Shear Wall Design Manual

Mexican RCDF 2004

Shear Wall
Design Manual
Mexican RCDF 2004
For ETABS® 2016

ISO ETA122815M50 Rev. 0
Proudly developed in the United States of America December 2015

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3.2 Live Load Component 1-9 1.3.5 Combinations that Include a Response Spectrum 1-10 1.3 Default Design Load Combinations 1-8 1. Contents Shear Wall Design 1 Introduction 1.6 Choice of Units 1-13 i .5 Shear Wall Design Overwrites 1-12 1.4 Shear Wall Design Preferences 1-12 1.4 Earthquake Load Component 1-9 1.1 Notation 1-2 1.3.3 Wind Load Component 1-9 1.6 Combinations that Include Time History Results 1-11 1.3.3.7 Combinations that Include Static Nonlinear Results 1-12 1.1 Dead Load Component 1-9 1.3.2 Design Station Locations 1-8 1.3.

1 Determine the Maximum Factored Moments 3-2 3.1.1 Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-2 2.1 Spandrel Flexural Design 3-1 3.3 Wall Pier Boundary Elements 2-21 2.2 Spandrel Shear Design 3-10 3.4 Designing a General Reinforcing Pier Section 2-18 2.2.1.1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity 2-20 2.2.2 Checking a General or Uniform Reinforcing Pier Section 2-8 2.1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity 3-11 3.1.1.2 Determine the Require Shear Reinforcing 2-20 2.2 Wall Pier Shear Design 2-19 2.1 Details of Check for Boundary Element Requirements 2-21 3 Spandrel Design 3.2 Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing 3-12 Appendix A Shear Wall Design Preferences Appendix B Design Procedure Overwrites Appendix C Analysis Sections and Design Sections Bibliography ii .1.2 Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing 3-2 3.1.1 Designing a Simplified Pier Section 2-2 2.3 Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio 2-16 2.2.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 2 Pier Design 2.2.2.

4 in RCDF- NTC-2004 (Chapter 3) 1-1 . check. To facilitate the design process. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.2. The various notations used in this manual are described in Section 1.1.2). The design is based on loading combinations specified by the user (Section 1. Chapter 1 Introduction This manual describes the details of the shear wall design and stress check algorithms used by the program when the user selects the Mexican RDCF 2004 design code.5. or analysis procedures in accordance with RCDF-NTC-2004 requirements:  Design and check of concrete wall piers for flexural and axial loads (Chap- ter 2)  Design of concrete wall piers for shear (Chapter 2)  Design of concrete shear wall spandrels for flexure (Chapter 3)  Design of concrete wall spandrels for shear (Chapter 3)  Consideration of the wall end zone requirements for concrete wall piers us- ing an approach based on the requirements of Section 6. The program performs the following design.

mm2 Asc-max Maximum area of compression reinforcing steel in a wall pier edge member. Only one design code may be used in any one design run. mm2 Ah-min Minimum required area of distributed horizontal reinforcing steel required for shear in a wall spandrel. Section Designer pier section check. Notation Following is the notation used in this manual. and Spandrel design (Chapter 4). Section Designer pier section design. mm2 / mm 1-2 Notation . mm2 Asf The required area of tension reinforcing steel for balancing the concrete compression force in the extruding portion of the concrete flange of a T-beam. Acv Area of concrete used to determine shear stress.1. However. That is. mm2 Av /s Area of reinforcing steel required for shear. mm2 Ast-max Maximum area of tension reinforcing steel in a wall pier edge member.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 The program provides detailed output data for Simplified pier section design. 1. or the required area of tension steel required to balance the compression steel force in a wall spandrel. mm2 Asc Area of reinforcing steel required for compression in a pier edge member. mm2 Ag Gross area of concrete. it is not possible to design some beams for one code and others for a different code in the same design run. it is possible to perform different de- sign runs using different design codes without rerunning the analysis. mm2 Ast Area of reinforcing steel required for tension in a pier edge member. mm2 / mm As Area of tension reinforcing steel. The program supports several design codes/standards which can be activated using the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > View/Revise Preferences command.

and it also can be different at the top and the bottom of the pier. DB2 Width of a user-defined wall pier edge member. B2. unitless DB1 Length of a user-defined wall pier edge member. pounds Cs Compression force in wall pier or spandrel reinforcing steel. mm.. mm2 / mm Asw The required area of tension reinforcing steel for balancing the concrete compression force in a rectangular concrete beam. or for balancing the concrete compression force in the concrete web of a T-beam. Chapter 1 Introduction Avd Area of diagonal shear reinforcement in a coupling beam. MPa Fab Moment magnification factor for non-sway moments Fas Moment magnification factor for sway moments FR Strength reduction factor Notation 1-3 . pounds Cf Concrete compression force in the extruding portion of a T- beam flange. pounds Cw Concrete compression force in the web of a T-beam. Es Modulus of elasticity of reinforcing steel. Length of a concrete edge member in a wall with uniform thickness. mm Cc Concrete compression force in a wall pier or spandrel. This can be different on the left and right sides of the pier. mm2 B1.. mm. and it also can be different at the top and the bottom of the pier. This can be different on the left and right sides of the pier. mm2 A's Area of compression reinforcing steel in a spandrel. pounds D/C Demand/capacity ratio as measured on an interaction curve for a wall pier. mm2 Av-min /s Minimum required area of distributed vertical reinforcing steel required for shear in a wall spandrel.

This can be different at the top and the bottom of the pier Ls Horizontal length of wall spandrel. the designed bending moment at a design sec- tion resisted by the couple between the concrete in compres- sion in the extruding portion of the flange and the tension steel. Newton-mm Muc In a wall spandrel with compression reinforcing. the de- signed bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple between the compression steel and the tension steel. mm. the designed bending moment at a design sec- tion resisted by the couple between the concrete in compres- sion in the web and the tension steel. unitless LBZ Horizontal length of the wall end zone at each end of a wall pier. the de- signed bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression and the tension steel. unitless IP-min The minimum ratio of reinforcing considered in the design of a pier with a Section Designer section. Newton-mm Muf In a wall spandrel with a T-beam section and compression reinforcing. mm LL Live load Mn Nominal bending strength. Newton-mm Mu Designed bending moment at a design section. Newton-mm Muw In a wall spandrel with a T-beam section and compression reinforcing. mm Lw Horizontal length of wall pier.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 IP-max The maximum ratio of reinforcing considered in the design of a pier with a Section Designer section. Newton-mm OC On a wall pier interaction curve the "distance" from the origin to the capacity associated with the point considered 1-4 Notation . Newton-mm Mus In a wall spandrel with compression reinforcing.

It is equal to 1 for normal weight con- crete. The RCDF-NTC-2004 specifies this factor to be 1. unitless. unitless. unitless RLW Shear strength reduction factor as specified in the concrete material properties. Chapter 1 Introduction OL On a wall pier interaction curve the "distance" from the origin to the point considered Pb Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions.0. Newton Pleft Equivalent axial force in the left edge member of a wall pier used for design. Newton Pmax Factor Factor used to reduce the allowable maximum compressive design strength. This may be different at the top and the bottom of the wall pier. Newton Pot The maximum tension force a wall pier can carry with strength reduction factors set equal to one. Newton. Newton P0 Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity. Newton PCmax Maximum ratio of compression steel in an edge member of a wall pier. Pu Factored axial force at a design section. pounds. Newton Poc The maximum compression force a wall pier can carry with strength reduction factors set equal to one. Newton Pright Equivalent axial force in the right edge member of a wall pier used for design. This may be different at the top and the bottom of the wall pier. This reduction factor applies to light-weight concrete. unitless PTmax Maximum ratio of tension steel in an edge member of a wall pier. This factor can be revised in the prefer- ences. Pmax Limit on the maximum compressive design strength speci- fied by RCDF-NTC-2004. Notation 1-5 . Pn Nominal axial strength.

Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 RLL Reduced live load Ts Tension force in wall pier reinforcing steel. Newton WL Wind load a Depth of the wall pier or spandrel compression block. mm a1 Depth of the compression block in the web of a T-beam. mm dr-bot Distance from the bottom of the spandrel beam to the cen- troid of the bottom reinforcing steel. 1-6 Notation . ds Depth of the compression flange in a T-beam. This can be different on the left and right ends of the T-beam. This value is used for shear design calculations. mm. mm. This can be different on the left and right ends of the beam. Newton per square mm. mm fy Yield strength of steel reinforcing. dr-top Distance from the top of the spandrel beam to the centroid of the top reinforcing steel. Newton Vc The portion of the shear force carried by the concrete. c Distance from the extreme compression fiber of the wall pier or spandrel to the neutral axis. mm. This value is used for flexural and axial design calculations. New- ton Vs The portion of the shear force in a spandrel carried by the shear reinforcing steel. dspandrel Depth of the spandrel beam minus the cover to the centroid of reinforcing. fys Yield strength of steel reinforcing. Newton Vd Designed shear force at a design section. mm bs Width of the compression flange in a T-beam. This can be differ- ent on the left and right ends of the beam. Newton per square mm. mm. This can be different on the left and right ends of the T-beam.

ts Thickness of a wall spandrel. u Absolute value of the ratio of the maximum factored axial dead load to the maximum factored axial total load ΣDL The sum of all dead load cases ΣLL The sum of all live load cases ΣRLL The sum of all reduced live load cases α The angle between the diagonal reinforcing and the longitu- dinal axis of a coupling beam β1 Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete ε Reinforcing steel strain. mm. unit- less. Chapter 1 Introduction f 'c Concrete compressive strength. pmax Maximum ratio of reinforcing steel in a wall pier with a Sec- tion Designer section that is designed (not checked). This value is used for flexural and axial design calculations. pmin Minimum ratio of reinforcing steel in a wall pier with a Sec- tion Designer section that is designed (not checked). hs Height of a wall spandrel. This can be different on the left and right ends of the spandrel. This can be different on the left and right ends of the spandrel. MPa f 'cs Concrete compressive strength. mm. Newton per square mm. unitless Notation 1-7 . f 's Stress in compression steel of a wall spandrel. Newton per square mm. This can be different at the top and bottom of the pier. tw Thickness of a wall pier. Newton per square mm. mm. unit- less. f c* Nominal compressive resistance of concrete. This value is used for shear design calculations.

and considering that wind and earthquake forces are re- versible.4(0. break the spandrel into two separate "half-length" piers. Default Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For this code.75 PL) 0. Design Station Locations The program designs wall piers at stations located at the top and bottom of the pier only. if a structure is subjected to dead (D).3.4D + 1.1L ± 1. Note that if you break a spandrel into pieces. pattern live (PL). The angle used to calculate the seismic diagonal shear reinforcing for each piece is based on the length of the piece. unitless ε's Compression steel strain in a wall spandrel. calculate the seismic diagonal shear reinforcing separately by hand.1D + 1. the program will calculate the seismic diagonal shear re- inforcing separately for each piece. live (L). unitless 1.003 mm/mm) εs Reinforcing steel strain in a wall pier. not the length of the entire spandrel.4D 1. if you break a spandrel into pieces. To design at the mid-height of a pier.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 εc Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber (0. earthquake (E). the following load combinations may need to be defined: 1.9D ± 1.4L 1. Thus. wind (W).0W 1.2. break the pier into two separate "half-height" piers. The program designs wall spandrels at stations located at the left and right ends of the spandrel only.4D + 1. and snow (S) loads.0W 1-8 Design Station Locations . 1. To design at the mid-length of a spandrel. This can cause the required area of di- agonal reinforcing to be significantly underestimated.

