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NZS 3101-2006

Shear Wall

Design Manual

NZS 3101-2006

For ETABS® 2016

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1 Wall Pier Shear Design 2-1 i .5 Shear Wall Design Overwrites 1-13 1.5 Combinations that Include a Response Spectrum 1-10 1.3 Wind Load Component 1-9 1.6 Choice of Units 1-13 2 Pier Design 2.1 Dead Load Component 1-9 1.3.2 Live Load Component 1-9 1.6 Combinations that Include Time History Results 1-11 1.3.3.4 Earthquake Load Component 1-10 1.3.3 Default Design Load Combinations 1-8 1.3.3.7 Combinations that Include Static Nonlinear Results 1-12 1.2 Design Station Locations 1-8 1. Contents Shear Wall Design 1 Introduction 1.4 Shear Wall Design Preferences 1-12 1.3.1 Notation 1-2 1.

1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity 2-2 2.3 Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-8 2.1 Designing a Simplified Pier Section 2-8 2.1 Details of Check for Boundary Element Requirements 2-5 2.2 Wall Pier Boundary Elements 2-5 2.Shear Wall Design Manual NZS 3101-2006 2.2.3.2 Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing 3-2 3.2 Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing 3-12 Appendix A Supported Design Codes Appendix B Shear Wall Design Preferences Appendix C Design Procedure Overwrites Appendix D Analysis Section and Design Sections Bibliography ii .3 Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio 2-23 2.1.3.2.1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity 3-11 3.1 Spandrel Flexural Design 3-1 3.1.1 Determine the Maximum Factored Moments 3-2 3.2 Spandrel Shear Design 3-10 3.4 Designing a General Reinforcing Pier Section 2-24 3 Spandrel Design 3.3.2.2 Transverse Reinforcement for Boundary Elements 2-7 2.2.1.3.2 Determine the Require Shear Reinforcing 2-3 2.2 Checking a General or Uniform Reinforcing Pier Section 2-14 2.1.

Chapter 1 Introduction This manual describes the details of the shear wall design and stress check al- gorithms used by the program when the user selects the NZS 3101-2006 design code. or analysis procedures in accordance with NZS 3101-2006 requirements: Design and check of concrete wall piers for flexural and axial loads (Chapter 2) Design of concrete wall piers for shear (Chapter 2) Design of concrete shear wall spandrels for flexure (Chapter 3) Design of concrete wall spandrels for shear (Chapter 3) Consideration of the confinement reinforcement requirements for concrete wall piers using an approach based on the requirements of Section 11.1.4. The design is based on loading combinations specified by the user (Section 1. check. The program performs the following design.2). the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. The various notations used in this manual are described in Section 1. To facilitate the design process.6 in NZS 3101-2006 (Chapter 3) 1-1 .

1 Notation Following is the notation used in this manual. mm2 Asf The required area of tension reinforcing steel for balancing the concrete compression force in the extruding portion of the concrete flange of a T-beam. mm2 / mm Avd Area of diagonal shear reinforcement in a coupling beam. Section Designer pier section design. mm2 Asc Area of reinforcing steel required for compression in a pier edge member. mm2 Ast-max Maximum area of tension reinforcing steel in a wall pier edge member. mm2 Av-min Minimum required area of distributed vertical reinforcing steel required for shear in a wall spandrel. mm2 Ag Gross area of concrete. mm2 Av Area of reinforcing steel required for shear. Section Designer pier section check. or the required area of tension steel required to balance the compression steel force in a wall spandrel. mm2 Ah-min Minimum required area of distributed horizontal reinforcing steel required for shear in a wall spandrel. and Spandrel design (Chapter 4). mm2 Asc-max Maximum area of compression reinforcing steel in a wall pier edge member. 1.Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006 The program provides detailed output data for Simplified pier section design. Acv Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. mm2 Ast Area of reinforcing steel required for tension in a pier edge member. mm2 / mm 1-2 Notation . mm2 / mm As Area of tension reinforcing steel.

. B2. mm Lw Horizontal length of wall pier. mm2 B1. MPa IP-max The maximum ratio of reinforcing considered in the design of a pier with a Section Designer section. mm2 A's Area of compression reinforcing steel in a spandrel. Length of a concrete edge member in a wall with uniform thickness. pounds Cw Concrete compression force in the web of a T-beam. unitless LBZ Horizontal length of the boundary zone at each end of a wall pier. This can be different on the left and right sides of the pier. pounds D/C Demand/Capacity ratio as measured on an interaction curve for a wall pier. DB2 Width of a user-defined wall pier edge member.. mm Cc Concrete compression force in a wall pier or spandrel. This can be different on the left and right sides of the pier. mm. and it also can be different at the top and the bottom of the pier. and it also can be different at the top and the bottom of the pier. mm. This can be different at the top and the bottom of the pier Notation 1-3 . Es Modulus of elasticity of reinforcing steel. or for balancing the concrete compression force in the concrete web of a T-beam. mm. unitless DB1 Length of a user-defined wall pier edge member. Chapter 1 Introduction Asw The required area of tension reinforcing steel for balancing the concrete compression force in a rectangular concrete beam. pounds Cs Compression force in wall pier or spandrel reinforcing steel. unitless IP-min The minimum ratio of reinforcing considered in the design of a pier with a Section Designer section. pounds Cf Concrete compression force in the extruding portion of a T- beam flange.

the factored bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple be- tween the compression steel and the tension steel. Newton-mm M*c In a wall spandrel with compression reinforcing. mm LL Live load Mn Nominal bending strength. Newton Nleft Equivalent axial force in the left edge member of a wall pier used for design. the factored bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression in the web and the tension steel. pounds. This may be different at the top and the bottom of the wall pier. Nmax Limit on the maximum compressive design strength specified by NZS 3101-2006.Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006 Ls Horizontal length of wall spandrel. the factored bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression in the extruding portion of the flange and the tension steel. the factored bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple be- tween the concrete in compression and the tension steel. Newton-mm M*w In a wall spandrel with a T-beam section and compression re- inforcing. New- ton-mm M*s In a wall spandrel with compression reinforcing. Newton-mm M* Factored bending moment at a design section. Newton-mm OC On a wall pier interaction curve the "distance" from the origin to the capacity associated with the point considered OL On a wall pier interaction curve the "distance" from the origin to the point considered Nb The axial force in a wall pier at a balanced strain condition. Newton 1-4 Notation . New- ton-mm M*f In a wall spandrel with a T-beam section and compression re- inforcing.

Nn Nominal axial strength. This reduction factor applies to light-weight concrete. unitless. Newton Nright Equivalent axial force in the right edge member of a wall pier used for design. pounds. RLL Reduced live load Ts Tension force in wall pier reinforcing steel. Newton NCmax Maximum ratio of compression steel in an edge member of a wall pier.0. Newton Not The maximum tension force a wall pier can carry with strength reduction factors set equal to one. Chapter 1 Introduction Nmax Factor Factor used to reduce the allowable maximum compressive design strength. This factor can be revised in the preferences. Newton N0 Nominal axial load strength of a wall pier. Newton V* Factored shear force at a design section. unitless NTmax Maximum ratio of tension steel in an edge member of a wall pier. NZS 3101-2006 specifies this factor to be 1. N* Factored axial force at a design section. unitless RLW Shear strength reduction factor as specified in the concrete material properties. Newton Noc The maximum compression force a wall pier can carry with strength reduction factors set equal to one. Newton WL Wind load Notation 1-5 . This may be different at the top and the bottom of the wall pier. Newton Vc The portion of the shear force carried by the concrete. unitless. Newton Vs The portion of the shear force in a spandrel carried by the shear reinforcing steel. Newton Vn Nominal shear strength. It is equal to 1 for normal weight con- crete.

Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006 a Depth of the wall pier or spandrel compression block. 1-6 Notation . hs Height of a wall spandrel. mm a1 Depth of the compression block in the web of a T-beam. fys Yield strength of steel reinforcing. dspandrel Depth of the spandrel beam minus the cover to the centroid of reinforcing. f 'c Concrete compressive strength. This can be different on the left and right ends of the beam. mm. c Distance from the extreme compression fiber of the wall pier or spandrel to the neutral axis. mm. Newton per square mm. mm. This value is used for shear design calculations. mm dr-bot Distance from the bottom of the spandrel beam to the centroid of the bottom reinforcing steel. Newton per square mm. mm fy Yield strength of steel reinforcing. unitless. pmax Maximum ratio of reinforcing steel in a wall pier with a Sec- tion Designer section that is designed (not checked). This can be different on the left and right ends of the spandrel. This can be different on the left and right ends of the beam. This can be different on the left and right ends of the T-beam. mm. Newton per square mm. This value is used for shear design calculations. mm bs Width of the compression flange in a T-beam. mm. Newton per square mm. dr-top Distance from the top of the spandrel beam to the centroid of the top reinforcing steel. f 'cs Concrete compressive strength. This can be different on the left and right ends of the T-beam. ds Depth of the compression flange in a T-beam. This value is used for flexural and axial design calculations. This value is used for flexural and axial design calculations. Newton per square mm. f 's Stress in compression steel of a wall spandrel.

unitless φb Strength reduction factor for bending. unitless. φc Strength reduction factor for bending plus high axial compres- sion in a concrete pier. The default value is 0. The default value is 0.6. α The angle between the diagonal reinforcing and the longitudi- nal axis of a coupling beam γ Unitless factor defined in Section 10. unitless.75. mm. The default value is 0. mm. Notation 1-7 .6. Chapter 1 Introduction pmin Minimum ratio of reinforcing steel in a wall pier with a Sec- tion Designer section that is designed (not checked). This can be different at the top and bottom of the pier. Newton per square mm. ts Thickness of a wall spandrel.85. ΣDL The sum of all dead load cases. tw Thickness of a wall pier. The default value is 0. ΣLL The sum of all live load cases. unitless. unitless ε's Compression steel strain in a wall spandrel. ΣRLL The sum of all reduced live load cases.85.2 of NZS 3101-2006 ε Reinforcing steel strain. This can be different on the left and right ends of the spandrel. σs Reinforcing steel stress in a wall pier. φvs Strength reduction factor for shear in a seismic pier or span- drel. unitless. unitless φ Strength reduction factor. unitless. φvns Strength reduction factor for shear in a nonseismic pier or spandrel. unitless εs Reinforcing steel strain in a wall pier.

6ΣLL + 0. 1.0WL Eqn.9ΣDL + 1.0ΣDL − 1.2 Design Station Locations The program designs wall piers at stations located at the top and bottom of the pier only.2ΣDL + 0.4ΣRLL + 1. 1.35ΣDL Eqn.Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006 1. break the pier into two separate "half-height" piers.0WL Eqn.5(ΣLL + ΣRLL) Eqn. To design at the mid-length of a spandrel.0ΣDL + 0.0ΣDL + 0. Note that if you break a spandrel into pieces.0E Eqn.0E Eqn.6ΣLL + 0. if you break a spandrel into pieces.0WL Eqn.4ΣRLL − 1.0- 02. 3 1. 5 0. 4. The program designs wall spandrels at stations located at the left and right ends of the spandrel only. 6 1. the program will calculate the seismic diagonal shear reinforcing sepa- rately for each piece. 2 1. 4 0.6ΣLL + 0.2.3 Default Design Load Combinations The design load combinations automatically created by the program for con- crete shear wall design are given by Equations 1 through 10 (AS/NZS 1170. To design at the mid-height of a pier.0E Eqn. The angle used to calculate the seismic diagonal shear re- inforcing for each piece is based on the length of the piece. 8 1.0ΣDL + 1.2(a) to (f)).2ΣDL + 0. 9 1. This can cause the required area of diagonal reinforcing to be significantly underestimated.3ΣRLL + 1.3ΣRLL − 1.6ΣLL + 0. Thus.9ΣDL − 1.2ΣDL + 1. 7 1. 1 1.0WL Eqn. break the span- drel into two separate "half-length" piers. cal- culate the seismic diagonal shear reinforcing separately by hand. not the length of the entire spandrel.0E Eqn. 10 1-8 Design Station Locations .

