LECTURE NO.

07
TOPIC: MAPS

Introduction:
The theme of current lecture is Maps. In the following a detailed description about maps
is given for the understanding of students learning town planning.

What is a map?[1]

A map is a visual representation of an area or a symbolic depiction highlighting
relationships between elements of that space such as objects, regions, and themes. Many
maps are static two-dimensional, geometrically accurate representations of three-
dimensional space, while others are dynamic or interactive, even three-dimensional.
Although most commonly used to depict geography, maps may represent any space, real
or imagined, without regard to context or scale.

Map Making or Cartography:[2]

Cartography or mapmaking is the study and practice of making representations of the
Earth on a flat surface. Cartography combines science, aesthetics, and technical ability to
create a balanced and readable representation that is capable of communicating
information effectively and quickly.

History of Map Making:[3]

The earliest known map is a matter of some debate, both because the definition of "map"
is not sharp and because some artifacts speculated to be maps might actually be
something else. A wall painting which may depict the ancient Anatolian city of
Çatalhöyük (previously known as Catal Huyuk or Çatal Hüyük) has been dated to the late
7th millennium BCE.[4]/[5] The ancient Greeks and Romans created maps beginning at
latest in the 6th century BC. As early as the 700s, Arab scholars were translating the
works of the Greek geographers into Arabic. In ancient China, geographical literature
spans back to the 5th century BC. The oldest extant Chinese maps come from the State of
Qin, dated back to the 4th century BC during the Warring States era. Early forms of
cartography of India included legendary paintings; maps of locations described in Indian
epic poetry, for example the Ramayana. Indian cartographic traditions also covered the
locations of the Pole star, and other constellations of use. The Arab geographer,
Muhammad al-Idrisi, produced his medieval atlas Tabula Rogeriana in 1154. He
incorporated the knowledge of Africa, the Indian Ocean and the Far East gathered by
Arab merchants and explorers with the information inherited from the classical
geographers to create the most accurate map of the world up until his time.

It remained the most accurate world map for the next three centuries.[6] In the Age of
Exploration from the 15th century to the 17th century, European cartographers both
copied earlier maps (some of which had been passed down for centuries) and drew their

especially for urban areas. have democratized and greatly expanded the making of maps. A topographic map is primarily concerned with the topographic description of a place. Terrain or relief. map-makers frequently lifted material from earlier works without giving credit to the original cartographer. spatial analysis and database software. By the 1700s. such as the compass and much later magnetic storage devices allowed for the creation of far more accurate maps and the ability to store and manipulate them digitally.own based on explorers' observations and new surveying techniques. An orienteering map combines both general and thematic cartography. is not as good as in developed and other developing countries. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture. a German cartographer. map-makers started to give credit to the original engraver by printing the phrase "After [the original cartographer]" on the work. As the volume of geographic data has exploded over the last century. telescope and sextant enabled increasing accuracy. designed for a very specific user community. Martin Behaim. cultural and social data. plotters. Specifically. including the use of contour lines showing elevation.[8] In cartography.[7] In 1507.” Maps for planning and development of urban areas: Town Planning and allied professions have always been demanding suitable base maps as a prerequisite to any planning.[10] Maps are not new to town planners and engineers. computer hardware devices such as computer screens. technology has continually changed in order to meet the demands of new generations of mapmakers and map users. In 1492. image processing. Map types:[9] In understanding basic maps. the field of cartography can be divided into two general categories: general cartography and thematic cartography. In the late 20th century and early 21st century advances in electronic technology led to a new revolution in cartography. thematic cartography has become increasingly useful and necessary to interpret spatial. It often disregards scale and detail in the interest of clarity of communicating specific route or relational information. made the oldest extant globe of the Earth. printers. General cartography involves those maps that are constructed for a general audience and thus contain a variety of features. earth sciences and many other geographic disciplines which use highly detailed maps in its standard requirements. preparation and use of large-scale maps. The invention of the magnetic compass. The first maps were manually constructed with brushes and parchment and therefore varied in quality and were limited in distribution. The advent of magnetic devices. A topological map is a very general type of map. . However. “A topographic map is a detailed and accurate graphic representation of cultural and natural features on the ground. Martin Waldseemüller produced a globular world map bearing the first use of the name "America". Due to the sheer physical difficulties inherent in cartography. scanners (remote and document) and analytic stereo plotters along with visualization. Thematic cartography involves maps of specific geographic themes oriented toward specific audiences.

