# Summary 126

Section 3.9-3.13: Analysis of a Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section
Section 3.1-3.8
The type of failure in a reinforced concrete flexural member is based on the amount of tension steel
used, A s .
Load factors for dead and live loads are U = 1.2D + 1.6L. Other values are given in the text.
The reduction strength factor for beams (ф) = 0.9 for tension controlled sections with є > 0.005.
An equivalent rectangular stress block can he assumed to calculate the design moment strength of
the beam section, фM n .
Design provisions are based on four conditions, Section 3.5

Given: f ' c , f y , b , d , and A s . Required: the design moment strength, фM n .
To determine the design moment strength of a singly reinforced concrete rectangular
section,
1. Calculate the compressive force, C = 0.85f'a b and the tensile force, T = A s f y . Calculate
a = A s f y / ( 0 . 8 5 f c b ) . Calculate фM n = фC ( d — a / 2) = ф( d — a / 2 ) =
фA s f y ( d — a / 2 ) . Check et = 0.003(dt — c ) / c ≥ 0.005 for ф= 0.9 (tension-controlled
section). (See Section 3.6.)
2. Calculate the balanced, maximum, and minimum steel ratios:
P b = 0.85в1 (f'c/fy)[87/(87 + f y ) p m a x = (0.003 +
f y / E s ) p b / 0.008 P m i n = 0 . 2 / f y for f ' c ≤ 4.5 ksi
(where f ' c and f y are in ksi. (See Section 3.9.2.) The steel ratio in the section is p = A s l b d .
Check that pmin ≤ p ≤ Pmax-
3. Another form of the design moment strength is
M n = pfy(bd 2 )( 1 - pfy/1.7f' c ) = Rnbd 2
R n = p f y [ 1 - (pfy/l.7/f'c)] and R u = фR n
4. For f y = 60 ksi and f ' c = 3 ksi (Table 3.2), p max = 0.01356, p m i n = 0.00333, R n = 686
psi, and R u = 615 psi.
For f y = 60 ksi and f c ’ = 4 ksi, pmax = 0.01806, Pmin = 0.00333, Rn = 911 psi, and R u =
820 psi.
Section 3.14: Analysis of Rectangular Section with Compression Steel
Given: b , d , d ' , A s , A', f ' c , and f y . Required: the deign moment strength, фM n .
1. Calculate p = A s / b d , p ' = A s / b d , and (p — p ' ) .
2. Calculate p b , pmax, and pmjn as given above (or see Section 3.10)
3. Calculate K = 0.85в1(f'cc/fy)(d'/d)[87/(87 - f y ) ] . ( f ’ c and f y are in ksi.)
4. When compression steel yields,
a. Check that p ≥ p m i n
b. Check that (p — p ' ) ≥ K for compression steel to yield. If not, then compression steel
does not yield.
c. If compression steel yields, then f ' s = f y .
d. Check that p ≤(pmax + p') or (p - p ' ) <≤pmax.
e. Calculate a = (A s — A's)f y / ( 0 . 8 5 f ' c b ) .
f. Calculate фMn= ф(A, - A' s )f y (d - a/1) + <t>A'J y {d - d').

f y .) .9. 4 > M n . Solve for c . Check that p w (steel ratio in web) = A s / b w d > pmin.315)b w j3id] 5.17: Analysis of T-Sections Given: f ' c . When compression steel does not yield. e. Two possible cases may develop.127 Chapter 3 Flexural Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams g.85.44 a ) .k. d. The value of f ' s is not known. (Normally this is o.85 ft fab A 2 = A’ s (M-0.9 for M u 2 (Eq.d ' ) / c \ . A s . Calculate c = the distance to the neutral axis from the compression fibers as follows: A1c 2 + A 2 c + A3 = 0. Required: design moment strength. b e .k. An alternative solution to calculate c is as follows: C + C = T C = 0. 3. Calculate ( p M n \ <t>M n = <p[(A s f y .?i/v/(0.As2 = A s . then ф < 0. 5. where A\ =0. first. a. 4.%5f c b) or a = fac f. Calculate a : a = (A s f y — A' s f s )/(Q. for this case. for this case.85//) < b t .&5f c )-A s f y A3 = -%lA ' s d'.&5f'b e ) < t Or. (Determine the effective flange width.A'J')(d .85 f t i P i c b .) ^jmax = 0. If A c > b t . (Normally. check that A c (the area of concrete in compression) = Av/y/(0. If a < t (the slab thickness). and section dimensions.6375 ( f c / f y ) [ t ( b — b w ) + (0. then a' = a and 4>Mn = <f>A s f y {d — a/2).A ' s ) C ' = A'. 2.smax from Eq. 3. b.a/2) + A'j'(d ./^) Sections 3.0.A' s f y ) = A s \ = A s . If a' < t or A c < bt.71. Calculate f ' s = 87 (c — d ' ) / c < f y i v a ksi). Check that A s < A. Also.9 for M u 1 and ф = 0.85 f ' c A ' s and T = AJy Solve for c . this is o. a = A.005 for < j > = 0. c.) Case 1 1.15-3.[87(c . If (p — p') > pmax but < Pmaxt (for the transition region). Compression steel does not yield when (p — p') < K. 3.(A'J'Jfy) and A s l f y = A' s f' s . then it is a T-section analysis. Check that p < [pmax + p'if'/fy)] or A s < \p m M (bd) + A' s (f'/f y )].d')] Note that (A s f y . a' = A s f y /(0. then it is a T-section shape but acts as a singly reinforced rectangular section using b = b e (the flange effective width) to calculate < j ) M n . Check that s t > 0.

