TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING

Unit-1: Highway development and Planning

07-10-2014 Prepared by G.Sirisha,
civil dept.

INRODUCTION
• Transportation involves movement of persons and goods from one place (origin) to another (destination).
• Here we apply the principles of science and mathematics such that various properties of matter and sources of
energy in nature (diesel, petrol,electicity produced from coal ,water etc.) are utilized to move persons and goods
in a manner useful to mankind and at minimum cost.
• Moreover, we shall study about salient characteristics of various transportation system with respect to land
(highways and railways ,water ways and also airways).
Why are highways so important?

 It is used to develop a economy of country
 It is used to reducing journey time and cost
 It is used to reduce the accidents rate
 It is used to make the communications between country’s
 Road maintenance cost saving
 Vehicle operating cost saving
 Environmental development
 They help in making social and cultural advancement of people
 They help in making the villagers active and alert members of society
 They play a very important role in the defense of a country during war days
 They enhance land value and thus help in bringing better revenue
 They provide more employment opportunities to the people
Why we have to study transportation engineering?
 1.6 million hours per day stuck in traffic
 Avg. person spends one hour per day in their car
 In India day by day increase the accident rate
 Improper drainage systems
 Traffic congestion
 Aging of infrastructure
 Increased truck weights
 Aging of populations

The objects of highway planning are briefly given below :
• To plan a road network for efficient and safe traffic operation , but a minimum coast. Here the costs of
construction , maintenance and renewal of pavement layers and the vehicle operation costs are to be given due
construction.
• To arrive at the road system and the lengths of different categories of road which could provide maximum
utility and could be constructed within the available resource during the plan period under construction.
• To fix up date wise priorities for development of each road link based on utility as the main criterion for phasing
the road development programme.
• To plan for future requirements and improvement of roads in view of anticipated developments.

C  Large scale roads constructed in Roman empire period. construction and maintenance • It is active body controlling the specifications. Central Road Fund • Central Road Fund (C. Military operations HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA • Jayakar Committee (1927) • Central Road Fund (1929) • Indian Roads Congress (IRC). • To establish a semi-official . • To create a national level institution to carry research .R. 1950 • National Highway Act. • To work out financing system. design of roads and bridges • It publishes journals.1995 • National highway act ( 1956 ) • Second twenty year road plan ( 1961 ) • Highway Research board ( 1973 ) • National Transport Policy committee ( 1978 ) • Third twenty year road plan ( 1981 ) Jayakar Committee. 1927 • Road development should be made a national interest since the provincial and local govt do not have financial and technical capacity for road development. Radiating. technical institution to pool technical knowledge. research publications. standard specifications guide lines .64 Paise per litre of petrol were charged from consumers • Form this they got 20% of annual revenue to build up this roads • Balance 80% is allowed by central govt for various works based on actual consumption petrol • CRF are maintained by the accountant General of central revenue and control on the expenditure is exercise by the Roads wing of Ministry of Transport Indian Roads Congress • Central semi official body known as Indian Road Congress (IRC) was formed in 1934 • Pooling of experience and ideas on the all matters affecting the planning. development works and consultation. 1934 • Central Road Research Institute (CRRI). • Levy extra tax on petrol from road users to create the road development fund. Historical development of road construction  Early development  Roman roads  Tresaguet construction  Metcalf construction  Telford construction  Macadam construction  Further development Early development  Animal  Animal drawn vehicle  Necessity of providing a hard surface  First road authentic record Assyrian empire constructed by about 1900 B.F) was formed on 1st march 1929 • Extra 2. standardization and recommendations on materials. sharing of ideas and to act as an advisory body. 1956 • National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).

 Landslide control.D.  Ground improvements environmental pollution.km Bombay road plan .H)  State highways (S. Ministry of Road Transport & Highways • Planning. o Deteriorated roads should be maintained routinely on a short-term basis. • Evolves standard specifications for roads and bridges in the country. vehicle ownership and vehicle operation • This was revised on 1988 CRRI  engaged in carrying out research and development projects. construction and maintenance of roads and runways.H)  Major district roads (M.D.R) o The committee planned to construct 2 lakh’s Kms of road across the country within 20 years o They recommended the construction of star and grid pattern of roads throughout the country o A long-term plains desired for road development work to facilitate greater communication and mobility all over the country. development and maintenance of National Highways in the country. ordinances and regulations • 3 phases primarily covered are control of driver. o One of the objective was that the road length should be increased so as to give a road density of 16 kms per 100 sq. the government convened a conference of chief engineers of provinces at Nagpur in 1943 • The result of the conference is famous Highway Planning in India  First twenty year road development plan for India called it as Nagpur plan for the period of 1943-63  Second twenty year road development plan for India called it as Bombay plan for the period of 1961-81  Third twenty year road development plan for India called it as Lucknow plan for the period of 1981-2001 Nagpur Road Plan o The conference of chief engineer held at Nagpur in 1943 finalized the first twenty year road plan o The road network in the country classified into five categories  National highways (N. Nagpur Road Conference 1943 • The second World War saw a rapid growth in road traffic and this led to the deterioration in the condition of roads • To discuss about improving the condition of roads. • Serves as a repository of technical knowledge on roads and bridges.  design.Motor Vehicle Act • It was formed in 1939 • To regulate the road traffic in the form of traffic laws.R)  Other district roads (O.  Improvement of marginal materials.  Utilization of industrial waste in road construction.  Road traffic safety  Service life assessment and rehabilitation of highway & railway bridges. • Extends technical and financial support to State Governments for the development of state roads and the roads of inter-state connectivity and economic importance.R)  Village roads (V. traffic and transportation planning of mega and medium cities. management of roads in different terrains.

km  The construction of 1600 km of expressways was also then included in the plan. industrial and agricultural conditions in the country warranted a review of the Nagpur plan.  The length of roads envisaged under the Nagpur plan was achieved by the end of it. which is popularly known as the Bombay plan.  Length of railway track is considered independent of the road system and hence it is not subtracted to get the road length  The development factor of only 5 % is provided for future development and unforeseen factors .  They suggested that the length of the road should be increased so as to give a road density of 32kms/100 sq.  Accordingly a 20-year plan was drafted by the Roads wing of Government of India.  The changed economic. but the road system was deficient in many respects. It was the second 20 year road plan (1961-1981)  The total road length targeted to construct was about 10 lakhs.