some organizations use maps every day while some use maps occasionally yet some others use maps once in a way. In the myriad of agencies involved in planning and development of towns and cities it is the agencies responsible for planning for physical development. Neighbourhood Plans.000 map. if details on plot numbers. Town Planning Schemes. alignment of services like water. plot dimensions. National Highways Authority. Maps with a ratio of 1:50. Any maps with a smaller scale (for example 1:500. Sub-division Plans. maps of buildings/plots for taxation and election purposes. Municipal authorities rank second in use of maps . service organizations require maps.000 to 1:250. etc.[11] The Scale of Maps:[12] The scale of a map is the ratio of a single unit of distance on the map. which need maps most. Whereas. Also. other institutions like Public Works Departments. maps at scale 1:1. quality and accuracy vary from organization to organization.000 or larger (for example. Thus. the requirement of maps in terms of contents. Fire Force. Railways. Zonal Plans (Sectoral Plans). Local authorities. i.000 would be needed. Agencies for city transport system. Housing boards. etc.comprehensive maps are required for planning and execution of works by engineering department. . Census Department and Election Commission requires the maps occasionally.000) are considered small scale. asphalt. The institutions like urban development authorities.Engineering and Health Departments. in the local planning area. a 1:2. Local authorities . electricity and telephone. Power Transmission and distribution agencies. entrance to plots. Maps with a ratio of 1:50. to show a concept for circulation system and layout of plots in a sub-division plan (layout). all the information in map.000 map will appear larger than if displayed on a 1:100. public undertakings.[14] The scale of map to be used for a particular purpose in a project is determined as to what topographical features and what plan elements (details) are required to be shown with a certain degree of clarity on one or more sheets.Traffic & Law and Order and Postal Department requires the maps on daily basis. Police Department . Education Department. planting of trees. Agencies for Urban Water Supply and Drainage system. It is important to note that all the agencies aforementioned and others do not need comprehensive map. Survey. Full topographic maps at different scales are required by Urban Development Authorities for preparation/ revision of Comprehensive Development Plans. Settlement and Land Records (City Survey) Department. For example. Similarly the maps are required for different purposes. are to be shown. If the width of plot and roads is less than 10 m then a 1:500 scale map would be required to show all the afore cited details. Health Department.[13] Maps are sometimes referred to by relative descriptions of large scale or small scale. the former is large scale.000 scale map may be adequate. to the equivalent distance on the ground. 1:25.000 would be larger) are considered large scale. However. A large scale map displays objects so they appear relatively large. in any urban area.Maps are required by every Department/agency of the Provincial and Federal Governments having stake in development of urban area. chamfers.000 are considered medium scale. centre line of roads. an island displayed on a 1:10. Thus.e. But.

Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP) also at macro level.Process in planning . Zonal Plans for part of city/town to elaborate the details. a register showing the land use of every property need to be prepared and maintained along with the existing land use map. but in hard copy form. Planning urban areas. etc. Structural . more and more details will be needed for which maps have to be at larger and larger scales. Not only that. at macro (city/town) level. This survey assumes importance in old areas due for redevelopment and/or rejuvenation. Planning studies: Statutes on Town and Country Planning in all the States require preparation of Existing Land Use of every plot/property. conceptualize and see details from city/ town level to part of city/town and local level. Another planning survey for physical aspect is structural condition survey. to avoid insurmountable obstacles. what is called Local Planning Area. entire metropolitan area or city as the case may be has to be on only one or two sheets for all to see the alignment at metropolitan or city level. All the features would be required at detail planning. public and decision makers) determine the scale(s) for maps at a particular level. the experts who steer the work on planning are the physical planners. To fine tune the alignment. What features in base map and what elements in plan proposal need to be shown on map user (planners. Preparation of Master Plan: Preparation of Master Plan at Metro/city level is highly complex and needs multi- disciplinary team of experts. scale. These levels are basically to perceive. several studies are carried out by physical planners apart from other discipline.000 to mark the land use in field and to prepare fair maps in office. Only important features are shown on maps at small scale. accuracy. Hard copies of maps must be as large as 1:1. These levels naturally require maps at different scales with different content with one or fewer maps to see the area under consideration. and Town Planning Schemes at micro (local) level to implement the plan. However. may have three stages. A GIS in deed. Land uses are classified broadly in to 8 main groups. not only in the existing developed area but also in the vicinity. For instance for planning a metro rail system or a bypass for rail or road. Most important planning survey is the use of building and parcels of lands. although they can vary: Outline Development Plan (ODP) now re-christened as Perspective Plan.Best Practice: Requirement of maps in terms of content. This can also be called Master Plan. in planning and development of urban areas can be appreciated well when the process involved in planning for physical development and implementation is known. Before embarking on making projections for demographic aspects to estimate the land required to meet the growth during the plan horizon. especially metropolitan areas and cities.