L. McHenry. Analysis of nonuniform sections is explained in Example 3. where t = slab thickness Case 2 1. 2005. London.” ACI Code 318-08.t / 2 ) ] = ф [0. When a > t o r A c > b t . M i n i m u m D e s i g n L o a d s f o r B u i l d i n g s a n d O t h e r S t r u c t u r e s . A C I J o u r n a l 57 (March 1961): 1049-54. B. A. Center to center of adjacent slabs c. N. Janney.18-3.13. and E. E. Reinforced Concrete. 7. 6. Asw = tension steel in the web = A s — Asf a = (A s . “Rectangular Concrete Stress Distribution in Ultimate Strength Design. “Ultimate Strength of Nonrectangular Structural Concrete Members. Kriz. Hanson. “Ultimate Flexural Strength of Prestressed and Conven- tionally Reinforced Concrete BeamsA C I J o u r n a l (February 1956): 601-20. — 3. R. Kriz.) Sections 3.12). Franco Levi.85f'ct(b b w ) = A s f f y .9. Hognestad. H. UNESCO. A. “Ultimate-Load Design of Reinforced Concrete. and D. Cement and Concrete Association.References 128 6.a/2) + C f ( d . 9. London. W.85f'b w ) C w (web) = 0. For the flange. M. 8. Check that et > 0. 4. Mattock and L. and D. American Society of Civil Engineering.a/2) + A s f f y (d -t/2)] - 5. 3. J. B. calculate ASf = Cf/f y . “Work of European Concrete Committee”. фM n = ф[ M w ( web) + Mf(flange)] = ф[ C w ( d . 6. (See Example 3. Hassoun.85f'cab w (d .21 1.85 f'ab w = A s w f y 4. “Concrete Distribution in Ultimate Strength Design.a/2 ) + 0. “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. Hognestad. it is a T-section analysis. H. 2008. Span/4 b. 2. Tables in Appendix A may be used for the analysis of rectangular sections. American Concrete Institute.85 f' c t(b b w )(d . ASCE 7-05. 3. (See case 1. American Concrete Institute. The effective flange width b = b e is the smallest of a.” A C I J o u r n a l (February 1961): 875-929. E. Detroit.” Vi e w P o i n t P u b l i c a t i o n . 2nd ed. N. Check that Asmin ≤ A s ≤ Aimax.t/2) ] -- =ф[(As A s f )f y (d. An International Manual. McHenry. ( b w + 16t ) . 2.005 for tension-controlled section and ф= 0. Hognestad.” A C I J o u r n a l 52 (December 1955): 455-79. Mattock. Cf = 0. For the web.A s f )f y /0. REFERENCES 1. . 1981. Examples in SI units are introduced. 1971.” A C I J o u r n a l 57 (January 1961): 737-66. Butterworth. 5. 2.

9) (2 no. 10) (2 no.5 3.0 12.8 590. 10) (2 no.5 10. 10) f 16 20.7 (8 no.2 464.5 5.5 4.5 7. (Answers are given in the right column.4 mm. 10) c 13 22 7. (in.0 6. 9) g 17.2 (7 no.2) (K-ft) a 14 22. 7) d 10 21.0 12 (4 no.) (in. and d' = 2.2 = 645 mm2. 10) (4 no.) b d <t>Mn No. 1 ksi = 6.5 8.5 7. 3.5 10 (3 no.3 (12 no.5 4.2 Rectangular section with compression steel.7 (4 no. 9) (6 no. 7) e 14 20.9 MPa (N/mm2).5 3.35 16 600 (5 no. 9) h 18 20.00 1.5 in. (in. 1 in. 9) (3 no.08 2. f' = f y) b d 4>Mn No.16 230.) As (in.) (in. knowing that /'4 ksi. 1 in.0 2. 10) f 14 26.2 (4 no. Determine the design moment strength of the sections given in the following table. and 1 Mu (K-ft) = For problems 1. 10) c 23.5 6.00 370.0 716.00 (4 no.0 4. 9) h 31.3 (5 no.5 5. 9) 535. 10) For problems in SI units: 1 in.1 Singly reinforced rectangular sections. 9) (4 no. = 25. fy = 60 ksi.54 950 (8 no. . In the first four problems.0 820. ) a 15 22.0 692.08 813.08 1.00 525.5 9. Determine the design moment strength of the sections given in i the following table. = 25.1 18 (6 no.4 mm.) As (in.5 5.5 10.00 200.2 (8 no. 9) b 17 24. 10) b 28.54 597. knowing that f ' = 4 ksi and f y = 60 ksi. and 1 M„(K-ft) = 1. 9) d 18. 10) (2 no.9 (6 no.08 441. (Answers are given in the right column.356 kN-m.1 12 (4 no. 1 ksi = 6.2) (K-ft) 2 Agfin.3 (9 no.2 = 645 mm2.9 MPa (N/mm2).2 20 in SI units. 8) e 24. 1 in. 9) g 20 18.129 Chapter 3 Flexural Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams PROBLEMS 3.62 2.16 5.356 kN-m.62 849.

Load factors for dead and live loads are U = 1.005. The type of failure in a reinforced concrete flexural member is based on the amount of tension steel used. 5. An equivalent rectangular stress block can he assumed to calculate the design moment strength of the beam section. Design provisions are based on four conditions. 2. 3.9 for tension controlled sections with є > 0.References 130 Section 3.5 . Section 3.2D + 1. Other values are given in the text. 4.1-3.8 1. фM n . A s . The reduction strength factor for beams (ф) = 0.6L.