drives (one for Gaz de France CII/1 and two for IFP CII/2 process) were the only givens in the design premise. piping and instrument diagrams (P&ID) were developed to assess operability and maintenance aspects. Approach and Organisation The project has been operated with an integrated Core Team involving BP as an Operator and IFP together with Gaz de France as technology providers. These formed the basis for evaluation of sensitivities to site conditions (daily temperature variations. specifications were developed in consultation with equipment vendors in particular the cold box design where detailed design incorporating 3-D layout and pipe stressing of significant lines were made. In addition. operability and benefits. using fully condensed mixed refrigerants. For key items of equipment. feed composition variation and mixed refrigerant composition drift. The CII-2 version is a dual mixed refrigerant process incorporating specific patented features for increasing the simplicity and at the same time the efficiency of the system [4][5].5 . incorporating two sub-cascades. The CII-2 process involves two refrigeration cycles of equivalent power. The CII-1 version uses a single cascade. A low specific power consumption is obtained by the fractionation of the single refrigerant into optimised heavy and light mixtures [2] [3][5]. to evaluate specific process characteristics and to demonstrate the performance. This is achieved by exploiting the full improvement potential resulting from optimal use of mixed refrigerants and compact designs incorporating plate-fin heat exchangers.scope of the engineering maintained as per actual project to facilitate a comparison after adjustment to capacity differences. A subcontract to an engineering company developed detailed layouts and cost estimates. Scope A comprehensive scope of work was implemented to develop the CII liquefaction unit design and engineering. turbines) and heat exchangers. pressure). such as the machinery (compressors. THE PROJECT CII Technology The CII concept has been aimed at providing operators with liquefaction processes that combine the advantages of simplicity and reliability together with a high efficiency in order to maximize LNG output.

the composition of the “circulating MR” is automatically optimised for the cooling duty required. shown in Figure 2. designed with an innovative arrangement of proven and efficient technologies. ambient temperature compression line is driven by a single Fr 7EA gas turbine. • Simple cryogenic heat exchange line: The integrated heat exchanger line. is made up of brazed aluminium plate fin heat exchangers (PFHE) which are more cost effective than alternatives in similar duties. These three flow rates are automatically set by the system to achieve the required cold duty of the corresponding heat exchange zone.6 . This simple. These together with an additional cold box for the PFHE interconnecting pipework permits a high degree of prefabrication which reduces onsite work and the schedule for assembly and installation of the main heat exchanger. flow rate or ambient condition vary without specific refrigerant make-up or venting. • Simple process control: The control of the process is defined to automatically track the best energy efficiency conditions when changes in feed composition. PS2-3. pressure. C1 and nitrogen. Five dual-cores are parallel-mounted inside each of four identical and modular cold boxes. inside which natural gas is pre-cooled.Team was formed with vendors and engineering companies to provide an optimised and detailed design information for the liquefaction units. A flexible and proactive approach to communications. C4. One of the innovative features of CII-1 is its two butt- welded PFHE cores. -110°C and –160°C). liquefied and sub-cooled. The CII-1 refrigerant is a mixture of five components: C5. These vendors included providers of plate-fin heat exchangers (Chart Marston / Nordon Cryogenie). Consequently. Under the Trinidad site conditions. forming a dual-core. The cross section of the cold boxes (hence the footprint) are also minimised by selecting a PFHE configuration which maximises the cold box height within transportation limit. The refrigerating duty is achieved by expansion of three different streams at three temperature levels (-30°C. The process flow scheme (Figure 1) incorporates the following main features: • Simple compression line: The single refrigerant is compressed in two compressors casings: one axial type with a suction flow rate of 250 000 m3/h (actual) and a two stage. back-to-back centrifugal compressor for the mid and high pressure duties. the annual capacity delivered by a single LNG train is 2mtpa. periodic review meetings and targeted value improvements steps was facilitated by design to ensure innovations from all contributors were captured in the study. of rotating equipment (Nuovo Pignone and Sulzer/Elliott) and also liquid turbine and air-cooler suppliers. THE RESULTS CII-1 Process The CII-1 LNG process is a fully integrated cascade process. C2.

