The principle of virendeel girder is made use of in foundation design for residential buildings. There
was an article in ICJ published by Dr.Santhakumar and a PWD engineer that was used for Tamilnadu
Housing board. Also I read in book published by Eyghtian company in which the author used this
technic for a very very low B.C of soil making use of beam top and bottom with brick infill. As I am
out of India I can not furnish exact vol and the month can not furnish the details. As soon I come
back I will send the details.

Build the brickwall wpto basement leaving a gap for the columns for which 4-12mm bars are inserted in the pb. Reference can be made regarding this HANDBOOK OF CONCRETE ENGINEERING by Mark Fintel . This involves only the extra cost for the vertical as the brick wall and the plinth beam will be built normally. The vertical can be 9” width and the breadth shall be the size of the brickwall say 9”. . Raise the columns upto NGL. This system worked very economical one and saved a lot for an apartment building. 5. Now in this the bottom chord is the grade beam. The system is being used by me for a building for the ooty coroperation: The way in which it is adopted is: 1.N. Design the footings as independent one. 3. 4. the degree of expansiveness can be approximately determined. As already stated in the link that this system has been used for a building in ooty where the site is over a swampy and the soil is black cotton soil. Cast the Plinth beam resting over the NGL. 2. Depending upon value of the differential free swell index. I would like to have the Differential Free swell index of the soil rather than Free swell Index. Basic Data provided are as follows: Free swell index.(Note the composite action of brick and concrete) 6. 2. Column to column distance -20m Maximum column Reaction-70mt. Degree of expansiveness is low if DFS is less than 20.50 to 80% Liquid limit. The brick infill is built first over the grade beam and the concrete is filled later in order to get the composite action of brick and the concrete. then cast the top member of the system at basement level a beam. The system is to be used in the 20 m transverse direction also as it is better to tie the piles in x and y direction as the piles may be subject to BM and axial forces. Till to date no crack.S also posted an article from ICJ and others.40 to 70. the plinth beam is the top chord. While castings introduce 4-12mm di bars for a small column over the pb at a spacing not to exceed 10' or divide the span if the span is less than 20' between main columns. the verticals are over the grade beam. The brick infill will act as a compression chord. Also I informed that this technique was employed in Eyghpt and Dr. This small column becomes verticals.Then place the shuttering on bothsides of brick and pour the concrete grount for the vertical.

Nevertheless there are some empirical formulas available to calculate swelling pressure of the soil from the void ratio and plasticity index of the soil. In case of Indian black cotton soil it is usually observed that Kankar and murrum is found below black cotton soil.Viz: Ps=2. 2) Underreamed pile is not preferred because forming a bulb at such a deeper depth of around 9m is not easy.Now what we have to take care that surface water due to rain fall should not find its way to foundations of building. These data are available in Appendix –A of IS: 2911(part-3) Unfortunately no such details data are available for interpretation of Free Swell Index. Each layer of wedge shear element shall be 25cm thick . In this case Free swell index varies to 50% to 80% which indicates soil is certainly expansive but the degree of expansiveness cannot be ascertained. Degree of expansiveness is very high if DFS percent is greater than 50. Formation of proper bulb is doubtful.Degree of expansiveness is moderate if DFS percent varies from 20 to 35. 3) Hence go for Isolated footing/combined footing as per the load requirement. In that case removal of top expansive soil would have been the best solution. The Indian black cotton soils usually show a liquid limit varying from 40 to 100%. In other words column loads should counter the upward swelling pressure. In this case liquid limit varies from 40 to 70 percent. The flap of the reamer may not act properly at such a high depth. In the excavated pit.7-24(Ei/Pi) Ps=swelling pressure in kg/sqcm Ei=Initial void ratio. • The depth upto which this property continues ? Though the hard strata is at 10 m depth . Hence it can be considered that the soil has moderate to high degree of expansiveness. Low bearing capacity gives a large base area of footing which leads to higher upward pressure while the column load remains constant. My suggestions are as follows: 1) End bearing pile is not preferred considering the cost factor. Definitely it is a costly proposition. The swelling pressure helps in determining whether a particular column (lightly loaded) in the structure is getting uplifted by swelling pressure. The soil is considered to be problematic if the Free swell index is above might so happen that at a sallow depth say at 2. Therefore it is undesirable to guess a very low Safe Bearing Capacity of soil and design the foundation without proper study of soil parameters.the clay might have contained non-expansive characteristic.5m to 3 m. The good news is that water table is not encountered upto depth of 10m when the soil investigation is carried out in the month of June(Rainy season). Pi=plasticity Index in form of percentage. Now let us come back to the problem in hand. The Indian black cotton soils also have a degree of expansiveness from high to very high because of high percentage of montomorillonite which has surface electrical charge to attract water. • Measurement of swelling pressure as per IS: 2720 (part XLI) should have been carried out to determine whether the load in column is adequate to counter the upward soil pressure. provide three layers of WEDGE SHEAR ELEMENT. I would have preferred to have two more data before I hazard a suggestion regarding foundation. But the liquid limit comes to our rescue. Degree of expansiveness is high if DFS percent varies from 35 to 50.

cover the entire plot with good soil to a height of 500 mm (min). 4) Construct compound wall. 6) Replace the back cotton soil under the floor with non expansive soil with proper compaction.C. This overburden pressure shall add to Safe bearing capacity of soil. Rather entrapped water shall create problem at a later date. I was involved in construction of G+ 3 storied constructions to be used for residential purpose involving above method. The 5m is based on assumption that horizontal coefficient permeability of soil is 50% of vertical coefficient of permeability. 5) Provide concrete apron of 5m width all around the building to prevent percolation of surface water to under the floor the building.C. .comprising of 150mm to 200mm of basalt rock with sand and lime in proportion of 10:1. OF 1:4:8 ratios of 100 mm thick and cast your footing over it. Do not submerge the floor area with water for compaction of filled up soil. Submerged water does not help in compaction of soil under the floor. performance is reported to be good. Construction completed sometimes in 2001. This arrangement shall give safe bearing capacity of 20t/sqm. Over three layers of wedge shear elements provide P.