Wind Load Component The wind load component of the default design load combinations consists of the contribution from a single wind load case. both reducible and nonreducible. or if other types of loads are present.3. Dead Load Component The dead load component of the default design load combinations consists of the sum of all dead loads multiplied by the specified factor.4.3. one for each wind load case that is defined. Chapter 1 Introduction 0.0E These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever the Mexican RCDF 2004 code is used. See the description of the earthquake load component later in this chapter for additional information. Live Load Component The live load component of the default design load combinations consists of the sum of all live loads. if multiple Default Design Load Combinations 1-9 . Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load analysis on a member-by-member basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. the relevant preceding equations will contribute multiple design load combinations. Earthquake Load Component The earthquake load component of the default design load combinations con- sists of the contribution from a single earthquake load case. if multiple wind load cases are defined in the program model. 1.3. Individual live load cases are not considered separately in the default design load combinations. Thus. 1. Individual dead load cases are not considered separately in the default design load combina- tions. The user should use other appropriate design load combinations if roof live load is separately treated. 1.1D + 1. 1.0E 1. Thus. multiplied by the specified factor.9D ± 1.1.3.3.1L ± 1.2.

Any program shear wall design load combination that includes a response spectrum load case is checked for all possible combinations of signs on the response spectrum val- ues. Default design load combinations are created that include the re- sponse spectrum cases. M2 and M3 are considered for three- dimensional wall piers. The output from a response spectrum is all positive. When check- ing the flexural behavior of a two-dimensional wall pier or spandrel. Combinations That Include a Response Spectrum In the program all response spectrum cases are assumed to be earthquake load cases. Thus. the response spectrum contribution of shear to the design load combination is considered once as a positive shear and then a second time as a negative shear. 1. 1-10 Default Design Load Combinations . Similar- ly. four possible combinations are considered for the contribution of response spec- trum load to the design load combination. eight possible combinations of P. They are:  +P and +M  +P and −M  −P and +M  −P and −M where P is the axial load in the pier and M is the moment in the pier. The earthquake load cases considered when creating the default design load combinations include all static load cases that are defined as earthquake loads and all response spectrum cases.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 earthquake load cases are defined in the program model. when checking moment in a wall spandrel. Similar- ly.5. one for each earthquake load case that is defined.3. when checking shear in a wall pier or a wall spandrel. Default design load combinations are not created for time history cases or for static nonlinear cases. the relevant preced- ing equations will contribute multiple design load combinations. the response spectrum contri- bution of moment to the design load combination is considered once as a positive moment and then a second time as a negative moment.

any load combination that includes a time history load case in it is checked for all possible combinations of maximum and minimum time histo- ry design values.3. it may be unconservative. Designing for each step of a time history gives the correct correspondence between different response quantities. When the program gets the envelope results for a time history. When a design load combination includes time history results. it gets maximum and minimum values of shear and mo- ment. Thus. Thus. and the like) as if they occurred simultaneous- ly. it gets a max- imum and a minimum value for each response quantity. To include time history forces in a design load combination. and for wall spandrels. When checking the flexural behavior of a wall pier. Similarly. de- fine the load combination yourself.6. The type of time history design can be specified in the shear wall design prefer- ences (Appendix A). this is not the realistic case. They are:  Pmax and Mmax  Pmax and Mmin  Pmin and Mmax  Pmin and Mmin where P is the axial load in the pier and M is the moment in the pier. but designing for each step can be very time consuming. when checking shear in a wall pier or a wall spandrel. moment. and in some instances. Typically. the time history contribution of moment to the design load combination is considered once as a maximum moment and then a second time as a minimum moment. For a design load combination in the program shear wall design mod- ule. Chapter 1 Introduction 1. the design can be for the envelope of those results or for each step of the time history. for wall piers it gets maximum and minimum values of axial load. four possible combinations are considered for the contribution of time history load to the design load combi- nation. the time history contribution of shear to the design load combination is con- sidered once as a maximum shear and then a second time as a minimum shear. the design is for the maximum of each response quantity (axial load. Combinations that Include Time History Results The default shear wall design load combinations do not include any time his- tory results. when checking moment in a wall spandrel. When envelopes are used. shear and moment. Default Design Load Combinations 1-11 .

1. However. Combinations That Include Static Nonlinear Results The default shear wall design load combinations do not include any static nonlinear results.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it. 1. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. Note that the available overwrites change depend- ing on the pier section type (Uniform Reinforcing. Shear Wall Design Preferences The shear wall design preferences are basic properties that apply to all wall pier and spandrel elements. The overwrites for piers and spandrels are separate. Thus.3. it is not required that preferences be specified. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. If a design load combination includes a single static nonlinear case and noth- ing else. To include static nonlinear results in a design load combi- nation. Default values are provided for all shear wall design preference items.7. that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histo- ries. regardless of what is specified for the Time History Design item in the preferences. Otherwise. Shear Wall Design Overwrites The shear wall design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those piers or spandrels to which they are assigned. General Reinforcing. Appendix A identifies shear wall design prefer- ences for Mexican RCDF 2004. the design is performed for each step of the static nonlinear analysis. When changes are made to overwrite items. 1-12 Shear Wall Design Preferences . Default values are provided for all pier and spandrel overwrite items. Appendix B identifies the shear wall overwrites for Mexican RCDF 2004. Thus.4. define the load combination yourself.5. that is. the design is only performed for the last step of the static nonline- ar analysis. it is not necessary to specify or change any of the overwrites. at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. 1. at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable. However. or Simplified T and C).

Choice of Units 1-13 . all equations and descriptions presented in this manual corre- spond to Newton-mm-second units unless otherwise noted. Choice of Units For shear wall design in this program. mm2. Also.6. any set of consistent units can be used for input. If you are in Newton and mm. The choices available in the shear wall design preferences for the units asso- ciated with an area of concentrated reinforcing are in2. cm2. this option means concentrated areas of reinforcing are in m2 and distributed areas of reinforcing are in m2/mm. The special units specified for concentrated and distributed areas of reinforcing can only be changed in the shear wall design preferences. Chapter 1 Introduction 1. The choices available for the units associated with an area per unit length of distributed reinforcing are in2/ft. mm2/m. The shear wall design preferences allow the user to specify special units for concentrated and distributed areas of reinforcing. For simplicity. These units are then used for reinforcing in the model. areas of distributed reinforcing are specified in Length2/Length units. the system of units being used can be changed at any time. and current units. Typically. if you are working in kN and m units. The current units option uses whatever units are currently displayed in the drop-down list on the status bar (or within a specific form). and current units. Note that when using the "current" option. design codes are based on one specific set of units. where Length is the currently active length unit. the area of distributed rein- forcing is specified in m2/m. cm2/m. For example. The RCDF-NTC-2004 code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. If the current length units are m. regardless of the current model units displayed in the drop-down list on the status bar (or within a specific form). the area of dis- tributed reinforcing is specified in mm2/mm.

The shear design is performed at stations at the top and bottom of the pier.4 when a seismic load case is present in wall design load combinations.2. Note that in this program you cannot specify shear reinforcing and then have the program check it. The pro- gram only designs the pier for shear and reports how much shear reinforcing is required. Chapter 2 Pier Design This chapter describes how the program designs and checks concrete wall piers for flexural and axial loads using the Mexican RCDF 2004 code.5.. Then we describe how the program designs piers that are specified by a Uniform Pier Reinforcing Section or General (Section Designer) Section. This chapter also describes how the program designs each leg of concrete wall piers for shear using Mexican RCDF 2004 code.e. First we describe how the program designs piers that are specified by a Simplified Section. Next we describe how the program checks piers that are specified by a Uniform Pier Reinforcing Section or General Section (i. Designer Section). This chapter also describes the design of boundary zone elements for each pier in accordance with RCDF-NTC-2004 Section 6. 2-1 .

The geometry associated with the simplified section is illustrated in Figure 2-1.1 Wall Pier Flexural Design For both designing and checking piers. 2. Figure 2-1: Typical Wall Pier Dimensions Used for Simplified Design 2-2 Wall Pier Flexural Design . it is important to understand the local axis definition for the pier. The pier geometry is defined by a length.1 Designing a Simplified Pier Section This section describes how the program designs a pier that is assigned a simpli- fied section. Access the local axes assignments using the Assign menu.1.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 2. thickness and size of the edge members at each end of the pier (if any).

The thickness specified for left and right edge members (DB2left and DB2right) may be different from this wall thickness. Three design conditions are possible for a simplified wall pier. Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-3 . The dimensions illustrated are specified in the shear wall overwrites (Appendix B). In all cases.  DB1 represents the horizontal length of the pier edge member.  DB2 represents the horizontal width (or thickness) of the pier edge mem- ber.  The wall pier has a program-determined (variable length and fixed width) edge member on one end and a user-defined (fixed length and width) edge member on the other end. and can be specified differently at the top and bottom of the wall pier. These condi- tions. DB2 can be different at the left and right sides of the pier. illustrated in Figure 2-2. DB1 can be different at the left and right sides of the pier. Chapter 2 Pier Design A simplified T and C pier section is always planar (not three-dimensional). the program reports the required area of reinforcing steel at the center of the edge member. the program assumes that the edge member is the same width as the wall. are as follows:  The wall pier has program-determined (variable length and fixed width) edge members on each end. This section describes how the program-determined length of the edge member is determined and how the program calculates the required rein- forcing at the center of the edge member. This is the horizontal length of the wall pier in plan.  The wall pier has user-defined (fixed length and width) edge members on each end. If no specific edge member dimensions have been specified by the user. whether the edge member size is user-specified or program-determined. and the program determines the required length of the edge member.  The thickness of the wall pier is designated tp. The dimensions shown in the figure include the following:  The length of the wall pier is designated Lp.

the wall pier for a given design load combination is de- signed for a factored axial force Pu-top and a factored moment Mu-top. while limiting the compression and tension reinforcing located at the center of the edge members to user-specified maximum ratios.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 Design Condition 1 Design Condition 2 Wall pier with uniform thickness and Wall pier with user-defined edge ETABS-determined (variable length) members edge members Design Condition 3 Note: Wall pier with a user-defined edge In all three conditions. 2-4 Wall Pier Flexural Design . The program initiates the design procedure by assuming an edge member at the left end of the wall of thickness tp and width B1-left. say the top of the wall pier. For this design condition. Initially B1-left = B1-right = tp. the only member on one end and an ETABS.1.1. reinforcing designed by ETABS is that determined (variable length) edge required at the center of the edge member on the other end members Figure 2-2: Design Conditions for Simplified Wall Piers 2. The maximum ratios are specified in the shear wall design preferences and the pier design overwrites as Edge Design PC-Max and Edge Design PT-Max. the design algorithm focuses on determining the required size (length) of the edge members. Consider the wall pier shown in Figure 2-3. and an edge member at the right end of the wall of thickness tp and width B1-right. For a given design section.1 Design Condition 1 Design condition 1 applies to a wall pier with uniform design thickness and program-determined edge member length.