which contains less than 4 meters of packing. which contain a liquid buffer of various volatilities. The SMR is compressed in an axial and a centrifugal casing. Three of these four vessels are operated with “floating levels”. which flows to the coldest part of the exchange line and avoids potential C5 freeze-out. DRY FEED Frame 7 Scrubber MR Fractionation MCHEL LNG to storage Figure 1. C4. The positive or negative difference between the actual levels and the reference levels enables direct calculation. light refrigerant. • Efficiency: The performance of the CII-1 process has been compared with a typical Single Mixed Refrigerant (SMR) process ensuring similarity in all parameters that impact the efficiency. This “auto-internal loop adjustment” is performed by the transfer of liquid hold-up between the four vessels of the CII-1 process. and is expanded through a liquid expander. Consequently the LNG can be sub-cooled to a greater PS2-3. The operating stability of the MR fractionation column. with partial condensation at the inter-stage ambient chilling. and/or C2 that should be injected into the loop to compensate for leaks. The reference SMR scheme considered provides all the required cooling duty by a single expansion of the mixed refrigerant at the cold-end of the cryogenic plate-fin heat exchange line [6]. Also. CII-1 Process Flow Scheme. the fractionation of the CII-1 MR removes all the C5 from the high pressure. Comparative process design work has shown that the controlled fractionation of the mixed refrigerant in the CII-1 process reduces the specific power consumption by approximately 10%. of the quantities of C5. by software. is maintained by the control of the temperature of the reflux drum.7 .

there is no phase separation (no separation drum required) and the regulation becomes easier. the two cycles become very similar and the two mixed refrigerants can be used in a similar way to the pure refrigerants used in the cascade process. − No integrated cascade : this is the main novelty of the process. CII-1 Integrated Heat Exchanger Line CII-2 Process The CII-2 process incorporates two multi-component refrigerant circuits and in this particular design. Thus. It avoids the difficulty. the design of the heat-exchange line is simpler. costly end-flash compression line. changing the flow-rate in any branch does not change the composition in any other part of the system. Figure 3 presents the process flow schematic specific for the Trinidad Case Study.extent and the end-flash is limited to the LNG tank boil-off thereby avoiding a large. A single heat exchange line is used to cool gas from ambient temperature down to cryogenic temperatures. as the mixture composition is the same everywhere. each driven by a Fr 7EA gas turbine. of having to transmit driver power from the precooling to the cryogenic cycle or reversely the compression load. getting all the positive features of the cascade process with much less rotating equipment. Figure 2. encountered with the C3/MR cycle. As a consequence. Specific features of the CII/2 process are : − A balanced power on the two cycles : makes it possible to use two identical gas turbines. With an integrated cascade requiring a phase separation. PS2-3. the fluid mixture composition varies all along the cycle.8 . As the mixed refrigerant of the second cycle is fully condensed. − Compact and modular heat-exchange line : the CII-2 process has also been defined to make the best use of plate-fin heat-exchangers and to simplify their design.

DRY FEED 1st Frame 7 - prerefrigeration cycle C2+ To C2/C3+ fract. 2nd Frame 7 - Demethanizer cryogenic cycle Main exchange line LNG to end flash system Liquid turbines Figure 3. The pre-refrigeration compression line consists of one centrifugal compressor with two lateral entries.9 . The cryogenic compression line is composed of one axial compressor followed by a centrifugal compressor with one intermediate inter-stage cooling step.5mtpa. PS2-3. To limit the numbers of two-phase distribution devices. the concept of the process is such that all fluids entering the main exchange line. whereas the second mixed refrigerant (MR2) is in vapour phase at the inlet of the first core. two liquid turbines. the C3-MR process has to balance the precooling and the cryogenic cycle compression requirements to available driver powers– the assessment of impact on operability (start-up. with equivalent assumptions (end flash. with two cold boxes located on each side of the distribution pipes (see Figure 4). Comparison with a standard propane cooled mixed refrigerant (C3-MR) process. and in liquid phase at the inlet of the second. • Efficiency The capacity obtained with an end flash scheme is 4.vapour or liquid. are in a single phase . To use the full power of the two Frame 7 gas turbines. • Heat Exchanger Line The heat-exchange line comprises 4 cold boxes. The first mixed refrigerant (MR1) is sub-cooled at the inlet of the main exchange line. except the outlets of Joule-Thomson valves. transients etc) was excluded from scope of this study. Simplified Trinidad CII-2 Process Flow Scheme • Compression Line The two compression lines are each driven by a Frame 7. exchanger pinch/LMTD etc) has been undertaken.