WL = Any single wind load (WL) load case defined for the model. 1.3. See the description of the earthquake load component later in this chapter for additional information.3 Wind Load Component The wind load component of the default design load combinations consists of the contribution from a single wind load case. Default Design Load Combinations 1-9 . E = Any single earthquake load (E) load case defined for the model. each of Equations 3 through 6 will contrib- ute multiple design load combinations. 1. Individual live load cases are not considered separately in the default design load combinations. Individual dead load cases are not considered separately in the default design load combina- tions. ΣLL = The sum of all live load (LL) load cases defined for the model. ΣRLL = The sum of all reducible live load (RLL) load cases defined for the model.1 Dead Load Component The dead load component of the default design load combinations consists of the sum of all dead loads multiplied by the specified factor. one for each wind load case that is de- fined. Note that this includes roof live loads as well as floor live loads.2 Live Load Component The live load component of the default design load combinations consists of the sum of all live loads. if multiple wind load cases are defined in the program model. both reducible and nonreducible. Thus. 1.3. ΣDL = The sum of all dead load (DL) load cases defined for the model. multiplied by the specified factor.3. Chapter 1 Introduction In Equations 1 through 10.

Similarly. when checking moment in a wall spandrel.4 Earthquake Load Component The earthquake load component of the default design load combinations con- sists of the contribution from a single earthquake load case. When checking the flexur- al behavior of a two-dimensional wall pier or spandrel. the response spectrum contribution of shear to the design load combination is considered once as a positive shear and then a second time as a negative shear.3. if multiple earthquake load cases are defined in the program model. one for each earthquake load case that is defined. Thus. four possible combina- tions are considered for the contribution of response spectrum load to the de- sign load combination. The output from a response spectrum is all positive. The earthquake load cases considered when creating the default design load combinations include all static load cases that are defined as earthquake loads and all response spectrum cases. Default design load combinations are not cre- ated for time history cases or for static nonlinear cases. They are: +N and +M +N and −M −N and +M −N and −M 1-10 Default Design Load Combinations . each of Equations 7 through 10 will contribute multiple design load combinations. Default design load combinations are created that include the response spectrum cases.3. 1. when checking shear in a wall pier or a wall spandrel.Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006 1.5 Combinations That Include a Response Spectrum In the program all response spectrum cases are assumed to be earthquake load cases. the response spectrum contribution of moment to the design load combination is considered once as a positive mo- ment and then a second time as a negative moment. Thus. Any program shear wall design load combination that includes a response spectrum load case is checked for all possible combinations of signs on the response spectrum values.

the design can be for the envelope of those results or for each step of the time history. Thus. Equations 9 and 10 are redundant for a load combination with a response spectrum. For this reason. When a design load combination includes time history results. Note that based on the preceding. it may be uncon- servative. When the program gets the envelope results for a time history.3. moment. any load combination that includes a time history load case in it is checked for all possible combinations of maximum and minimum time history design values. For a design load combination in the program shear wall design module. shear and moment. for wall piers it gets maximum and minimum values of axial load. Designing for each step of a time history gives the correct corre- spondence between different response quantities. but designing for each step can be very time consuming. the design is for the maximum of each response quantity (axial load. Default design load combinations using Equations 8 and 10 are not created for response spectra. and for wall spandrels. Typically. when Default Design Load Combinations 1-11 .6 Combinations that Include Time History Results The default shear wall design load combinations do not include any time histo- ry results. Chapter 1 Introduction where N is the axial load in the pier and M is the moment in the pier. When envelopes are used. when checking shear in a wall pier or a wall spandrel. To include time history forces in a design load combination. M2 and M3 are considered for three- dimensional wall piers. the program creates default design load combinations based only on Equations 7 and 9 for response spectra. and in some instances. Equations 7 and 8 are redundant for a load combination with a response spectrum. it gets maximum and minimum values of shear and moment. Similarly. the time history contribution of shear to the design load combination is considered once as a maximum shear and then a second time as a minimum shear. define the load combination yourself. eight possible combinations of N. and the like) as if they occurred simultaneously. Thus. this is not the realistic case. it gets a maxi- mum and a minimum value for each response quantity. 1. and similarly. The type of time history design can be specified in the shear wall design prefer- ences (Appendix B). Similarly.

They are: Nmax and Mmax Nmax and Mmin Nmin and Mmax Nmin and Mmin where N is the axial load in the pier and M is the moment in the pier. the design is performed for each step of the static nonlinear analysis. Thus. However. 1. define the load combination yourself. at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable. If a design load combination includes a single static nonlinear case and nothing else. Oth- erwise.7 Combinations that Include Static Nonlinear Results The default shear wall design load combinations do not include any static non- linear results. four possible combinations are considered for the contribu- tion of time history load to the design load combination. that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histo- ries. When checking the flexural behav- ior of a wall pier.3.Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006 checking moment in a wall spandrel. the design is only performed for the last step of the static nonlinear analysis. Default values are provided for all shear wall design prefer- ence items. regardless of what is specified for the Time History Design item in the preferences. it is not required that preferences be specified. 1. Appendix B identifies shear wall design preferences for NZS 3101-2006.4 Shear Wall Design Preferences The shear wall design preferences are basic properties that apply to all wall pier and spandrel elements. To include static nonlinear results in a design load combination. 1-12 Shear Wall Design Preferences . If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it. the time history contribution of moment to the design load combination is considered once as a maximum moment and then a second time as a minimum moment.

The special units specified for concentrated and distributed areas of reinforcing can only be changed in the shear wall design preferences. cm2. Also. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. it is not necessary to specify or change any of the overwrites. all equations and descriptions presented in this manual correspond to Newton-mm-second units unless otherwise noted. Typically.6 Choice of Units For shear wall design in this program. The overwrites for piers and spandrels are separate. cm2/m. Thus. Appendix C identifies the shear wall overwrites for NZS 3101-2006. If the current length Shear Wall Design Overwrites 1-13 . General Reinforcing. However. mm2/m. The NZS 3101-2006 code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. These units are then used for reinforcing in the model. The current units option uses whatever units are currently displayed in the drop-down list on the status bar (or within a specific form). Default values are provided for all pier and spandrel overwrite items. The choices available for the units associated with an area per unit length of distributed reinforcing are in2/ft. and current units. The shear wall design preferences allow the user to specify special units for concentrated and distributed areas of reinforcing. or Simplified T and C). that is. regardless of the current model units displayed in the drop-down list on the status bar (or within a specific form). The choices available in the shear wall design preferences for the units associ- ated with an area of concentrated reinforcing are in2. Chapter 1 Introduction 1. design codes are based on one specific set of units. mm2. any set of consistent units can be used for input. the system of units being used can be changed at any time.5 Shear Wall Design Overwrites The shear wall design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those piers or spandrels to which they are assigned. When changes are made to overwrite items. Note that the available overwrites change depending on the pier section type (Uniform Reinforcing. 1. For simplicity. at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. and current units.

Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006 units are m. For example. areas of distributed reinforcing are specified in Length2/Length units. If you are in Newton and mm. Note that when using the "cur- rent" option. this option means concentrated areas of reinforcing are in m2 and distributed areas of reinforcing are in m2/mm. if you are working in kN and m units. the area of distributed reinforcing is specified in m2/m. where Length is the currently active length unit. the area of distributed reinforcing is spec- ified in mm2/mm. 1-14 Choice of Units .

The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a particular wall pier section for a particular design loading combination. Determine the factored forces N*. 2-1 . Note that in this program you cannot specify shear reinforcing and then have the program check it. The program only de- signs the pier for shear and reports how much shear reinforcing is required. 1. Then we describe how the program designs piers that are specified by a Section Designer Section. Chapter 2 Pier Design This chapter describes how the program designs each leg of concrete wall piers for shear using NZS 3101-2006. First we describe how the program designs piers that are specified by a Simplified Section. This chapter also describes how the program designs and checks concrete wall piers for flexural and axial loads using NZS 3101-2006.1 Wall Pier Shear Design The wall pier shear reinforcing is designed for each of the design load combi- nations. M* and V* that are acting on the wall pier section. Next we describe how the program checks piers that are specified by a Section Designer Section. 2. Note that N*and M* are required for the calculation of V*. The shear design is performed at stations at the top and bottom of the pier.

3.1RLw f c' + 0.Shear Wall Design Manual NZS 3101-2006 2.5.3.2 Ag =Vc 0.3. where Acv = t*d.10. If the tension is large enough that Equation 11-14 results in negative number. NZS Eqn. The following two sections describe in de- tail the algorithms associated with the Steps 2 and 3.8Lw (NZS 11. M* Lw N* is negative for tension.5) vc is computed from NZS 11. Vc.2.1.3) 3. Determine the shear force. is calculated using NZS equations 11- 14 and 11-15 from NZS section 11. M* and V* acting on a wall pier section. Vc = vc*Acv (NZS 11. 2-2 Wall Pier Shear Design . that can be carried by the concrete. N* =Vc 0.8 Lw ) (NZS Eqn. Vc.8 Lw ) ' M * Lw − V* 2 (NZS Eqn. 11-14) 4 Ag N* Lw 0.2. 11-15 does not apply if * − is V 2 zero or negative. Step 1 needs no further explanation.3.10. Vc is set to zero. and d=0.5. Determine the required shear reinforcing to carry the balance of the shear force. 11-14 and 11-15.1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set N*.3.3.10.05 RLw f c + ( t *0.10.27 RLw f c' + ( t *0. 2. the shear force carried by the concrete. 11-15) where Vc shall be the lesser of that calculated from NZS Eqn.

horizontal reinforcement shall be computed from NZS 11. Chapter 2 Pier Design The term RLW that is used as a multiplier on all f c' terms in this chapter is a shear strength reduction factor that applies to light-weight concrete.3.1. It is equal to 1 for normal weight concrete. as given be- low (NZS Appendix D. Vc. nt ωo= 0. This factor is specified in the concrete material properties 2. V* − Vc Av = φ (NZS Eqn. φo .3.1 Seismic and Nonseismic Piers Design of shear reinforcement for walls shall satisfy the following require- ments.3. D4. CD-8) where Vo* = capacity design shear force in the plastic region in a wall in N.min = (NZS Eqn. shall be taken as not less than the corre- sponding shear forces found from an equivalent static analysis multiplied by an overstrength factor. ωv .1. When the total design shear force exceeds the concrete shear strength. and a dynamic magnification factor.2).2 Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing 2.9 + for buildings up to six stories (NZS Eqn. 11-16 and 11-18) s f yt ( 0. Vo* . . CD-9) 10 Wall Pier Shear Design 2-3 .10.10. Vo* = ωφoVE (NZS Eqn.8.2 f c′ or 8 MPa (NZS 11.8 L p ) 0.7t A v.3). 11-19) f yt Abs (V *) where vmax = must not exceed 0.3.2. φAcv Additional requirements for seismic piers The design shear force at any level above the critical section of the primary plastic region in a structural wall.