5tp 0. Chapter 2 Pier Design 0.5tp tp tp tp B1-left B1-right B2-left B2-right B3-left B3-right Lp CL Wall Pier Plan Pleft-top Pu-top Pright-top Mu-top Top of pier Right edge member Left edge member Bottom of pier Mu-bot Pleft-bot Pu-bot Pright-bot Wall Pier Elevation Figure 2-3: Wall Pier for Design Condition 1 Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-5 .5Lp 0.

5B1−left − 0. From the preceding equation. the area of steel required for ten- sion.85 f c* ( Ag − Asc ) + f y Asc ] where P is either Pleft-top or Pright-top. we recom- mend that you use the default value. Abs ( P ) − 0. is calculated as: P Ast = . must satisfy the following relationship.80). Note that for dynamic loads. for section adequacy. Also for design loading combinations involving SRSS. Pleft-top and Pright-top are obtained at the modal level and the modal combinations are made.) Pu − top M u − top P= + left-top 2 ( Lp − 0. the area of steel required for compression. =Abs ( P ) ( Pmax Factor ) FRc [0.5B1−right ) Pu − top M u − top = Pright-top − 2 ( Lp − 0.5B1−right ) For any given loading combination.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 The moment and axial force are converted to an equivalent force set Pleft-top and Pright-top using the relationships shown in the following equations. f y − 0.5B1−left − 0. In general. the Pleft-top and Pright-top forces are obtained first for each load case before the combinations are made. Asc. Ag = tpB1 and the Pmax Factor is defined in the shear wall design preferences (the default is 0. the net values for Pleft-top and Pright-top could be tension or compression.85 f c* Ag ( Pmax Factor) FRc Asc = .85 f c* If Asc calculates as negative. 2-6 Wall Pier Flexural Design . If any value of Pleft-top or Pright-top is tension. before combining with other loads. Ast. (Similar equations apply at the bottom of the pier. no compression reinforcing is needed. FRb f y If any value of Pleft-top or Pright-top is compression.

Chapter 2 Pier Design

The maximum tensile reinforcing to be packed within the tp times B1 concrete
edge member is limited by:

Ast -max = PTmax t p B1

Similarly, the compression reinforcing is limited by:

Asc -max = PCmax t p B1

If Ast is less than or equal to Ast-max and Asc is less than or equal to Asc-max, the
program will proceed to check the next loading combination; otherwise the
program will increment the appropriate B1 dimension (left, right or both, de-
pending on which edge member is inadequate) by one-half of the wall thick-
ness to B2 (i.e., 1.5tp) and calculate new values for Pleft-top and Pright-top resulting
in new values of Ast and Asc. This iterative procedure continues until Ast and Asc
are within the allowed steel ratios for all design load combinations.

If the value of the width of the edge member B increments to where it reaches a
value larger than or equal to Lp /2, the iteration is terminated and a failure con-
dition is reported.

This design algorithm is an approximate but convenient algorithm. Wall piers
that are declared overstressed using this algorithm could be found to be ade-
quate if the reinforcing steel is user-specified and the wall pier is accurately
evaluated using interaction diagrams.

2.1.1.2 Design Condition 2
Design condition 2 applies to a wall pier with user-specified edge members at
each end of the pier. The size of the edge members is assumed to be fixed; that
is, the program does not modify them. For this design condition, the design al-
gorithm determines the area of steel required in the center edge members and
checks if that area gives reinforcing ratios less than the user-specified maxi-
mum ratios. The design algorithm used is the same as described for condition
1; however, no iteration is required.

Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-7

Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004

2.1.1.3 Design Condition 3
Design condition 3 applies to a wall pier with a user-specified (fixed dimen-
sion) edge member at one end of the pier and a variable length (program-
determined) edge member at the other end. The width of the variable length
edge member is equal to the width of the wall.

The design is similar to that which has previously been described for design
conditions 1 and 2. The size of the user-specified edge member is not changed.
Iteration only occurs on the size of the variable length edge member.

2.1.2 Checking a General or Uniform Reinforcing Pier Section
When you specify that a General Reinforcing or Uniform Reinforcing pier
section is to be checked, the program creates an interaction surface for that pier
and uses that interaction surface to determine the critical flexural demand/
capacity ratio for the pier. This section describes how the program generates
the interaction surface for the pier and how it determines the demand/capacity
ratio for a given design load combination.

Note: In this program, the interaction surface is defined by a series of PMM interac-
tion curves that are equally spaced around a 360-degree circle.

2.1.2.1 Interaction Surface
In this program, a three-dimensional interaction surface is defined with refer-
ence to the P, M2 and M3 axes. The surface is developed using a series of in-
teraction curves that are created by rotating the direction of the pier neutral axis
in equally spaced increments around a 360-degree circle. For example, if 24
PMM curves are specified (the default), there is one curve every 15 degrees
(360°/24 curves = 15°). Figure 2-4 illustrates the assumed orientation of the
pier neutral axis and the associated sides of the neutral axis where the section is
in tension (designated T in the figure) or compression (designated C in the fig-
ure) for various angles.

Note that the orientation of the neutral axis is the same for an angle of θ and
θ+180°. Only the side of the neutral axis where the section is in tension or
compression changes. We recommend that you use 24 interaction curves (or
more) to define a three-dimensional interaction surface.

2-8 Wall Pier Flexural Design

Chapter 2 Pier Design

Each PMM interaction curve that makes up the interaction surface is numeri-
cally described by a series of discrete points connected by straight lines. The
coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain
about the neutral axis on the section of the pier. Details of this process are de-
scribed later in the section entitled "Details of the Strain Compatibility Analy-
sis."

By default, 11 points are used to define a PMM interaction curve. This number
can be changed in the preferences; any odd number of points greater than or
equal to 11 can be specified, to be used in creating the interaction curve. If an
even number is specified for this item in the preferences, the program will in-
crement up to the next higher odd number.

T C Interaction curve is Interaction curve is
for a neutral axis for a neutral axis
parallel to this axis parallel to this axis

C
3 3

T
Pier section Pier section

2 2

45°
a) Angle is 0 degrees b) Angle is 45 degrees

Interaction curve is Interaction curve is
for a neutral axis for a neutral axis
parallel to this axis parallel to this axis
3 3
Pier section Pier section

2 2

C T 225°
T

a) Angle is 180 degrees b) Angle is 225 degrees
C

Figure 2-4: Orientation of the Pier Neutral Axis for Various Angles

Note that when creating an interaction surface for a two-dimensional wall pier,
the program considers only two interaction curvesthe 0° curve and the 180°
curveregardless of the number of curves specified in the preferences.

Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-9

FR.2 Formulation of the Interaction Surface The formulation of the interaction surface in this program is based consistently on the basic principles of ultimate strength design given in Sections 2. The theoretical maximum tension force that the wall pier can carry. M3n) of the wall pier. is designated Poc and is given by Poc = [0. the re- quired strength (Pu. 2-10 Wall Pier Flexural Design . which is 0.2. is by default equal to FRb. The theoretical maximum compressive force that the wall pier can carry. This nominal strength is then multiplied by the appropriate strength reduction factor. M2u. the strength reduction factor. to obtain the design strength (FRPn.1 of RCDF-NTC-2004. only moments about the M3 axis are considered for two- dimensional walls.85f*c (Ag − As) + fyAs]. FRM2n. In cases involving axial tension. M3u) ≤ (FRPn. FRM3n) of the pier. FRM2n. The strength reduction factors FRc and FRb can be revised in the preferences (Appendix A) and the overwrites (Appendix B). For the pier to be deemed adequate. assuming the FRb factor is equal to 1.1.7(d)) Note: Strength reduction factors are specified in the shear wall design preference (Ap- pendix A). (Pu.90 by default (RCDF-NTC 1. 2. as- suming the FRc factor is equal to 1. The program uses the requirements of force equilibrium and strain compatibility to determine the nominal axial load and moment strength (Pn. FRt.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 Furthermore. M2u. FRM3n) The effect of the strength reduction factor.7(a)) FRc= FR for compression which is 0. M3u) must be less than or equal to the design strength.70 by default (RCDF-NTC 1. FRb = FR for bending. FR. is designated Pot and is given by Pot = fyAs. M2n. is included in the generation of the interaction surface.

FRcPn. but also by an additional factor of 0. In all RCDF-NTC-2004 code designs. by default. As previously mentioned. For unsymmetrical geometry or rein- forcing.70f*c Ag + 20Ast]. Chapter 2 Pier Design If the wall pier geometry and reinforcing is symmetrical in plan. # 5@12” o. this factor is called the Pmax Factor. In the preferences. When creating a single interaction curve. FRc. The RCDF-NTC-2004 code limits the maximum compressive design strength.0 as required by the code.3) Note that the equation defining Pmax reduces Poc not only by a strength reduc- tion factor. there will be moments associated with Poc and Pot. and different values for it can be specified.0 [0. Notice that the concrete is symmetrical but the reinforcing is not symmetrical in this example.c. The other half of the remain- ing number of specified points on the interaction curve occur between Pb and Pot at approximately equal spacing along the FRPn axis. the moments associated with both Poc and Pot are zero.. as required. Figure 2-6 shows several interaction surfaces for the wall pier illus- trated in Figure 2-5. Poc and Pot on the interaction curve.80. the program includes the points at Pb. 12'-6" each face. Note: The number of points to be used in creating interaction diagrams can be speci- fied in the shear wall preferences and overwrites. Figure 2-5 shows a plan view of an example two-dimensional wall pier.1. (RCDF-NTC 5. except 3" 12 spaces at 1'-0" = 12'-0" 3" as noted 1' f’c = 4 ksi 2-#9 2-#9 2-#6 fy = 60 ksi Figure 2-5: Example Two-Dimensional Wall Pier With Unsymmetrical Reinforcing Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-11 . 11 points are used to define a single in- teraction curve. Half of the remaining number of specified points on the interaction curve occur between Pb and Poc at approximately equal spacing along the FRPn axis. to the value given by Pmax FRPn(max)= FR*1. it is prudent to consider this factor to be 1.

Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 Figure 2-6 : Interaction Curves for Example Wall Pier Shown in Figure 2-5 Note the following about Figure 2-6:  Because the pier is two-dimensional.  The dashed line shows the effect of setting the PmaxFactor to 1. as specified by RCDF-NTC- 2004. the interaction surface consists of two interaction curves. Only M3 moments are considered because this is a two-dimensional example.  The 0° and 180° interaction curves are not symmetric because the wall pier reinforcing is not symmetric.  The smaller interaction surface (drawn with a heavier line) has both the strength reduction factors and the PmaxFactor.  In this program. 2-12 Wall Pier Flexural Design .0.0. One curve is at 0° and the other is at 180°. compression is negative and tension is positive.  The larger interaction surface has both the strength reduction factor and the PmaxFactor set to 1.

and that their values can be revised in the overwrites as required.70 and 0. all have PmaxFactors of 1. which are plotted for FR = 0. Figure 2-7 shows the 0° interaction curves for the wall pier illustrated in Figure 2-5. heavier curve in Figure 2-7 has the strength reduction factor and the PmaxFactor as specified in RCDF-NTC-2004.0. The other three curves. The smaller.0.9 are actually FRc and FRb.70. The purpose of showing these interaction curves is to explain how the program creates the interaction curve.9 and 1. Chapter 2 Pier Design  The interaction surfaces shown are created using the default value of 11 points for each interaction curve. Figure 2-7: Interaction Curves for Example Wall Pier Shown in Figure 2-5 Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-13 . Recall that the strength reduction factors 0. 0. Additional interaction curves are also added to Figure 2-7.

Pot. Varying neutral axis locations +ε 0. The coordinates of these points are de- termined by rotating a plane of linear strain on the section of the wall pier. the maximum tensile force in the wall pier.2. is obtained from the strain compatibility analysis. is obtained. Pb is obtained.) When the steel strain is −0. M3n) of the wall pier. the maximum compressive force in the wall pier. (Recall that in this program compression is negative and tension is positive.003 to plus infinity. M2n. Figure 2-8 illustrates varying planes of linear strain such as those that the pro- gram considers on a wall pier section for a neutral axis orientation angle of 0 degrees.000 -0. the maximum concrete strain is always taken as −0.3 Details of the Strain Compatibility Analysis As previously mentioned. In these planes.003 Varying Linear Strain Diagram -ε Plan View of Wall Pier Figure 2-8: Varying Planes of Linear Strain 2-14 Wall Pier Flexural Design .Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 2. When the steel strain is plus infinity. the program uses the requirements of force equilibri- um and strain compatibility to determine the nominal axial load and moment strength (Pn. Poc.1.003.003 and the maximum steel strain is varied from −0. When the maximum steel strain is equal to the yield strain for the reinforcing.

Then the strain in all other reinforcing steel is determined based on the as- sumed plane of linear strain.85f'c Cc a = β1c Stress Diagram ε13s ε12s ε11s ε10 s ε9s ε8 c s ε7s ε6 5 s ε s ε = 0.003 ε4s ε3 s ε2s ε1 s Linear Strain Diagram tp Plan View of Wall Pier Figure 2-9: Wall Pier Stress-Strain Relationship In Figure 2-8. Cc = 0. is calculated (RCDF 2.1) 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Cs Cs Cs Cs 0.1).85f*cβ1ctp (RCDF 2. Cc. In Figure 2-9 the compressive stress in the concrete. the value for maximum strain in the reinforcing steel is assumed. Chapter 2 Pier Design Figure 2-9 illustrates the concrete wall pier stress-strain relationship that is obtained from a strain compatibility analysis of a typical plane of linear strain shown in Figure 2-10. Next the stress in the reinforcing steel is calculat- Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-15 .

Similarly. If FRPn is positive.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 ed as follows. and the points for the associated new interaction curve are calcu- lated. The forces whose moments are summed to determine FRM2n and FRM3n are FRPn. that is. The FRPn. 2. the value of FRM3n is calculated by summing the moments due to all of the forces about the pier local 3 axis.3 Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio Refer to Figure 2-10. which shows a typical two-dimensional wall pier inter- action diagram. and fy is the yield stress of the reinforcing steel. the tensile force Ts and the compressive forces Cc and Cs are all positive. For the given distribution of strain. considering a different plane of linear strain. σs = εsEs ≤ fy The force in the reinforcing steel (Ts for tension or Cs for compression) is cal- culated by Ts or Cs = σsAs. FRCc. In the preceding equation. and repeating the process. M3u). is placed on the interaction 2-16 Wall Pier Flexural Design . and if it is negative. FRM2n and FRM3n values calculated as described in the preceding paragraph make up one point on the wall pier interaction diagram. all of the FRTs forces and all of the FRCs forces. Es is the modulus of elasticity. defined by (Pu. The forces obtained from a given design load combination are Pu and M3u. it is tension. the value of FRPn is calculated by FRPn = FR (ΣTs − Cc − ΣCs) ≤ Pmax. The value of FRM2n is calculated by summing the moments due to all of the forces about the pier local 2 axis. This process continues until the points for all of the specified curves have been calculated. the next orientation of the neutral axis is assumed. The point L. where εs is the strain. Additional points on the diagram are obtained by making different assumptions for the maximum steel stress.1. When one interaction curve is complete. it is compression. σs is the stress.

D/C. is given by D/C = OL / OC where OL is the "dis- tance" from point O (the origin) to point L and OC is the "distance" from point O to point C. The ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (ex- tended outward if needed) intersects the interaction curve. the wall pier capacity is adequate. the point (Pu. the program calculates a stress ratio. Note the following about the demand/capacity ratio:  If OL = OC (or D/C = 1). the wall pier is overstressed. If the point lies within the interaction curve. M3u) lies on the interaction curve and the wall pier is stressed to capacity. M3u) lies within the interaction curve and the wall pier capacity is adequate. If the point lies outside of the interaction curve. the point (Pu.  If OL < OC (or D/C < 1). Chapter 2 Pier Design diagram. the point (Pu. as shown in the figure. φPn C Pu L Axial Compression Axial O M3u φM3n Tension Figure 2-10: Two-Dimensional Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition in the wall pier. Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-17 . M3u) lies outside of the interaction curve and the wall pier is overstressed. The de- mand/capacity ratio.  If OL > OC (or D/C > 1).

is 0.  The location of the reinforcing specified in Section Designer. Table 1 illustrates the spacing. The demand/capacity ratio for a three-dimensional wall pier is determined in a similar manner to that described here for two-dimensional piers. both in general terms and for a specific example. The smallest of the eight reinforcing ratios used is that specified in the shear wall design preferences as Section Design IP-Min. Similarly. when the mini- mum reinforcing ratio. The interaction surfaces are developed for eight different ratios of reinforcing- steel-area-to-pier-area. the program develops interaction surfaces for all eight of the ratios using the process described earlier in the section entitled "Checking a General or Uniform Reinforcing Pier Sec- tion. After the eight reinforcing ratios have been determined. however. The spacing between the reinforcing ratios is calculated as an increasing arithmetic series in which the space between the first two ratios is equal to one-third of the space between the last two ratios. The pier area is held constant and the rebar area is mod- ified to obtain these different ratios. the largest of the eight reinforcing ratios used is that specified in the shear wall design prefer- ences as Section Design IP-Max. is 0." 2-18 Wall Pier Flexural Design . the pro- gram creates a series of interaction surfaces for the pier based on the following items:  The size of the pier as specified in Section Designer. IPmin.0025 and the maximum.  The size of each reinforcing bar specified in Section Designer relative to the size of the other bars.4 Designing a General Reinforcing Pier Section When a General Reinforcing pier section is specified to be designed. 2. the relative size (area) of each rebar compared to the other bars is always kept constant.1.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 The wall pier demand/capacity ratio is a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the wall with respect to the capacity of the wall. The eight reinforcing ratios used are the maximum and the minimum ratios plus six more ratios.02. IPmax.

0100  14  25  IPmax − IPmin  6 IPmin +   0.0075  14   IPmax − IPmin  5 IPmin + 6   0. the program generates a de- mand/capacity ratio associated with each of the eight interaction surfaces.0054 3 14   IPmax − IPmin  4 IPmin + 4   0. Wall Pier Shear Design 2-19 . VcR.2 Wall Pier Shear Design The wall pier shear reinforcing is designed for each of the design load combi- nations. 1. Mu and Vu that are acting on the wall pier section. Determine the shear force. Design of a Uniform Reinforcing pier section is similar to that described herein for the General Reinforcing section. that can be carried by the concrete. Chapter 2 Pier Design Table 2-1 The Eight Reinforcing Ratios Used by the Program Curve Ratio Example 1 IPmin 0. 2. Determine the design factored forces Nu. The program then uses linear interpolation between the eight interaction surfaces to determine the reinforcing ratio that gives a demand/capacity ratio of 1 (actually the program uses 0.0200 Next. This process is repeated for all design load combinations and the largest required reinforcing ratio is reported.0025 IPmax − IPmin 2 IPmin + 0. for a given design load combination.99 instead of 1). The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a particular wall pier section for a particular design loading combination.0038 14 7  IPmax − IPmin  3 IPmin +   0. 2.0129 3  14   IPmax − IPmin  7 IPmin + 11   0.0163  14  8 IPmax 0.

0. (RCDF-NTC 6.5 < H/Lp < 2. (RCDF 6.  The shear force is limited to a maximum of Vmax = 0.5. (RCDF-NTC 6.5. 2.2 Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing Given Vu and Vcr.8 Lw ) 2-20 Wall Pier Shear Design .5(1).5.5. The following two sections describe in de- tail the algorithms associated with the Steps 2 and 3. the following equation provides the required shear reinforc- ing in area per unit length (e.2.5(2).8 L p ) t p  * (RCDF-NTC 6.2. Av V − FRVcR = u (RCDF 6. 6.3F ( 0.63FR f c* Acv .27 FR f c* t p L p .5(d). Eqn.2 + 20 p ) f * ( 0.5 VcR = 0. Mu and Vu acting on a wall pier section.16 FR f c ( 0. square mm per mm) for both seismic and non- seismic wall piers (as indicated by the "Design is Seismic" item in the pier de- sign overwrites).. Step 1 needs no further explanation. Determine the required shear reinforcing to carry the balance of the shear force.8 L ) t  R c p p VcR = min  0.2.2.g.19 and 2. is calculated as.2. Eqn.5(2)).0  0. Eqn. Eqn.5.2. Vcr. a linear interpolation can be used to calculate VcR. For H/Lp ≤ 1.5(b).12) For H/Lp ≥ 2.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 3. Note that additional requirements for seismic piers are pro- vided later in this section. 6.15) 2.13) s FR f ys (0.2.1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set Pu. 2.20) For 1. 6. the shear force carried by the concrete.