Influence of Site Conditions As the main study was based on an actual and a single design point. and currently not used in the Trinidad LNG plant. A good exchange coefficient is thus obtained so that the overall core volume is very low. Overall Layout of the Main Exchange Line Despite this assumption. From the investment cost standpoint. while keeping the Trinidad gas composition and pressure constant. the LNG production capacity obtained with the two Frame 7 gas turbines is lower by approximately 10% compared to that of the CII-2 process. while keeping all other parameters constant. namely: different site temperature. The pressure drops and stream arrangement in the CII-2 process are optimised so as to have no lost volume in the PFHE. particularly with respect to the main heat exchanger parameters.10 . lead to a projected capital cost reduction of 10-15 % for the process units. Two advantages are noticed in going to lower ambient temperatures : an increase in available turbine power PS2-3. whose area and cost are also very significantly reduced from condensing a multi-component refrigerant compared to the single component propane in C3-MR. and the response to process condition changes are not different to any of the established processes. Taking into account the increased capacity. The above. The second important saving point is the air coolers. despite a large heat transfer area. this results in a overall reduction of about 20-25 % per tonne of LNG produced. it was important to assess the response and performance of the process technology to varied conditions. feed composition and pressure. The key findings discussed below show that both processes can be designed to accept a variety of feed gases. The influence of each of the parameters has therefore been evaluated separately. • Site Temperature Two extreme air temperatures: 10°C and 45°C were evaluated in the design mode. although the difference is expected to be higher if the two processes are compared from their optimal design points. coupled with other cost reduction ideas identified in this and previous studies [7]. significant savings result from the use of the plate-fin heat-exchange line. Figure 4.

7% <0. % 100 / 100 87 / 91 117 / 117 95 / 97 Available Driver Power. Summary of CII sensitivities to temperatures Case Base Case Cold climate Warm climate Medium cooler Ambient cooler Air Air Air Sea water cooler temperature 26°C 10°C 45°C 25°C CII-1 / CII-2 CII-1 / CII-2 CII-1 / CII-2 CII-1 / CII-2 Specific consumption. % 100 / 100(1) 110 / 110(1) 88 / 87 (1) 100 / 100 LNG capacity. the LNG capacity was decreased.1% / 6. compared to the 26°C base case.and lower air cooler outlet temperatures – which combine to give a large benefit.1% / 6. Table 2. % 100 / 100 113 / 107 108 (1) / 98 93 / 78 C2 + LPG capacity 4 / 5 4 /5 5 /5 38 / 42 PS2-3. − Rich Gas Case : A hypothetical LPG case with 21% C2+ in the feed (7% in Trinidad) was considered and required minimum changes to process scheme.11 .1% / 21% CII-1 / CII-2 CII-1 / CII-2 CII-1 / CII-2 CII-1 / CII-2 Specific consumption. Compared to the base case. The use of sea water coolers has also been investigated whilst maintaining the same gas turbine power (no change in ambient). Table 1. a hypothetical design based on 4 % nitrogen was made which required the addition of a nitrogen rejection tower to both processes. CII Sensitivity to Press & Feed Compositions Case Base Case High pressure N2 rich LPG rich NG feed pressure 42 bar 55 bar 42 bar 42 bar + NG composition (N2 /C2 ) <0.6% <0. % 100 / 100 88 / 93 100 / 105 111 / 127 LNG capacity. but the overall liquid outlet capacity was increased. This gives an increase in LNG capacity due to lower condensing pressure of the refrigerant but is not as pronounced in Trinidad because the air and sea water temperature are similar.7% 4 % / 6. % 100 / 100 127 / 122 76 / 75 105 / 104 Note 1: Includes fuel gas compressor for CII-2 case • Pressure A higher feed gas pressure (55 bar a instead of 42 bar a) gives a higher capacity due to the reduction of the required liquefaction duty and to the transfer of energetic losses from the LNG sub-cooling heat-exchange zone to the natural gas condensing zone (see Table 2). • Feed Composition The ability to design for other feedstocks was made to confirm process flexibility. Two feed compositions were considered : − Higher Nitrogen Content : Since nitrogen content in Trinidad gas is very low.

The improved efficiency of the new liquefaction processes has been demonstrated. − The effect of mixed refrigerant drift was also checked by simulation and the deficit in a major component was noted to have negligible effects on the resulting capacity. and ensure that operational upsets and potential hazards were adequately catered for in the design. This additional compression power leads to an increase in the LNG production capacity. reliability/availability and flexibility of the process. the CII process technologies are therefore similar to existing LNG plants. compressors. A reliability review showed that most of the major equipment items (plate fin exchanger. warm-up. as an end-flash scheme was already used in the base case.12 . The operational flexibility to cater for day/night temperature variations. in the N2 rich case. KEY BENEFITS Efficiency With the same gas turbine. Availability was primarily governed by the gas turbine selected and in this respect. the process temperatures have been determined using the designed surface areas of the cryogenic and ambient heat exchangers. shut-down. P&I diagrams and operating procedures for start-up. A P&I Review session was then convened to assess the control philosophy and operational procedures. were developed by IFP/Gaz de France. both the CII-1 and CII-2 achieve significantly higher LNG output than their respective competing process. These studies have confirmed the robustness of the CII technologies and the ability to cope with a range of feed gas compositions and conditions. as well as the effect of leaks from the mixed refrigerant circuit have been checked in rating mode: − For day/night variation. For both CII-1 and CII-2. large diameter pipework giving significant cost savings. control philosophies. Operability An important aspect in adopting a new process technology is understanding the operability. a flash gas compressor must be introduced in order to produce the high pressure fuel-gas from the overhead product of the nitrogen removal tower. the capacity obtained with the high nitrogen case is very similar. vessels etc) are not different to those in other gas plants and would have similar reliability. during the night and the day. This compact layout leads to significant reduction in low temperature. turndown etc. For CII-2. Compact Layout Both CII-1 and CII-2 use a plate-fin heat-exchange line that is assembled into four cold boxes and laid adjacent to the gas turbine driver-compressor sets with aircoolers installed on the compressor housing. PS2-3. To achieve this.Note 1: For CII-1. the actual capacity changes by about 4 % of the average daily capacity – this is therefore the prize for any optimisation package tracking the daily ambient temperature variation.