4. CD-10) 30 nt is the number of stories. Shear strength provided by the concrete in the end regions according to sec- tion (NZS 11.3).Shear Wall Design Manual NZS 3101-2006 nt ωo = 1.8 Lw ≥ 0 (NZS Eqn.3): 2-4 Wall Pier Shear Design .3 + ≤ 1.8 for buildings over six stories (NZS Eqn. the following additional requirements also are checked. λ = 0. or b) 1.27λ RLW f c′ + t * 0.6 the shear force found in an equivalent static analysis.50 for limited ductile plastic regions as defined in NZS Table 2.7. For walls subjected to tension.4. For shear design of seismic wall piers. and φo is the overstrength factor related to flexural actions at the critical section which is given as: Flexural overstrength at critialsection φo = Bending moment at critialsection from an equivalent static analysis (NZS Eqn. 11-28) 4 Ag where.4. the value of N* shall be taken as negative and the total nominal shear strength Vn shall not exceed the following (NZS 11. CD-11) The design shear force at any level below the critical section of the primary plastic region in the high rise wall shall be taken as the larger of: a) The calculated shear force when overstrength actions are applied to the critical section of the primary plastic hinge. N* = axial load. N* Vc = 0.25 for ductile plastic hinge. λ = 0.

The net area of the pier is the ar- ea bounded by the web thickness. Linear interpretation between these values may occur when the calculated cur- vature lies between the limits provided in NZS Table 2. and M* for the pier section. Note that the boundary element requirements are considered separately for each design load case that includes seismic load. This area of steel is calculated by the pro- gram or it is provided by the user.6. Acv. 11-29) where α = 3. Lw. fc′ and fy.4. and the net area of the pier. The material properties of the pier.4 for limited ductile plastic regions and ductile plastic regions. Chapter 2 Pier Design φ Vn ≤ ow + 0.2.1 Details of Check for Boundary Element Requirements The following information is available for the boundary element check: The design forces P*. the gross area of the pier. (Refer to Fig- ure 2-5 later in this chapter for an illustration of the dimensions Lw and t. The pro- gram uses an approach based on the requirements of Section 11. Wall Pier Boundary Elements 2-5 .0 for ductile plastic regions defined by NZS Table 2. 2.8 Lw ) t α (NZS Eqn.) The area of steel in the pier. 2. and the length of the pier.2 Wall Pier Boundary Elements This section describes how the program considers the boundary element re- quirements for each leg of concrete wall piers using NZS 3101-2006. α = 6. As.4. hw.5 of NZS 3101-2006.8 Lw ) t ≤ v max ( 0. t.15 RLw f c' ( 0. The height of the entire wall. Ag. V*. length of the wall pier.0 for limited ductile plastic regions.

Figure 2-1 Example Plan Views of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Wall Piers Using this information. These quantities are: Cc C φow When the neutral axis depth C in the potential yield regions of a wall.0 for limited ductile region = 2.0 for ductile plastic region φow = wall over strength factor is defined as 2-6 Wall Pier Boundary Elements . when determining if the pier is symmetrical.6. the program calculates three quantities that are used to determine the boundary zone requirements.e.4. is the left side of the pier is the same as the right side of the pier). 11-25) λ where Cc = the critical neutral axis depth λ = 1..5) a boundary zone is required.1φow Lw Cc ≥ (NZS Eqn. Note that a pier defined using Section Designer is assumed to be unsymmetrical. 0. not the reinforcing. exceeds Cc (NZS 11. comput- ed for the appropriate design forces for the ultimate limit state. Figure 2-1 shows some examples of symmetrical and unsymmetrical wall piers.Shear Wall Design Manual NZS 3101-2006 The symmetry of the wall pier (i. unless it is made up of a single rectangular shape. Only the geometry of the pier is considered.

7cc and c/2 . If boundary elements are required.2.4.4. Figure 2-2: Illustration of Boundary Zone Length.6. The code re- quires that LBZ shall not be less than c ' = c − 0. LBZ 2.07 (NZS Eqn.25 for ductile plastic region. the program calculates the minimum re- quired length of the boundary zone at each end of the wall.5(a)): Ag* f c' c Ash sh ³αh * " − 0. Figure 2-2 illus- trates the boundary zone length LBZ.2 Transverse Reinforcement for Boundary Elements Where special boundary elements are required by NZS Sections 11. LBZ.6.175 for limited ductile region. where both moments refer to the base section of wall.5(b) in NZS 3101-2006. the program computes and reports the total cross-sectional area of rectangular hoop reinforcement as follows (NZS 11.4.5. 11-26) Ac f yh Lw where h" = the dimension of concrete core of a rectangular section measured perpendicular to the direction of the hoop bars to the outside pe- ripheral hoop. Wall Pier Boundary Elements 2-7 .6. and α = 0. in accordance with the requirements of Section 11. Chapter 2 Pier Design φow = ratio of the moment of resistance at overstrength to moment resulting from specified earthquake actions. = 0.

1 Designing a Simplified Pier Section This section describes how the program designs a pier that is assigned a simpli- fied section. and can be specified differently at the top and bottom of the wall pier.3. thickness and size of the edge members at each end of the pier (if any). DB2 represents the horizontal width (or thickness) of the pier edge member. DB1 represents the horizontal length of the pier edge member. 2-8 Wall Pier Flexural Design . The thickness specified for left and right edge members (DB2left and DB2right) may be different from this wall thickness.3 Wall Pier Flexural Design For both designing and checking piers. Access the local axes assignments using the Assign menu. DB2 can be different at the left and right sides of the pier. The geometry associated with the simplified section is illustrated in Figure 2-3. which is subjected to compression.Shear Wall Design Manual NZS 3101-2006 Ac* = area of the concrete core extending over the outer c ' length of the neutral axis depth. The thickness of the wall pier is designated tw. The dimensions illustrated are specified in the shear wall overwrites (Appendix C). The pier geometry is defined by a length. it is important to understand the local axis definition for the pier. This is the horizontal length of the wall pier in plan. meas- ured to the center of the peripheral hoop legs. 2. which is subjected to compression. The dimensions shown in the figure include the following: The length of the wall pier is designated Lw. DB1 can be different at the left and right sides of the pier. 2. A simplified T and C pier section is always planar (not three-dimensional). Ag* = gross area of the concrete core extending over the outer c′ length of the neutral axis depth.

In all cases. This section describes how the program-determined length of the edge member is determined and how the program calculates the required rein- forcing at the center of the edge member. These condi- tions. Three design conditions are possible for a simplified wall pier. whether the edge member size is user-specified or program-determined. Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-9 . Chapter 2 Pier Design Figure 2-3: Typical Wall Pier Dimensions Used for Simplified Design If no specific edge member dimensions have been specified by the user. the program assumes that the edge member is the same width as the wall. illustrated in Figure 2-4. and the program determines the required length of the edge member. are as follows: The wall pier has program-determined (variable length and fixed width) edge members on each end. the program reports the required area of reinforcing steel at the center of the edge member.

Shear Wall Design Manual NZS 3101-2006 The wall pier has user-defined (fixed length and width) edge members on each end. say the top of the wall pier.3.1. The maximum ratios are specified in the shear wall design preferences and the pier design overwrites as Edge Design NC-Max and Edge Design NT-Max. Design Condition 1 Design Condition 2 Wall pier with uniform thickness and Wall pier with user-defined edge ETABS-determined (variable length) members edge members Design Condition 3 Note: Wall pier with a user-defined edge In all three conditions. reinforcing designed by ETABS is that determined (variable length) edge required at the center of the edge member on the other end members Figure 2-4: Design Conditions for Simplified Wall Piers 2. For a given design section. The wall pier has a program-determined (variable length and fixed width) edge member on one end and a user-defined (fixed length and width) edge member on the other end. while limiting the compression and tension reinforcing located at the center of the edge members to user-specified maximum ratios. the design algorithm focuses on determining the required size (length) of the edge mem- bers. Consider the wall pier shown in Figure 2-5. the only member on one end and an ETABS. 2-10 Wall Pier Flexural Design . For this design condition. the wall pier for a given design load combination is de- signed for a factored axial force N*-top and a factored moment M*-top.1 Design Condition 1 Design condition 1 applies to a wall pier with uniform design thickness and program-determined edge member length.

Chapter 2 Pier Design 0.5tp tp tp tp B1-left B1-right B2-left B2-right B3-left B3-right Lp CL Wall Pier Plan Pleft-top Pu-top Pright-top Mu-top Top of pier Right edge member Left edge member Bottom of pier Mu-bot Pleft-bot Pu-bot Pright-bot Wall Pier Elevation Figure 2-5: Wall Pier for Design Condition 1 Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-11 .5tp 0.5Lp 0.

= Abs ( N * ) ( N max Factor ) φ [α1 fc′( Ag − Ast ) + f y Ast ] where N is either Nleft-top or Nright-top. Initially B1-left = B1-right = tw. From the preceding equations: 2-12 Wall Pier Flexural Design .4.5B1-right ) For any given loading combination. is calculated as: N Ast = .5B1-right ) N *-top M *-top N= − right-top 2 ( Lw − 0.85 for Ordinary and Nominal walls (NZS 10.2) and 0. Note that for dynamic loads. the net values for Nleft-top and Nright-top could be tension or compression. (Similar equations apply at the bottom of the pier.4)). the area of steel required for ten- sion.) N *-top M *-top N= + left-top 2 ( Lw − 0.3. Ast. Ag = twB1 and the Nmax Factor is defined in the shear wall design preferences (the default is 0.4. the area of steel required for compression. Also for design loading combinations involving SRSS.7 for Ductile and Limited Ductile walls (NZS 10. In general. Asc. and an edge member at the right end of the wall of thickness tw and width B1-right. the Nleft-top and Nright-top forces are obtained first for each load case before the combinations are made. before combining with other loads. φb f ys If any value of Nleft-top or Nright-top is compression. If any value of Nleft-top or Nright-top is tension. must satisfy the following relationship. we recommend that you use the default value. for section adequacy. Nleft-top and Nright-top are obtained at the modal level and the modal combinations are made.5B1-left − 0. The moment and axial force are converted to an equivalent force set Nleft-top and Nright-top using the relationships shown in the following Equations.5B1-left − 0.Shear Wall Design Manual NZS 3101-2006 The program initiates the design procedure by assuming an edge member at the left end of the wall of thickness tw and width B1-left.