2. Acv. the length of the wall pier.5. Exceptions to 6. the shear reinforcement ratio cannot be less than 0. 2.2.4(a) and reports the boundary zone requirement when RCDF-NTC-2004 Equation 6.5(d). hw. Chapter 2 Pier Design where.2.15).  The height of the entire wall.3.) Wall Pier Boundary Elements 2-21 .2 fc′ limit and section 6. Ag. The pro- gram does not compute boundary zone requirement when maximum extreme fiber compressive stress is less than 0.5. 2.5. When extreme fiber compressive stress is equal to or greater than 0.4(a) cannot be used.2 fc′ . Eqn.2. Users must provide the boundary zone when the maximum extreme fiber compressive stress exceeds the 0. the program also checks RCDF-NTC- 2004 Section 65. (Refer to Figure 2-3 earlier in this chapter for an illustration of the dimensions Lp and tp.4 of RCDF-NTC-2004 by default.2.0025(RCDF 6. Vu. and Mu for the pier section. and the length of the pier.3 Wall Pier Boundary Elements This section describes how the program considers the boundary element re- quirements for each leg of concrete wall piers using RCDF-NTC-2004 when the seismic design option is chosen. 6. (RCDF 6.5.11 is satisfied. and the net area of the pier.2 fc′ .4(a) clauses are not checked by the program. tp. The net area of the pier is the area bounded by the web thickness. else if Vu > FRVmax .5.2. the gross area of the pier.1 Details of Check for Boundary Element Requirements The following information is available for the boundary element check:  The design forces Pu. Lp. Note that the boundary element requirements are considered separately for each design load combination that includes seismic load. a failure condition is declared.5(b)). The program uses an approach based on the requirements of Section 6.

2 f c′ Q Δ / Hw c ' When the extreme fiber compressive stress exceeds 0.. Figure 2-11 shows some examples of symmetrical and unsymmetrical wall piers.5. Note that a pier defined using Section Designer is assumed to be unsymmetrical. Figure 2-11 Example Plan Views of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Wall Piers Using this information. the program calculates the following quantities that are used to determine the boundary zone requirements. the program calculates the maximum compressive stress at the extreme fiber of the concrete pier for the specified load combina- tion. This area of steel is calculated by the program or it is provided by the user. fc′ and fy. when determining if the pier is symmetrical.2 fc .e. After the compressive stress at the extreme fiber of the concrete pier is known.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004  The program also computes the design displacement δu by multiplying the displacement from the load combination times the cd factor provided in the shear wall design preferences (Appendix A).  The material properties of the pier. boundary elements are required (RCDF-NTC-2004 6. or when the neutral axial depth 2-22 Wall Pier Boundary Elements . unless it is made up of a single rectangular shape. As.  The area of reinforcement in the pier.2. Only the geometry of the pier is considered. not the re- inforcing.4(b)). These quantities are: 0.  The symmetry of the wall pier (i. is the left side of the pier the same as the right side of the pier).

4(a). The code requires that LBZ shall not be less than c . LBZ Wall Pier Boundary Elements 2-23 .15f′c. If boundary elements are required. the program calculates the minimum required length of the boundary zone at each end of the wall. δu.11) 600 ( Q Δ / H w ) where Q Δ / H w ≥ 0.5.5.5.1lw and c/2 (RCDF 6.2.4(a)).2.5. LBZ.2.4(c1)). and exceed the following limit: lw c≥ (RCDF 6. Eqn.4(a) when the boundary zone is required or when the extreme fiber compressive stress exceeds 0. The program also reports the largest neutral axis depth for each leg and the boundary zone length computed using RCDF 6. 6.2. in accordance with the requirements of Section 6. Figure 2-12 illustrates the boundary zone length LBZ.007 boundary elements are required (RCDF 6. Chapter 2 Pier Design calculated from the factored axial force and nominal moment strength are con- sistent with design displacement.2. Figure 2-12: Illustration of Boundary Zone Length.4(a) in RCDF-NTC-2004. This information is provided so the user can satisfy the other requirements of the RCDF-NTC-2004 code.0.5.

Spandrel flexural reinforcing is designed for each of the design load combinations. Note that the program designs spandrels at stations located at the ends of the spandrel. Chapter 3 Spandrel Design This chapter describes how the program designs concrete shear wall spandrels for flexure and shear when RCDF-NTC-2004 is the selected design code. The program allows consideration of rectangular sections and T-beam sections for shear wall spandrels. 3-1 . No design is performed at the center (mid- length) of the spandrel.1 Spandrel Flexural Design In this program. The required area of reinforcing for flexure is calculated and reported only at the ends of the spandrel beam. wall spandrels are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. The following steps are involved in designing the flexural reinforcing for a par- ticular wall spandrel section for a particular design loading combination at a particular station. torsion or minor direction shear that may exist in the spandrels must be investigated by the user independent of the program. Effects caused by any axial forces. The program only designs the spandrel for shear and reports how much shear reinforcing is required. minor direction bending. 3. The program does not allow shear reinforcing to be specified and then checked.  Determine the maximum factored moment Md.

as shown in Figure 3-1. In such cases.1. The maximum depth of the compression zone. These steps are described in the following sections.006 ( f ck − 25 ) . 3. 3.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004  Determine the required flexural reinforcing. In this program.1.85. negative beam moments produce top steel.1. In such cases. the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. positive beam moments produce bottom steel.85k1cb (TS 7. The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive and the maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the design load combinations. 7. is calculated based on the compressive strength of the concrete and the tensile steel tension using the following equation (TS 7. the factored moments for each design load combination at a particular beam station are first obtained. In- dicate that a spandrel is to be designed as a T-beam by specifying the appropri- ate slab width and depth dimensions in the spandrel design overwrites (Appen- dix B). or as a T-beam section.85 − 0.70 ≤ k1 ≤ 0. Table 7. cb.11.2 Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing In this program. Eqn.3. amax.4) where k1 is calculated as follows: k1 = 0. 7.1 Determine the Maximum Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcing for spandrels. the beam may be designed as a rectangular section. 0.1) εcu Es + f yd The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. The flexural design procedure is based on a simplified rectangular stress block.1): εcu Es cb = d (TS 7. is given by amax = 0.1) 3-2 Spandrel Flexural Design . (TS 7.

For a rectangular beam. the factored moment.1 Rectangular Beam Flexural Reinforcing Refer to Figure 3-1. (TS 7.1. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at amax. Chapter 3 Spandrel Design Figure 3-1 Rectangular Spandrel Beam Design. The depth of the compression block.2. is given by Spandrel Flexural Design 3-3 . a. the program calculates an area of compression reinforcement assuming that the additional moment is carried by compression reinforcing and additional tension reinforcing.85 f cd a ts and dspandrel is equal to hs − dr-bot for positive bending and hs − dr-top for negative bending. 3.1)  2 where Cc = 0. is resisted by a couple between the concrete in compression and the tension in reinforcing steel. Md. This is expressed as:  a =M d Cc  dspandrel −  . Positive Moment It is assumed that the compression depth carried by the concrete is less than or equal to amax. The procedure used by the program for both rectangular and T-beam sections is given in the subsections that follow.

85 f cd amax ts . 3. However.2. is given by 3-4 Spandrel Flexural Design . Mdc. The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by Cc = 0.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 2M d a =dspandrel − dspandrel 2 − . The depth of the concrete compression block.85 f cd ts The program uses the preceding equation to determine the depth of the com- pression block. (TS 7. no compression reinforcing is required and the program calculates the area of tension reinforcing. 3.1 Tension Reinforcing Only Required If a ≤ amax. is set equal to a = amax.1) The moment resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression and the tension steel.1. the program reports an overstress when the ratio exceeds 4%. the additional moment to be resisted by the couple between the compression steel and the additional tension steel. a.2 Tension and Compression Reinforcing Required If a > amax. Md As = . The depth of the compression block. compression reinforcing is required and the program calculates required compression and tension reinforcing as follows.1.  a f yd  dspandrel −   2 The steel is placed at the bottom for positive moment and at the top for nega- tive moment. those ratios may be large because there is no limit on them.1. is given by  a  =M dc Cc  dspandrel − max  .2. a. a.1. Mds. When compression steel is required. Note: The program reports the ratio of top and bottom steel required in the web area. 0. is compared with amax.  2  Therefore.

is M dc Asw = . Asc. The term c is equal to amax k1. In the preceding equations. f 's. The force carried by the compression steel. is given by 0. is M ds Asc = . dspandrel − d r Referring to Figure 3-1. ε's. c The stress in the compression steel. A's. The total required area of compression steel. is calculated using the equa- tion given below. dr is equal to dr-top for positive bending and dr-bot for negative bending. f yd ( dspandrel − d r ) In the preceding equations. Spandrel Flexural Design 3-5 .  a  f yd  dspandrel − max   2  The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression steel. Cs As′ = (σ s′ − 0. is given by. Chapter 3 Spandrel Design M= ds M d − M dc . the strain in the compression steel.003 ( c − d r ) ε s′ = . c − d′ σ's = Es εcu  max  ≤ f yd .85 f cd ) The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression in the concrete web. Asw. is given by M ds Cs = . dspandrel is equal to hs − dr-bot for positive bending and hs − dr-top for negative bending.  cmax  The term dr in the preceding equations is equal to dr-top for positive bending and equal to dr-bot for negative bending. Cs.

. 0. the calculation of required steel is as described in the previous section for rectangular sections. the tension steel required to balance the compressive force in the flange is determined. For positive moment. The width of the beam is taken equal to the width of the web. The compression force in the protruding portion of the flange. Compression reinforcement is provid- ed when the dimension "a" exceeds amax. compression steel is added to help resist the design moment. First.  If a > ds. bs. a. the tension steel required to balance the compressive force in the web is determined. Refer to Figure 3-2. No T-beam data is used in this design. If necessary. As is to be placed at the bottom of the beam and As' at the top for positive bending and vice versa for negative bending. 3-6 Spandrel Flexural Design .Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 The total tension reinforcement As is given by = As Asw + Asc . The remainder of this section describes in detail the design process used by the program for T-beam spandrels when a > ds. the subsequent calculations for the reinforcing steel are exactly the same as previously defined for rectangular section design. the subsequent calculations for the required area of reinforcing steel are performed in two parts.85 f cd ( bs − ts ) d s Note: T-beam action is considered for positive moment only. and second. and the total compression rein- forcement is As'. 3. designing top steel). the width of the compression block is taken to be equal to the width of the compression flange.e. Cf. The protruding portion of the flange is shown cross- hatched. is given by 2M d a =− d d2 − .2. Thus. =C f 0. However.2 T-Beam Flexural Reinforcing T-beam action is considered effective only for positive moment. in that case. is given. When design- ing T-beams for negative moment (i. the depth of the compression block.85 f cd b f  If a ≤ ds. the total tension reinforcement is As.1.

