1- Introduction

2- Crack Types.

3- Cracked rotor behavior during start/up and coast down

4- Mode shapes and its effects on cracked Rotor

5- Vibration Response due to Cracked Rotor

6- Vibration amplitude and stiffness variation du to cracked Rotor

2.Crack Type. . 1. only the breathing crack will be covered here allowing that the symptoms of shaft asymmetry may result from a cracked rotor.Introduction Recent interest in the problem of cracked rotors arises from safety and economic considerations the cost of replacement of large turbogenerator rotors versus loss of personnel and production from a wreek. Theoretical studies have been conducted on the breathing crack where the crack area opens and close as a result of bending due to rotor weight as the shaft rotates. A permanently open crack exhibits the characteristics of shaft asymmetry . therefore.

it may help to determine the location.e. The critical speed of the once-per-revolution vibrations will be lowered due to the crack. i. Therefore.per-revolution excitation "half critical speeds" can be obtained (Figure 22) for both the first and second critical speeds. However. a decrease in vibration with an apparent increase in mass unbalance.both independent of mass unbalance. Vibration amplitudes will be largest when the shaft is cracked at a position where the mode shape has the largest curvature. 4.. the second twice-per- revolution critical speed will completely disappear because the second mode (Figure 23) shows no curvature at the shaft center.Cracked rotor behavior during start/up and coast down Grabowski has shown that excitation resulting from a "breathing" cracked rotor causes once and twice per revolution vibrations . . Due to the twice. Therefore. the effects of the cracked rotor can combine with mass unbalance response to make the vibration greater or less than prior to crack initiation. the vibration response due to a cracked rotor will depend on the depth of the crack and its location on the shaft.Mode shapes and its effects on cracked Rotor If a symmetrical rotor has a crack in its center. 3. Simple changes in mass unbalance location will also aid in the diagnosis of the cracked rotor. the vibration will be dependent on the location of the crack position relative to the mass unbalance whereas a gaping crack causes exclusively twice per revolution vibrations. By knowing the mode shapes.

5. If the vibrations are oppositely phased. then the crack will reduce the vibration as shown at the left bearing. When the once-per-revolution vibrations due to mass unbalance and cracked shaft have the same phase relationship. they add as shown by the right bearing (Figure 24). The crack was assumed to be located near the rotor center. .p r e s s u r e turbine was calculated by Grabowski f o r varied crack depth.Vibration Response due to Cracked Rotor The vibration response of a low.

the system response is obtained in the form of steady state amplitude data at each operational speed. In the case of transient analysis. 6. (7a) and (7b)). the dynamic response can be obtained using time marching techniques. In this study Runge-Kutta method was employed to numerically solve equations of motion (Eq. In most rotor dynamic analysis. .Vibration amplitude and stiffness variation du to cracked Rotor The presence of a crack on the shaft results in the stiffhess variation as a function of time. The nonlinear responses of rotor passing through the critical speed with several values of constant angular acceleration ratios.