Shear Wall Design Manual

Turkish TS 500-2000 with Seismic Code 2007

Shear Wall
Design Manual
Turkish TS 500-2000
with Turkish Seismic Code 2007
For ETABS® 2016

ISO ETA122815M51 Rev. 0
Proudly developed in the United States of America December 2015

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THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. HOWEVER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED. THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING. HOWEVER. ANALYSIS. AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED. THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN. THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT. EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF THIS SOFTWARE. DISCLAIMER CONSIDERABLE TIME. .

3 Wind Load Component 1-9 1.1 Wall Pier Shear Design 2-1 2.2 Design Station Locations 1-7 1.2 Wall Pier End Zones 2-3 2.1.1.3.3.5 Shear Wall Design Overwrites 1-12 1.1 Notation 1-2 1.1 Dead Load Component 1-8 1.3.1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity 2-2 2.7 Combinations that Include Static Nonlinear Results 1-11 1.4 Shear Wall Design Preferences 1-12 1.6 Combinations that Include Time History Results 1-10 1.2 Live Load Component 1-9 1.2 Determine the Require Shear Reinforcing 2-2 2.5 Combinations that Include a Response Spectrum 1-9 1.3.2.4 Earthquake Load Component 1-9 1.1 Details of Check for Wall End Zone Requirements 2-3 i .3.3.3.3 Default Design Load Combinations 1-8 1.6 Choice of Units 1-12 2 Pier Design 2. Contents 1 Introduction 1.

1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity 3-10 3.2.2 Checking a General or Uniform Reinforcing Pier Section 2-10 2.2 Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing 3-2 3.1.3.1 Determine the Maximum Factored Moments 3-2 3.3.2.2 Spandrel Shear Design 3-10 3.2 Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing 3-11 Appendix A Shear Wall Design Preferences Appendix B Design Procedure Overwrites Appendix C Analysis Sections and Design Sections Bibliography ii .1 Spandrel Flexural Design 3-1 3.2 Reinforcement for Wall End Zones 2-4 2.1 Designing a Simplified Pier Section 2-5 2.3.4 Designing a General Reinforcing Pier Section 2-19 3 Spandrel Design 3.2.3 Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio 2-18 2.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 2.1.3.3 Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-5 2.

The program performs the following design.2). To facilitate the design process. check.6. The design is based on loading combinations specified by the user (Section 1. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. or analysis procedures in accordance with TS 500-2000 requirements:  Design and check of concrete wall piers for flexural and axial loads (Chap- ter 2)  Design of concrete wall piers for shear (Chapter 2)  Design of concrete shear wall spandrels for flexure (Chapter 3)  Design of concrete wall spandrels for shear (Chapter 3)  Consideration of the wall end zones requirements for concrete wall piers using an approach based on the requirements of Turkish Earthquake code 2007 Section 3. The various notations used in this manual are described in Section 1. Chapter 1 Introduction This manual describes the details of the shear wall design and stress check algorithms used by the program when the user selects the TS 500-2000 de- sign code.1.2 in TS 500-2000 (Chapter 3) 1-1 .

mm2 Ah-min Minimum required area of distributed horizontal reinforcing steel required for shear in a wall spandrel. mm2 / mm 1-2 Notation . Acv Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. mm2 Asc Area of reinforcing steel required for compression in a pier edge member.1. mm2 Asc-max Maximum area of compression reinforcing steel in a wall pier edge member. or the required area of tension steel required to balance the compression steel force in a wall spandrel. mm2 Ast-max Maximum area of tension reinforcing steel in a wall pier edge member. Notation Following is the notation used in this manual. Section Designer pier section check.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 The program provides detailed output data for Simplified pier section design. 1. mm2 / mm Aswd Area of diagonal shear reinforcement in a coupling beam. mm2 Asf The required area of tension reinforcing steel for balancing the concrete compression force in the extruding portion of the concrete flange of a T-beam. Section Designer pier section design. mm2 Ast Area of reinforcing steel required for tension in a pier edge member. and Spandrel design (Chapter 4). mm2 Ag Gross area of concrete. mm2 Asw /s Area of reinforcing steel required for shear. mm2 Asw-min/s Minimum required area of distributed vertical reinforcing steel required for shear in a wall spandrel. mm2 / mm As Area of tension reinforcing steel.

Length of a concrete edge member in a wall with uniform thickness. unitless IP-min The minimum ratio of reinforcing considered in the design of a pier with a Section Designer section. Chapter 1 Introduction Astw The required area of tension reinforcing steel for balancing the concrete compression force in a rectangular concrete beam. DB2 Width of a user-defined wall pier edge member. and it also can be different at the top and the bottom of the pier.. pounds D/C Demand/Capacity ratio as measured on an interaction curve for a wall pier. unitless LBZ Horizontal length of the wall end zone at each end of a wall pier. or for balancing the concrete compression force in the concrete web of a T-beam. pounds Cw Concrete compression force in the web of a T-beam. mm2 A's Area of compression reinforcing steel in a spandrel.. pounds Cf Concrete compression force in the extruding portion of a T- beam flange. This can be different on the left and right sides of the pier. mm Notation 1-3 . and it also can be different at the top and the bottom of the pier. mm. MPa IP-max The maximum ratio of reinforcing considered in the design of a pier with a Section Designer section. mm2 B1. Es Modulus of elasticity of reinforcing steel. pounds Cs Compression force in wall pier or spandrel reinforcing steel. This can be different on the left and right sides of the pier. mm Cc Concrete compression force in a wall pier or spandrel. B2. unitless DB1 Length of a user-defined wall pier edge member. mm.

N-mm Nb Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions.0. The TS 500-2000 specifies this factor to be 1. N NCmax Maximum ratio of compression steel in an edge member of a wall pier. the designed bending moment at a design sec- tion resisted by the couple between the concrete in compres- sion in the web and the tension steel. unitless. the designed bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple between the compression steel and the tension steel. This can be different at the top and the bottom of the pier Ls Horizontal length of wall spandrel. N Nmax Factor Factor used to reduce the allowable maximum compressive design strength. the designed bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression and the tension steel. 1-4 Notation . unitless Nd Designed factored axial load at a section. N-mm Mds In a wall spandrel with compression reinforcing. mm LL Live load Mr Bending resistance. N Nleft Equivalent axial force in the left edge member of a wall pier used for design. Nmax Limit on the maximum compressive design strength speci- fied by TS 500-2000. This may be different at the top and the bottom of the wall pier. N. N-mm Mdc In a wall spandrel with compression reinforcing. N-mm Md Designed bending moment at a design section. This factor can be revised in the prefer- ences.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 Lw Horizontal length of wall pier. mm. N-mm Mdw In a wall spandrel with a T-beam section and compression reinforcing.

mm Notation 1-5 . RLL Reduced live load Ts Tension force in wall pier reinforcing steel. This may be different at the top and the bottom of the wall pier. unitless OC On a wall pier interaction curve the "distance" from the origin to the capacity associated with the point considered OL On a wall pier interaction curve the "distance" from the origin to the point considered RLW Shear strength reduction factor as specified in the concrete material properties. N Vcr Shear at inclined cracking. N Not The maximum tension force a wall pier can carry with strength reduction factors set equal to one. mm a1 Depth of the compression block in the web of a T-beam. Chapter 1 Introduction N0 Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity. N WL Wind load a Depth of the wall pier or spandrel compression block. N Noc The maximum compression force a wall pier can carry with strength reduction factors set equal to one. N Vds The portion of the shear force in a spandrel carried by the shear reinforcing steel. N Nright Equivalent axial force in the right edge member of a wall pier used for design. unitless. NTmax Maximum ratio of tension steel in an edge member of a wall pier. pounds. This reduction factor applies to light-weight concrete. N Vd Designed shear force at a design section. It is equal to 1 for normal weight con- crete.

This can be different on the left and right ends of the T-beam. pmin Minimum ratio of reinforcing steel in a wall pier with a Sec- tion Designer section that is designed (not checked). mm dr-bot Distance from bottom of spandrel beam to centroid of the bottom reinforcing steel. fys Yield strength of steel reinforcing. mm. mm. N/mm2. mm. f'c Concrete compressive strength. dspandrel Depth of spandrel beam minus cover to centroid of reinforc- ing. mm. This value is used for shear design calculations.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 bs Width of the compression flange in a T-beam. pmax Maximum ratio of reinforcing steel in a wall pier with a Sec- tion Designer section that is designed (not checked). N/mm2. f'cs Concrete compressive strength. ds Depth of the compression flange in a T-beam. mm. This can be different on the left and right ends of the T-beam c Distance from the extreme compression fiber of the wall pier or spandrel to the neutral axis. N/mm2. This value is used for flexural and axial design calculations. This value is used for shear design calculations. unit- less. N/mm2. unit- less. 1-6 Notation . dr-top Distance from top of spandrel beam to centroid of the top reinforcing steel. This value is used for flexural and axial design calculations. This can be different on the left and right ends of the beam. f's Stress in compression steel of a wall spandrel. This can be different on the left and right ends of the beam. This can be different on the left and right ends of the spandrel. mm fy Yield strength of steel reinforcing. N/mm2. hs Height of a wall spandrel.

The program designs wall spandrels at stations located at the left and right ends of the spandrel only. break the pier into two separate "half-height" piers. if you break a Design Station Locations 1-7 . To design at the mid-height of a pier. unitless γm Material factor γmc Material factor for concrete γms Material factor for steel 1. To design at the mid-length of a spandrel. The angle used to calculate the seismic diagonal shear reinforcing for each piece is based on the length of the piece. Thus. This can cause the required area of di- agonal reinforcing to be significantly underestimated. the program will calculate the seismic diagonal shear reinforcing separately for each piece. ΣDL The sum of all dead load cases ΣLL The sum of all live load cases ΣRLL The sum of all reduced live load cases α The angle between the diagonal reinforcing and the longitu- dinal axis of a coupling beam ε Reinforcing steel strain. This can be different at the top and bottom of the pier. Note that if a spandrel is into broken into pieces. unitless εs Reinforcing steel strain in a wall pier. ts Thickness of a wall spandrel. mm. break the spandrel into two separate "half-length" piers. mm. Design Station Locations The program designs wall piers at stations located at the top and bottom of the pier only. This can be different on the left and right ends of the spandrel. unitless ε's Compression steel strain in a wall spandrel. Chapter 1 Introduction tw Thickness of a wall pier.2. not the length of the entire spandrel.

2. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.3W (TS 6.0G + 1.3W (TS 6.0Q – 1. wind (W). the following load combina- tions may need to be defined (TS 6. and earthquake (E).8a) 1.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 spandrel into pieces. or if other types of loads are present.4G + 1.9G ± 1. Dead Load Component The dead load component of the default design load combinations consists of the sum of all dead loads multiplied by the specified factor.0E (TS 6. The user should use other appropriate design load combinations if roof live load is separately treated. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on a member-by-member basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. 1. See the description of the earthquake load component later in this chapter for additional information. 1-8 Default Design Load Combinations .7b) These also are the default design load combinations in the program whenever the TS 500-2000 code is used. For this code.3.0E (TS 6. Default Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure is to be checked. Individual dead load cases are not considered separately in the default design load combina- tions. 1.0Q ± 1.0E (TS 6.5) 0.3Q ± 1.7a) 1. live (Q).1. if a structure is sub- jected to dead (G).6Q (TS 6.3.6): 1.0G + 1. calculate the seismic diagonal shear reinforcing sepa- rately by hand.9G ± 1.3) 0.6) 1.0G + 1.

when checking shear in a wall pier or a wall spandrel.3. Default design load combinations are not created for time history cases or for static nonlinear cases. Default design load combinations are created that include the re- sponse spectrum cases. the response spectrum contribution of shear to the design load combination is considered once as a positive shear and then a second time as a negative shear. 1. The earthquake load cases considered when creating the default design load combinations include all static load cases that are defined as earthquake loads and all response spectrum cases. the preceding equa- tions will contribute multiple design load combinations. Chapter 1 Introduction 1. Any program shear wall design load combination that includes a response spectrum load case is checked for all possible combinations of signs on the response spectrum val- ues. Individual live load cases are not considered separately in the default design load combinations.3.4. Earthquake Load Component The earthquake load component of the default design load combinations con- sists of the contribution from a single earthquake load case.2. multiplied by the specified factor. Live Load Component The live load component of the default design load combinations consists of the sum of all live loads. Similar- ly. the response spectrum contri- Default Design Load Combinations 1-9 . Thus. one for each earth- quake load case that is defined.3.3. Wind Load Component The wind load component of the default design load combinations consists of the contribution from a single wind load case. The output from a response spectrum is all positive. both reducible and unreducible.5. Thus. one for each wind load case that is defined.3. when checking moment in a wall spandrel. Combinations that Include a Response Spectrum In the program all response spectrum cases are assumed to be earthquake load cases. if multiple wind load cases are defined in the program model. if multiple earthquake load cases are defined in the program model. 1. 1. the preceding equations will con- tribute multiple design load combinations. Thus.

When check- ing the flexural behavior of a two-dimensional wall pier or spandrel. They are:  +N and +M  +N and −M  −N and +M  −n and −M where N is the axial load in the pier and M is the moment in the pier.7b are not created for response spectra. When a design load combination includes time history results. TS 6. Typically.8b are redundant for a load combination with a response spectrum. the program creates default design load combinations based on TS 6.8a and TS 6. Default design load combinations using TS 6. the design is for the maximum of each response quantity (axial load. Combinations that Include Time History Results The default shear wall design load combinations do not include any time his- tory results.7a and TS 6. but designing for each step can be very time consuming. Simi- larly. Designing for each step of a time history gives the correct correspondence between different response quantities. eight possible combinations of N. moment. TS 6. To include time history forces in a design load combination. Note that based on the preceding. four possible combinations are considered for the contribution of response spec- trum load to the design load combination. When envelopes are used. this is not the realistic case. 1.6.7a only for response spectra. it may be unconservative. For this reason. and similarly. 1-10 Default Design Load Combinations . and in some instances.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 bution of moment to the design load combination is considered once as a positive moment and then a second time as a negative moment. the user must define the load combination. M2 and M3 are considered for three- dimensional wall piers. the design can be for the envelope of those results or for each step of the time history.8a and TS 6.3. and the like) as if they occurred simultaneous- ly.8b and TS 6. The type of time history design can be specified in the shear wall design preferences (Appendix A).7b are redundant for a load combination with a response spectrum.

3. shear and moment. Combinations That Include Static Nonlinear Results The default shear wall design load combinations do not include any static nonlinear results. the time history contribution of moment to the design load combination is considered once as a maximum moment and then a second time as a minimum moment. Thus. when checking moment in a wall spandrel. If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it. For a design load combination in the program shear wall design module. Chapter 1 Introduction When the program gets the envelope results for a time history. When checking the flexural behavior of a wall pier. when checking shear in a wall pier or a wall spandrel. the time history contribution of shear to the design load combination is considered once as a maximum shear and then a second time as a minimum shear. To include static nonlinear results in a design load combi- nation. any load combination that includes a time history load case in it is checked for all possible combinations of maximum and minimum time history design values. four possible combinations are considered for the contribution of time history load to the design load combination. Similarly. for wall piers it gets maximum and minimum values of axial load. Thus. 1.7. If a design load combination includes a single static nonlinear case and noth- ing else. Default Design Load Combinations 1-11 . it gets maximum and minimum values of shear and moment. the design is performed for each step of the static nonlinear analysis. Otherwise. They are:  Nmax and Mmax  Nmax and Mmin  Nmin and Mmax  Nmin and Mmin where N is the axial load in the pier and M is the moment in the pier. the design is performed for the last step of the static nonlinear analysis only. define the load combination yourself. it gets a maximum and a minimum value for each response quantity. regardless of what is specified for the Time History Design item in the preferences. and for wall spandrels. that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histo- ries.

Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000

1.4. Shear Wall Design Preferences
The shear wall design preferences are basic properties that apply to all wall
pier and spandrel elements. Appendix A identifies shear wall design prefer-
ences for TS 500-2000. Default values are provided for all shear wall design
preference items. Thus, it is not required that preferences be specified. How-
ever, at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure
they are acceptable. Please consult the program-specific on-line Help for in-
formation about reviewing and updating preferences.

1.5. Shear Wall Design Overwrites
The shear wall design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to
those piers or spandrels to which they are assigned. The overwrites for piers
and spandrels are separate. Appendix B identifies the shear wall overwrites
for TS 500-2000. Note that the available overwrites change depending on the
pier section type (Uniform Reinforcing, General Reinforcing, or Simplified T
and C). Default values are provided for all pier and spandrel overwrite items.
Thus, it is not necessary to specify or change any of the overwrites. How-
ever, at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure
they are acceptable. When changes are made to overwrite items, the program
applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically
assigned; that is, to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are
changed. Please consult the program-specific on-line Help for information
about reviewing and updating preferences.

1.6. Choice of Units
For shear wall design in this program, any set of consistent units can be used
for input. Also, the system of units being used can be changed at any time.
Typically, design codes are based on one specific set of units.

The TS 500-2000 code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. For
simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this manual correspond
to Newton-Millimeter-Second units unless otherwise noted.

The shear wall design preferences allow the user to specify special units for
concentrated and distributed areas of reinforcing. These units are then used
for reinforcing in the model, regardless of the current model units displayed
in the drop-down list on the status bar (or within a specific form). The special

1-12 Shear Wall Design Preferences

Chapter 1 Introduction

units specified for concentrated and distributed areas of reinforcing can only
be changed in the shear wall design preferences.

The choices available in the shear wall design preferences for the units asso-
ciated with an area of concentrated reinforcing are in2, cm2, mm2, and current
units. The choices available for the units associated with an area per unit
length of distributed reinforcing are in2/ft, cm2/m. mm2/m, and current units.

The current units option uses whatever units are currently displayed in the
drop-down list on the status bar (or within a specific form). If the current
length units are m, this option means concentrated areas of reinforcing are in
m2 and distributed areas of reinforcing are in m2/m. Note that when using the
"current" option, areas of distributed reinforcing are specified in
Length2/Length units, where Length is the currently active length unit. For
example, if you are working in kN and m units, the area of distributed rein-
forcing is specified in m2/m. If you are in Newton and mm, the area of dis-
tributed reinforcing is specified in mm2/mm.

Choice of Units 1-13

Chapter 2
Pier Design

This chapter describes how the program designs each leg of concrete wall piers
for shear using TS 500-2000. Note that in this program shear reinforcing can-
not be specified and then checked by the program. The program only designs
the pier for shear and reports how much shear reinforcing is required. The
shear design is performed at stations at the top and bottom of the pier.

This chapter also describes how the program designs and checks concrete wall
piers for flexural and axial loads using TS 500-2000. The menu option “TS
500-2000” also covers the “Specification for Structures to be Built in SEISMIC
Areas, Part III - Earthquake Disaster Prevention” (TCS 2007). First we de-
scribe how the program designs piers that are specified by a Simplified Section.
Next we describe how the program checks piers that are specified by a Section
Designer Section. Then we describe how the program designs piers that are
specified by a Section Designer Section.

2.1 Wall Pier Shear Design
The wall pier shear reinforcing is designed for each of the design load combi-
nations. The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for
a particular wall pier section for a particular design loading combination.

 Determine the design factored forces Nd, Md and Vd that are acting on the
wall pier section.

2-1

EDP 3. TCS 3.7.17b.22 f cd Ach in accordance with TCS Section 3. Vc.4.1. 3.0025 of the gross section area of the wall lw web remaining in between the wall end zones.6.2) 2. Eqn.1. the shear force carried by the concrete.6.6. the following equation provides the required shear reinforcing in area per unit length (e.1.2 Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing Given Vd and Vc.22 f cd Ach (TS 8. mm2/mm) for both seismic and nonseismic wall piers (as indicated by the "Design is Seismic" item in the pier design over- writes).2) f yd (0.0 . Step 1 needs no further explanation. =Vr 0. In cases where H w ≤ 2. Vc.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000  Determine the shear force.3.6.5b.1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set Nd.7. Note that additional requirements for seismic piers are provided later in this section.8 Lw ) where. For walls H w ≥ 2.65 f ctd Ach + Ash f yd must not exceed 0. Vc = 0.0 . is calculated as.  Determine the required shear reinforcing to carry the balance of the shear force.65 f ctd Ach (TS 8. Ash shall be 0. TCS 3. the lw wall web section is the full section of the wall.1.2)  The shear force is limited to a maximum of Vmax = 0.. 2-2 Wall Pier Shear Design . that can be carried by the concrete. 2.2. The following two sections describe in de- tail the algorithms associated with the Steps 2 and 3.1. Md and Vd acting on a wall pier section.7. Vd − Vc Ash = (TS 8.g.7.