Md. is given by  d  =M df C f  dspandrel − s   2  Therefore. 0. that is resisted by the flange. is recalculated as 2 M dw a1 =dspandrel − dspandrel 2 − . Mdw. Asf.85 f cd ts Spandrel Flexural Design 3-7 . a1. The web is a rectangular section of width ts and depth hs for which the design depth of the compression block. Positive Moment The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression force in the concrete flange. Mdf. the balance of the moment to be carried by the web. is given by M= dw M d − M df . is Cf Asf = f yd The portion of the total moment. Chapter 3 Spandrel Design Figure 3-2: Design of a Wall Spandrel with a T-Beam Section.

is given by: = M ds M dw − M dc . 3. Asw. The moment resisted by the couple between the concrete web in compression and the tension steel. is given by 3-8 Spandrel Flexural Design . Mdc.2.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 3.  2 Therefore. is to be placed at the bottom of the beam for positive bending. the force carried by the compression steel. Cs. is given by  a =M dc Cw  dspandrel −  . The compressive force developed in the web concrete alone is given by Cw = 0.2. In that case.1.2.2 Tension and Compression Reinforcing Required If a1 > amax. M dw Asw =  a  f yd  d spandrel − 1   2 The total tension reinforcement As is given by. The depth of the concrete compression block. no compression reinforcing is required and the program calculates the area of tension steel for balancing the compression force in the concrete web. As. = As Asf + Asw The total tension reinforcement.85 f cd ats . compression re- inforcing is required. is set equal to a = amax.1 Tension Reinforcing Only Required If a1 ≤ amax.2. Mds. where a1 is calculated using the previous equation. the required reinforcing is computed as fol- lows. a. the additional moment to be resisted by the couple between the compression steel and the tension steel.1. Referring to Figure 3-2.

Asc. is calculated as.  a f yd  dspandrel −   2 The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression steel. is M ds Asc = .003Es ( c . f yd ( dspandrel − d r − top ) The total tension reinforcement As is given by As = Asf + Asw + Asc . The required area of compression steel. As'.003 ( c − d r -top ) ε s′ = . is given by 0. εs'. Cs As′ = . c The stress in the compression steel. Spandrel Flexural Design 3-9 . Asw. As is to be placed at the bottom of the beam. is given by 0. fs'. is M dc Asw = . and As' at the top of the beam.d r -top ) f s′ = Es ε s′ = . c The term c is equal to amax k1 . σ s′ The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression in the concrete web. Chapter 3 Spandrel Design M ds Cs = dspandrel − d r -top The strain in the compression steel.

wall spandrels are designed for major direction flexure and shear forces only. The shear design for both of these types of spandrel sections is identical. is given for rectangular and circular columns by the follow- ing:  The shear force is limited to a maximum of Vmax = 0. Effects caused by any axial forces. minor direction bending. The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a par- ticular wall spandrel section for a particular design loading combination at a particular station.7. 3-10 Spandrel Shear Design . 3. EDP 3.2 Spandrel Shear Design The program allows consideration of rectangular sections and T-beam sections for wall spandrels. Av /s. The following two sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with Steps 2 and 3. Determine the shear force.2. The wall spandrel shear reinforcing is designed for each of the design load combinations. Determine the required shear reinforcing to carry the balance of the shear force. that can be carried by the concrete. the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties within a spacing. is calculated as fol- lows: If Vd ≤ Vcr .Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 3. 3.22 f cd Aw (TS 8. 2.1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity Given Vd and Vc. s. Determine the factored shear force Vd. 1. In this program. Vcr.5)  The required shear reinforcement per unit spacing.3. torsion or minor direction shear that may exist in the spandrels must be investi- gated by the user independent of the program.1. The required area of reinforcing for vertical shear is calculated only at the ends of the spandrel beam.5b. Step 1 needs no further explanation.

6. 8. Chapter 3 Spandrel Design Asw f = 0.6. 8. Eqn.6) s f ywd else if Vcr < Vd ≤ Vmax .2).4.2 Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing One of the terms used in calculating the spandrel shear reinforcing is dspandrel. (TS 8.7. TS 8. a failure condition is reported in accordance with EDP Section 3.6.2. (TS 8.2.1.1.1. Vds= Vd − Vcr (EDP 3.2. Note: The term RLW that is used as a multiplier on all f cd terms in this man- ual is a shear strength reduction factor that applies to light-weight concrete.1.5.2. This factor is specified in the concrete material properties. Spandrel Shear Design 3-11 . 8.5b) If Vd exceeds its maximum permitted value Vmax. Vds. a failure condition is declared.5) s f ywd d Asw f ≥ 0. Asw (Vd − Vc ) = .1 Seismic and Nonseismic Spandrels Given Vd and Vcr. It is equal to 1 for normal weight concrete. For shear design. the program takes dspandrel to be equal to the smaller of hs−dr-top and hs−dr-bot. Eqn. the required force to be carried by the shear reinforcing.3 ctd bw . Eqn. is calculated using (EDP 3.1.7. 3.6) s f ywd else if Vd > Vmax . which is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension steel. 3.65 RLW f cd ts dspandrel .3 ctd bw (TS 8.7.5. the concrete section size should be increased (TS 8.5b).2) If Vds as calculated in the preceding equation exceeds 0.

the program reports the diagonal shear reinforcing as required or not required (i. Vds Av = f yd dspandrel Note: The output units for the distributed shear reinforcing can be set in the shear wall design preferences.e. in addition to the requirements of the previous sub- section. The diagonal shear reinforcing is reported as re- quired when Vd > 1.. 0. 3.5 f cd dbspandrel . The preceding equation initially calculates the required vertical shear reinforcing in area per unit length (e.8.g. L2s + (0. In the output. dspandrel Vd Avd = .4(b)) 2 f yd sin γ where.6. 3-12 Spandrel Shear Design . (EDP 3.8hs ) 2 where hs is the height of the spandrel and Ls is the length of the spandrel.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 Given Vds.. an area of diagonal shear reinforcement in coupling beams is also cal- Ls culated when ≤ 3 using the following equation.8hs sin γ = .2. Note that additional requirements that are checked for both seismic and nonseismic wall spandrels are given as.2 Seismic Spandrels Only For seismic spandrels only. optional). square mm per meter) for both seismic and nonseismic wall spandrels (as indicated in the preferences).2.

The graphical output can be produced in color or in gray-scaled screen dis- 4-1 . Some of the design information is very specific to the chosen shear wall design code. file output. The member specific detailed design in- formation shows the details of the calculation. RTF. Chapter 4 Design Output The program has the capacity to create design output in four major ways – graphical display. The following sections describe some of the typical graphical display. tabular display. file output. This manual addresses "TS 500-200" design code related output information only. Access. including Excel. The file output includes both summary and detail design data that can be saved in RTF.1 Graphical Display of Design Information The graphical display of design output includes input and output design in- formation for all shear wall members that are visible in the active window. the display can be sent directly to a printer or saved to a file. The graphical display includes input and output design information for members visible in the active window. tabular display output. HTML and plain text. 4. HTML and plain text formats. and member specific detailed design infor- mation. The tabular display output includes both summary and detail design data that can be displayed or saved in many formats. and member specific detailed design information.

Use the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Display Design Info com- mand to display on-screen output plotted directly on the model. The on-screen display data is organized into two main groups. Design Input  Material  Thickness  Pier length/spandrel depth  Section Designer pier sections Design Output  Simplified pier longitudinal reinforcing  Simplified pier edge members  Section Designer pier reinforcing ratios  Section Designer pier D/C ratios  Spandrel longitudinal reinforcing  Shear reinforcing  Pier demand/capacity ratios  Pier boundary zones Note that you cannot display more than one of the listed items on the model at the same time. the screen graphics can then be printed using the File menu > Print Graphics command.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 play. as follows. the output plotted directly on spandrels is plotted along an invisible line that extends from the 4-2 Graphical Display of Design Information . The active screen display can be sent directly to the printer or saved to a file in several formats. If desired. The output plotted directly on piers is plotted along an invisible line that ex- tends from the centroid of the pier section at the bottom of the pier to the centroid of the pier section at the top of the pier. Similarly.

That form can be used to choose which tables or sets of tables are to be displayed. simplified T and C sections. instead of being displayed using a limited number of decimal digits. uncheck the check box to display information for all applicable "unselected" members in the model. spandrel lo- cation data. and spandrel geometry data. uniform reinforcing sec- tions. spandrel basic overwrite data. the program will display information for the selected members only. pier basic overwrite data. the program generates de- sign pier location data. The se- lected set of tables can be saved as a Named Set using the Save Named Set button.emf file. Chapter 4 Design Output centroid of the spandrel section at the left end of the spandrel to the centroid of the spandrel section at the top of the spandrel. This named set can be used in the future for quick selection. Use the File menu > Print Graphics command to print the active window. use the File menu > Capture Enhanced Metafile command to create an . 4. Then use the Ctrl+V keyboard keys to paste the saved image into Paint or other graphical program.2 Tabular Display of Design Information In addition to model definition and analysis results. The names of the tables are displayed in a tree structure. The unformatted option provides higher precision output that can then be copied into other programs. Click on the small check boxes preceding the items to select those tables for display. all of the tables under that branch are selected. The onscreen graphical display can be sent to printer using any of the follow- ing commands. general reinforcing sections. If a branch of the tree is selected. If one or more frame members are selected on the structural model before accessing the Choose Tables for Display form.bmp) file. the design information for all piers and spandrels or for only selected piers and spandrels can be dis- played in tabular spreadsheet format. or use the File menu > Capture Picture command to create a bitmap (. Create a screen capture of the active window using the Alt+ Print Screen keyboard keys or create a screen cap- ture of the entire window using the Ctrl + Print Screen keyboard keys. the numbers will be displayed unformatted. which can be col- lapsed or expanded by clicking on an item in the tree. The tabular spreadsheet output can be displayed by selecting the Display menu > Show Tables command to access the Choose Tables for Display form. Tabular Display of Design Information 4-3 . To capture the graphical display in a file for printing through another application. Currently. the Selection Only check box will be checked when the form displays and. If the Show Unformat- ted check box is checked.