.e. Chapter 2 Pier Design Abs ( N ) − α1 f c′Ag ( N max Factor ) ϕ Asc = . For this design condition. right or both. no compression reinforcing is needed. f y − α1 f c′ If Asc calculates as negative. Wall piers that are declared overstressed using this algorithm could be found to be ade- quate if the reinforcing steel is user-specified and the wall pier is accurately evaluated using interaction diagrams. the program will proceed to check the next loading combination. The size of the edge members is assumed to be fixed. This design algorithm is an approximate but convenient algorithm. The maximum tensile reinforcing to be packed within the tw times B1 concrete edge member is limited by: Ast -max = NTmax tw B1 Similarly. 1.2 Design Condition 2 Design condition 2 applies to a wall pier with user-specified edge members at each end of the pier. If the value of the width of the edge member B increments to where it reaches a value larger than or equal to Lw /2.5tw) and calculate new values for Nleft-top and Nright-top resulting in new values of Ast and Asc. 2. This iterative procedure continues until Ast and Asc are within the allowed steel ratios for all design load combinations. that is. de- pending on which edge member is inadequate) by one-half of the wall thick- ness to B2 (i. otherwise the program will increment the appropriate B1 dimension (left.3. the program does not modify them. the iteration is terminated and a failure con- dition is reported. the design al- gorithm determines the area of steel required in the center edge members and checks if that area gives reinforcing ratios less than the user-specified maxi- Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-13 .1. the compression reinforcing is limited by: Asc -max = NCmax tw B1 If Ast is less than or equal to Ast-max and Asc is less than or equal to Asc-max.

no iteration is required. 2.Shear Wall Design Manual NZS 3101-2006 mum ratios. This section describes how the program generates the interaction surface for the pier and how it determines the demand/capacity ratio for a given design load combination.3. Note that the orientation of the neutral axis is the same for an angle of θ and θ+180°.2 Checking a General or Uniform Reinforcing Pier Section When a General Reinforcing or Uniform Reinforcing pier section is specified to be checked. The width of the variable length edge member is equal to the width of the wall. there is one curve every 15 degrees (360°/24 curves = 15°). The surface is developed using a series of interaction curves that are created by rotating the direction of the pier neutral axis in equally spaced increments around a 360-degree circle.1 Interaction Surface In this program.3.3 Design Condition 3 Design condition 3 applies to a wall pier with a user-specified (fixed dimen- sion) edge member at one end of the pier and a variable length (program- determined) edge member at the other end. 2.3. For example. 2. Figure 2-6 illustrates the assumed orientation of the pier neutral axis and the associated sides of the neutral axis where the section is in tension (designated T in the figure) or compression (designated C in the figure) for various angles. The design algorithm used is the same as described for condition 1. if 24 NMM curves are specified (the default). Iteration only occurs on the size of the variable length edge member.1. however. Only the side of the neutral axis where the section is in tension or 2-14 Wall Pier Flexural Design . the program creates an interaction surface for that pier and uses that interaction surface to determine the critical flexural demand/capacity ratio for the pier. Note: In this program. The design is similar to that which has previously been described for design conditions 1 and 2. M2 and M3 axes.2. a three-dimensional interaction surface is defined with refer- ence to the N. the interaction surface is defined by a series of NMM interac- tion curves that are equally spaced around a 360-degree circle. The size of the user-specified edge member is not changed.

the program will in- crement up to the next higher odd number. any odd number of points greater than or equal to 11 can be specified. Each NMM interaction curve that makes up the interaction surface is numeri- cally described by a series of discrete points connected by straight lines. We recommend that you use 24 interaction curves (or more) to define a three-dimensional interaction surface. 11 points are used to define a NMM interaction curve." By default. to be used in creating the interaction curve. Details of this process are de- scribed later in the section entitled "Details of the Strain Compatibility Analy- sis. If an even number is specified for this item in the preferences. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain about the neutral axis on the section of the pier. Chapter 2 Pier Design compression changes. T C Interaction curve is Interaction curve is for a neutral axis for a neutral axis parallel to this axis C parallel to this axis 3 3 T Pier section Pier section 2 2 45° a) Angle is 0 degrees b) Angle is 45 degrees Interaction curve is Interaction curve is for a neutral axis for a neutral axis parallel to this axis parallel to this axis 3 3 Pier section Pier section 2 2 C T 225° T a) Angle is 180 degrees b) Angle is 225 degrees C Figure 2-6: Orientation of the Pier Neutral Axis for Various Angles Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-15 . This number can be changed in the preferences.

The program uses the requirements of force equilibrium and strain compatibility to determine the nominal axial load and moment strength (Nn.4.6. is included in the generation of the interaction surface.75 φt = Torsion 0. to obtain the design strength (φNn. φ. 2. The strength reduction factor. is defined as given in the following table (NZS 2.2 Formulation of the Interaction Surface The formulation of the interaction surface in this program is based consistently on the basic principles of ultimate strength design given in Sections 7.Shear Wall Design Manual NZS 3101-2006 Note that when creating an interaction surface for a two-dimensional wall pier. M3*) ≤ (φNn.00 Note: Strength reduction factors are specified in the shear wall design preference (Ap- pendix B). φM3n) of the pier.2.7 of NZS 3101-2006. Fur- thermore. M3n) of the wall pier. as in- dicated in the following equation. M2n. φ.3.75 For actions derived from overstrength of elements (2. 2-16 Wall Pier Flexural Design . the required strength (N*. (N*. only moments about the M3 axis are considered for two-dimensional walls. φM2n. φM3n) The effect of the strength reduction factor.5) 1. the program considers only two interaction curvesthe 0° curve and the 180° curveregardless of the number of curves specified in the preferences. M2*.85 φs = Shear 0.2. You can revise the strength reduction factors in the preferences and the over- writes (Appendix C).2): Type of action effect Strength reduction fac- tor (φ) φb = Flexure with or without axial tension or compression 0. φM2n.3. M3*) must be less than or equal to the design strength.2. φ. M2*. For the pier to be deemed adequate.85 φc = Axial compression 0. This nominal strength is then multiplied by the appropriate strength reduction factor.

Nuo in the following equation.2). For unsymmetrical geometry or rein- forcing. Nuo = φ [α1 f c′( Ag − Ast ) + f y Ast ] where φ =0. Note: The number of points to be used in creating interaction diagrams can be speci- fied in the shear wall preferences and overwrites. The NZS 3101-2006 limits the maximum compressive design strength. by default. assuming the φb factor is equal to 1. When creating a single interaction curve.2. the moments associated with both Noc and Not are zero. as- suming the φc factor is equal to 1. is designated Noc and is given by the follow- ing equation: Noc = [α1 f c′ ( Ag − Ast ) + f y Ast ] The theoretical maximum tension force that the wall pier can carry. Figure 2-7 shows a plan view of an example two-dimensional wall pier.85 for axial compression without bending (NZS 2. the program includes the points at Nb. Half of the remaining number of specified points on the interaction curve occur between Nb and Noc at approximately equal spacing along the φNn axis. Noc and Not on the interaction curve. As previously mentioned. Figure 2-8 shows several interaction surfaces for the wall pier illus- trated in Figure 2-7. there will be moments associated with Noc and Not. 11 points are used to define a single in- teraction curve. The other half of the re- maining number of specified points on the interaction curve occur between Nb and Not at approximately equal spacing along the φNn axis. Notice that the concrete is symmetrical but the reinforcing is not symmetrical in this example.3. is designated Not and is given as: Not = fyAst If the wall pier geometry and reinforcing is symmetrical in plan. Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-17 . Chapter 2 Pier Design The theoretical maximum compressive force that the wall pier can carry.

80 per UBC97 Pot 1000 Figure 2-8 : Interaction Curves for Example Wall Pier Shown in Figure 2-7 Note the following about Figure 2-8: Because the pier is two-dimensional.0 Pmax Factor = 1. Only M3 mo- ments are considered because this is a two-dimensional example.. except 3" 12 spaces at 1'-0" = 12'-0" 3" as noted 1' f’c = 4 ksi 2-#9 2-#9 2-#6 fy = 60 ksi Figure 2-7: Example Two-Dimensional Wall Pier With Unsymmetrical Reinforcing -7000 Poc φPn φ = 0. One curve is at 0° and the other is at 180°.Shear Wall Design Manual NZS 3101-2006 # 5@12” o. 12'-6" each face.7 to 0.0 Pmax Factor = 1.9 per UBC97 φM3n Pmax Factor = 0.0 -6000 180° curves 0° curves -5000 -4000 Pb for 180° curve -3000 Pb for 0° curve φPb for 180° φPb for -2000 curve 0° curve -1000 -12000 -10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 0 φ = 0.7 to 0.c. 2-18 Wall Pier Flexural Design .9 per UBC97 φ = 1. the interaction surface consists of two interaction curves.

7 to φt = 0. The larger interaction surface has both the strength reduction factor and the Nmax Factor set to 1.9 per UBC97 Pmax Factor = 0. compression is negative and tension is positive. The smaller interaction surface (drawn with a heavier line) has the strength reduction factor. Chapter 2 Pier Design In this program. Figure 2-9 shows the 0° interaction curves for the wall pier illustrated in Figure 2-7.0.7 -4000 -3000 φ = from φc = 0. The 0° and 180° interaction curves are not symmetric because the wall pier reinforcing is not symmetric.0.80 per UBC97 -2000 -1000 -2000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 0 φM3n 1000 Figure 2-9: Interaction Curves for Example Wall Pier Shown in Figure 2-7 Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-19 . The interaction surfaces shown are created using the default value of 11 points for each interaction curve. -7000 φPn φ = 1. Additional interaction curves are also added to Figure 2-9. as specified by NZS 3101-2006.9 -5000 φ = 0. The dashed line shows the effect of setting the Nmax Factor to 1.0 -6000 φ = 0.

000 -0. the program uses the requirements of force equilibri- um and strain compatibility to determine the nominal axial load and moment strength (Nn. which are plotted for φ = 0. M3n) of the wall pier.0.0. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain on the section of the wall pier.3 Details of the Strain Compatibility Analysis As previously mentioned. M2n.Shear Wall Design Manual NZS 3101-2006 The smaller.9 and 1. 2.7 and 0. Varying neutral axis locations +ε 0.003 Varying Linear Strain Diagram -ε Plan View of Wall Pier Figure 2-10: Varying Planes of Linear Strain 2-20 Wall Pier Flexural Design . and that their values can be revised in the overwrites as required. Recall that the strength reduction factors 0. all have Nmax Factors of 1. Figure 2-10 illustrates varying planes of linear strain such as those that the pro- gram considers on a wall pier section for a neutral axis orientation angle of 0 degrees.3. heavier curve in Figure 2-9 has the strength reduction factor as specified in NZS 3101-2006. The other three curves.2.9 are actually φc and φb. 0.7. The purpose of showing these in- teraction curves is to explain how the program creates the interaction curve.

Nb is obtained.4. Chapter 2 Pier Design In these planes. (Recall that in this program compression is negative and tension is positive.2. the maximum compressive force in the wall pier. In the preceding equation. The force in the reinforcing steel (Ts for tension or Cs for compression) is cal- culated as given below: Ts or Cs = σsAs.003 to plus infinity. Similarly. it is tension. For the given distribution of strain. the maximum concrete strain is always taken as −0. it is compression. Noc.7c and NZS 7. When the maximum steel strain is equal to the yield strain for the reinforcing. the value of φNn is calculated as φNn = φ(ΣTs − Cc − ΣCs) ≤ Nmax. The value of φM2n is calculated by summing the moments due to all of the forces about the pier local 2 axis. Then the strain in all other reinforcing steel is determined based on the assumed plane of linear strain. Not. Figure 2-11 illustrates the concrete wall pier stress-strain relationship that is obtained from a strain compatibility analysis of a typical plane of linear strain shown in Figure 2-10. is obtained. is obtained from the strain compatibility analysis.4. the value of φM3n is calculated by summing the moments due to all of the forces about the pier local 3 axis.2.003 and the maximum steel strain is varied from −0. and if it is negative. In Figure 2-11 the compressive stress in the concrete.003. When the steel strain is plus infinity. is calculated using the following equation (NZS 7. If φNn is positive. σs is the stress. Next the stress in the reinforcing steel is calcu- lated as shown below.7d): Cc = α1f 'c(β1c)tw In Figure 2-10. the value for maximum strain in the reinforcing steel is as- sumed. and fy is the yield stress of the reinforcing steel. σs = εsEs ≤ fs.) When the steel strain is −0. The Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-21 . the maximum tensile force in the wall pier. Cc. Es is the modulus of elasticity. the tensile force Ts and the compressive forces Cc and Cs are all positive. where εs is the strain.

considering a different plane of linear strain. the next orientation of the neutral axis is assumed and the points for the associated new interaction curve are calculat- 2-22 Wall Pier Flexural Design . and repeating the process. that is. φCc. 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Cs Cs Cs Cs 0.Shear Wall Design Manual NZS 3101-2006 forces whose moments are summed to determine φM2n and φM3n are φNn. When one interaction curve is complete. all of the φTs forces and all of the φCs forces. Additional points on the diagram are obtained by making different assumptions for the maximum steel stress.85f'c Cc a = β1c Stress Diagram ε13s ε 12 s ε11s ε10 s ε9s ε8 c s ε7s ε6 5 s ε s ε = 0. φM2n and φM3n values calculated as described in the preceding para- graph make up one point on the wall pier interaction diagram.003 ε4s ε3 s ε2s ε1 s Linear Strain Diagram tp Plan View of Wall Pier Figure 2-11: Wall Pier Stress-Strain Relationship The φNn.