Ast. Only the geometry of the pier is considered. when determining if the pier is symmetrical. unless it is made up of a single rectangular shape. Note that the wall end zones requirements are considered separately for each design load case that includes seismic load. length of the wall pier.e. or it is provided by the user.)  The area of steel in the pier. the thickness of the wall pier. Figure 2-1 Example Plan Views of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Wall Piers The critical wall height is measured from the foundation or Base level in ETABS using the following criteria: Wall Pier End Zones 2-3 . Hw. Figure 2-1 shows some examples of symmetrical and unsymmetrical wall piers. This area of steel is calculated by the pro- gram. not the re- inforcing. (Refer to Figure 2-5 later in this chapter for an illustration of the dimensions lw and bw.. 2. and the gross ar- ea of the pier. lw. The program uses an approach based on the requirements of Section 3.  The symmetry of the wall pier (i. is the left side of the pier the same as the right side of the pier). Ag.1 Details of a Check for Wall End Zone Requirements The following information is available for the wall end zone check:  The height of the entire wall.2 Wall Pier End Zones This section describes how the program considers the wall end zones require- ments for each leg of concrete wall piers using TCS 2007 code.6.2. Note that a pier defined using Section Designer is assumed to be unsymmetrical.2 of TCS 2007. Chapter 2 Pier Design 2.

6.6. lu 2.5.02bwlu .6.1) 2-4 Wall Pier End Zones .2.2) In structural walls with rectangular cross-sections.1. outside critical wall height Asv s ≥ 0.2.0025 Ag (TCS 3.2. Eqn 3. in accordance with the requirements of TCS Section 3.1) 0. Figure 2-2 Illustration of Wall End Zone Length.6.01bwlu .6.2.1lw If wall end zones are required. The program computes and reports the total cross-sectional area of ver- tical reinforcement as follows: 0.15b) H w / 6 H cr ≤ 2lw (TCS 3. along critical wall height As ≥  (TCS 3.3.6. the program calculates the minimum required length of the wall end zone at each end of the wall. the wall end zone length lu is computed as follows: 2bw lu ≥ along the critical wall height. lu. Figure 2-2 illustrates the boundary zone length lu.2 Reinforcement for Wall End Zones The vertical reinforcement at each wall end zone is required by TCS Sections 3.15a and 3. and 0.6.2lw bw lu ≥ outside the critical wall height (TCS 3.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 l H cr ≥  w (TCS 3.5.3) 0.

The pier geometry is defined by a length. Access the local axes assignments using the Assign menu. The geometry associated with the simplified section is illustrated in Figure 2-3. Figure 2-3 Typical Wall Pier Dimensions Used for Simplified Design A simplified C and T pier section is always planar (not three-dimensional). The dimensions shown in the figure include the following: Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-5 . 2.3 Wall Pier Flexural Design For both designing and checking piers. it is important to understand the local axis definition for the pier.1 Designing a Simplified Pier Section This section describes how the program designs a pier that is assigned a simpli- fied section. Chapter 2 Pier Design 2. thickness and size of the edge members at each end of the pier (if any).3.

while limiting the compression and tension reinforcing located at the center of 2-6 Wall Pier Flexural Design . If no specific end zone dimensions have been specified by the user.  DB2 represents the horizontal width (or thickness) of the pier end zone. The dimensions illustrated are specified in the shear wall overwrites (Appendix B) and can be specified differently at the top and bottom of the wall pier. the program reports the required area of reinforcing steel at the center of the end zone. This is the horizontal length of the wall pier in plan. 2. illustrated in Figure 2-4. In all cases. DB1 can be differ- ent at the left and right sides of the pier. are as follows:  The wall pier has program-determined (variable length and fixed width) end zones on each end.  The wall pier has a program-determined (variable length and fixed width) end zone on one end and a user-defined (fixed length and width) end zone on the other end. and the program determines the required length of the end zone.  DB1 represents the horizontal length of the pier end zone.  The wall pier has user-defined (fixed length and width) end zones on each end.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000  The length of the wall pier is designated lw. DB2 can be different at the left and right sides of the pier.1 Design Condition 1 Design condition 1 applies to a wall pier with uniform design thickness and program-determined end zone length. Three design conditions are possible for a simplified wall pier. This section describes how the program-determined length of the end zone is determined and how the program calculates the required reinforcing at the center of the end zone. For this design condition. These condi- tions.3. whether the end zone size is user-specified or program-determined. the design al- gorithm focuses on determining the required size (length) of the end zones.1. the program assumes that the end zone is the same width as the wall.  The thickness of the wall pier is designated bw. The thickness specified for left and right edge members (DB2left and DB2right) may be different from this wall thickness.

Chapter 2 Pier Design the end zones to user-specified maximum ratios. and an end zone at the right end of the wall of thickness bw and width B1-right.5B1-left − 0.5B1-right ) For any given loading combination. Design Condition 1 Design Condition 2 Wall pier with uniform thickness and Wall pier with user-defined edge ETABS-determined (variable length) members edge members Design Condition 3 Note: Wall pier with a user-defined edge In all three conditions. Initially B1-left = B1-right = bw. the wall pier for a given design load combination is de- signed for a factored axial force Nd-top and a factored moment Md-top.) N d -top M d -top N= + left-top 2 ( lw − 0. The maximum ratios are spec- ified in the shear wall design preferences and the pier design overwrites as Edge Design PC-Max and Edge Design PT-Max. the net values for Nleft-top and Nright-top could be tension or compression. Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-7 . say the top of the wall pier. For a given design section. the only member on one end and an ETABS. The moment and axial force are converted to an equivalent force set Nleft-top and Nright-top using the relationships shown below.5B1-right ) N d -top M d -top = N right-top − 2 ( lw − 0. (Similar equations apply at the bottom of the pier.5B1-left − 0. The program initiates the design procedure by assuming an end zone at the left end of the wall of thickness bw and width B1-left. reinforcing designed by ETABS is that determined (variable length) edge required at the center of the edge member on the other end members Figure 2-4 Design Conditions for Simplified Wall Piers Consider the wall pier shown in Figure 2-5.

Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 0.5tp 0.5Lp 0.5tp tp tp tp B1-left B1-right B2-left B2-right B3-left B3-right Lp CL Wall Pier Plan Pleft-top Pu-top Pright-top Mu-top Top of pier Right edge member Left edge member Bottom of pier Mu-bot Pleft-bot Pu-bot Pright-bot Wall Pier Elevation Figure 2-5 Wall Pier for Design Condition 1 2-8 Wall Pier Flexural Design .

and the Nmax Factor is defined in the shear wall design preferences (the default is 0. In general. This iterative procedure continues until Ast and Asc are within the allowed steel ratios for all design load combinations.85 f cd If Asc calculates as negative. is calculated as: N Ast = . the compression reinforcing is limited by: Asc -max = NCmax bw B1. right or both. de- pending on which end zone is inadequate) by one-half of the wall thickness to B2 (i. otherwise the program will increment the appropriate B1 dimension (left. Nleft-top and Nright-top are obtained at the modal level and the modal combinations are made before combining with other loads. the area of steel required for compression. Ast. 1. The maximum tensile reinforcing to be packed within the bp times B1 concrete end zone is limited by: Ast -max = NTmax bw B1. the Nleft-top and Nright-top forces are obtained first for each load case before the combinations are made.. we recom- mend use of the default value. If any value of Nleft-top or Nright-top is tension.e. Ag = bwB1. f yd If any value of Nleft-top or Nright-top is compression. no compression reinforcing is needed. If Ast is less than or equal to Ast-max and Asc is less than or equal to Asc-max. Chapter 2 Pier Design Note that for dynamic loads. Similarly. =Abs ( N ) ( N max Factor ) [0. the area of steel required for ten- sion. the program will proceed to check the next loading combination. Also for design loading combinations involving SRSS. f yd − 0.85 f cd Ag ( N max Factor) Asc = . Abs ( N ) − 0. for section adequacy.85 f cd ( Ag − Asc ) + f yd Asc ] where N is either Nleft-top or Nright-top.80).5bw) and calculate new values for Nleft-top and Nright-top resulting in new values of Ast and Asc. Asc. must satisfy the following relationship. Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-9 .

2 Design Condition 2 Design condition 2 applies to a wall pier with user-specified end zones at each end of the pier. The size of the end zones is assumed to be fixed.3 Design Condition 3 Design condition 3 applies to a wall pier with a user-specified (fixed dimen- sion) end zone at one end of the pier and a variable length (program- determined) end zone at the other end. Note: In this program.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 If the value of the width of the end zone B increments to where it reaches a value larger than or equal to lw /2. the program does not modify them. 2. The design is similar to that which has previously been described for design conditions 1 and 2. The width of the variable length end zone is equal to the width of the wall. 2. This design algorithm is an approximate but convenient algorithm. the design algorithm determines the area of steel required in the center end zones and checks if that area gives reinforcing ratios less than the user-specified maximum ratios. This section describes how the program generates the interaction surface for the pier and how it determines the demand/capacity ratio for a given design load combination.3. Iter- ation occurs on the size of the variable length end zone only. that is. the program creates an interaction surface for that pier and uses that interaction surface to determine the critical flexural demand/capacity ratio for the pier. the iteration is terminated and a failure con- dition is reported. however. 2. no it- eration is required. 2-10 Wall Pier Flexural Design . Wall piers that are declared overstressed using this algorithm could be found to be ade- quate if the reinforcing steel is user-specified and the wall pier is accurately evaluated using interaction diagrams.3. the interaction surface is defined by a series of PMM interac- tion curves that are equally spaced around a 360-degree circle.2 Checking a General or Uniform Reinforcing Pier Section When a General Reinforcing or Uniform Reinforcing pier section is specified to be checked. For this design condition. The size of the user-specified end zone is not changed.1. The design algorithm used is the same as described for condition 1.3.1.