zero tolerance. The tables can be for- matted. holding down the left mouse button and then dragging the mouse to the left or right. remove the split by clicking. holding and dragging the left mouse button to merge the split key to its original location. 4-4 Tabular Display of Design Information . Select multiple consecutive columns by putting the cursor on the header. right) and to specific widths. number of decimal digits and so forth. left. Use the split and horizontal scroll bar to put two columns side by side for easier comparison. Each of the individual fields (columns) can be formatted. Repeat this process to add more splits. After selecting all of the tables for shear wall design and the display options. with a drop-down list in the upper right-hand corner of the form that can be used to select other tables for display. Reset the column widths to their default values by selecting the Format-Filter-Sort menu > Reset Default Column Widths command on the form. After specifying the table formatting information. Use the scroll bars on the bottom and right side of the tables to scroll right and left or up and down if portions of the data table can not be displayed in the form's display area. Fields with text in- formation can be set for specific types of alignment (center. Alternative- ly. and then dragging the mouse button left or right. For example. The table can be split into two or more tables by clicking on the small black rectangular area near the bottom-left corner of the table. holding down the left mouse button. Alternatively. click the OK button to display a form showing one of the selected design ta- bles.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 Use the other buttons in the form to tailor the data display. The columns can be resized by clicking the left mouse button on the separator of the headers. click the Select Load Cases button to specify which load cases are to be in- cluded in the display of model definition data. click the Select Analysis Case and Modify/Show Options to specify which analysis cases are to be includ- ed and how analysis results are displayed. In addition to setting the alignment and column widths. filtered and sorted using multiple criteria accessed using the Format- Filter-Sort menu on the form. Filtering and sorting features can be useful in identifying critical cases. fields with numeric data can be set for the maximum number of characters. and then dragging the mouse button to the left or right. The splits can be removed by selecting the For- mat-Filter-Sort menu > Remove Splits command on the form. holding down the mouse button. depress the Shift key and click the left mouse button to select a range of columns. save it to a format file that can be used in the future by selecting the appro- priate feature available under the Format-Filter-Sort menu.

click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Interactive Wall Design command and then right click a pier or spandrel to enter the interactive design and review mode for that pier or spandrel. the table in the active window) can be exported to Ex- cel. right click on a wall pier or spandrel while the design results are displayed. click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command.. the default editor specific to that format will open the document. In plain text format. The program will export the entire table to an Excel spreadsheet workbook and will automatically open the file in MS Excel. a pop-up box offers the choice to enter the interactive design and re- view mode for the pier or for the spandrel. To run a design. Access. With these exporting and display features. .. if the table is exported to other formats. for example. . To export a table to Excel. To enter the interactive design and review mode.rtf.e. In . This mode allows easy modifi- cation to design parameters (overwrites) and immediate review of the new results. making the ta- bles very wide. the tables are split at convenient points to make a reasonably printable document. Note that a design must have been run for the interactive design mode to be available. If design results are not cur- rently displayed (and the design has been run). Instead of exporting or displaying the currently displayed table. Detailed Display of Member Specific Information 4-5 . provided that the editor is available in the computer. The table will be saved in that format only if the relevant editor is not availa- ble. the tables can be saved in many required formats and can be printed. Many other features of the de- sign tables are left for the user to discover by using the program. In both Excel spreadsheet and Access database formats. Note that if both a pier and a spandrel label are assigned to the right-clicked object.html. select the File menu > Export Current Table > To Excel com- mand. Similarly. 4. the tables can have many columns. on-screen review of design results for a specific pier or spandrel.3 Detailed Display of Member Specific Information Interactive design is a powerful mode that allows quick. the en- tire set of available tables can be exported and displayed in the afore- mentioned formats by selecting the File menu and the appropriate submenu command. Chapter 4 Design Output The current table (i. and plain text formats.html formats. the ta- bles can be saved with or without the splits.rft and . Appendix E provides additional information about interactive shear wall design.

Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 4. This form is very similar to the Choose Tables for Display form. which can be col- lapsed or expanded by clicking on an item in the tree.txt).4 Output of Design Information In addition to model definition and analysis results. Filtering criteria can be applied if those criteria were specified using the Format-Filter-Sort menu > Format Table command when the selected da- ta tables were displayed using the Display menu > Show Tables command. section Designer pier D/C ratios. the Selection Only check box will be checked. and the program will save or print the data for the selected members only. in which the width of the resulting printout on a given page is longer than the height of the printout. including rich text for- mat (. The Named Set can be easily recalled in the future. spandrel longitu- dinal reinforcing. Click on the small check boxes preceding the items to select those tables for printing or saving to a file. the design information for all piers and spandrels or for selected piers and spandrels only can be saved in tabular format. the settings can be saved as a Named Set using the Save Named Set button. Printed output can be specified to have a landscaped orientation. Section Design- er pier reinforcing ratios. sier demand/capacity ratios and pier boundary zones. Save the file output by selecting the File menu > Print Tables command to access the Choose Tables for Printing form. shear reinforcing. un- check the check box to save or print the data for all appropriate "unselected" members. plain text with and without splits or page breaks (. and hyper- link text markup language (.htm) by choosing the appropriate option on the right side of the form. If a branch of the tree is selected. If one or more structural members are selected before the Choose Tables for Printing form is accessed. all of the tables under that branch are selected. The output can be generated in a variety of formats.rft). simplified pier edge members. Use the op- tions on the form to choose which table or set of tables to save in a file or print. 4-6 Output of Design Information . For AIC 318-02 code. which has been described earlier in this chapter in the "Tabular Display of Design Information" section. the program saves simplified pier longitudinal reinforcing. re- ducing the need to reselect the options and ensuring that output is consistent from one printing effort to another. The name of the tables are displayed in a tree structure. When all options for printing or saving the data to file have been specified.

all of the messages are not applicable to the TS 500-200. Design tables can be saved in different formats using the path Display menu > Show Ta- bles command. For example. 4. it is not the only path to do so. After clicking all the necessary tables for steel frame design and all necessary options. Error Messages and Warnings 4-7 . Chapter 4 Design Output The output also can be specified to include a hyperlinked contents to facili- tate accessing specific areas of the printout. There are other buttons on the form that do not affect saving or printing de- sign information. the Select Load Cases button affects only saving/printing model definition data. A list of error messages and warnings used in Shear Wall Design for all the design codes is provide in Appendix I. Although the File name > Print Tables command path is dedicated for sav- ing/printing design information. clicking the OK button will save/print the design tables. The messages are numbered.5 Error Messages and Warnings Error messages and warnings may be displayed in the shear wall design out- put. How- ever. The Select Analysis Cases and Modi- fy/Show Options buttons affect only saving/printing analysis results.

Appendix A Shear Wall Design Preferences The shear wall design preferences are basic properties that apply to all wall pier and spandrel elements. it is not required that preferences be specified. However. that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories. A-1 . Table A1 identifies shear wall design preferences for RCDF-NTC-2004. Refer to the program Help for an explanation of how to change a preference. at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable. Thus. or designed step-by-step for the entire time history. Time History Envelopes or Envelopes Toggle for design load combinations that Design Step-by-Step include a time history designed for the envelope of the time history. regardless of what is specified here. Default values are provided for all shear wall design preference items. Table A1 Shear Wall Preferences Possible Default Item Values Value Description Design Code Any code in the UBC 97 Design code used for design of concrete program shear wall elements (wall piers and spandrels). If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it.

70 The strength reduction factor for shear in a and/or Torsion) wall pier or spandrel for a nonseismic condition. Section Design >0 0. Edge Design >0 0. Edge Design >0 0.02 The maximum ratio of reinforcing IP-Max Design IP-Min considered in the design of a pier with a Section Designer section.80 The strength reduction factor for bending in Controlled) a wall pier or spandrel in a tension controlled section.0025 The minimum ratio of reinforcing considered IP-Min in the design of a pier with a Section Designer section. cm2. PTmax. Rebar/Length in2/ft.60 The strength reduction factor for axial (Compression compression in a wall pier. We recommend that you use 24 for this item. Controlled) Phi (Shear >0 0. A-2 .Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 Table A1 Shear Wall Preferences Possible Default Item Values Value Description Rebar units in2. Number of ≥4 24 Number of equally spaced interaction Curves curves used to create a full 360-degree interaction surface (this item should be a multiple of four). in2/ft or mm2/m Units used for distributed areas of Units mm2/m.06 Maximum ratio of tension reinforcing PT-max allowed in edge members. in2 or mm2 Units used for concentrated areas of current reinforcing steel. Phi (Shear >0 0. PCmax.0 A factor used to reduce the allowable maximum compressive design strength. Phi >0 0. reinforcing steel. Number of ≥ 11 11 Number of points used for defining a single Points curve in a wall pier interaction surface (this item should be odd).60 The strength reduction factor for shear in a Seismic) wall pier or spandrel for a seismic condition Nmax Factor >0 1. current Phi (Tension >0 0. cm2/m. mm2.04 Maximum ratio of compression reinforcing PC-max allowed in edge members. Section Design ≥ Section 0.

at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. Default values are provided for all pier and spandrel overwrite items. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. respectively. Tables B1 and B2 identify the shear wall overwrites for piers and spandrels. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. or Simplified T and C). it is not necessary to specify or change any of the overwrites. General Reinforcing. for RCDF-NTC-2004. Appendix B Design Procedure Overwrites The shear wall design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those piers or spandrels to which they are assigned. Note that the available overwrites change depending on the pier section type (Uniform Reinforcing. Table B-1: Pier Design Overwrites Pier Overwrite Possible Default Item Values Value Pier Overwrite Description Design this Pier Yes or No Yes Toggle for design of the pier when you click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start Design/Check command. Refer to the program Help for an explanation of how to change the overwrites. The overwrites for piers and spandrels are separate. When changes are made to overwrite items. However. Thus. that is. B-1 .