The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (ex- tended outward if needed) intersects the interaction curve. The de- mand/capacity ratio. which shows a typical two-dimensional wall pier interac- tion diagram. 2. The forces obtained from a given design load combination are N* and M3*. Chapter 2 Pier Design ed. If the point lies outside of the interaction curve. is given by D/C = OL / OC where OL is the "dis- tance" from point O (the origin) to point L. M3*). the point (N*.3. The point L. φPn C Pu L Axial Compression Axial O M3u φM3n Tension Figure 2-12: Two-Dimensional Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition in the wall pier. D/C. is placed on the interaction dia- gram.3 Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio Refer to Figure 2-12. as shown in the figure. Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-23 . Note the following about the demand/capacity ratio: If OL = OC (or D/C = 1). the program calculates a stress ratio. defined by (N*. This process continues until the points for all of the specified curves have been calculated. The ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. and OC is the "distance" from point O to point C. M3*) lies on the interaction curve and the wall pier is stressed to capacity. the wall pier is overstressed. If the point lies within the interaction curve. the wall pier capacity is adequate.

2. both in general terms and for a specific example.3. If OL > OC (or D/C > 1). The interaction surfaces are developed for eight different ratios of reinforcing- steel-area-to-pier-area. Table 1 illustrates the spacing. the largest of the eight reinforcing ratios used is that specified in the shear wall design prefer- ences as Section Design IP-Max. The wall pier demand/capacity ratio is a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the wall with respect to the capacity of the wall. The size of each reinforcing bar specified in Section Designer relative to the size of the other bars. The location of the reinforcing specified in Section Designer.Shear Wall Design Manual NZS 3101-2006 If OL < OC (or D/C < 1).4 Designing a General Reinforcing Pier Section When a General Reinforcing pier section is specified to be designed. The eight reinforcing ratios used are the maximum and the minimum ratios plus six more ratios. The smallest of the eight reinforcing ratios used is that specified in the shear wall design preferences as Section Design IP-Min. the relative size (area) of each rebar compared to the other bars is always kept constant. M3*) lies within the interaction curve and the wall pier capacity is adequate. IPmin.0025 and the maximum.02. the pro- gram creates a series of interaction surfaces for the pier based on the following items: The size of the pier as specified in Section Designer. IPmax. is 0. The spacing between the reinforcing ratios is calculated as an increasing arithmetic series in which the space between the first two ratios is equal to one-third of the space between the last two ratios. 2-24 Wall Pier Flexural Design . the point (N*. M3*) lies outside of the interaction curve and the wall pier is overstressed. however. The pier area is held constant and the rebar area is mod- ified to obtain these different ratios. The demand/capacity ratio for a three-dimensional wall pier is determined in a similar manner to that described here for two-dimensional piers. when the mini- mum reinforcing ratio. the point (N*. Similarly. is 0.

Chapter 2 Pier Design After the eight reinforcing ratios have been determined. The program then uses linear interpolation between the eight interaction surfaces to determine the reinforcing ratio that gives an demand/capacity ratio of 1 (actual- ly the program uses 0. Design of a Uniform Reinforcing pier section is similar to that described herein for the General Reinforcing section.0163 14 8 IPmax 0.0025 IPmax − IPmin 2 IPmin + 0.99 instead of 1)." Next. for a given design load combination.0129 3 14 IPmax − IPmin 7 IPmin + 11 0. This process is repeated for all design load combinations and the largest required reinforcing ratio is reported. Table 2-1 The Eight Reinforcing Ratios Used by the Program Curve Ratio Example 1 IPmin 0.0038 14 7 IPmax − IPmin 3 IPmin + 0.0100 14 25 IPmax − IPmin 6 IPmin + 0. the program develops interaction surfaces for all eight of the ratios using the process described earlier in the section entitled "Checking a General or Uniform Reinforcing Pier Sec- tion.0200 Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-25 . the program generates a de- mand/capacity ratio associated with each of the eight interaction surfaces.0075 14 IPmax − IPmin 5 IPmin + 6 0.0054 3 14 IPmax − IPmin 4 IPmin + 4 0.

minor direction bending. Spandrel flexural reinforcing is designed for each of the design load combinations. Note that the program designs spandrels at stations located at the ends of the spandrel. The program allows consideration of rectangular sections and T-beam sections for shear wall spandrels. Effects caused by any axial forces. 3. No design is performed at the center (mid- length) of the spandrel. Chapter 3 Spandrel Design This chapter describes how the program designs concrete shear wall spandrels for flexure and shear when NZS 3101-2006 is the selected design code. The required area of reinforcing for flexure is calculated and reported only at the ends of the spandrel beam. The program only designs the spandrel for shear and reports how much shear reinforcing is required. wall spandrels are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. torsion or minor direction shear that may exist in the spandrels must be investigated by the user independent of the program. 3-1 . The following steps are involved in designing the flexural reinforcing for a par- ticular wall spandrel section for a particular design loading combination at a particular station. The program does not allow shear reinforcing to be specified and then checked.1 Spandrel Flexural Design In this program.

amax.1 Determine the Maximum Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcing for spandrels. 3.Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006 Determine the maximum factored moment M*.1. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.4.75cb. (NZS 7. In such cases. Determine the required flexural reinforcing. 3.1. the factored moments for each design load combination at a particular beam station are first obtained. or as a T-beam section. negative beam moments produce top steel. The flexural design procedure is based on a simplified rectangular stress block. as shown in Figure 3-1. In such cases.2 Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing In this program.8) 600 + f y 3-2 Spandrel Flexural Design .3.8.1) where. (NZS 9. the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. 600 cb = d. and depth dimensions are provided in the spandrel design over- writes (Appendix C). is given by amax = 0. These steps are described in the following sections. In this program.2. The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive and the maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the design load combinations. the beam may be designed as a rectangular section. positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In- dicate that a spandrel is to be designed as a T-beam by specifying the appropri- ate slab width.

For a rectangular beam.1 Rectangular Beam Flexural Reinforcing Refer to Figure 3-1. This is expressed as follows: a =M * Cc dspandrel − 2 where Cc =α1 φb f c′a ts and dspandrel is equal to hs − dr-bot for positive bending and hs − dr-top for negative bending. Chapter 3 Spandrel Design Figure 3-1 Rectangular Spandrel Beam Design. is resist- ed by a couple between the concrete in compression and the tension in rein- forcing steel. Spandrel Flexural Design 3-3 . 3. Positive Moment It is assumed that the compression depth carried by the concrete is less than or equal to amax.1.2. the program calculates an area of compression reinforcement assuming that the additional moment is carried by compression reinforcing and additional tension reinforcing. the factored moment. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at amax. M*. The procedure used by the program for both rectangular and T-beam sections is given in the subsections that follow.

When compression steel is required. The depth of the compression block.2. M c* . a φb f y dspandrel − 2 The steel is placed at the bottom for positive moment and at the top for nega- tive moment. However.1 Tension Reinforcing Only Required If a ≤ amax. The depth of the concrete compression block.1. a. Note: The program reports the ratio of top and bottom steel required in the web area.Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006 The preceding equation can be solved for the depth of the compression block.1. the program reports an overstress when the ratio exceeds 4%. The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: Cc = α1 f c′amax ts The moment resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression and the tension steel. 3.2 Tension and Compression Reinforcing Required If a > amax. is given by: 3-4 Spandrel Flexural Design . compression reinforcing is required and the program calculates required compression and tension reinforcing as follows. a. those ratios may be large because there is no limit on them. a. 2M * a =dspandrel − dspandrel 2 − α1 f c′ φb ts The program uses the preceding equation to determine the depth of the com- pression block. is compared with amax.1. is set equal to a = amax.2. 3. no compression reinforcing is required and the program calculates the area of tension reinforcing using the following equation: M* As = . a.1.

Asw. is given by: 0.7) β1 = 0. f 's. where.2. is: Spandrel Flexural Design 3-5 . is given by: 0.2.4. A's. and (NZS 7. =β1 0.003 ( c − d r ) ε s′ = c The stress in the compression steel.85 for f c′ ≤ 30.85 − 0.4. is given by: M s* Cs = dspandrel − d r Referring to Figure 3-1. ε's. is given by M= s * M * − M c* The force carried by the compression steel. Chapter 3 Spandrel Design a M c* = φb Cc dspandrel − max 2 Therefore. the additional moment to be resisted by the couple between the compression steel and the additional tension steel.003Es ( c − d r ) f s′ = Es ε s′ = c The term dr in the preceding equations is equal to dr-top for positive bending and equal to dr-bot for negative bending. Cs. M s* . the strain in the compression steel.85.008 ( f c′ − 30). is calculated as: Cs As′ = . 0.7) the total required area of compression steel. and the term c is equal to amax β.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0. (NZS 7. φb ( f s − α1 f c′ ) ′ The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression in the concrete web.

is: M s* Asc = .1.2 T-Beam Flexural Reinforcing T-beam action is considered effective only for positive moment.1 and NZS 7.2. the depth of the compression block. dspandrel is equal to hs − dr-bot for positive bending and hs − dr-top for negative bending and. and the total compression reinforce- ment. a.2. See Figure 3-2. For positive moment. No T-beam data is used in this design.8.75 cb .4. dr is equal to dr-top for positive bending and dr-bot for negative bending. As'.e.2) α1 f c' ϕb bs The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by amax = 0. (NZS 7. 3. As.4. for total tension reinforcement. When design- ing T-beams for negative moment (i. Asc.7) 3-6 Spandrel Flexural Design .3. As is to be placed at the bottom of the beam and As' at the top of the beam for positive bending and vice versa for negative bending.Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006 M c* Asw = . designing top steel). the calculation of required steel is as described in the previous section for rectangular sections. The total tension reinforcement As is given by: = As Asw + Asc Thus. The width of the beam is taken equal to the width of the web. φb f y ( dspandrel − d r ) In the preceding equations.. a φb f y dspandrel − max 2 The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression steel. is initially determined using the following equation: 2 M* a=d− d − 2 . (NZS 9.

compression steel is added to help resist the design moment. First. the width of the compression block is taken to be equal to the width of the compression flange. Refer to Figure 3-2. The remainder of this section describes in detail the design process used by the program for T-beam spandrels when a > ds. Asf. the tension steel required to balance the compressive force in the flange is determined. However. Figure 3-2: Design of a Wall Spandrel with a T-Beam Section. The protruding portion of the flange is shown cross-hatched. is: Spandrel Flexural Design 3-7 . bs. =C f α1 f c′ ( bs − ts ) d s Note: T-beam action is considered for positive moment only. Cf. If necessary. the subsequent calculations for the reinforcing steel are exactly the same as previously defined for rectangular section design. the subsequent calculations for the required area of reinforcing steel are performed in two parts. If a > ds. Compression reinforcement is provid- ed when the dimension "a" exceeds amax. The compression force in the protruding portion of the flange. Positive Moment The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression force in the concrete flange. the tension steel required to balance the compressive force in the web is determined. is given by the following equation. Chapter 3 Spandrel Design If a ≤ ds. in that case. and second.

no compression reinforcing is required and the program calculates the area of tension steel for balancing the compression force in the concrete web. 2 Therefore. a1. The web is a rectangular section of width ts and depth hs for which the design depth of the compression block. that is resisted by the flange. is giv- en by: d M *f = φb C f dspandrel − s . As. 3-8 Spandrel Flexural Design .2. is recalculated as: 2 M w* a1 =dspandrel − dspandrel 2 − . M w* . M *f . α1 f c' φb ts 3. M w* Asw = a φb f y dspandrel − 1 2 The total tension reinforcement As is given by: = As Asf + Asw The total tension reinforcement. using the following equation.1.Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006 Cf Asf = . M*. the balance of the moment to be carried by the web. Asw. is to be placed at the bottom of the beam for positive bending.1 Tension Reinforcing Only Required If a1 ≤ amax. fy The portion of the total moment.2. is given by M= * w M * − M *f .