1 Interaction Surface In this program. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-11 . Each PMM interaction curve that makes up the interaction surface is numeri- cally described by a series of discrete points connected by straight lines. a three-dimensional interaction surface is defined with refer- ence to the Nd. The surface is developed using a series of interaction curves that are created by rotating the direction of the pier neutral axis in equally spaced increments around a 360-degree circle. there is one curve every 15 degrees (360°/24 curves = 15°). We recommend use of 24 interaction curves (or more) to define a three-dimensional interaction surface.3. Chapter 2 Pier Design 2. Only the side of the neutral axis where the section is in tension or compression changes. T C Interaction curve is Interaction curve is for a neutral axis for a neutral axis parallel to this axis parallel to this axis C 3 3 T Pier section Pier section 2 2 45° a) Angle is 0 degrees b) Angle is 45 degrees Interaction curve is Interaction curve is for a neutral axis for a neutral axis parallel to this axis parallel to this axis 3 3 Pier section Pier section 2 2 C T 225° T a) Angle is 180 degrees b) Angle is 225 degrees C Figure 2-6 Orientation of the Pier Neutral Axis for Various Angles Note that the orientation of the neutral axis is the same for an angle of θ and θ+180°. Figure 2-6 illustrates the assumed orientation of the pier neutral axis and the associated sides of the neutral axis where the section is in tension (designated T in the figure) or compression (designated C in the fig- ure) for various angles.2. For example. M2d and M3d axes. if 24 PMM curves are specified (the default).

5) Partial safety factor for concrete. 11 points are used to define a PMM interaction curve.2 Formulation of the Interaction Surface The formulation of the interaction surface in this program is based consistently on the basic principles of ultimate strength design given in Sections 7.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 about the neutral axis on the section of the pier. The theoretical maximum compressive force that the wall pier can carry is des- ignated Noc and is given by: Noc = [0. the program uses them consistently by modifying the code-mandated equations in every relevant place. γmc and γms. M3r) of the wall pier. The values used in the program are as follows: Partial safety factor for steel. (Nd.e. any odd number of points greater than or equal to 11 can be specified. Although not recommended.2. only moments about the M3 axis are considered for two-dimensional walls. Fur- thermore.2.5.85fcd (Ag − Ast) + fydAst]. the program will in- crement up to the next higher odd number." By default.15. the program considers only two interaction curvesthe 0° curve and the 180° curveregardless of the number of curves specified in the preferences.3. For the pier to be deemed adequate.5) These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code. Details of this process are de- scribed later in the section entitled "Details of the Strain Compatibility Analy- sis. (TS 6. This number can be changed in the preferences. Note that when creating an interaction surface for a two-dimensional wall pier. If they are overwritten. and (TS 6. M3d) ≤ (Nr. 2-12 Wall Pier Flexural Design .1 of TS 500-2000. M2r. 2. M2r. γmc = 1.. the program allows them to be overwritten.2. i. γms = 1. M3d) must be less than or equal to the design strength. to be used in creating the interaction curve. The program uses the requirements of force equilibrium and strain compatibility to determine the strength axial load and moment strength (Nr. If an even number is specified for this item in the preferences. the required strength (Nd. M3r) The design strength for concrete and steel is obtained by dividing the character- istic strength of the material by a partial factor of safety. M2d. M2d.

1) Nr(max) = 0. 12'-6" each face. the program includes the points at Nb. Chapter 2 Pier Design The theoretical maximum tension force that the wall pier can carry is designat- ed Not and is given by: Not = fydAst. except 3" 12 spaces at 1'-0" = 12'-0" 3" as noted 1' f’c = 4 ksi 2-#9 2-#9 2-#6 fy = 60 ksi Figure 2-7 Example Two-Dimensional Wall Pier With Unsymmetrical Reinforcing Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-13 .6 fck Ag for gravity combinations (TS 7. Figure 2-7 shows a plan view of an example two-dimensional wall pier. Figure 2-8 shows several interaction surfaces for the wall pier illus- trated in Figure 2-7. a moment associated will be with both Noc and Not. where Nr(max) = 0.c. As previously mentioned. Noc and Not on the interaction curve. Otherwise. 11 points are used to define a single in- teraction curve. If the wall pier geometry and reinforcing is symmetrical in plan. Notice that the concrete is symmetrical but the reinforcing is not symmetrical in this example.4. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to Nr(max). The other half of the remaining number of specified points on the interaction curve occur between Nb and Not at approximately equal spacing along the N axis. When creating a single interaction curve. by default.5 fck Ag for seismic combinations Note: The number of points to be used in creating interaction diagrams can be speci- fied in the shear wall preferences and overwrites. the moments associated with both Noc and Not are zero.. # 5@12” o. Half of the remaining number of specified points on the interaction curve occur between Nb and Noc at approximately equal spacing along the N axis.

compression is negative and tension is positive.  The dashed line shows the effect of setting the NmaxFactor to 1.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 Figure 2-8 Interaction Curves for Example Wall Pier Shown in Figure 2-7 Note the following about Figure 2-8:  Because the pier is two-dimensional.  The larger interaction surface has both the strength reduction factor and the NmaxFactor set to 1. the interaction surface consists of two interaction curves. 2-14 Wall Pier Flexural Design . as specified by TS 500-2000.0. One curve is at 0° and the other is at 180°.  The smaller interaction surface (drawn with a heavier line) has the strength reduction factor.  The 0° and 180° interaction curves are not symmetric because the wall pier reinforcing is not symmetric. Only M3d mo- ments are considered because this is a two-dimensional example.  In this program.0.

3 Details of the Strain Compatibility Analysis As previously mentioned. M3d) of the wall pier. the program uses the requirements of force equilibri- um and strain compatibility to determine the nominal axial load and moment strength (Nd. heavier curve in Figure 2-9 has the strength reduction factor as specified in TS 500-2000. The coordinates of these points are de- termined by rotating a plane of linear strain on the section of the wall pier. Figure 2-9 shows the 0° interaction curves for the wall pier illustrated in Figure 2-7. M2d. Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-15 . Figure 2-10 illustrates varying planes of linear strain such as those that the pro- gram considers on a wall pier section for a neutral axis orientation angle of 0 degrees. Additional interaction curves are also added to Figure 2-9. Figure 2-9 Interaction Curves for Example Wall Pier Shown in Figure 2-7 The smaller.2. 2. Chapter 2 Pier Design  The interaction surfaces shown are created using the default value of 11 points for each interaction curve.3.

When the steel strain is plus infinity. the maximum compressive force in the wall pier. Nb is obtained.00207 for fyk = 460 MPa). is obtained. is obtained from the strain compatibility analysis. the maximum tensile force in the wall pier. Next the stress in the reinforcing steel is calcu- lated using the following equation.003 to plus infinity.000 -0.1) In Figure 2-10. Then the strain in all other reinforcing steel is determined based on the assumed plane of linear strain.2 of TS 500-2000.003 and the maximum steel strain is varied from −0.g.003 Varying Linear Strain Diagram -ε Plan View of Wall Pier Figure 2-10 Varying Planes of Linear Strain In these planes. Figure 2-11 illustrates the concrete wall pier stress-strain relationship that is obtained from a strain compatibility analysis of a typical plane of linear strain shown in Figure 2-10. 2-16 Wall Pier Flexural Design .. the maximum concrete strain is always taken as −0. σs is the stress. In Figure 2-11 the compressive stress in the concrete.85fcdk1cbw (TS 7.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 Varying neutral axis locations +ε 0.) When the steel strain is −0. where εs is the strain.003. and fys is the yield stress of the reinforcing steel. 0. Es is the modulus of elasticity. When the maximum steel strain is equal to the yield strain for the reinforcing (e. the value for maximum strain in the reinforcing steel is as- sumed. Cc = 0. Cc. is calculated using section 7. Not. (Recall that in this program compression is negative and tension is positive. Noc.

85f'c Cc a = β1c Stress Diagram ε13s ε12s ε11s ε10 s ε9s ε8 c s ε7s ε6 5 s ε s ε = 0. the value of Nr is calculated as: Nr = (ΣTs − Cc − ΣCs) ≤ Nmax Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-17 . Chapter 2 Pier Design 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Cs Cs Cs Cs 0.003 ε4s ε3 s ε2s ε1 s Linear Strain Diagram tp Plan View of Wall Pier Figure 2-11 Wall Pier Stress-Strain Relationship σs = εsEs ≤ fys The force in the reinforcing steel (Ts for tension or Cs for compression) is cal- culated by: Ts or Cs = σsAs For the given distribution of strain.

Note the following about the demand/capacity ratio:  If OL = OC (or D/C = 1). If the point lies outside of the interaction curve. M3d). 2. as shown in the figure.3. and OC is the "distance" from point O to point C. the wall pier is overstressed. Cc. The point L. and repeating the process. the wall pier capacity is adequate.3 Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio Refer to Figure 2-12. M3d) lies on the interaction curve and the wall pier is stressed to capacity. This process continues until the points for all of the specified curves have been calculated. M3d) lies within the interaction curve and the wall pier capacity is adequate. the point (Nd. 2-18 Wall Pier Flexural Design .  If OL < OC (or D/C < 1). M2r and M3r values calculated as described in the preceding paragraph make up one point on the wall pier interaction diagram. The ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. the program calculates a stress ratio. all of the Ts forces and all of the Cs forces. D/C. and if it is negative. The forces whose moments are summed to determine M2r and M3r are Nr. it is compression. As a measure of the stress condition in the wall pier. considering a different plane of linear strain. If the point lies within the interaction curve.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 In the preceding equation . the value of M3r is calculated by summing the moments due to all of the forces about the pier local 3 axis. is given by D/C = OL / OC where OL is the "dis- tance" from point O (the origin) to point L. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (ex- tended outward if needed) intersects the interaction curve. The de- mand/capacity ratio. defined by (Nd. The Nr. the tensile force Ts and the compressive forces Cc and Cs are all positive. If Nr is positive. that is. which shows a typical two-dimensional wall pier interac- tion diagram. The forces obtained from a given design load combination are Nd and M3d. is placed on the interaction dia- gram. When one interaction curve is complete. The value of M2r is calculated by summing the moments due to all of the forces about the pier local 2 axis. Similarly. it is tension. the next orientation of the neutral axis is assumed and the points for the associated new interaction curve are calculat- ed. the point (Nd. Additional points on the diagram are obtained by making different assumptions for the maximum steel stress.