000 and 1:20. Analysis of the physical aspect . narrow roads. railway system.000 for others. They need to be generalized to prepare smaller scale maps: 1:5.000 (for Metros and large cities). are the basis on which alternative plans at macro level are conceptualized. After the land requirement for future growth is established.000. moderate. This is yet another GIS earlier to electronic era. The maps showing the results of planning studies at small scales. To show the results of the analysis as thematic maps also smaller scale maps. bottlenecks.000 if not at 1:500. 1:10. 1:10.000. Problems in physical condition like congested areas. economic conditions which is a sample survey. etc. 1:10. 1:10. The principle of Part to whole be applied which is similar to preparation of smaller scale maps from survey data at larger scale. 1:20. House hold survey for social. etc. good. Planning studies other than Land Use and Structural Condition are for: Density of population/house holds. For this purpose also maps must be at least 1:1. land availability has to be analyzed for suitability for development. need to be made and results shown on small scale maps: 1:5. function. say 1:5. Traffic and transportation survey.000 or 1:10.000. and 1:5. Result of each of the study on separate maps (transparencies) at smaller scale (all at same scale) will be compared with one above the other (sounds like GIS in place!) to synthesis the studies and draw inference. All these surveys are not aimed at each and every property and maps at small scales. However. bad junctions. All these maps need to be documented for reference and record.000 or 1:20. say 1:20. Master Plan: After a concept or combination of two or three is accepted.000 to depict parts of urban area or the whole urban area on one or two sheets. lest they are called for in courts of law. at smaller scale (1:10. arterial and lower order road system. boundaries of proposed land uses and road system will not have any definite geometry.000 and 1:20.000 depending on the planning area) on one or two sheets. This survey is for structures for which each and every structure must clearly be available on maps to mark the appropriate condition in the field and to prepare fair maps in office.and socio-economic aspects. density of population/ house holds. say 1:5.000.000 and 1:20. problems in physical form.Land Use and Structural Condition .000 may suffice. Master Plan (CDP) is prepared on accurate map at larger scales.000. Large-scale maps show limited area on a sheet. on one or two sheets. Format of maps for Master Plan/Planning Drawings:[15] . low lying areas. pollution from industry. to show the boundaries of land areas for different uses. area required. Concept plans: Concept plans are free hand sketches on the base of accurate maps.000.000.conditions of buildings are classified in to 4 or 5 classes: very good. poor and obsolete.