003Es ( c − d r -top ) f s′ = Es ε s′ = . M c* . fs'. is given by: = M * s M w* − M c* . In that case. a.1. the force carried by the compression steel. c The stress in the compression steel. εs'. Cs. M s* . The compressive force developed in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw = α1 f c′ats . c In the preceding equations the term c is equal to amax β . is given by: 0. 2 Therefore. is given by: a M c* = φb Cw dspandrel − . Spandrel Flexural Design 3-9 .2.2. is given by: 0. Referring to Figure 3-2. the additional moment to be resisted by the couple between the compression steel and the tension steel. compression reinforcing is required.2 Tension and Compression Reinforcing Required If a1 > amax. is given by: M s* Cs = . The depth of the concrete compression block. Chapter 3 Spandrel Design 3. is set equal to a = amax. The moment resisted by the couple between the concrete web in compression and the tension steel.003 ( c − d r -top ) ε s′ = . dspandrel − d r -top The strain in the compression steel. the required rein- forcing is computed as follows.

is: M c* Asw = . The shear design for both of these types of spandrel sections is identical. is: M s* Asc = .2 Spandrel Shear Design The program allows consideration of rectangular sections and T-beam sections for wall spandrels. Asw.Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006 The required area of compression steel. Cs As′ = . minor direction bending. As'. The required area of reinforcing for vertical shear is calculated only at the ends of the spandrel beam. and As' at the top of the beam. Asc. φb f y ( dspandrel − d r − top ) The total tension reinforcement As is given by: As = Asf + Asw + Asc The total tension reinforcementer As is to be placed at the bottom of the beam. a φb f y dspandel − 2 The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression steel. wall spandrels are designed for major direction flexure and shear forces only. The wall spandrel shear reinforcing is designed for each of the design load combinations. 3-10 Spandrel Shear Design . Effects caused by any axial forces. 3. torsion or minor direction shear that may exist in the spandrels must be investi- gated by the user independent of the program. is calculated using the following equation. In this program. φb f s′ The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression in the concrete web.

9. where (NZS 9. Vc.4) ts dspandrel f c′ ≤ 50 MPa.08 f c′ ≤ νb ≤ 0. Chapter 3 Spandrel Design The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a par- ticular wall spandrel section for a particular design loading combination at a particular station. Determine the required shear reinforcing to carry the balance of the shear force.4) 0. 2.85. Note: In the overwrites. and (NZS 9. 1. As νb = 0.0. (NZS 9. For concrete where maximum aggregate size is of 10 mm or less. Interpolation may be used Spandrel Shear Design 3-11 . The following two sections describe in de- tail the algorithms associated with Steps 2 and 3.9.3.3. For concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm or more.4) The factor ka allows for the influence of maximum aggregate size on shear strength.4) The basic shear strength for rectangular section is computed as. Vc can be specified to be ignored (set to zero) for spandrel shear calculations. Vc.3. Step 1 needs no further explanation. 3.2 f c′ .9.3.3.3. νc = kd ka νb. ka shall be taken as 1. (NZS 9. Determine the factored shear force V*.07 + 10 f c′ .3. that can be carried by the concrete. 3.2. Determine the shear force. is calculated as follows: Vc = vc Acv The allowable shear capacity is given by. the value of ka shall be taken as 0.9.1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.3.

where d is in mm kd = ( 400 / d ) 0. Vs. which is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension steel.3. 3. and with a bar spacing which does not ex- ceed 300 mm in any direction. 3-12 Spandrel Shear Design . for the ar- ea between the principal flexural tension reinforcement and the mid-depth of the beam. The factor kd allows for the influence of member depth on strength.9 ≤ kd ≤ 1.2. For shear design. Program default for ka is 1.1 Seismic and Nonseismic Spandrels Given V* and Vc.9.9.6). 3. and it shall be calculated from the following conditions: kd = 1.25 . and the user can overwrite this value if needed.0 for members with longitudinal reinforcement in the web.0 for members with an effective depth equal to or smaller than 400 mm kd = ( 400 / d ) 0. the program takes dspandrel to be equal to the smaller of hs − dr-top and hs − dr-bot.Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006 between these limits.2 Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing One of the terms used in calculating the spandrel shear reinforcing is dspandrel. with a ratio of 0. It is equal to 1 for normal weight concrete.2.0.25 for members with an effective depth greater than 400. This factor is specified in the concrete material properties. the required force to be carried by the shear reinforcing. where 0. Note: The term RLW that is used as a multiplier on all f c′ terms in this manual is a shear strength reduction factor that applies to light-weight concrete.003 or more.0 for members with shear reinforcement equal to or greater than the nominal shear reinforcement given in NZS 9.4 kd = 1.3. is calculated using the following equation (NZS 9. This condition is currently not checked by program and user can overwrite the kd value if neces- sary.3.2.

1) bw d The average shear stress is limited to a maximum limit of.2.6.5.3. (NZS 7.9.2 f c′. the following equation initially calculates the required vertical shear reinforcing in area per unit length (e.3) Given Vs. The design shear at a section in a beam.3. 3.Vc Av φ Vs = = (NZS 9.2) sv f yt dspandrel f yt dspandrel Av .3.4.3.2 Seismic Spandrels Only The following additional checks also are performed for seismic spandrels in ductile and limited ductile plastic regions. Vo* . (NZS 9. (NZS 9.15) s 16 f yt Note: The output units for the distributed shear reinforcing can be set in the shear wall design preferences. 8MPa} . vmax = min {0. square mm per m) for both seismic and nonseismic wall spandrels (as indicated in the preferences). shall be determined from consid- eration of the flexural overstrength being developed at the most probable location of the critical sections within the member. and the gravity loads with load factors specified in NZS 2. Spandrel Shear Design 3-13 . φ s The average shear stress is computed for a rectangular section as.2.2.4. Note that addition- al requirements that are checked for both seismic and nonseismic wall span- drels are given by the following equation (NZS 9. Chapter 3 Spandrel Design V* = V − Vc .4.9.9.5.9.g. * V ν = * .3..min 1 bw = f c′ .2): V* .

3. VDL + LL = Gravity loads with load factors specified in NZS 2.2 Design of shear reinforcement shall be in accordance with NZS 7. Vc = 0.9.3.4) 3-14 Spandrel Shear Design .4.3.5 and NZS 9.3.4. νc = kd ka νb.5vc Acv for limited ductile plastic regions. M oJ = overstrength bending moment at beam I and J ends.3. but Vc in potential plastic regions shall be taken as follows: Vc = 0 for ductile plastic region.9.5. (NZS 9.1.6.Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006 M oI + M oJ =Vo* + VDL + LL (NZS 9.9. M oI .3.1) L where.6. Vo* = design shear at a section in the beam. The allowable shear capacity is given by NZS 9.4.

the display can be sent directly to a printer or saved to a file. and member specific detailed design infor- mation. HTML and plain text formats. tabular display. HTML and plain text. 4. Some of the design information is very specific to the chosen shear wall design code. including Excel.1 Graphical Display of Design Information The graphical display of design output includes input and output design in- formation for all shear wall members that are visible in the active window. and member specific detailed design information. Chapter 4 Design Output The program has the capacity to create design output in four major ways – graphical display. file output. This manual addresses "NZS 3101-2006" design code re- lated output information only. RTF. The following sections describe some of the typical graphical display. The graphical output can be produced in color or in gray-scaled screen dis- 4-1 . tabular display output. Access. The graphical display includes input and output design information for members visible in the active window. The file output includes both summary and detail design data that can be saved in RTF. file output. The member specific detailed design in- formation shows the details of the calculation. The tabular display output includes both summary and detail design data that can be displayed or saved in many formats.

Shear Wall Design Manual NZS 3101-2006 play. The output plotted directly on piers is plotted along an invisible line that ex- tends from the centroid of the pier section at the bottom of the pier to the centroid of the pier section at the top of the pier. the screen graphics can then be printed using the File menu > Print Graphics command. the output plotted directly on spandrels is plotted along an invisible line that extends from the 4-2 Graphical Display of Design Information . If desired. Design Input Material Thickness Pier length/spandrel depth Section Designer pier sections Design Output Simplified pier longitudinal reinforcing Simplified pier edge members Section Designer pier reinforcing ratios Section Designer pier D/C ratios Spandrel longitudinal reinforcing Shear reinforcing Pier demand/capacity ratios Pier boundary zones Note that you cannot display more than one of the listed items on the model at the same time. as follows. The active screen display can be sent directly to the printer or saved to a file in several formats. Similarly. Use the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Display Design Info com- mand to display on-screen output plotted directly on the model. The on-screen display data is organized into two main groups.

the design information for all piers and spandrels or for only selected piers and spandrels can be dis- played in tabular spreadsheet format. uniform reinforcing sec- tions.emf file. The tabular spreadsheet output can be displayed by selecting the Display menu > Show Tables command to access the Choose Tables for Display form. The onscreen graphical display can be sent to printer using any of the follow- ing commands. Currently. which can be col- lapsed or expanded by clicking on an item in the tree. simplified T and C sections. That form can be used to choose which tables or sets of tables are to be displayed.bmp) file. the program will display information for the selected members only. instead of being displayed using a limited number of decimal digits. This named set can be used in the future for quick selection. If one or more frame members are selected on the structural model before accessing the Choose Tables for Display form. Create a screen capture of the active window using the Alt+ Print Screen keyboard keys or create a screen cap- ture of the entire window using the Ctrl + Print Screen keyboard keys. Use the File menu > Print Graphics command to print the active window. Then use the Ctrl+V keyboard keys to paste the saved image into Paint or other graphical program. 4. and spandrel geometry data. The names of the tables are displayed in a tree structure. uncheck the check box to display information for all applicable "unselected" members in the model. Tabular Display of Design Information 4-3 . If the Show Unformat- ted check box is checked. Click on the small check boxes preceding the items to select those tables for display. To capture the graphical display in a file for printing through another application. Chapter 4 Design Output centroid of the spandrel section at the left end of the spandrel to the centroid of the spandrel section at the top of the spandrel. pier basic overwrite data. The unformatted option provides higher precision output that can then be copied into other programs. the program generates de- sign pier location data. all of the tables under that branch are selected. use the File menu > Capture Enhanced Metafile command to create an . the numbers will be displayed unformatted. general reinforcing sections. or use the File menu > Capture Picture command to create a bitmap (. If a branch of the tree is selected. The se- lected set of tables can be saved as a Named Set using the Save Named Set button. spandrel basic overwrite data.2 Tabular Display of Design Information In addition to model definition and analysis results. the Selection Only check box will be checked when the form displays and. spandrel lo- cation data.