3. the pro- gram creates a series of interaction surfaces for the pier based on the following items:  The size of the pier as specified in Section Designer.  The location of the reinforcing specified in Section Designer.  The size of each reinforcing bar specified in Section Designer relative to the size of the other bars. 2. the point (Nd. The pier area is held constant and the rebar area is mod- Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-19 . The demand/capacity ratio for a three-dimensional wall pier is determined in a similar manner to that described here for two-dimensional piers. The wall pier demand/capacity ratio is a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the wall with respect to the capacity of the wall. The interaction surfaces are developed for eight different ratios of reinforcing- steel-area-to-pier-area.4 Designing a General Reinforcing Pier Section When a General Reinforcing pier section is specified to be designed. Chapter 2 Pier Design φPn C Pu L Axial Compression Axial O M3u φM3n Tension Figure 2-12 Two-Dimensional Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio  If OL > OC (or D/C > 1). M3d) lies outside of the interaction curve and the wall pier is overstressed.

the relative size (area) of each rebar compared to the other bars is always kept constant. The eight reinforcing ratios used are the maximum and the minimum ratios plus six more ratios. the program develops interaction surfaces for all eight of the ratios using the process described earlier in the section entitled "Checking a General or Uniform Reinforcing Pier Sec- tion. is 0. The spacing between the reinforcing ratios is calculated as an increasing arithmetic series in which the space between the first two ratios is equal to one-third of the space between the last two ratios. The program then uses linear interpolation between the eight interaction surfaces to determine the reinforcing ratio that gives a demand/capacity ratio of 1 (actually the program uses 0.0100  14  25  IPmax − IPmin  6 IPmin +   0.0054 3 14   IPmax − IPmin  4 IPmin + 4   0.0129 3  14  2-20 Wall Pier Flexural Design .0025 IPmax − IPmin 2 IPmin + 0. when the mini- mum reinforcing ratio. Table 1 illustrates the spacing. however. The smallest of the eight reinforcing ratios used is that specified in the shear wall design preferences as Section Design IP-Min. for a given design load combination. IPmax. This process is repeated for all design load combinations and the largest required reinforcing ratio is reported.0025 and the maximum.0075  14   IPmax − IPmin  5 IPmin + 6   0. IPmin. After the eight reinforcing ratios have been determined.99 instead of 1). both in general terms and for a specific example.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 ified to obtain these different ratios. the program generates a de- mand/capacity ratio associated with each of the eight interaction surfaces. Design of a Uniform Reinforcing pier section is similar to that described herein for the General Reinforcing section. Similarly. is 0." Next. the largest of the eight reinforcing ratios used is that specified in the shear wall design prefer- ences as Section Design IP-Max. Table 2-1 The Eight Reinforcing Ratios Used by the Program Curve Ratio Example 1 IPmin 0.0038 14 7  IPmax − IPmin  3 IPmin +   0.02.

Chapter 2 Pier Design Table 2-1 The Eight Reinforcing Ratios Used by the Program Curve Ratio Example  IPmax − IPmin  7 IPmin + 11   0.0200 Wall Pier Flexural Design 2-21 .0163  14  8 IPmax 0.

Effects caused by any axial forces.  Determine the maximum factored moment Md. 3-1 . 3. The program allows consideration of rectangular sections and T-beam sections for shear wall spandrels. minor direction bending. The following steps are involved in designing the flexural reinforcing for a par- ticular wall spandrel section for a particular design loading combination at a particular station. Chapter 3 Spandrel Design This chapter describes how the program designs concrete shear wall spandrels for flexure and shear when TS 500-2000 is the selected design code. Spandrel flexural reinforcing is designed for each of the design load combinations.1 Spandrel Flexural Design In this program. No design is performed at the center (mid- length) of the spandrel. torsion or minor direction shear that may exist in the spandrels must be investigated by the user independent of the program. The program does not allow shear reinforcing to be specified and then checked. Note that the program designs spandrels at stations located at the ends of the spandrel. The program only designs the spandrel for shear and reports how much shear reinforcing is required. wall spandrels are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. The required area of reinforcing for flexure is calculated and reported only at the ends of the spandrel beam.

the beam may be designed as a rectangular section. In such cases. amax. 0. The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive and the maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the design load combinations.2 Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing In this program.4) where k1 is calculated as follows: k1 = 0. cb. (TS 7. the factored moments for each design load combination at a particular beam station are first obtained. Table 7. The flexural design procedure is based on a simplified rectangular stress block. is calculated based on the compressive strength of the concrete and the tensile steel tension using the following equation (TS 7.1): εcu Es cb = d (TS 7. These steps are described in the following sections.70 ≤ k1 ≤ 0. Eqn. Indicate that a spandrel is to be designed as a T-beam by specifying the appro- priate slab width and depth dimensions are provided in the spandrel design overwrites (Appendix B).11. 7. 3. positive beam moments produce bottom steel. 3.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000  Determine the required flexural reinforcing.1. is given by amax = 0. In this program. or as a T-beam section. In such cases.1) 3-2 Spandrel Flexural Design .85.85 − 0. the beam is always designed as a rectangular section.1 Determine the Maximum Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcing for spandrels.006 ( f ck − 25 ) . The maximum depth of the compression zone. 7.1) εcu Es + f yd The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.3. as shown in Figure 3-1.1.1. negative beam moments produce top steel.85k1cb (TS 7.

Md.1.85 f cd a ts and dspandrel is equal to hs − dr-bot for positive bending and hs − dr-top for negative bending. is resist- ed by a couple between the concrete in compression and the tension in reinforc- ing steel. 3. the program calculates an area of compression reinforcement assuming that the additional moment is carried by compression reinforcing and additional tension reinforcing. is given by: Spandrel Flexural Design 3-3 . For a rectangular beam. Positive Moment It is assumed that the compression depth carried by the concrete is less than or equal to amax.1)  2 where Cc = 0. The procedure used by the program for both rectangular and T-beam sections is given in the subsections that follow.1 Rectangular Beam Flexural Reinforcing Refer to Figure 3-1.2. the factored moment. a. The depth of the compression block. This is expressed as:  a =M d Cc  dspandrel −  (TS 7. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at amax. Chapter 3 Spandrel Design Figure 3-1 Rectangular Spandrel Beam Design.

a. is compared with amax. The depth of the concrete compression block. a.85 f cd amax ts (TS 7. The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by Cc = 0. a. When compression steel is required. However. is set equal to a = amax. the additional moment to be resisted by the couple between the compression steel and the additional tension steel.1. 3.1.2. The depth of the compression block. is given by 3-4 Spandrel Flexural Design . 3. Mdc. is given by  a  =M dc Cc  dspandrel − max   2  Therefore. the program reports an overstress when the ratio exceeds 4%. Note: The program reports the ratio of top and bottom steel required in the web area.2 Tension and Compression Reinforcing Required If a > amax.1 Tension Reinforcing Only Required If a ≤ amax.2.1. no compression reinforcing is required and the program calculates the area of tension reinforcing.1) The moment resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression and the tension steel.1.85 f cd ts The program uses the preceding equation to determine the depth of the com- pression block.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 2M d a =dspandrel − dspandrel 2 − 0. those ratios may be large because there is no limit on them. Mds. Md As =  a f yd  dspandrel −   2 The steel is placed at the bottom for positive moment and at the top for nega- tive moment. compression reinforcing is required and the program calculates re- quired compression and tension reinforcing as follows.

Asc. Cs. Chapter 3 Spandrel Design M= ds M d − M dc The force carried by the compression steel. is: M dc Asw =  a  f yd  dspandrel − max   2  The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression steel. dr is equal to dr-top for positive bending and dr-bot for negative bending.85 f cd ) The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression in the concrete web. Cs As′ = (σ s′ − 0. the strain in the compression steel. M ds Cs = dspandrel − d r Referring to Figure 3-1. is given by. ε's. f 's. Asw. is: M ds Asc = f yd ( dspandrel − d r ) In the preceding equations. c − d′ σ′s Es εcu  max  ≤ f yd . is calculated using the follow- ing equation. is given by. A's. The total required area of compression steel.  cmax  The term dr in the preceding equations is equal to dr-top for positive bending and equal to dr-bot for negative bending. In the preceding equations. The term c is equal to amax k1. is given by. Spandrel Flexural Design 3-5 .003 ( c − d r ) ε s′ = c The stress in the compression steel. 0. dspandrel is equal to hs − dr-bot for positive bending and hs − dr-top for negative bending.

in that case. As. designing top steel). First. Cf.e. the subsequent calculations for the required area of reinforcing steel are performed in two parts. Refer to Figure 3-2. If neces- sary.  If a > ds. the depth of the compression block. Compression reinforcement is provided when the dimension "a" exceeds amax. The width of the beam is taken equal to the width of the web. bs. the tension steel required to balance the compressive force in the web is determined. and second. is given by 2M d a =− d d2 − . No T-beam data is used in this design. the subsequent calculations for the reinforcing steel are exactly the same as previously defined for rectangular section design. compression steel is added to help resist the design moment. 0.2. 3.85 f cd b f  If a ≤ ds.1. the width of the compression block is taken to be equal to the width of the compression flange. and As' at the top for positive bending and vice versa for negative bending. The protruding portion of the flange is shown cross- hatched. The remainder of this section describes in detail the design process used by the program for T-beam spandrels when a > ds. the tension steel required to balance the compressive force in the flange is determined. a.85 f cd ( bs − ts ) d s 3-6 Spandrel Flexural Design . The compression force in the protruding portion of the flange. However.. and the total compression reinforce- ment. the total tension reinforcement. When design- ing T-beams for negative moment (i.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 The total tension reinforcement As is given by: = As Asw + Asc Thus. For positive moment. =C f 0. is given. As is to be placed at the bottom of the beam. the calculation of required steel is as described in the previous section for rectangular sections.2 T-Beam Flexural Reinforcing T-beam action is considered effective for positive moment only. As'.

Mdw. that is resisted by the flange. the balance of the moment to be carried by the web. is recalculated as: 2 M dw a1 =dspandrel − dspandrel 2 − 0. Md.  2  Therefore. Asf. Positive Moment The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression force in the concrete flange. Mdf. a1. The web is a rectangular section of width ts and depth hs for which the design depth of the compression block.85 f cd ts Spandrel Flexural Design 3-7 . is: Cf Asf = f yd The portion of the total moment. is given by  d  =M df C f  dspandrel − s  . is given by M= dw M d − M df . Chapter 3 Spandrel Design Figure 3-2 Design of a Wall Spandrel with a T-Beam Section.

Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 3.2. Cs.1. In that case. a. the force carried by the compression steel. is given by = M ds M dw − M dc Referring to Figure 3-2. a = amax.2 Tension and Compression Reinforcing Required If a1 > amax. is given by 3-8 Spandrel Flexural Design . As. is given by  a =M dc Cw  dspandrel −  . no compression reinforcing is required and the program calculates the area of tension steel for balancing the compression force in the concrete web. is set equal to amax. Mds.1.2. the additional moment to be resisted by the couple between the compression steel and the tension steel. The depth of the concrete compression block. is to be placed at the bottom of the beam for positive bending.1 Tension Reinforcing Only Required If a1 ≤ amax.1. where a1 is calculated using the equation in Section 3. Mdc. The compressive force developed in the web concrete alone is given by Cw = 0. The moment resisted by the couple between the concrete web in compression and the tension steel.2. Asw. M dw Asw =  a  f yd  d spandrel − 1   2 The total tension reinforcement As is given by. com- pression reinforcing is required.  2 Therefore. the required reinforcing is com- puted as follows.85 f cd ats .2. 3.2. = As Asf + Asw The total tension reinforcement.2.

c The stress in the compression steel.  a f yd  dspandrel −   2 The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression steel. As'. fs'. Asw. is given by 0. f yd ( dspandrel − d r -top ) The total tension reinforcement As is given by As = Asf + Asw + Asc . and As' at the top of the beam. The required area of compression steel. is calculated as. is M ds Asc = . As is to be placed at the bottom of the beam. Cs As′ = . dspandrel − d r -top The strain in the compression steel. c The term c is equal to amax k1 . is M dc Asw = . is given by 0.003Es ( c − d r -top ) f s′ = Es ε s′ = . Spandrel Flexural Design 3-9 . Asc.003 ( c − d r -top ) ε s′ = . Chapter 3 Spandrel Design M ds Cs = . εs'. σ s′ The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression in the concrete web.

TCS 3. 3-10 Spandrel Shear Design . In this program. s. wall spandrels are designed for major direction flexure and shear forces only.5)  The required shear reinforcement per unit spacing. is given for rectangular beam by the following:  The shear force is limited to a maximum of Vmax = 0. The following two sections describe in de- tail the algorithms associated with Steps 2 and 3. The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a par- ticular wall spandrel section for a particular design loading combination at a particular station.22 f cd Aw (TS 8.  Determine the factored shear force Vd. Effects caused by any axial forces.1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity Given Vd and Vc. the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties within a spacing. minor direction bending. The wall spandrel shear reinforcing is designed for each of the design load combinations. Vc. The required area of reinforcing for vertical shear is calculated only at the ends of the spandrel beam.5b.7.2 Spandrel Shear Design The program allows consideration of rectangular sections and T-beam sections for wall spandrels. torsion or minor direction shear that may exist in the spandrels must be investi- gated by the user independent of the program. Step 1 needs no further explanation.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 3.3. 3. that can be carried by the concrete.2. is calculated as fol- lows: If Vd ≤ Vcr .1.  Determine the shear force.  Determine the required shear reinforcing to carry the balance of the shear force. The shear design for both of these types of spandrel sections is identical. Asw /s.

4) If Vds exceeds 1.5b) If Vd exceeds its maximum permitted value Vmax.8. Given Vds. the program takes dspandrel to be equal to the smaller of hs − dr-top and hs − dr-bot. is calculated using (TS 8. For shear design.2.1. 3.1. 8.2..5.g. which is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension steel.4). Spandrel Shear Design 3-11 .4.5. Eqn.5) s f ywd d Asw f ≥ 0.2 Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing One of the terms used in calculating the spandrel shear reinforcing is dspandrel. 3. the required force to be carried by the shear reinforcing. Vds. 8.5b). the concrete section size should be increased (TS 8.6. (TS 8. square mm per meter) for both seismic and nonseismic wall spandrels (as indicated in the preferences).1. (TS 8.1 Seismic and Nonseismic Spandrels Given Vd and Vcr. a failure condition is reported in accordance with TCS Section 3.4. the preceding equation initially calculates the required vertical shear reinforcing in area per unit length (e.3 ctd bw .5 f ctd ts dspandrel .2.1. Vds= Vd − Vcr (TS 8.6) s f ywd else if Vd > Vmax . Eqn. 8. a failure condition is declared. Chapter 3 Spandrel Design Asw f = 0. Note that addi- tional requirements that are checked for both seismic and nonseismic wall spandrels are given as.1. (TS 8.6) s f ywd else if Vcr < Vd ≤ Vmax .1. Eqn.1. Asw (Vd − Vc ) = .3 ctd bw (TS 8.

0.. in addition to the requirements of the previous sub- section. 3-12 Spandrel Shear Design .8hs sin γ = . L2s + (0. 3.8.2 Seismic Spandrels Only For seismic spandrels only.5f ctd dbspandrel . the program reports the diagonal shear reinforcing as required or not required (i. The diagonal shear reinforcing is reported as re- quired when Vd > 1.2.Shear Wall Design TS 500-2000 Vds Av = f yd dspandrel Note: The output units for the distributed shear reinforcing can be set in the shear wall design preferences.e. dspandrel Vd Avd = .2.8hs ) 2 where hs is the height of the spandrel and Ls is the length of the spandrel. optional). In the output.4(b)) 2 f yd sin γ where. (TCS 3. an area of diagonal shear reinforcement in coupling beams is also cal- Ls culated when ≤ 3 using the following equation.6.

RTF. HTML and plain text formats. Access. tabular display output. file output. and member specific detailed design information. the display can be sent directly to a printer or saved to a file. The graphical output can be produced in color or in gray-scaled screen dis- 4-1 . The graphical display includes input and output design information for members visible in the active window. The member specific detailed design in- formation shows the details of the calculation.1 Graphical Display of Design Information The graphical display of design output includes input and output design in- formation for all shear wall members that are visible in the active window. Chapter 4 Design Output The program has the capacity to create design output in four major ways – graphical display. HTML and plain text. tabular display. and member specific detailed design infor- mation. including Excel. The following sections describe some of the typical graphical display. The file output includes both summary and detail design data that can be saved in RTF. file output. This manual addresses "TS 500-200" design code related output information only. 4. The tabular display output includes both summary and detail design data that can be displayed or saved in many formats. Some of the design information is very specific to the chosen shear wall design code.

as follows. The active screen display can be sent directly to the printer or saved to a file in several formats. the screen graphics can then be printed using the File menu > Print Graphics command. Design Input  Material  Thickness  Pier length/spandrel depth  Section Designer pier sections Design Output  Simplified pier longitudinal reinforcing  Simplified pier edge members  Section Designer pier reinforcing ratios  Section Designer pier D/C ratios  Spandrel longitudinal reinforcing  Shear reinforcing  Pier demand/capacity ratios  Pier boundary zones Note that you cannot display more than one of the listed items on the model at the same time. The output plotted directly on piers is plotted along an invisible line that ex- tends from the centroid of the pier section at the bottom of the pier to the centroid of the pier section at the top of the pier. Similarly.Shear Wall Design Manual TS 500-2000 play. The on-screen display data is organized into two main groups. Use the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Display Design Info com- mand to display on-screen output plotted directly on the model. If desired. the output plotted directly on spandrels is plotted along an invisible line that extends from the 4-2 Graphical Display of Design Information .

pier basic overwrite data. and spandrel geometry data. The unformatted option provides higher precision output that can then be copied into other programs. This named set can be used in the future for quick selection. Click on the small check boxes preceding the items to select those tables for display. If one or more frame members are selected on the structural model before accessing the Choose Tables for Display form. general reinforcing sections. spandrel basic overwrite data. Create a screen capture of the active window using the Alt+ Print Screen keyboard keys or create a screen cap- ture of the entire window using the Ctrl + Print Screen keyboard keys. If a branch of the tree is selected.emf file. the program will display information for the selected members only.2 Tabular Display of Design Information In addition to model definition and analysis results. uniform reinforcing sec- tions. Then use the Ctrl+V keyboard keys to paste the saved image into Paint or other graphical program. The tabular spreadsheet output can be displayed by selecting the Display menu > Show Tables command to access the Choose Tables for Display form. instead of being displayed using a limited number of decimal digits. use the File menu > Capture Enhanced Metafile command to create an . spandrel lo- cation data. If the Show Unformat- ted check box is checked. the numbers will be displayed unformatted. The names of the tables are displayed in a tree structure. the Selection Only check box will be checked when the form displays and. To capture the graphical display in a file for printing through another application. Currently. the design information for all piers and spandrels or for only selected piers and spandrels can be dis- played in tabular spreadsheet format. simplified T and C sections. The se- lected set of tables can be saved as a Named Set using the Save Named Set button. Chapter 4 Design Output centroid of the spandrel section at the left end of the spandrel to the centroid of the spandrel section at the top of the spandrel. uncheck the check box to display information for all applicable "unselected" members in the model. Use the File menu > Print Graphics command to print the active window. or use the File menu > Capture Picture command to create a bitmap (. 4. the program generates de- sign pier location data. which can be col- lapsed or expanded by clicking on an item in the tree. Tabular Display of Design Information 4-3 . all of the tables under that branch are selected. That form can be used to choose which tables or sets of tables are to be displayed. The onscreen graphical display can be sent to printer using any of the follow- ing commands.bmp) file.

holding and dragging the left mouse button to merge the split key to its original location. save it to a format file that can be used in the future by selecting the appro- priate feature available under the Format-Filter-Sort menu. Alternatively. The tables can be for- matted. with a drop-down list in the upper right-hand corner of the form that can be used to select other tables for display.Shear Wall Design Manual TS 500-2000 Use the other buttons in the form to tailor the data display. Filtering and sorting features can be useful in identifying critical cases. holding down the left mouse button and then dragging the mouse to the left or right. click the Select Analysis Case and Modify/Show Options to specify which analysis cases are to be includ- ed and how analysis results are displayed. After specifying the table formatting information. Use the scroll bars on the bottom and right side of the tables to scroll right and left or up and down if portions of the data table can not be displayed in the form's display area. Select multiple consecutive columns by putting the cursor on the header. right) and to specific widths. click the Select Load Cases button to specify which load cases are to be in- cluded in the display of model definition data. The columns can be resized by clicking the left mouse button on the separator of the headers. and then dragging the mouse button left or right. click the OK button to display a form showing one of the selected design ta- bles. Repeat this process to add more splits. left. Use the split and horizontal scroll bar to put two columns side by side for easier comparison. remove the split by clicking. depress the Shift key and click the left mouse button to select a range of columns. After selecting all of the tables for shear wall design and the display options. Alternative- ly. Reset the column widths to their default values by selecting the Format-Filter-Sort menu > Reset Default Column Widths command on the form. fields with numeric data can be set for the maximum number of characters. The table can be split into two or more tables by clicking on the small black rectangular area near the bottom-left corner of the table. The splits can be removed by selecting the For- mat-Filter-Sort menu > Remove Splits command on the form. Each of the individual fields (columns) can be formatted. filtered and sorted using multiple criteria accessed using the Format- Filter-Sort menu on the form. zero tolerance. holding down the mouse button. Fields with text in- formation can be set for specific types of alignment (center. holding down the left mouse button. number of decimal digits and so forth. In addition to setting the alignment and column widths. 4-4 Tabular Display of Design Information . For example. and then dragging the mouse button to the left or right.