Reinforcing General Reinforcing option is not available General unless General pier sections have Reinforcing. Seismic Additional design checks are performed for seismic elements compared to nonseismic elements. end and corners bars. material property Check/Design Check or Design This item indicate whether the pier section Reinforcing Design is to be designed or checked. Material Any defined Varies The material property associated with the concrete pier. Name size Clear Cover >0 40 mm The clear cover for the edge.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 Table B-1: Pier Design Overwrites Pier Overwrite Possible Default Item Values Value Pier Overwrite Description LL Reduction Program Program A reducible live load is multiplied by this Factor calculated. See the subsection entitled "LL Reduction Factor" later in this appendix for more information. the strength reduction factors are different. Also. in some cases. Design is Yes or No Yes Toggle for design as seismic or nonseismic. Designer Designer piers B-2 . Overwrites Applicable to General Reinforcing Pier Sections Section Bottom Any general pier The first pier in Name of a pier section. >0 Entering 0 for this item means that it is program calculated. size Edge Bar >0 250 mm The spacing of the uniformly spaced edge Spacing bars. Pier Section Uniform Uniform This item indicates the type of pier. T and C Overwrites Applicable to Uniform Reinforcing Pier Sections Edge Bar Name Any defined bar Varies The size of the uniformly spaced edge bars. previously been defined in Section Simplified Designer. End/Corner Bar Any defined bar Varies The size of end and corner bars. The Type Reinforcing. defined in Section section defined the list of Designer that is assigned to the bottom of in Section Section the pier. calculated factor to obtain the reduced live load.

that is assigned to the top of the in Section pier. calculated. calculated. DB1RightBot ≥0 Same as Length of the bottom of a user-defined edge DB1-left-bot member on the right side of a wall pier. DB1LeftBot ≥0 0 Length of the bottom of a user-defined edge member on the left side of a wall pier. calculated Inputting 0 means the item is to be program or > 0 calculated. Section Designer Designer piers Check/Design Check or Design This item indicates whether the pier section Reinforcing Design is to be designed or checked. DB2RightBot ≥0 Same as Width of the bottom of a user-defined edge DB2-left-bot member on the right side of a wall pier. calculated. B-3 . ThickTop Program Program Wall pier thickness at the top of a pier. Appendix B Overwrites Table B-1: Pier Design Overwrites Pier Overwrite Possible Default Item Values Value Pier Overwrite Description Section Top Any general pier The first pier in Name of a pier section. See the subsection entitled "User-Defined Edge Members" later in this appendix for more information. Lp. defined in Section section defined the list of Designer. DB1left. DB1left. Overwrites Applicable to Simplified T and C Pier Sections ThickBot Program Program Wall pier thickness at bottom of pier. tp. DB1right. DB2left. tp. LengthTop Program Program Wall pier length at the top of a pier. DB2LeftBot ≥0 0 Width of the bottom of a user-defined edge member on the left side of a wall pier. calculated Inputting 0 means the item is to be program or > 0 calculated. Lp. LengthBot Program Program Wall pier length at bottom of pier. calculated. calculated Inputting 0 means the item is to be program or > 0 calculated. DB2right. DB1LeftTop ≥0 0 Length of the top of a user-defined edge member on the left side of a wall pier. calculated Inputting 0 means the item is to be program or > 0 calculated. See Figure 1 in Shear Wall Design Technical Note 6 Wall Pier Design Section.

NCmax. B-4 . DB2right. DB1RightTop ≥0 Same as Length of the top of a user-defined edge DB1-left-bot member on the right side of a wall pier. Edge Design >0 Specified in Maximum ratio of tension reinforcing NT-max Preferences allowed in edge members. DB2left. calculated factor to obtain the reduced live load. LL Reduction Program Program A reducible live load is multiplied by this Factor calculated. See the subsection entitled "LL Reduction Factor" later in this appendix for more information. Material Any defined See "Material Material property associated with the pier. DB1right. concrete Properties" in material Shear Wall property Design Technical Note 6 Wall Pier Design Section Edge Design >0 Specified in Maximum ratio of compression NC-max Preferences reinforcing allowed in edge members. NTmax. >0 Entering 0 for this item means that it is program calculated. DB2RightTop ≥0 Same as Width of the top of a user-defined edge DB2-left-bot member on the right side of a wall pier.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 Table B-1: Pier Design Overwrites Pier Overwrite Possible Default Item Values Value Pier Overwrite Description DB2LeftTop ≥0 0 Width of the top of a user-defined edge member on the left side of a wall pier. Table B-2 Spandrel Design Overwrites Spandrel Possible Default Overwrite Item Values Value Spandrel Overwrite Description Design this Yes or No Yes Toggle for design of the spandrel when you Spandrel click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start Design/Check command.

1hs. DepthLeft Program Program Wall spandrel depth at the left side of the calculated. dr-top left on or > 0 the left side of the beam. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated as 0. calculated the spandrel. hs. SlabWidthLeft ≥0 0 Slab width for the T-beam at the left end of the spandrel. calculated spandrel. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated as 0. Inputting 0 means calculated.1hs. CoverTopLeft Program Program Distance from the top of the spandrel to the calculated. Inputting 0 means the item is or > 0 to be program calculated. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated as 0. B-5 . Seismic Additional design checks are performed for seismic elements compared to nonseismic elements. calculated the spandrel. ts. calculated spandrel. Length Program Program Wall spandrel length. or > 0 ThickLeft Program Program Wall spandrel thickness at the left side of calculated. CoverBotRight Program Program Distance from the bottom of the spandrel to calculated. dr-bot or > 0 left on the left side of the beam. Ls. Inputting 0 means the item or > 0 is to be program calculated. DepthRight Program Program Wall spandrel depth at the right side of the calculated. calculated centroid of the top reinforcing. calculated the centroid of the bottom reinforcing. in some cases the strength reduction factors are different. Appendix B Overwrites Table B-2 Spandrel Design Overwrites Spandrel Possible Default Overwrite Item Values Value Spandrel Overwrite Description Design is Yes or No Yes Toggle for design as seismic or nonseismic. Also. dr-bot or > 0 right on the right side of the beam.1hs. CoverBotLeft Program Program Distance from the bottom of the spandrel to calculated. calculated the centroid of the bottom reinforcing. ts. ds. hs. SlabDepthLeft ≥0 0 Slab depth for the T-beam at the left end of the spandrel. Inputting 0 means the item is or > 0 to be program calculated. ThickRight Program Program Wall spandrel thickness at the right side of calculated. bs. calculated the item is to be program calculated. Inputting 0 means the item or > 0 is to be program calculated.

material Property" in property Shear Wall Design Technical Note 7 Wall Spandrel Design Sections Consider Vuc Yes or No Yes Toggle switch to consider Vuc (concrete shear capacity) when computing the shear capacity of the spandrel. Next assume that you create a load combination called COMB2 that includes RLL. Material Any defined See "Default Material property associated with the concrete Design Material spandrel. DL is a dead load and RLL is a reducible live load. Important Note: The LL reduction factor is not applied to any load combination that is included in a design load combination.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 Table B-2 Spandrel Design Overwrites Spandrel Possible Default Overwrite Item Values Value Spandrel Overwrite Description Cover. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated as 0. Now assume that you create a design load combination named DESCOMB1 that includes DL and RLL. bs. dr-top right on or > 0 the right side of the beam. SlabWidthRight ≥0 0 Slab width for the T-beam at the right end of the spandrel. ds. assume you have two load cases labeled DL and RLL. Program Program Distance from the top of the spandrel to the TopRight calculated. the RLL load is multiplied by the LL reduction factor.1hs.1 LL Reduction Factor If the LL Reduction Factor is program calculated. B. If you specify your own LL Reduction Factor. calculated centroid of the top reinforcing. Then for design load combination DESCOMB1. SlabDepthRight ≥0 0 Slab depth for the T-beam at the right end of the spandrel. For example. the program ignores any reduction method specified in the live load reduction preferences and simply calculates the reduced live load for a pier or spandrel by multiplying the specified LL Reduction Factor times the reducible live load. Now assume that you create a design load B-6 . it is based on the live load reduction method chosen in the live load reduction preferences.

the edge member width is taken as the same as the pier thickness and the edge member length is determined by the program. If either DB1 or DB2 is specified as zero. Appendix B Overwrites combination called DESCOMB3 that included DL and COMB2. For design load combination DESCOMB3. you must specify both a nonzero value for DB1 and a nonzero value for DB2. B. B-7 . the RLL load that is part of COMB2 is not multiplied by the LL reduction factor.2 User-Defined Edge Members When defining a user-defined edge member.

Note that the planar legs are derived from the area objects defined in the model. The analysis is based on these section properties. Analysis sections are simply the objects defined in your model that make up the pier or spandrel section. the analysis section for spandrels is the assemblage of wall and beam sections that make up the spandrel. the design forces are based on these analysis section properties. The reinforcing can be modified in the pier overwrites. The design section is completely separate from the analysis section. Similarly. They are:  Uniform Reinforcing Section: For flexural designs and/or checks. The analysis section for wall piers is the assemblage of wall and column sections that make up the pier. For shear design and boundary zone checks. Uniform reinforcing is placed in this pier. Three types of pier design sections are available. not from the pier C-1 . Appendix C Analysis Sections and Design Sections It is important to understand the difference between analysis sections and design sections when performing shear wall design. The Uniform Reinforcing Section pier may be planar or it may be three-dimensional. and thus. the program auto- matically (and internally) breaks the analysis section pier into planar legs and then performs the design on each leg separately. and reports the results separately for each leg. the program automatically (and internally) creates a Section Design- er pier section of the same shape as the analysis section pier.

Note that the planar legs are derived from the area objects defined in the model. specify a slab thickness and depth. and the length is in the spandrel 1-axis direction.  General Reinforcing Section: For flexural designs and/or checks. thickness and length. thickened edge members can be specified at one or both ends of the simplified pier section. but not checked. the pier geometry and the reinforcing are defined by the user in the Section Designer utility. It is defined in the spandrel design overwrites. The pier defined in Section Designer may be planar or it may be three-dimensional.Shear Wall Design Manual RCDF-NTC-2004 section defined in Section Designer. users can. Reinforcing can not be specified in a spandrel section. The simplified section is defined by a length and a thickness. not from the pier section defined in Section Designer. not for checking user-specified sections. which is based on the analysis sections. making the spandrel design section into a T-beam. The pier section defined in Section Designer is used only for the flexural design/check. the design sections are designed based on the forces obtained for the analysis sections. The pier and spandrel design sections are designed for the forces obtained from the program's analysis. the program automatically (and internally) breaks the analysis section pier up into planar legs and then performs the design on each leg separately and reports the results separately for each leg. Reinforcing can not be specified in a simplified section. the simplified section can be used for design only. The length is in the pier 2-axis direction and the thickness is in the pier 3-axis direction. The pier section defined in Section Designer is only used for the flexural design/check. In other words. In addition. Thus. spandrel sections can be designed. A typical spandrel is defined by a depth. Only one type of spandrel design section is available. In addition.  Simplified Pier Section: This pier section is defined in the pier design overwrites. if desired. the thickness is in the spandrel 3-axis direction. Simplified sections are always planar. Thus. C-2 . Spandrel sections are always planar. if desired. The depth is in the spandrel 2-axis direction. For shear design and boundary zone checks.

White. Computers and Structures. Inc. October 06. CSI Analysis Reference Manual.. Bibliography CSI. W.. Reglamento de Construcciones del Distrito Federal.” Engineering Journal. Comple- mentary Technical Norms for Design and Construction of Concrete struc- tures. 2012. Bibliography .i . “Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice. 2004. and J. California. Hajjar. No. Vol. 1991. Inc. D. Berkeley. F. RCDF. American Institute of Steel Construction. 4. 28. 2004.