The columns can be resized by clicking the left mouse button on the separator of the headers. and then dragging the mouse button left or right. The splits can be removed by selecting the For- mat-Filter-Sort menu > Remove Splits command on the form. After specifying the table formatting information. fields with numeric data can be set for the maximum number of characters. Select multiple consecutive columns by putting the cursor on the header. Repeat this process to add more splits. holding and dragging the left mouse button to merge the split key to its original location. click the OK button to display a form showing one of the selected design ta- bles. depress the Shift key and click the left mouse button to select a range of columns. holding down the left mouse button. save it to a format file that can be used in the future by selecting the appro- priate feature available under the Format-Filter-Sort menu. remove the split by clicking. Reset the column widths to their default values by selecting the Format-Filter-Sort menu > Reset Default Column Widths command on the form. with a drop-down list in the upper right-hand corner of the form that can be used to select other tables for display. number of decimal digits and so forth. After selecting all of the tables for shear wall design and the display options. zero tolerance. left. 4-4 Tabular Display of Design Information . The table can be split into two or more tables by clicking on the small black rectangular area near the bottom-left corner of the table. and then dragging the mouse button to the left or right. Alternative- ly. click the Select Load Cases button to specify which load cases are to be in- cluded in the display of model definition data. For example. In addition to setting the alignment and column widths. filtered and sorted using multiple criteria accessed using the Format- Filter-Sort menu on the form. holding down the left mouse button and then dragging the mouse to the left or right. Filtering and sorting features can be useful in identifying critical cases. Alternatively. Fields with text in- formation can be set for specific types of alignment (center. Use the split and horizontal scroll bar to put two columns side by side for easier comparison. holding down the mouse button. Use the scroll bars on the bottom and right side of the tables to scroll right and left or up and down if portions of the data table can not be displayed in the form's display area.Shear Wall Design Manual NZS 3101-2006 Use the other buttons in the form to tailor the data display. right) and to specific widths. click the Select Analysis Case and Modify/Show Options to specify which analysis cases are to be includ- ed and how analysis results are displayed. The tables can be for- matted. Each of the individual fields (columns) can be formatted.

Note that if both a pier and a spandrel label are assigned to the right-clicked object. Access. for example. Detailed Display of Member Specific Information 4-5 . In .html. the default editor specific to that format will open the document.rtf.. Instead of exporting or displaying the currently displayed table. Many other features of the de- sign tables are left for the user to discover by using the program. the tables are split at convenient points to make a reasonably printable document. the en- tire set of available tables can be exported and displayed in the afore- mentioned formats by selecting the File menu and the appropriate submenu command. In both Excel spreadsheet and Access database formats. . In plain text format. The table will be saved in that format only if the relevant editor is not availa- ble. Appendix E provides additional information about interactive shear wall design. If design results are not cur- rently displayed (and the design has been run). the ta- bles can be saved with or without the splits. the tables can be saved in many required formats and can be printed. The program will export the entire table to an Excel spreadsheet workbook and will automatically open the file in MS Excel.. if the table is exported to other formats. This mode allows easy modifi- cation to design parameters (overwrites) and immediate review of the new results. 4. click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command. the table in the active window) can be exported to Ex- cel. With these exporting and display features.rft and . Note that a design must have been run for the interactive design mode to be available. To enter the interactive design and review mode. and plain text formats. a pop-up box offers the choice to enter the interactive design and re- view mode for the pier or for the spandrel. on-screen review of design results for a specific pier or spandrel. Similarly. making the ta- bles very wide.3 Detailed Display of Member Specific Information Interactive design is a powerful mode that allows quick. click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Interactive Wall Design command and then right click a pier or spandrel to enter the interactive design and review mode for that pier or spandrel. right click on a wall pier or spandrel while the design results are displayed.html formats. . provided that the editor is available in the computer. Chapter 4 Design Output The current table (i. To run a design.e. To export a table to Excel. select the File menu > Export Current Table > To Excel com- mand. the tables can have many columns.

spandrel longitu- dinal reinforcing. un- check the check box to save or print the data for all appropriate "unselected" members.txt). which has been described earlier in this chapter in the "Tabular Display of Design Information" section. simplified pier edge members. in which the width of the resulting printout on a given page is longer than the height of the printout. Filtering criteria can be applied if those criteria were specified using the Format-Filter-Sort menu > Format Table command when the selected da- ta tables were displayed using the Display menu > Show Tables command. 4-6 Output of Design Information . If one or more structural members are selected before the Choose Tables for Printing form is accessed. the design information for all piers and spandrels or for selected piers and spandrels only can be saved in tabular format. When all options for printing or saving the data to file have been specified. section Designer pier D/C ratios. Click on the small check boxes preceding the items to select those tables for printing or saving to a file. For AIC 318-02 code.htm) by choosing the appropriate option on the right side of the form. Use the op- tions on the form to choose which table or set of tables to save in a file or print. sier demand/capacity ratios and pier boundary zones. Printed output can be specified to have a landscaped orientation. Save the file output by selecting the File menu > Print Tables command to access the Choose Tables for Printing form. which can be col- lapsed or expanded by clicking on an item in the tree. This form is very similar to the Choose Tables for Display form. the Selection Only check box will be checked.4 Output of Design Information In addition to model definition and analysis results. all of the tables under that branch are selected. The Named Set can be easily recalled in the future. re- ducing the need to reselect the options and ensuring that output is consistent from one printing effort to another. If a branch of the tree is selected. the settings can be saved as a Named Set using the Save Named Set button. and hyper- link text markup language (. The name of the tables are displayed in a tree structure.Shear Wall Design Manual NZS 3101-2006 4. the program saves simplified pier longitudinal reinforcing. Section Design- er pier reinforcing ratios. The output can be generated in a variety of formats. including rich text for- mat (. plain text with and without splits or page breaks (. and the program will save or print the data for the selected members only. shear reinforcing.rft).

For example. A list of error messages and warnings used in Shear Wall Design for all the design codes is provide in Appendix I. Error Messages and Warnings 4-7 . The Select Analysis Cases and Modi- fy/Show Options buttons affect only saving/printing analysis results. Although the File name > Print Tables command path is dedicated for sav- ing/printing design information. 4. How- ever. After clicking all the necessary tables for steel frame design and all necessary options. There are other buttons on the form that do not affect saving or printing de- sign information. Design tables can be saved in different formats using the path Display menu > Show Ta- bles command. all of the messages are not applicable to the NZS 3101-2006. it is not the only path to do so.5 Error Messages and Warnings Error messages and warnings may be displayed in the shear wall design out- put. clicking the OK button will save/print the design tables. The messages are numbered. the Select Load Cases button affects only saving/printing model definition data. Chapter 4 Design Output The output also can be specified to include a hyperlinked contents to facili- tate accessing specific areas of the printout.

it is not possible to design some beams for one code and others for a different code in the same design run. Appendix A Supported Design Codes Only one design code may be used in any one design run. it is possible to perform different design runs using different design codes without rerunning the analysis. That is.3-04 CSA A23. However. The program supports the following shear wall design codes: ACI 318-05 ACI 318-02 ACI 318-99 BS 8110-97 BS 8110-89 CSA A23.3-94 IS 456-2000 UBC97 A-1 .

Thus. Table B1 identifies shear wall design preferences for NZS 3101-06. Default values are provided for all shear wall design preference items. Refer to the program Help for an explanation of how to change a preference. at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable. Appendix B Shear Wall Design Preferences The shear wall design preferences are basic properties that apply to all wall pier and spandrel elements. However. Table B1 Shear Wall Preferences Possible Default Item Values Value Description Design Code Any code in UBC 97 Design code used for design of the program concrete shear wall elements (wall piers and spandrels) B-1 . it is not required that preferences be specified.

in2/ft or mm2/m Units used for distributed areas of Units mm2/m. regardless of what is specified here.70 The strength reduction factor for shear and/or Torsion) in a wall pier or spandrel for a nonseismic condition. current Phi (Tension >0 0. cm2/m. Rebar units in2. reinforcing steel. Phi (Shear >0 0. Rebar/Length in2/ft. B-2 .80 The strength reduction factor for Controlled) bending in a wall pier or spandrel in a tension controlled section. Number of ≥4 24 Number of equally spaced interaction Curves curves used to create a full 360-degree interaction surface (this item should be a multiple of four).60 The strength reduction factor for axial (Compression compression in a wall pier.Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006 Table B1 Shear Wall Preferences Possible Default Item Values Value Description Time History Envelopes or Envelopes Toggle for design load combinations Design Step-by-Step that include a time history designed for the envelope of the time history. or designed step-by-step for the entire time history. mm2. Nmax Factor >0 1.60 The strength reduction factor for shear Seismic) in a wall pier or spandrel for a seismic condition. Number of ≥ 11 11 Number of points used for defining a Points single curve in a wall pier interaction surface (this item should be odd). in2 or mm2 Units used for concentrated areas of current reinforcing steel.0 A factor used to reduce the allowable maximum compressive design strength. If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it. that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories.. Phi >0 0. Controlled) Phi (Shear >0 0. cm2. We recommend that you use 24 for this item.

02 The maximum ratio of reinforcing IP-Max Design IP-Min considered in the design of a pier with a Section Designer section.. PTmax. Edge Design >0 0. Appendix B Preferences Table B1 Shear Wall Preferences Possible Default Item Values Value Description Edge Design >0 0.06 Maximum ratio of tension reinforcing PT-max allowed in edge members. Section Design >0 0. Section Design ≥ Section 0.04 Maximum ratio of compression PC-max reinforcing allowed in edge members. B-3 .0025 The minimum ratio of reinforcing IP-Min considered in the design of a pier with a Section Designer section. PCmax.

Refer to the program Help for an explanation of how to change the overwrites. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are accept-able. General Reinforcing. Table C-1: Pier Design Overwrites Pier Overwrite Possible Default Item Values Value Pier Overwrite Description Design this Yes or No Yes Toggle for design of the pier when you Pier click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start Design/Check command. However. The overwrites for piers and spandrels are separate. Note that the available overwrites change depending on the pier section type (Uniform Reinforcing. that is. Tables C1 and C2 identify the shear wall overwrites for piers and spandrels. When changes are made to overwrite items. Thus. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. Appendix C Design Procedure Overwrites The shear wall design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those piers or spandrels to which they are assigned. Default values are provided for all pier and spandrel overwrite items. C-1 . for NZS 3101-2006. it is not necessary to specify or change any of the overwrites. or Simplified T and C). respectively.

Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006

Table C-1: Pier Design Overwrites

**Pier Overwrite Possible Default
**

Item Values Value Pier Overwrite Description

LL Reduction Program Program A reducible live load is multiplied by this

Factor calculated, calculated factor to obtain the reduced live load.

>0 Entering 0 for this item means that it is

program calculated. See the subsection

entitled "LL Reduction Factor" later in

this appendix for more information.

Design is Yes or No Yes Toggle for design as seismic or

Seismic nonseismic. Additional design checks

are performed for seismic elements

compared to nonseismic elements.

Also, in some cases, the strength

reduction factors are different.

Pier Section Uniform Uniform This item indicates the type of pier. The

Type Reinforcing, Reinforcing General Reinforcing option is not

General available unless General pier sections

Reinforcing, have previously been defined in

Simplified Section Designer.

T and C

**Overwrites Applicable to Uniform Reinforcing Pier Sections
**

Edge Bar Any defined Varies The size of the uniformly spaced edge

Name bar size bars.

Edge Bar >0 250 mm The spacing of the uniformly spaced

Spacing edge bars.

End/Corner Any defined Varies The size of end and corner bars.

Bar Name bar size

Clear Cover >0 40 mm The clear cover for the edge, end and

corners bars.

Material Any defined Varies The material property associated with

concrete the pier.

material

property

Check/Design Check or Design This item indicate whether the pier

Reinforcing Design section is to be designed or checked.