To export a table to Excel. The table will be saved in that format only if the relevant editor is not availa- ble. With these exporting and display features. on-screen review of design results for a specific pier or spandrel. Chapter 4 Design Output The current table (i. the tables are split at convenient points to make a reasonably printable document. Appendix E provides additional information about interactive shear wall design.e. Instead of exporting or displaying the currently displayed table. select the File menu > Export Current Table > To Excel com- mand. click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command.rtf. click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Interactive Wall Design command and then right click a pier or spandrel to enter the interactive design and review mode for that pier or spandrel. a pop-up box offers the choice to enter the interactive design and re- view mode for the pier or for the spandrel. To run a design.html formats.. Note that if both a pier and a spandrel label are assigned to the right-clicked object.rft and . the en- tire set of available tables can be exported and displayed in the afore- mentioned formats by selecting the File menu and the appropriate submenu command. the table in the active window) can be exported to Ex- cel. right click on a wall pier or spandrel while the design results are displayed.html. 4. This mode allows easy modifi- cation to design parameters (overwrites) and immediate review of the new results. Similarly. Note that a design must have been run for the interactive design mode to be available. To enter the interactive design and review mode. for example. In both Excel spreadsheet and Access database formats. Many other features of the de- sign tables are left for the user to discover by using the program. If design results are not cur- rently displayed (and the design has been run). provided that the editor is available in the computer.3 Detailed Display of Member Specific Information Interactive design is a powerful mode that allows quick. The program will export the entire table to an Excel spreadsheet workbook and will automatically open the file in MS Excel.. In plain text format. making the ta- bles very wide. the tables can be saved in many required formats and can be printed. if the table is exported to other formats. . the default editor specific to that format will open the document. In . Detailed Display of Member Specific Information 4-5 . . the ta- bles can be saved with or without the splits. Access. and plain text formats. the tables can have many columns.

This form is very similar to the Choose Tables for Display form. and hyper- link text markup language (. un- check the check box to save or print the data for all appropriate "unselected" members. which has been described earlier in this chapter in the "Tabular Display of Design Information" section. the Selection Only check box will be checked. If a branch of the tree is selected. Printed output can be specified to have a landscaped orientation. in which the width of the resulting printout on a given page is longer than the height of the printout. Save the file output by selecting the File menu > Print Tables command to access the Choose Tables for Printing form. For AIC 318-02 code. The name of the tables are displayed in a tree structure. which can be col- lapsed or expanded by clicking on an item in the tree. sier demand/capacity ratios and pier boundary zones.txt). 4-6 Output of Design Information . Filtering criteria can be applied if those criteria were specified using the Format-Filter-Sort menu > Format Table command when the selected da- ta tables were displayed using the Display menu > Show Tables command. including rich text for- mat (. When all options for printing or saving the data to file have been specified. plain text with and without splits or page breaks (. If one or more structural members are selected before the Choose Tables for Printing form is accessed. all of the tables under that branch are selected.rft). and the program will save or print the data for the selected members only. Section Design- er pier reinforcing ratios. shear reinforcing. re- ducing the need to reselect the options and ensuring that output is consistent from one printing effort to another. The output can be generated in a variety of formats. the design information for all piers and spandrels or for selected piers and spandrels only can be saved in tabular format.4 Output of Design Information In addition to model definition and analysis results. spandrel longitu- dinal reinforcing. The Named Set can be easily recalled in the future.htm) by choosing the appropriate option on the right side of the form. Use the op- tions on the form to choose which table or set of tables to save in a file or print. simplified pier edge members. section Designer pier D/C ratios.Shear Wall Design Manual TS 500-2000 4. the settings can be saved as a Named Set using the Save Named Set button. the program saves simplified pier longitudinal reinforcing. Click on the small check boxes preceding the items to select those tables for printing or saving to a file.

There are other buttons on the form that do not affect saving or printing de- sign information. 4. it is not the only path to do so. the Select Load Cases button affects only saving/printing model definition data. How- ever. Design tables can be saved in different formats using the path Display menu > Show Ta- bles command.5 Error Messages and Warnings Error messages and warnings may be displayed in the shear wall design out- put. The messages are numbered. Although the File name > Print Tables command path is dedicated for sav- ing/printing design information. all of the messages are not applicable to the TS 500-200. The Select Analysis Cases and Modi- fy/Show Options buttons affect only saving/printing analysis results. Error Messages and Warnings 4-7 . A list of error messages and warnings used in Shear Wall Design for all the design codes is provide in Appendix I. After clicking all the necessary tables for steel frame design and all necessary options. Chapter 4 Design Output The output also can be specified to include a hyperlinked contents to facili- tate accessing specific areas of the printout. clicking the OK button will save/print the design tables. For example.

at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable. Refer to the program Help for an explanation of how to change a preference. Thus. Default values are provided for all shear wall design preference items. Appendix A Shear Wall Design Preferences The shear wall design preferences are basic properties that apply to all wall pier and spandrel elements. However. Table A1 identifies shear wall design preferences for TS-500-2000. Table A1 Shear Wall Preferences Possible Default Item Values Value Description Design Code Any code in ACI 318-14 Design code used for design of the program concrete shear wall elements (wall piers and spandrels) A-1 . it is not required that preferences be specified.

Multi-step static and Nonlinear static.Last Step .04 Maximum ratio of compression reinforcing max allowed in edge members. Step-by-Step-All . Number of Points ≥ 11 11 Number of points used for defining a single curve in a wall pier interaction surface (this item should be odd). . "Last Case Design by-Step.considers last values for Time History. are considered in the design. This is either "Envelopes". . Edge Design PT. PTmax. Gamma >0 1. Rebar Material Rebar Material Rebar Material Rebar material for flexural and boundary zone (if Name Name applicable) design.All . indicating how results for multivalued cases (Time history. We recommend that you use 24 for this item. "Step-by-Step . Rebar Shear Rebar Material Rebar Material Rebar material for shear design. Material Name Name Gamma (Steel) >0 1. >0 0. Nmax Factor >0 1. Step-by-Step and Step-by-Step . "Step-by-Step". PCmax.considers enveloping values for Time History.considers step by step values for Time History. "Envelopes .All . Step.Shear Wall Design TS-500-2000 Table A1 Shear Wall Preferences Possible Default Item Values Value Description Multi-Response Envelopes. Envelopes Step". . Edge Design PC. .50 The strength reduction factor for concrete in a (Concrete) wall pier or spandrel.All" Last Step. Multi-step static and Nonlinear static.Step-by-Step .All". Multi-step static and Nonlinear static.06 Maximum ratio of tension reinforcing allowed in max edge members.Envelopes .Envelopes .. Nonlinear static or Multi-step static) Envelopes-All.All default to the corresponding Envelope if more than one multivalued case is present in the combo.Step-by-Step .15 The strength reduction factor for reinforcement in a wall pier or spandrel.0 A factor used to reduce the allowable maximum compressive design strength. Number of Curves ≥4 24 Number of equally spaced interaction curves used to create a full 360-degree interaction surface (this item should be a multiple of four). A-2 .considers step by step values for Time History and Multi-step static and last step values for Nonlinear static. >0 0.considers enveloping values for Time History and Multi-step static and last step values for Nonlinear static..

95 Stress ratios that are less than or equal to this Limit value are considered acceptable. Utilization Factor >0 0.0025 The minimum ratio of reinforcing considered in Min the design of a pier with a Section Designer section.02 The maximum ratio of reinforcing considered in Max Design IP-Min the design of a pier with a Section Designer section. Appendix A Preferences Table A1 Shear Wall Preferences Possible Default Item Values Value Description Section Design IP. ≥ Section 0. A-3 . >0 0. Section Design IP.

it is not necessary to specify or change any of the overwrites. Thus. B-1 . Refer to the program Help for an explanation of how to change the overwrites. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. that is. However. Table B-1: Pier Design Overwrites Pier Overwrite Possible Default Item Values Value Pier Overwrite Description Design this Pier Yes or No Yes Toggle for design of the pier when you click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start Design/Check command. Appendix B Design Procedure Overwrites The shear wall design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those piers or spandrels to which they are assigned. for TS-500-2000. General Reinforcing. respectively. The overwrites for piers and spandrels are separate. or Simplified T and C). Tables B1 and B2 identify the shear wall overwrites for piers and spandrels. When changes are made to overwrite items. Default values are provided for all pier and spandrel overwrite items. at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are accept-able. Note that the available overwrites change depending on the pier section type (Uniform Reinforcing. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed.