procurement and construction phases. they can be implemented rapidly to commercial projects. offsites including storage and export system. overall plot layout. utilities.Costs Comparative factored costs of the CII processes with corresponding established processes show the possibility of combining a lower cost with an increased in LNG production. The CII processes employ plate fin heat exchangers with many potential suppliers for the large number of cores thus removing this item as a constraint in project schedule. The intention is to get the projects’ buy-in to take up to FEED level of definition. and the overall reduction in schedule will undoubtedly result in significant cost reductions. involving both CII-1 and CII-2 processes. engineering and project schedule This now gives the project’s partners increased confidence in the CII technologies to proceed with the industrialization phase. Also direct link of the CII technologies to any specific engineering contractors has been avoided to maximise leverage in the engineering. construction factors adjusted to take into account the compact layout (from 3D model). The aim is to make comparison with the existing Trinidad Train 1 data and current indications are that these will show significant reduction in unit cost – within the limitations of the approach used. OVERALL CONCLUSIONS The study results have confirmed that the CII processes have potential for: • improvement in process efficiency and hence more LNG production for a given driver configuration • use of standardised and multi-sourced process equipment • incorporate majority of cost reduction ideas that have been previously studied and implemented with minimal impact to the design and operation of current LNG plants • leverage to reduce cost from equipment supply. Having completed the evaluation. Pre-ordering of compressors has been previously adopted and shifted the critical path to the main exchanger. This ensures that potential licensees can maximise the potential saving possible from a favourable contract strategy. New ideas are being pursued to target the next schedule constraints (storage/export systems). The processes can be adapted to operators’ requirements.13 . At the time of writing this paper. and as they involve only well- proven equipment. a detailed cost estimate based on a Trinidad location is being prepared using on major equipment costing. BP will now consider putting forward the CII technologies to their current and emerging projects. in competition with established PS2-3. main heat exchanger and storage / export system. Schedules The critical path of conventional LNG plant projects has been the delivery of compressor-drive. Project Strategy The philosophy adopted from the outset is to ensure that the process technology has the ability to use multi-sourced equipment.

and Fischer B. Rojey A.. Raillard J.J. London.C. Trondheim. Dubai. REFERENCES CITED (1) Bob Williams Upstart LNG Project Oil & Gas Journal.J. Australia. Nutall. S. Australia. Flesch E. Maisonnier G..Session 3. Vink... Cost Reduction of the LNG chain: Development of a New Liquefaction Process Eurogas 1996..C. February 19th. before opening to a number of contractors for EPC of the plant with the least LNG unit cost.. Paper 10-1 PS2-3. New Trends in LNG Process Design European GPA meeting. December 16.F.. May 4-7.C.Session 3. Takami Small LNG Plants: Overcoming the Economies of Scale Gastech 1998. Paper 3-6 (7) P.. 1998 .. May 4-7. Fischer B. BP believe that through application of innovative technologies for liquefaction coupled with equally innovative project strategies. November 29-December 2 . New Options for Natural Gas Liquefaction Gastech 1998. Perth.Session 10. November 29-December 2 . Raillard J. CII Liquefaction Process: 2 cascades into 1 LNG12. Perth..technologies.14 . 1996 (3) Flesch E. Burin des Roziers T. Paper 10-2 (5) Flesch E. 1999 (6) K. R. Paper 3-4 (4) Streicher C. Streicher C. it will be able to deliver LNG projects at even lower cost than the current Trinidad benchmark.. Klein Nagelvoort Comparison of Baseload Liquefaction Processes LNG12. 1996 (2) Duremberg C. Norway. Raillard J. Chabrelie M. Dubai. June 3-5.Session 10. 1998 . Rojey A.