C-2

Appendix C Overwrites

Table C-1: Pier Design Overwrites

**Pier Overwrite Possible Default
**

Item Values Value Pier Overwrite Description

**Overwrites Applicable to General Reinforcing Pier Sections
**

Section Bottom Any general The first pier in Name of a pier section, defined in

pier section the list of Section Designer that is assigned to the

defined in Section bottom of the pier.

Section Designer piers

Designer

Section Top Any general The first pier in Name of a pier section, defined in

pier section the list of Section Designer, that is assigned to

defined in Section the top of the pier.

Section Designer piers

Designer

Check/Design Check or Design This item indicates whether the pier

Reinforcing Design section is to be designed or checked.

**Overwrites Applicable to Simplified T and C Pier Sections
**

ThickBot Program Program Wall pier thickness at bottom of pier, tp.

calculated, calculated Inputting 0 means the item is to be

or > 0 program calculated.

LengthBot Program Program Wall pier length at bottom of pier, Lp.

calculated, calculated Inputting 0 means the item is to be

or > 0 program calculated.

DB1LeftBot ≥0 0 Length of the bottom of a user-defined

edge member on the left side of a wall

pier, DB1left.

DB2LeftBot ≥0 0 Width of the bottom of a user-defined

edge member on the left side of a wall

pier, DB2left. See the subsection entitled

"User-Defined Edge Members" for

more information.

DB1RightBot ≥0 Same as Length of the bottom of a user-defined

DB1-left-bot edge member on the right side of a wall

pier, DB1right.

DB2RightBot ≥0 Same as Width of the bottom of a user-defined

DB2-left-bot edge member on the right side of a wall

pier, DB2right.

C-3

Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006

Table C-1: Pier Design Overwrites

**Pier Overwrite Possible Default
**

Item Values Value Pier Overwrite Description

ThickTop Program Program Wall pier thickness at top of pier,

calculated, calculated tp. Inputting 0 means the item is to be

or > 0 program calculated.

LengthTop Program Program Wall pier length at top of pier, Lp.

calculated, calculated Inputting 0 means the item is to be

or > 0 program calculated.

DB1LeftTop ≥0 0 Length of the top of a user-defined

edge member on the left side of a wall

pier, DB1left.

DB2LeftTop ≥0 0 Width of the top of a user-defined edge

member on the left side of a wall pier,

DB2left.

DB1RightTop ≥0 Same as Length of the top of a user-defined

DB1-left-bot edge member on the right side of a wall

pier, DB1right.

DB2RightTop ≥0 Same as Width of the top of a user-defined edge

DB2-left-bot member on the right side of a wall pier,

DB2right.

Material Any defined See "Material Material property associated with the

concrete Properties" in pier.

material Shear Wall

property Design

Technical Note

6 Wall Pier

Design Section

Edge Design >0 Specified in Maximum ratio of compression

NC-max Preferences reinforcing allowed in edge members,

NCmax.

Edge Design >0 Specified in Maximum ratio of tension reinforcing

NT-max Preferences allowed in edge members, NTmax.

C-4

Appendix C Overwrites

Table C-2 Spandrel Design Overwrites

Spandrel

Overwrite Possible Default

Item Values Value Spandrel Overwrite Description

Design this Yes or No Yes Toggle for design of the spandrel when

Spandrel you click the Design menu > Shear

Wall Design > Start Design/Check

command.

LL Reduction Program Program A reducible live load is multiplied by this

Factor calculated, calculated factor to obtain the reduced live load.

>0 Entering 0 for this item means that it is

program calculated. See the subsection

entitled "LL Reduction Factor" later in

this appendix for more information.

Design is Yes or No Yes Toggle for design as seismic or

Seismic nonseismic. Additional design checks

are performed for seismic elements

compared to nonseismic elements.

Also, in some cases the strength

reduction factors are different.

Length Program Program Wall spandrel length, Ls. Inputting 0

calculated, calculated means the item is to be program

or > 0 calculated.

ThickLeft Program Program Wall spandrel thickness at left side of

calculated, calculated spandrel, ts. Inputting 0 means the item

or > 0 is to be program calculated.

DepthLeft Program Program Wall spandrel depth at left side of

calculated, calculated spandrel, hs. Inputting 0 means the item

or > 0 is to be program calculated.

CoverBotLeft Program Program Distance from the bottom of the

calculated, calculated spandrel to the centroid of the bottom

or > 0 reinforcing, dr-bot left on the left side of

the beam. Inputting 0 means the item is

to be program calculated as 0.1hs.

CoverTopLeft Program Program Distance from the top of the spandrel to

calculated, calculated the centroid of the top reinforcing, dr-top

or > 0 left on the left side of the beam. Inputting

0 means the item is to be program

calculated as 0.1hs.

SlabWidthLeft ≥0 0 Slab width for T-beams at the left end

of the spandrel, bs.

C-5

dr-bot right on the right side of the beam. Program Program Distance from the top of the spandrel to TopRight calculated. ThickRight Program Program Wall spandrel thickness at the right side calculated. ts. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated as 0. Cover. Inputting 0 means the or > 0 item is to be program calculated.Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006 Table C-2 Spandrel Design Overwrites Spandrel Overwrite Possible Default Item Values Value Spandrel Overwrite Description SlabDepthLeft ≥0 0 Slab depth for T-beams at the left end of the spandrel. SlabDepthRigh ≥0 0 Slab depth for T-beams at the right end t of the spandrel. CoverBotRight Program Program Distance from the bottom of the calculated. calculated the centroid of the top reinforcing. calculated of the spandrel. calculated the spandrel. bs. hs. ds. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated as 0. DepthRight Program Program Wall spandrel depth at the right side of calculated. material Material property Property" in Shear Wall Design Technical Note 7 Wall Spandrel Design Sections Consider Vc Yes or No Yes Toggle switch to consider Vuc (concrete shear capacity) when computing the shear capacity of the spandrel. C-6 .1hs. SlabWidthRigh ≥0 0 Slab width for T-beams at the right end t of the spandrel. calculated spandrel to the centroid of the bottom or > 0 reinforcing. Inputting 0 means or > 0 the item is to be program calculated.1hs. ds. Material Any defined See "Default Material property associated with the concrete Design spandrel. dr-top or > 0 right on the right side of the beam.

For example. If you specify your own LL Reduction Factor. assume you have two static load cases labeled DL and RLL. Appendix C Overwrites C. If either DB1 or DB2 is specified as zero. it is based on the live load reduction method chosen in the live load reduction preferences. C. For design load combination DESCOMB3. the RLL load is multiplied by the LL reduction factor. the RLL load that is part of COMB2 is not multiplied by the LL reduction factor.2 User-Defined Edge Members When defining a user-defined edge member. Then for design load combination DESCOMB1. Important Note: The LL reduction factor is not applied to any load combination that is included in a design load combination.1 LL Reduction Factor If the LL Reduction Factor is program calculated. Now assume that you create a design load combination named DESCOMB1 that includes DL and RLL. Next assume that you create a load combination called COMB2 that includes RLL. you must specify both a nonzero value for DB1 and a nonzero value for DB2. the edge member width is taken as the same as the pier thickness and the edge member length is determined by the program. C-7 . DL is a dead load and RLL is a reducible live load. the program ignores any reduction method specified in the live load reduction preferences and simply calculates the reduced live load for a pier or spandrel by multiplying the specified LL Reduction Factor times the reducible live load. Now assume that you create a design load combination called DESCOMB3 that included DL and COMB2.

Analysis sections are simply the objects defined in your model that make up the pier or spandrel section. For shear design and boundary zone checks. Three types of pier design sections are available. the analysis section for spandrels is the assemblage of wall and beam sections that make up the spandrel. the program automatically (and internally) breaks up the analysis section pier into planar legs and then performs the design on each leg separately and reports the results separately for each leg. the design forces are based on these analysis section properties. the program automatically (and internally) creates a Section Designer pier section of the same shape as the analysis section pier. The analysis is based on these section properties. Appendix D Analysis Sections and Design Sections It is important to understand the difference between analysis sections and design sections when performing shear wall design. Similarly. Uniform reinforcing is placed in this pier. Note that the planar legs are derived from the area objects defined in the model. not from the pier section defined in Section Designer. D-1 . The analysis section for wall piers is the assemblage of wall and column sections that make up the pier. They are: Uniform Reinforcing Section: For flexural designs and/or checks. The Uniform Reinforcing Section pier may be planar or it may be three- dimensional. and thus. The design section is completely separate from the analysis section. The reinforcing can be modified in the pier overwrites.

General Reinforcing Section: For flexural designs and/or checks. you can. and the length is in the spandrel 1-axis direction. Simplified sections are always planar. the program automatically (and internally) breaks the analysis section pier into planar legs and then performs the design on each leg separately and reports the results separately for each leg. which is based on the analysis sections. not for checking user-specified sections. For shear design and boundary zone checks. In addition. not from the pier section defined in Section Designer. specify a slab thickness and depth. Note that the planar legs are derived from the area objects defined in the model. you can. The simplified section is defined by a length and a thickness. if desired. Only one type of spandrel design section is available. A typical spandrel is defined by a depth. not check them. Thus. making the spandrel design section into a T-beam. The pier and spandrel design sections are designed for the forces obtained from the program's analysis. specify thickened edge members at one or both ends of the simplified pier section. In other words. You cannot specify reinforcing in a simplified section. you can only design spandrel sections. It is defined in the spandrel design overwrites. if desired. The depth is in the spandrel 2-axis direction. The length is in the pier 2-axis direction and the thickness is in the pier 3-axis direction.Shear Wall Design NZS 3101-2006 The pier section defined in Section Designer is only used for the flexural design/check. the simplified section can only be used for design. D-2 . In addition. The pier defined in Section Designer may be planar or it may be three-dimensional. The pier section defined in Section Designer is used for the flexural design/check only. Spandrel sections are always planar. Simplified Pier Section: This pier section is defined in the pier design overwrites. Thus. thickness and length. the thickness is in the spandrel 3-axis direction. You cannot specify reinforcing in a spandrel section. the design sections are designed based on the forces obtained for the analysis sections. the pier geometry and the reinforcing are defined by the user in the Section Designer utility.

6140. ISBN 07337 4473 3 SA/SNZ. Wellington 6140. Part 2 : Wind Actions. Sydney.0:2002 Australian/New Zealand Standard Structural Design Actions. Berkeley. Wellington 6140.New Zealand.2:2002 Australia/New Zealand Standard Structural Design Action. 1995 University Avenue. Private Bag 2439. Part 0 : General Principles. and Standards New Zealand. Ltd. Standards New Zealand. California. and Standards New Zealand. 6140. Sydney. NZS 1170. Private Bag 2439. CSi Analysis Reference Manual. 2002a. ISBN 07337 4469 9 SNZ. Ltd. Wel- lington. Computers and Structures. New Zealand. Australia. Wel- lington. 94704. Private Bag 2439. Concrete Structures Standard (NZS 3101:2006). NSW 2001. AS/NZS 1170. Australia. 2008. SA/SNZ 2002b. Part 1 – The De- sign of Concrete and Part 2 – Commentary on the Design of Concrete Structures. Inc.. AS/NZS 1170. ISBN 1-86975-018-7 Bibliography . Part 5: Earthquake actions . New Zealand. NZS.1 .5:2004 New Zealand Standard Structural Design Ac- tions. GPO Box 5420. Private Bag 2439. Jointly published by Standards Australia International.. Jointly published by Standards Australia International. Bibliography CSI.. Standards New Zealand. New Zealand. 2004. 2006. GPO Box 5420. NSW 2001. New Zealand.

“Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice.” Engineering Journal. and J. F. No. Vol.L. Bibliography . 4. Hajjar. pp. D. ACI. 133–148. 1991.Steel Frame Design NZS 3101-06 White. 28.2 .

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