Reinforcing Reinforcing option is not available unless General General pier sections have previously been defined in Reinforcing. Inputting calculated. Name size Clear Cover >0 40 mm The clear cover for the edge. calculated 0 means the item is to be program calculated. Also. defined in Section section defined in list of Section Designer that is assigned to the bottom of the Section Designer Designer piers pier. size Edge Bar Spacing >0 250 mm The spacing of the uniformly spaced edge bars. Inputting 0 calculated. Simplified T and C Overwrites Applicable to Uniform Reinforcing Pier Sections Edge Bar Name Any defined bar Varies The size of the uniformly spaced edge bars. in some cases. concrete material property Check/Design Check or Design This item indicate whether the pier section is to Reinforcing Design be designed or checked. Entering 0 for this >0 item means that it is program calculated. See the subsection entitled "LL Reduction Factor" for more information. Lp. defined in Section section defined in list of Designer. Section Designer. or > 0 LengthBot Program Program Wall pier length at bottom of pier. end and corners bars. Additional design checks are performed for seismic elements compared to nonseismic elements. calculated obtain the reduced live load. End/Corner Bar Any defined bar Varies The size of end and corner bars. Material Any defined Varies The material property associated with the pier. Pier Section Type Uniform Uniform This item indicates the type of pier. or > 0 DB1LeftBot ≥0 0 Length of the bottom of a user-defined edge member on the left side of a wall pier. The General Reinforcing. calculated means the item is to be program calculated. Overwrites Applicable to General Reinforcing Pier Sections Section Bottom Any general pier The first pier in the Name of a pier section. Section Top Any general pier The first pier in the Name of a pier section. tp. Overwrites Applicable to Simplified T and C Pier Sections ThickBot Program Program Wall pier thickness at bottom of pier.Shear Wall Design TS-500-2000 Table B-1: Pier Design Overwrites Pier Overwrite Possible Default Item Values Value Pier Overwrite Description LL Reduction Program Program A reducible live load is multiplied by this factor to Factor calculated. DB1left. the strength reduction factors are different. B-2 . that is assigned to the top of the pier. Design is Seismic Yes or No Yes Toggle for design as seismic or nonseismic. Section Section Designer Designer piers Check/Design Check or Design This item indicates whether the pier section is to Reinforcing Design be designed or checked.

Edge Design >0 Specified in Maximum ratio of tension reinforcing allowed in NT-max Preferences edge members. DB2LeftTop ≥0 0 Width of the top of a user-defined edge member on the left side of a wall pier. DB1right. DB1RightTop ≥0 Same as Length of the top of a user-defined edge member DB1-left-bot on the right side of a wall pier. DB2RightTop ≥0 Same as Width of the top of a user-defined edge member DB2-left-bot on the right side of a wall pier. Note that options are available to define a load case as a reducible live load. Important Note: The LL reduction factor is not applied to any load combination that is included in a design load combination. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program or > 0 calculated. DL is a dead load and RLL is a reducible live load.1 LL Reduction Factor If the LL Reduction Factor is program calculated. or > 0 DB1LeftTop ≥0 0 Length of the top of a user-defined edge member on the left side of a wall pier. NCmax. For example. DB2left. calculated means the item is to be program calculated. DB1left. concrete material property Edge Design >0 Specified in Maximum ratio of compression NC-max Preferences reinforcing allowed in edge members. If you specify your own LL Reduction Factor. DB2RightBot ≥0 Same as Width of the bottom of a user-defined edge DB2-left-bot member on the right side of a wall pier. the program ignores any reduction method specified in the live load reduction preferences and simply calculates the reduced live load for a pier or spandrel by multiplying the specified LL Reduction Factor times the reducible live load. Inputting 0 calculated. ThickTop Program Program Wall pier thickness at top of pier. calculated. DB1right. NTmax. DB2right. calculated tp. See Figure 2-3 in Chapter 2 for more information. Appendix B Overwrites Table B-1: Pier Design Overwrites Pier Overwrite Possible Default Item Values Value Pier Overwrite Description DB2LeftBot ≥0 0 Width of the bottom of a user-defined edge member on the left side of a wall pier. Now assume that you create a design load combination named DESCOMB1 that includes DL and RLL. Then for B-3 . DB2left. Material Any defined Material property associated with the pier. it is based on the live load reduction method chosen in the live load reduction preferences. B. DB1RightBot ≥0 Same as Length of the bottom of a user-defined edge DB1-left-bot member on the right side of a wall pier. LengthTop Program Program Wall pier length at top of pier. Lp. DB2right. assume you have two static load cases labeled DL and RLL.

See the subsection entitled "LL Reduction Factor" for more information. Table B-2 Spandrel Design Overwrites Spandrel Overwrite Possible Default Item Values Value Spandrel Overwrite Description Design this Yes or No Yes Toggle for design of the spandrel when you click Spandrel the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start Design/Check command. Inputting 0 means the calculated. calculated bottom reinforcing.1hs. the edge member width is taken as the same as the pier thickness and the edge member length is determined by the program. hs.Shear Wall Design TS-500-2000 design load combination DESCOMB1. DepthLeft Program Program Wall spandrel depth at left side of spandrel. If either DB1 or DB2 is specified as zero. CoverBotLeft Program Program Distance from bottom of spandrel to centroid of calculated. calculated Inputting 0 means the item is to be program or > 0 calculated. or > 0 ThickLeft Program Program Wall spandrel thickness at left side of spandrel. Inputting or > 0 0 means the item is to be program calculated as 0. Now assume that you create a design load combination called DESCOMB3 that included DL and COMB2.2 User-Defined Edge Members When defining a user-defined edge member.1hs. the RLL load is multiplied by the LL reduction factor. calculated Inputting 0 means the item is to be program or > 0 calculated. dr-top left on left side of beam. SlabWidthLeft ≥0 0 Slab width for T-beam at left end of spandrel. Length Program Program Wall spandrel length. calculated reinforcing. LL Reduction Program Program A reducible live load is multiplied by this factor to Factor calculated. dr-bot left on left side of beam. B-4 . CoverTopLeft Program Program Distance from top of spandrel to centroid of top calculated. Entering 0 for this >0 item means that it is program calculated. calculated obtain the reduced live load. calculated. the RLL load that is part of COMB2 is not multiplied by the LL reduction factor. B. or > 0 Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated as 0. you must specify both a nonzero value for DB1 and a nonzero value for DB2. bs. For design load combination DESCOMB3. Also. Next assume that you create a load combination called COMB2 that includes RLL. calculated item is to be program calculated. ts. Design is Seismic Yes or No Yes Toggle for design as seismic or nonseismic. Ls. Additional design checks are performed for seismic elements compared to nonseismic elements. in some cases the strength reduction factors are different. calculated.

B-5 . CoverBotRight Program Program Distance from bottom of spandrel to centroid of calculated. bs. or > 0 Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated as 0.1hs. calculated reinforcing. ThickRight Program Program Wall spandrel thickness at right side of spandrel. calculated Inputting 0 means the item is to be program or > 0 calculated. calculated ts. concrete material property Consider Vuc Yes or No Yes Toggle switch to consider Vuc (concrete shear capacity) when computing the shear capacity of the spandrel. calculated. dr-bot right on right side of beam. Program Program Distance from top of spandrel to centroid of top TopRight calculated. Appendix B Overwrites Table B-2 Spandrel Design Overwrites Spandrel Overwrite Possible Default Item Values Value Spandrel Overwrite Description SlabDepthLeft ≥0 0 Slab depth for T-beam at left end of spandrel. calculated bottom reinforcing. SlabDepthRight ≥0 0 Slab depth for T-beam at right end of spandrel. or > 0 Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated as 0. ds. SlabWidthRight ≥0 0 Slab width for T-beam at right end of spandrel. ds. dr-top right on right side of beam. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program or > 0 calculated. DepthRight Program Program Wall spandrel depth at right side of spandrel. calculated. Cover. hs.1hs. Material Any defined Material property associated with the spandrel.

not from the pier section defined in Section Designer. Uniform reinforcing is placed in this pier. C-1 . The analysis is based on these section properties. Analysis sections are simply the objects defined in your model that make up the pier or spandrel section. The analysis section for wall piers is the assemblage of wall and column sections that make up the pier. Appendix C Analysis Sections and Design Sections It is important to understand the difference between analysis sections and design sections when performing shear wall design. The design section is completely separate from the analysis section. Note that the planar legs are derived from the area objects defined in the model. Similarly. They are:  Uniform Reinforcing Section: For flexural designs and/or checks. the analysis section for spandrels is the assemblage of wall and beam sections that make up the spandrel. The Uniform Reinforcing Section pier may be planar or it may be three- dimensional. and thus. Two types of pier design sections are available. For shear design and boundary zone checks. the program automatically (and internally) breaks the analysis section pier up into planar legs and then performs the design on each leg separately and reports the results separately for each leg. The reinforcing can be modified in the pier overwrites. the program automatically (and internally) creates a Section Designer pier section of the same shape as the analysis section pier. the design forces are based on these analysis section properties.

not check them. The length is in the pier 2-axis direction and the thickness is in the pier 3-axis direction.Shear Wall Design TS-500-2000 The pier section defined in Section Designer is only used for the flexural design/check. not from the pier section defined in Section Designer. Simplified sections are always planar. In addition. specify a slab thickness and depth. if desired. you can only design spandrel sections. the program automatically (and internally) breaks the analysis section pier up into planar legs and then performs the design on each leg separately and reports the results separately for each leg. A typical spandrel is defined by a depth. if desired. The depth is in the spandrel 2-axis direction. C-2 . The pier section defined in Section Designer is only used for the flexural design/check. the simplified section can only be used for design. The simplified section is defined by a length and a thickness. In addition. which is based on the analysis sections. you can. It is defined in the spandrel design overwrites.  Simplified Pier Section: This pier section is defined in the pier design overwrites. You cannot specify reinforcing in a spandrel section. Note that the planar legs are derived from the area objects defined in the model. you can. the pier geometry and the reinforcing is defined by the user in the Section Designer utility. The pier defined in Section Designer may be planar or it may be three-dimensional.  General Reinforcing Section: For flexural designs and/or checks. and the length is in the spandrel 1-axis direction. specify thickened edge members at one or both ends of the simplified pier section. the design sections are designed based on the forces obtained for the analysis sections. Thus. You cannot specify reinforcing in a simplified section. For shear design and boundary zone checks. Only one type of spandrel design section is available. Spandrel sections are always planar. making the spandrel design section into a T-beam. Thus. thickness and length. the thickness is in the spandrel 3-axis direction. In other words. The pier and spandrel design sections are designed for the forces obtained from the program's analysis. not for checking user-specified sections.

Turkish Standard Institute. White. Official Gazette No. Hajjar.. 2007. 28. Necatibey Street No.. and J. TCS. American Institute of Steel Construction. Requirements for Design and Construction of Reinforced Concrete Structures.” Engineering Journal. D. TS 500. F. Vol. 4. 26454 and 26511. 2012. No. California. Inc. Ankara. Computers and Structures. Inc. 1991. Specification for Turkish Seismic Code.i . Ministry of Public Works and Settlement. 112. 2000. CSI Analysis Reference Manual. W. “Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice. Bakanliklar. Government of the Republic of Turkey. Berkeley. Bibliography . Bibliography CSI.