000) to delineate the area for planning.000 to show all . plot dimensions.000 with an 800 x 400 mm format covering 4 x 2 km (8 sq km) fits within A1size with sufficient margin at bottom for full length for legend and title block and fit in a handy album. Title block must be at bottom-right corner. storage. After the Draft Plan is approved detailed plan is finalized on maps at scale 1:1. Planning drawings must be in Landscape format. Further.000 will be required with additional survey data . But. Details plans may be in modular form. road elements like carriage way. Topographical maps at scale 1:5.plots with numbers. Maps for Area Plan start at the scale of Master Plan (1:5. Album form is best to the purpose.000. drawings must be compact and handy to go in to album without folding. Master Plan is the basis for Area Planning. is prepared on a large scale.Town planners. Draft details plan. A1 size (841 x 594 mm) is best both in album and handling on desk and in field. junction details.cadastral boundary and topography and service cadastre. Site plan at scale 1:1. to show all the details in the plan . The drawings of Master Plan approved by Government are statutory and need to be preserved for long time. Maps may be in modular form. Planning drawings will have legend and title block column at the right hand side of sheet from top to bottom. Planning drawings at any scale for any coverage must always be on base of scientifically prepared topographical map. For this purpose. Ammonia prints of drawings on A0 to A3 have to be folded to A4 size to have title block on top to go into files. Zonal plans are enlargement of Master Plan for part of city or town or for a particular land use zone. even entrance to plots. keeping the Master Plan concept as it is or with modifications. used in field and sent across by mail. etc. Maps for Zonal Plan must be at 1:2. Zonal plans may show even the minor roads but may not show individual properties which are very small. Preparation of Zonal Plans: The phase of Zonal Plan is between Master Plan and detail plan. Town planners’ role does not end on preparation and approval of Master Plan and Zonal Plan at small scale to remain as wall maps for adoration. The Master Plan may be fine tuned on the accurate site plan. Column width can be 100 to 175 mm. roads. Zonal Plan include plan document to supplement the plan (drawing). It may be for extension of city/town or rejuvenation or redevelopment of old and blighted areas. All the drawings in the Master Plan may be to A1 size in modular form. but neither dimensions nor all properties. to see the concept (Master Plan content) for the whole area on one sheet site plan has to be at smaller scale. say 1:2. His role includes translating Master Plan/Zonal Plan in to Action Area Plans.000 to show all the details. Architects and Engineers convert topographical maps in to working drawings to work on. centre line. They use the ISO A Series sheet formats for their drawings. Preparation of Area Plan: Area plans are action plans to implement the proposals in Master Plan.

gisdevelopment.of a leopard’s spots The Çatalhöyük ‘map’ and the development of cartographic representation in prehistory" Anatolian Studies.wikipedia.wikipedia.htm [15] http://www.htm [12] http://www. one ancient city.org/wiki/Maps [6] S. Physical planner must co-ordinate development as well not only organizing and overseeing setting-out of his plan on ground but also there after. Physical planner’s responsibilities do not end after preparation of Master Plan at small scale. Rudraiah (2003) “Maps for planning and development of urban areas” published in proceedings Map India Conference 2003 From: http://www. Plan is not fit for allotment of plots and for development. But.htm [13] http://en.org/wiki/Maps [4] Robert Kunzig (1999).gisdevelopment. 461-2 From http://en.wikipedia. History of the Moorish Empire. pp. "A Tale of two obsessed archeologists.collectionscanada.html [8] http://www.about.wikipedia.org/wiki/Map_making [3] http://en.org/wiki/Maps [5] Stephanie Meece (2006).com/cs/maps/a/mapscale. Dimensions are also indicated to help setting-out and to prepare engineering designs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maps [7] http://www.org/wiki/Topographic_map [10] Prabhakar Misra (2001) “The Changing Frame of Town Planning “ From http://www.net/application/urban/overview/mi03243.wikipedia.wikipedia. "A bird’s eye view .wikipedia. and nagging doubts about whether science can ever hope to reveal the past" Discover Magazine. R.gc.html? PHPSESSID=el7bd0vpd8cto0amsqqq5kaj22 [9] http://en.net/application/urban/overview/mi03243a. Conclusion: Finally it is quite clearly spelled out that the understanding about maps is very significant and a prerequisite for the person involved in any town planning exercise. May 1999.loc.shtml [11] L.net/application/urban/overview/mi03243b. Scott (1904).org/wiki/Scale_(map) [14] http://geography. From http://en.gisdevelopment. References: [1] http://en.net/magazine/gisdev/2001/apr/perspective.details and dimensions. 56:1-16 From http://en.ca/forgery/002035-300-e.org/wiki/Maps [2] http://en.htm POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 7:14 AM .gisdevelopment. P.gov/rr/geogmap/guide/gmillgtm.